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AP Psychology Online Course Charles Schallhorn, M.Ed.

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  • Level Upper Intermediate
  • 68 Lessons (39hr : 04min)
  • 6,175 already enrolled!
  • Audio: English

Join Charles Schallhorn’s (M.Ed.) AP Psychology exam online course which covers every concept with easy-to-understand explanations taken from popular culture. This course reinforces ideas by connecting them with what you have already experienced and also ends with a full AP test walkthrough full of test-taking insights.

Table of Contents

Section 1: Introduction

  What is Psychology? 16:30
   Intro 0:00 
   Psychology: Questions and a Demonstration 0:17 
   Demonstration of Memory 1:45 
   Directions, Continued 2:21 
   Here Are the Words 2:28 
   After the Words 2:54 
   That Was Called a Distracter Activity 3:23 
   Recall 4:05 
    Do You Remember the Word Aardvark? 4:06 
    Do You Remember the Word Sleep? 4:38 
   In a Typical Class 4:42 
    30-90% Will Recall Sleep 4:43 
    Why? 4:52 
   First Vocabulary Term 5:27 
    Schema: A Mental (Cognitive) Map, Filter or Representation of an Idea-Made Up of Associations and Connections 5:28 
    Need them to Learn 5:50 
    Work of Jean Piaget 5:57 
   Schema: A Visual Representation 6:08 
   The Brain 11:21 
    Looks for Patterns and Tries to Simplify the World 11:22 
    Tries to Make Meanings Where They May be None 11:29 
    Many Kinds of Schemas 11:42 
    Simon and Garfunkel - The Boxer -A Man Hears What He Wants to Hear and Disregards the Rest 12:20 
   Psychology 13:04 
    Will Give New Schemas 13:05 
    New Ways of Looking at Own and Other's Behaviors 13:12 
    Give Some Context and Understanding to Why People Do What They Do 13:24 
    This Course is an Introduction 13:41 
    Some Topics Will Be Doctoral Dissertations 13:43 
    Topic Will Be Tip of Iceberg 13:53 
    Interdisciplinary Field of Study 14:33 
    Overlaps with Biology, Brain Science, Chemistry, Sociology, Economics…… 14:42 
    Has Own Vocabulary 14:51 
    Common Words Will Take on New Meanings 15:04 
    Many New Words 15:10 
    Roots of Words Help Out 15:12 
   Review 15:29 
    What is Psychology? 15:30 
    Why Did You Probably Recall the Word Sleep When We Did the Demonstration Earlier? 15:39 
    What is a Schema and What Kinds of Schemas Can People Have? 15:47 
    Take a Look at Your Own Schemas-What Kind do you Have? 15:51 
    Psychology Connects to Many Different Fields-Which Connections Have Jumped Out At You so Far? 15:59 
  History and Approaches 23:18
   Intro 0:00 
   History and Approaches (2-4%) 0:14 
    Psychology Has Evolved Since Its Inception As a Discipline in 1879 0:31 
    Identify the Major Historical Figures in Psychology 0:54 
   What is Psychology? 1:08 
    Psychology 1:09 
    Definition: The Scientific Study of Behavior and Mental Processes 1:24 
   Greek Letter Psi (Psychology Abbreviation) 2:05 
   What is Psychology Now? 2:21 
    Psychology Connects With Many Other Subjects 2:22 
    List of Included Topics 2:31 
   Where Did Psychology Come From? 3:57 
    Psychology - Long Past, Short History 3:58 
    Lots of Thinkers and Philosophies Over Time 4:03 
    Greeks 4:18 
    Religious Traditions 4:24 
    Enlightenment Thinkers 4:25 
    Disclaimer -- Oversimplification and Cherry-Picking of Their Ideas 4:27 
   Theories of Human Nature 5:00 
   The Ancient Greeks 5:51 
    Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, Hippocrates, Galen 5:52 
    Philosophy (The Love of Wisdom) 5:56 
   Socrates 6:03 
    Early Greek Philosopher 6:04 
    One Thing Only I know, And That is I Know Nothing. 6:05 
    Wisdom Begins When One Learns to Doubt 6:16 
    There is No Real Philosophy Until the Mind Begins to Examine Itself 6:36 
    Know Thyself 6:41 
    Developed Socratic Method Questioning Style 6:50 
    Included Demand for Accurate Definitions, Clear Thinking, and Exact Analysis 7:25 
   Plato 7:39 
    Knowledge is Innate 7:40 
    Information From Sense is Impermanent and Illusory 7:55 
    The Allegory of the Cave 8:17 
   Aristotle-The Rule of Reason 9:52 
    Three Part Division of Soul - Appetite, Reason, Temper 9:58 
    Controlling Body's Passions 10:06 
    Chariot Must Reign in Animal Appetites in Order for Soul to Gain True Happiness 10:29 
    Knowledge is NOT Preexisting 10:45 
    Mind is a Blank Slate 10:55 
    Body and Soul Cannot Be Separate 11:14 
   The Ancient Greeks 11:26 
    Greek Philosophers - Moved Away From Gods and Toward Biology and Brain 11:27 
   Religious Traditions 12:25 
    Context and Information Only 12:26 
    Gave Cultures of People Theory of Human Nature 12:30 
    Vedic and Hindu Traditions 12:57 
    Buddhist Traditions 13:03 
    Early Hebrews and Jewish Tradition 13:04 
    Chinese and East Asian Cultures 13:06 
   Mind and Body 13:15 
    Connected: Hebrews, Augustine, Aquinas, Aristotle 13:18 
    Distinct: Socrates, Plato, Descartes 13:32 
   Psychology's Roots -- Prescientific Psychology 13:56 
    Rene Descartes, Frances Bacon, John Locke, and Empiricism 13:57 
   Rene Descartes 14:06 
    French Philosopher and Writer 14:23 
    Mathematician 14:27 
    Dualism 14:36 
    Mind and Body Separate Entities But Interact 14:41 
    Deterministic and Mechanistic View of Human Nature 14:52 
    Rationality and Freedom Located in Soul 14:56 
    Cogito, Ergo Sum I Think, Therefore I am 15:15 
    Awareness of Self Indicated Proof For Existence of Self 15:31 
   Frances Bacon 15:45 
    English Philosopher 15:46 
    Mind and Failings 15:49 
    Mind Seeks Patterns 15:54 
    Beginning of Systematic Empirical Research 16:20 
    Developed the Experiment to Gain Knowledge 16:27 
    Believed That Learning Could Only be Advanced Through Observation of Facts, Experimentation, and Comparisons 16:39 
   John Locke 17:17 
    British Political Philosopher 17:18 
    Life, Liberty, and Property Are Natural Rights 17:24 
    Tabula Rasa 17:46 
    Environmental Determinism 17:55 
   Empiricism 18:51 
    Locke Added to Bacon's Ideas 18:52 
    Empiricism Was Born 18:56 
    Knowledge Originates from Sensory Experiences 19:01 
    Science Should Rely on Observation and Experimentation 19:08 
    What is the Evidence for the Claim? 19:14 
    Counters Intuition, Priori Knowledge and Revelation 19:45 
   Pseudosciences 20:39 
    Pseudoscientific Physiological Views During Rise of Scientific Psychology 20:40 
    Phrenology 20:51 
    Physiognomy 21:37 
    Somatyping 21:49 
   Review Questions 22:16 
    Distinguish Among the Various Philosophical Views That Came Before Psychology. 22:19 
    How Did Both Philosophy and Science Contribute to the Beginning of Psychology? 22:27 
    How Did Empiricism Move Psychology from the Dark Ages of Superstition Into the Modern Day World of Science? 22:40 
  AP Psychology Exam 22:47
   Intro 0:00 
   The AP Psychology Exam 0:12 
    I. History and Approaches, 2-4% 0:54 
    II. Research Methods, 8-10% 0:59 
    III. Biological Bases of Behavior, 8-10% 1:11 
    IV. Sensation and Perception, 6-8% 1:40 
    V. States of Consciousness, 2-4% 1:51 
    VI. Learning, 7-9% 2:01 
    VII. Cognition, 8-10% 2:13 
    VIII. Motivation and Emotion, 6-8% 2:19 
    IX. Development Psychology, 7-9% 2:34 
    X. Personality, 5-7% 2:44 
    XI. Testing and Individual Differences, 5-7% 2:56 
    XII. Abnormal Behavior, 7-9% 3:08 
    XIII. Treatment of Abnormal Behavior, 5-7% 3:26 
    XIV. Social Psychology, 8-10% 3:40 
   Multiple Choice Questions 4:27 
    100 Multiple Choice Questions 4:30 
    70 Minutes 4:38 
    2/3 Overall Grade 4:56 
    A-E Answers 5:08 
    Names, Charts, Graphs, Drawings Are All Possible 5:21 
    No 1/4 Point Adjustment 5:54 
    Definition Questions 6:37 
    Conceptual and Application Questions 6:45 
   FRQs 7:20 
    Two Required Free Response (Essay) Questions 7:32 
    50 Minutes 7:36 
    1/3 of Overall Grade 7:39 
    Content Can Be Any Topic/Term in Psychology 8:03 
    Points Given for Correct Responses Not Taken Away for Incorrect Material 10:05 
    Points Only Removed if One Part of Answer Contradicts Another Part 10:20 
    Readers Looking for Ways to Give Points 10:47 
    FRQs and the Rubric 12:08 
    Questions--Created for Various Forms of the Exam 12:14 
    Rubrics Created When Question and Table Leaders go to Scoring Site 13:39 
    Teachers/Professors Go To Scoring Site 14:08 
    Practice with Samples 14:15 
    Scored in Packs of 25 14:24 
   FRQ Recommendations 16:03 
    Read Through Both Questions Before Doing Anything Else 16:04 
    Think Through the Answer Before Starting to Write 16:10 
    Write an Outline or Notes in the Test Question Booklet 16:15 
    Don't be Afraid to Cross Something Out 16:35 
    Write in Sentences -- Do Not Outline or Bullet Your Answer 16:52 
    Be as Complete as Possible, But Keep to the Point 17:06 
    Watch the Time 17:13 
    Structure Answer Following Structure of Question 17:42 
    Make it as Easy as Possible to Give You Points 17:53 
   Finally 19:04 
    Purchase or Rent Textbook for Course 19:05 
    Check out YouTube Links 19:39 
    Use Short Quizzes in Text 20:28 
    Purchase Review Books 20:37 
    If Flashcards Help -- Buy Barron's Set 20:57 
    Practice Explaining Information With a Friend 21:04 
    Learn the Material First Time Around 21:18 
    Spend at Least an Hour Per Day Reviewing the Month Prior to Exam 21:38 
  Early History 20:55
   Intro 0:00 
   Scientific Psychology: The History Begins 0:12 
    Early Psychological Science 0:14 
    Structuralism 0:16 
    Functionalism 0:21 
    Gestalt Psychology 0:23 
    Psychoanalysis 0:25 
    Behaviorism 0:26 
   Structuralism (1875-1930's) 0:40 
    Wilhelm Wundt: The First Psychologist (1832-1920) 0:45 
    Edward Titchener: The First US Psychologist 1:24 
    Led First Real School or Group of Psychologists 1:31 
    Was Impressed with the Sciences Breaking Down Complex Things into Simple Things 1:35 
    Primary Problem Was Lack of Reliability and Validity 1:52 
   Structuralism Main Ideas 2:01 
    Early Approach to Psychology, Tried to Identify Structure of Conscious Mind 2:03 
    Subjective Unit for Structuralists Was Elementary Elements of Consciousness 2:26 
    Sub-Units of Consciousness Through Method of Introspection 2:51 
    Trained Observer to Reflect On and Analyze Mental Experiences 3:39 
   Functionalists 4:08 
    No Leader of Group/More Like a School of Though 4:10 
    Wanted to Study Consciousness 4:18 
    How Does Consciousness Work? 4:25 
    What Adaptive Purpose Does it Serve? 4:38 
    How Do Our Mental and Behavioral Processes Enable us to Adapt, Survive, and Be Successful? 4:52 
    Much More Into Understanding Application to Real Life Over Theoretical Understandings 5:16 
   Functionalists - William James 5:33 
    Established New Science of Psychology in America 5:44 
    Religion and Psychology 5:54 
    First Psychology Teacher in US 6:10 
    Principles of Psychology - First Text on Subject 6:12 
    Independently Came Up With the James-Lange Theory of Emotion 6:24 
   Mary Whiton Caulkins 6:59 
    Functionalist Student of William James 7:05 
    Was President of APA 7:07 
    First Woman to Serve in That Office 7:10 
    Earned PhD at Harvard Under William James, Was Refused Degree by Harvard Corporation 7:18 
    Harvard Continues to Refuse to Grant Degree Posthumously 7:20 
    Focus Was On The Self 7:46 
   Margaret Floy Washburn 8:31 
    Student of Titchner 8:34 
    First Woman to Earn Doctoral Degree in American Psychology (1894) 8:38 
    Second Woman to Serve as APA President 1921 8:46 
    Wrote The Animal Mind 8:51 
   Gestalt Psychology 9:08 
    Max Wertheimer (1880-1943) 9:12 
    The Whole is Greater Than The Sum of its Parts 9:15 
    Early Approach to Psychology, Studied How Mind Actively Organizes Stimuli into Meaningful Wholes 10:14 
    More Details on Gestalt in Sensation and Perception Unit 10:31 
   Psychoanalysis 10:34 
    Sigmund Freud 10:36 
    First Wave of Modern Psychology 10:37 
    Physician by Trade, Experience With Hysteria 10:42 
    Later Work and Theories Focused on Case Studies and Conjecture, Not Experimentation 10:56 
    Structure of the Mind - Id/Ego/Superego 11:06 
    Existence of Unconscious/Subconscious 11:12 
    Always a Reason for All Behavior 11:30 
    Psychosexual Stages of Development 12:02 
    Personality by Age 5 12:15 
    More Detail in Personality Unit 12:26 
   Behavioral Psychology 12:33 
    Edward Thorndike, John B. Watson, B.F. Skinner 12:34 
    Reaction to Freudian Views, Second Wave of Psychology 13:09 
    Focus Only on Observable Behavior 13:22 
    Most Scientific View to Date 13:38 
    Animal Research - Learning and Conditioning 13:40 
    More Detail in Learning Unit 13:53 
   Edward Thorndike 13:57 
    Learning Theory of Connectionism 13:59 
    Cats and Escaping Puzzle Boxes 14:05 
    Animals Connected Behaviors to Outcomes - Early Behaviorism 14:16 
    Law of Effect 14:23 
    Father of Modern Educational Psych 14:27 
   Ivan Pavlov 15:07 
    Not a Behaviorist, But Discovered Behavioral Principles 15:11 
    Russian Physiologist 15:14 
    Studied Digestion and Salivation in Dogs Which Lead to Classical Conditioning 15:15 
    Unconditioned Stimulus and Response 15:25 
    Pavlov's Dog 15:31 
   John B. Watson 15:42 
    Early Behaviorist 15:43 
    Classical Conditioning 15:44 
    Fear and Little Albert 15:46 
    Left Psych and Went Into Advertising, Pioneered Adding Sex Appeal in Ads 15:54 
   B. F. Skinner 16:07 
    Primary Behaviorist 16:09 
    Thoughts/Feelings Not Important - Only Behavior 16:11 
    Operant Conditioning - Built on Work of Thorndike 16:15 
    Reinforcement and Punishment 16:20 
    Operant Conditioning Box 16:23 
    Much Science to Back Up Views 16:26 
   Dorothea Dix 16:33 
    Social Activist 16:34 
    Nursed Both Sides During US Civil War 16:38 
    Government Should Play Role in Social Welfare 16:45 
    Created First Mental Asylums 16:57 
   Charles Darwin 17:13 
    English Naturalist 17:15 
    Origin of the Species 17:18 
    Evolution 17:21 
    Natural Selection 17:24 
    Influenced Functionalism 17:38 
    Influenced Current Evolutionary Perspective 17:41 
    Traits Are Somehow Adaptive 17:46 
   G. Stanley Hall 18:10 
    First APA President 18:14 
    Childhood Psych and Evolutionary Psych 18:16 
    Studied Racial and Gender Differences 18:20 
    Religion and Psychology 18:22 
    The Storm and Stress of Adolescence 18:27 
    Eugenics Fan 18:41 
    Mentored Many Major Psychologists 19:46 
   Review 19:53 
    When and How Did Modern Psychological Science Begin? 19:55 
    How Did Psychology Continue to Develop From the 1920s Through Today? 20:01 
    Distinguish Between the Key Early Fields, Structuralism, Functionalism, Gestalt and Behaviorism. 20:05 
    Name the Key Contributions of the Early Contributors to the Field of Psychology 20:17 
  Perspectives & Approaches 38:16
   Intro 0:00 
   Unit Objectives from College Board 0:12 
   Key Questions 0:52 
   Perspectives/Approaches 1:29 
    Perspectives 1:30 
    Perspectives Example 1:41 
   Psychology's Biggest Question 2:47 
    Nature vs. Nurture 2:49 
    Biological Determinism (Biology as Destiny) 2:56 
    Environmental Determinism (Blank Slate) 3:01 
    Nature vs. Nurture Example 3:11 
   How Do We View the World? 3:46 
    Maslow Quote 3:52 
    Schemas and Lenses Determine your Perspective 4:12 
   Modern Psychological Perspectives 4:40 
   Biological Perspective 5:01 
    Behaviors, Thoughts, and Emotions 5:03 
    Genetics 6:04 
    Brain Chemicals 6:10 
    Serotonin 6:11 
    Adrenaline 6:21 
    Hormones 6:31 
   Evolutionary Perspective 6:50 
    Descendent Idea of Darwin's Natural Selection 6:56 
    Traits are Adaptive Outcomes of Natural Selection 7:35 
    Big Question: How has Evolution Shaped the Mind and Behavior? 7:57 
    Related to Sociobiology 8:02 
   Psychodynamic Perspective 8:32 
    Humans are Born with Instincts 8:38 
    Unconscious and Subconscious: Hidden Motivations 9:09 
    Childhood Experiences Determine Adult Personality 9:39 
    Backward Looking 10:02 
    Ideas Not Testable and Not Falsifiable 10:21 
    Cognitive Perspective 11:16 
    Cognition is Humans Seeking, Evaluating, and Transmitting Information 11:24 
    Big Question: How do People Acquire, Store, Process, and Use Information? 11:35 
    Reality is Different for Each Person 13:21 
   Humanistic Perspective 15:07 
    Response to Psychoanalysis and Behaviorism 15:16 
    Rooted in Existential Thought 15:40 
    People are Built to Grow 16:04 
    Positive Orientation Toward Behavior 16:11 
    Phenomenology: Individual Perception of Reality 16:21 
    Self-Concept and Self-Image 16:40 
    How People Meet Needs for Love, Acceptive, and Self-Fulfillment 16:55 
   Behavioral Perspective 18:04 
    Human Behavior Learned through Interacting with Environment 18:11 
    We Learn Observable Responses 18:57 
    We Learn to Predict, Obtain, and Avoid 19:23 
    Humans are Passive Organisms who are Reactive, not Proactive 19:33 
    Consequences to External Stimuli 19:57 
    We Learn through Conditioning 22:06 
    Modeling and Imitation 22:11 
    Positive Reinforcement 22:18 
   Sociocultural Perspective 22:32 
    Behavior and Thinking Vary Across Cultures 22:36 
    Gender Roles are Key Aspects of Human Identity 23:35 
    Humans are Strongly Influenced by Contexts 24:18 
   Culture Comparisons 24:30 
    Collectivist Culture: Identity with Group 24:40 
    Emotional Dependence and Conformity 24:53 
    Personal Goals Match Group Goals 25:03 
    Trust Placed in Group Decisions 25:16 
    Individualist Culture: Identity is Personal 25:28 
    Personal Goals Don't Match Group Goals 16:03 
    Emotional Independence 26:25 
    Trust Placed in Individual Decisions 26:40 
   Biopsychosocial Perspective 26:55 
    Cross-Disciplinary and Eclectic 27:32 
    Combines Biological, Psychological, and Cultural Perspectives 27:48 
    Links Body and Environment 27:57 
   So What Does This All Mean? 29:28 
    Behavior through Multiple Lenses 29:41 
    The Big Picture Example: Using All Perspectives 31:06 
    What and Why the Behavior Is 32:15 
   Explaining Alcoholism 32:25 
    Example: Using All Perspectives 32:26 
   Review Questions 36:08 
    How do the Various Perspectives View Behavior? 36:10 
    What are the Key Lenses each One Uses to Examine Behavior? 36:17 
    Which Perspectives Uses these Ideas to Study Behavior? 36:44 
  Subfields in Psychology 20:16
   Intro 0:00 
   Psychology Has Many Facets 0:09 
    Basic Research Aims to Increase Scientific Knowledge Base -- Pure Science 0:18 
    Ex: How Do Hormones Affect Each Other in Reaction to Eating and Sleeping? 0:37 
    Applied Research Aims to Solve Practical Problems 0:49 
    Ex: Why Has Motivation Decreased Among Public School Teachers? 0:55 
    Ex: Military Research on How to Increase Soldier Effectiveness by Reducing Need for Sleep 1:08 
   Psychology Has Many Facets 1:37 
    Biggest Group in Psychology is the American Psychological Association 1:46 
    APA Website Reflects the Many Fields within the APA Itself 1:47 
    Reflects on the History of Psychology 1:53 
    Reflects on Diversity of Psychological Offerings 1:57 
   Divisions of the APA 2:11 
   Psychometrics 4:10 
    Scientific Study of the Measurement of Human Abilities, Attitudes, and Traits 4:18 
    Uses Psychological Tests 4:36 
    Often Used in Special Education 4:45 
   Developmental 5:09 
    Study of Physical, Cognitive, and Social Changes Through Life 5:13 
    Divides Lifespan Into Seven Phases 5:16 
   Educational 5:36 
    Studies How Psychological Processes Affect and Enhance Teaching and Learning 5:38 
   Personality 6:32 
    Studies the Individual Characteristic Patterns of Thinking, Feeling, and Acting -- Looks at the Whole Human Individual 6:35 
    Most Philosophical of all Subfields -- How Did We Get That Way? Why Are We This Way? 6:53 
    Examines patterns of Emotions, Motivation, Temperament, Learning, Growth, and Development 6:57 
    Seeks to Understand What Personality Is, How it Develops, and How Stable it is Over Time 7:14 
   Social Psychology 7:37 
    Studies How We Think About, Influence, and Relate to Each Other 7:41 
    Incredibly Diverse Subfield 7:45 
    Examples of Social Psychologists Zimbardo, Asch, Lewin, and Milgram 7:50 
    Most Infamous Field in Psychology Due to Zimbardo's Research (Stanford Prison Experiment) and Milgram's Study of Obedience to Authority 8:20  
    Also Studies Concepts of Love and Attraction, and Helping Behaviors 9:08 
   Industrial/Organizational (I/O) Psychology 9:26 
    Application of Psychological Concepts and Methods to Optimize Human Behavior in the Workplace 9:33 
    Studies Workplace Satisfaction 9:43 
    Studies Incentives and Motivation 9:47 
    Ex: Consultant Character in the Movie Office Space 10:02 
   Human Factors 10:22 
    Study of How People and Machines Interact With Each Other Resulting in the Design of Machines and Environments 10:27 
    How to Design Products and Tools to Make Them Easier and Safer to Use 10:53 
    Products Designed With Users in Mind 11:01 
    Strives to Make Technology Adapt to Humans, Not Other Way Around 11:08 
    Ex: Design of Cars, Phones, Video Game Controllers, Websites, etc. 11:17 
    Can be Applied to Many Far Reaching Disciplines Like Medicine, Design, Architecture, and Engineering 12:22 
   Counseling Psychology 12:32 
    Assists People With Problems In Living (Related to School, Work, Marriage, etc.) and in Achieving Greater Sense of Well-Being 12:40 
    Subfield Most People Think of When They Think of the Word Psychology 12:59 
    Therapy -- Problems and Growth 13:08 
    Requires at Least a Master's Degree to Practice Counseling Psychology 13:21 
    Many Counselors Can Be Found in Schools as Academic Advisors and Crisis Counselors 13:25 
    In Some Aspects, Quite Similar to Social Work 13:55 
   Clinical Psychology 14:12 
    Studies, Assesses, and Treats People With Psychological Disorders 14:18 
    Deals With More Serious Disorders (Ex: Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder) 14:32 
    Found Working in Private Practices, Hospitals, and Universities 14:43 
    Requires a Ph.D. to Enter Field 14:50 
   Psychiatry 17:06 
    Branch of Medicine Dealing With Psychological Disorders, Practiced by Physicians Who Often Provide Medical Treatment as Well as Psychological Therapy 17:09 
    Requires an MD License 17:19 
    Able to Prescribe Drugs 17:36 
   Review 17:59 
    Which Kind of Psychology Deals With… 18:06 

Section 2: Research Methods

  The Science of Psychology 49:16
   Intro 0:00 
   Is Psychology a Science? 0:14 
    Some Conclude No, Psychology is Not a Science 0:17 
    Some Say It's a Soft Science 0:23 
    Methodology is the Same As Hard Sciences 0:35 
    Subjects Are More Complex 0:40 
   Empiricism: The Goals 1:29 
    To Measure and Describe Behaviors 1:39 
    To Gather Empirical Evidence: Information Gained From Direct Observation and Measurement 1:44 
    To Gather Data: Observed Facts 1:56 
   What Is Science? 2:03 
    Exploring What Is True 2:23 
    Systematic Observation and Experimentation For Answering Scientific Questions 3:04 
    Precise Definitions 3:11 
    Testing Hypotheses 3:14 
    Replication of Results 3:22 
    Objectivity as a Goal -- Reduction of Bias 3:33 
   Critical Thinking 3:42 
    The Ability and Willingness To Assess Claims and Make Objective Judgments On the Basis of Well-Supported Reasons and Evidence, Rather Than Emotion or Anecdote 3:50 
    Analyzing, Evaluating, and Synthesizing Information 4:47 
    Imperative For Use in All Science (And, Well, Life, Really) 5:42 
   Critical Thinking: Key Principles 5:48 
    Few Truths Transcend the Need for Empirical Testing 5:52 
    Evidence Varies in Quality 5:56 
    Authority or Claimed Expertise Does Not Automatically Make an Idea True 6:14 
    Guidelines 7:08 
   Goals of Psychology 9:59 
    Description of Behaviors: Naming and Classifying Various Observable, Measurable Behaviors 10:18 
    Understanding: The Causes of Behavior(s) And Being Able to State the Cause(s) 11:13 
    Prediction: Predicting Behavior Accurately 11:26 
    Control: Altering Conditions That Influence Behaviors in Predictable Ways 11:46 
   The Scientific Method 14:14 
    Six Basic Elements 14:16 
   Steps in Scientific Method 14:50 
    Flowchart Example 14:52 
   Another Way to Examine Process 16:07 
    Flowchart Example 16:09 
   Some Terms 18:23 
    Hypothesis: A Statement That Attempts to Predict or to Account For a Set of Phenomena; Scientific Hypotheses Specify Relationships Among Events or Variables and are Empirically Tested 18:25 
    Hypothesis Testing: Scientifically Testing Predicted Outcome of an Experiment or an Educated Guess About the Relationship Between Variables 18:42 
    Operational Definition: Defines a Scientific Concept By Stating Specific Actions or Procedures Used To Measure the Process, Behavior, or Phenomenon 19:02 
   Theory 23:20 
    NOT the Popular Idea of What a Theory is, I Have a Theory About Why… 23:28 
    A System of Ideas That Interrelates Facts and Concepts, Summarizes Existing Data, and Predicts Future Observations 23:43 
   Naturalistic Observation 25:02 
    Observing a Person or an Animal in the Environment in Which It Lives 25:08 
    Advantages 25:20 
    Disadvantages 26:25 
   Anthropomorphic Fallacy 27:39 
    A Fallacy is an Error in Thinking 27:43 
    Anthro Refers to Humans 27:50 
    Morphic is Related to Change 27:54 
    Attributing Human Thoughts, Feelings, or Motives to Animals, Especially as a Way of Explaining Their Behavior (e.g. Mohini, My Cat, is Acting Like That Because She is Feeling Depressed Today.) 28:01 
   Laboratory Observation 29:14 
    Creates a Scenario Where Controlled Conditions Are Available and a Situation is Set Up and Behaviors Are Observed 29:17 
    Advantages: 30:27 
    Disadvantages: 31:54 
   Case Study/Case History 32:31 
    Examination of One Individual in Great Detail -- Utilizing Interviews, Psych-Tests, and More 32:36 
    Advantages 36:49 
    Disadvantages 37:45 
   Psychological Tests 38:08 
    Using a Reliable, Valid, and Typically Paper/Pencil Test to Measure Some Aspect of Personality, Aptitude, Skill, Achievement, or Dysfunction. Must Be Standardized, Normed, Reliable and Valid 38:12 
    Advantages 38:39 
    Disadvantages 38:45 
    e.g. Myers-Briggs, Rorschach Ink Blot, TAT, MMPI, WISC/WAIS-IQ, SAT, etc. 38:58 
   Surveys 39:32 
    Method of Asking Questions About Attitudes, Experiences, Preferences, and Behaviors That Can Accumulate Large Data Sets. Need Representative Samples (Sample Population) 39:35 
    Advantages 39:47 
    Disadvantages 41:28 
    e.g. U.S. Census is World's Largest Survey 43:11 
   Courtesy Bias 43:59 
    Problem in Research; A Tendency to Give Polite or Socially Desirable Answers 44:08 
   Review Questions 44:55 
    How Is Psychology Scientific? 45:00 
    How are Hypotheses More Than Just Educated Guesses? 45:14 
    Which Method… 45:42 
    How Can We Reduce Bias In Surveys? 46:34 
    How Critical a Thinker Are You? Are You Willing to Practice? 46:46 
   Review Questions 47:58 
    What is a Scientific Theory? 48:00 
    What is a Scientific Hypothesis? 48:09 
    Why Are Operational Definitions Important? 48:18 
    Give One Advantage and One Disadvantage For Each of the Following Methods 48:25 
  Research Methods: Correlation 12:38
   Intro 0:00 
   Correlation Overview 0:14 
   Correlations 0:32 
    Helps Identify Relationships Worth Knowing About 0:33 
    Helps Make Predictions 0:38 
    If Correlation Exists Then the Two Variables are Related 0:46 
    Correlation Does NOT Equal Causation 0:55 
    A Third or Extraneous Variable Can Create the Appearance of a Correlation Between Two Unrelated Variables 1:10 
    Correlation Only Indicates the Strength of Relationship Between Two Variables. 1:15 
   Correlation 1:24 
    Indicates Positive or Negative Relationship Between Variables. 1:26 
    Positive Correlation: Presence of One Variable Predicts the Presence of Another 1:33 
    Negative Correlation: Presence of One Variable Predicts the Absence of Another 1:42 
   Characteristics of Correlation 2:01 
    Describes Strength of Relationship 2:02 
    Measured by Formula; Result Always Between -1 and +1 2:09 
    Statistically Impossible For Value to be Greater Than +1 or Less Than -1. 2:27 
    Regardless of Being Positive or Negative The Stronger Correlation Value is the One Furthest From Zero 2:51 
    Look for Association or Relationship Between Two Variables to Determine Correlation 3:28 
   Formula 4:19 
    Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficient 4:23 
    Sign (+/-) Indicates Nature of Relationship, Number Determines Its Strength 4:32 
   Causation 4:57 
    Remember Correlation Does Not Equal Causation 4:59 
    An Existing Strong Relationship Doesn't Mean One Creates the Other 5:02 
    Example: The Relationship Between Crime and Unemployment 5:09 
    Third or Extraneous Variable May Cause the Appearance of a Strong Correlation 5:20 
   Terms 5:36 
    Scatterplot and Scattergram Mean the Same Thing 5:41 
    Drawn Demonstration of What a Scatterplot Looks Like 5:46 
    Characteristics of Scatterplot Showing Perfect Positive or Negative Correlation 6:12 
   Terms 6:44 
    Positive Correlation: Increases in One Measure (X) Matched by Increases in Another (Y) 6:46 
    Example: Relationship Between Smoking Cigarettes and Contracting Lung Cancer 6:53 
    Zero correlation: No Relationship Exists Between Two Variables 6:59 
    Example: Correlation Between Hair Color and IQ Score 7:13 
   Terms 7:23 
    Negative (Inverse) Correlation: As Values of One Measure Increase (X), Values of Another (Y) Decrease. 7:24 
    Example: The More Alcohol You Drink, the Lower Your Score on a Coordination Test Will Be 7:32 
   Scatterplots for correlations 7:43 
    Strong Positive Correlation Scatterplot Will Have Points Running Upwards Closely Along a 45 Degree Angle Line 7:47 
    Strong Negative Correlation Will Have Points Running Downwards Closely Along a 45 Degree Angle Line. 7:55 
    Examples of Scatterplots Showing Weak Positive Correlation, Zero Correlation, Moderate Negative Correlation and Weak Negative Correlation 7:59 
   Google Search for Positive Correlation 8:41 
    Examples of images of charts showing different degrees of positive correlation 8:43 
   Google Search for Negative Correlation 8:53 
    Examples of Charts Showing Different Degrees of Negative Correlation 8:54 
   Google Search for Zero Correlation 9:08 
    Examples of Charts Showing Zero Correlation Between Two Variables 9:09 
   Examples (Use the Thumb Method) 9:22 
    Which Examples Demonstrate Positive, Negative, and Zero Correlation? 9:23 
   Review Questions 11:15 
    What Kinds of Correlations Are Likely With The Relationships Below? 11:17 
  The Experimental Process & Ethical Guidelines 36:20
   Intro 0:00 
   Objectives 0:15 
    Describe how Research Design Drives the Reasonable Conclusions That Can Be Drawn (e.g. Experiments are Useful for Determining Cause And Effect; The Use of Experimental Controls Reduces Alternate Explanations 0:19 
    Identify Independent, Dependent, Confounding, and Control Variables In Experimental Designs 0:36 
    Distinguish Between Random Assignments of Participants to Conditions in Experiments and Random Selection of Participants, Primarily in Correlational Studies and Surveys 0:44 
   Objectives, Cont. 0:57 
    Predict the Validity of Behavioral Explanations Based on the Quality of Research Design (e.g., Confounding Variables Limit Confidence in Research Conclusions). 1:00 
    Discuss the Value of Reliance on Operational Definitions and Measurement in Behavioral Research 1:10 
   The Experiment: Searching for Causes 1:23 
    Experimental Variables 1:45 
    Experimental and Control Conditions 1:48 
    Experimenter Effects 1:50 
    Advantages and Limitations of Experiments 1:52 
   An Experiment 1:55 
    A Controlled Test of a Hypothesis in Which the Researcher Manipulates One Variable to Discover Its Effect on Another. 1:59 
    To Identify Cause-And-Effect Relationships, We Conduct Experiments 2:43 
    Disadvantages 3:10 
   Some Vocabulary 3:34 
    Hypothesis: A Statement That Attempts to Predict an Outcome Within the Confines of the Experiment -- How the Manipulation of the Independent Variable Changes the Dependent Variable. To Make It Easier, Put it In a Conditional Format, If, Then 3:38 
    Independent Variable: A Variable That an Experimenter Manipulates. 4:18 
    Dependent Variable: A Variable That an Experimenter Predicts Will Be Affected By Manipulations of the Independent Variable 4:24 
    Unwanted Variables -- Extraneous Variables: Conditions That a Researcher Wants To Prevent From Affecting The Outcomes of the Experiment (e.g., Number of Hours Slept Before the Experiment) 4:34 
   More Concepts 5:15 
    Random Selection -- Choosing Subjects for the Experiment Without Bias -- Often Using a Random Number Table or Other Randomizing Procedure 5:18 
    Random Assignment -- Choosing Which Group, The Experimental or Control Group Each Subject Goes To 6:37 
    Randomness is a Procedure That Creates the Attempt to Limit Bias and Create Representativeness 7:42 
   A Graphic Overview 8:31 
    Chart 8:34 
   If One Eats Peanuts, One Will Recall Better 12:06 
    Chart 12:08 
   Practice -- Caffeine and Memory 14:16 
    Chart 14:18 
   Practice -- Sleep and Reaction Time 17:29 
    Chart 17:31 
   Potential Biases 21:05 
    Experimenter Effects -- This is When The Experimenter Unconsciously Pushes Subject into a Particular Response 21:08 
    Changes in Behavior Caused by the Unintended Influence of the Experimenter 21:14 
    Self-Fulfilling Prophecy: A Prediction That Leads People to Act in Ways to Make the Prediction Come True 21:19 
    Single Blind Experiment: Only the Subjects Have No Idea Whether They Get Real Treatment or Placebo 21:56 
    Double Blind Experiment: The Subjects AND The Experimenters Have No Idea Whether the Subjects Get Real Treatment or Placebo 22:18 
   Evaluating Results in an Experiment 22:54 
    Statistically Significant: Results Gained Would Occur Very Rarely by Chance Alone, Usually Less Than Five Experiments Out of 100 22:59 
    Meta-Analysis: Study of Results of Other Studies 23:52 
   Placebo Effect 25:15 
    Changes in Behavior That Result From Belief That One Has Ingested a Drug 26:11 
   Ethics/Ethical Responsibility 28:28 
    No Coercion -- Participation Must Be Voluntary 28:39 
    Doctrine of Informed Consent -- Must Be Volunteer and Know Enough to Intelligently Decide About Participating 28:45 
    Anonymity or Confidentiality of Participants 29:29 
    Respecting Dignity and Welfare of Human Subjects 29:43 
    Protection From Physical or Emotional Risk -- Temporary Discomfort OK, But Not Long-Term Harm 29:48 
    Ability to Withdraw at Any Time 30:20 
    Deception of Subjects Can Be OK 30:28 
    Debriefing -- Done After Experiment -- Explains True Purpose of Study and If Any Deceptions 30:35 
   Experimenting on Animals 30:43 
    Humans are Similar to Other Animals in Many Ways 30:47 
    Two Extreme Options -- Do No Testing or Test in Any Way We Want, Without Constraint 31:17 
    Researchers Must (APA 2002) Ensure the Comfort, Health, and Humane Treatment of Animals and of Minimizing Infection, Illness, and Pain of Animal Subjects. 31:28 
    Must Have a Clear Scientific Purpose 31:49 
    Must Answer a Specific, Important Scientific Question 31:51 
    Animals Chosen Must be Best Suited for the Question 31:55 
    Animals Must Be Acquired Legally (Accredited Companies or Trapped Humanely, if Wild) 32:00 
   Practice Questions 32:06 
    To Understand In-Depth a Particular Individual or Family By Using Many Different Tools 32:13 
    To Watch a Person or People and Describe What They Do -- Often Involves Keeping Counts of Particular Behaviors 32:29 
    To Examine the Strength of Relationship Between Two or More Variables 32:50 
    Using Controlled Methods, Create a Situation Where the Researcher Can Measure Cause and Effect by Applying the Independent Variable With the Experimental Group and Comparing Results With a Control Group. 33:01 
   Practice Questions 33:31 
    To Find Out a Lot of People's Views, Attitudes, Experiences or Feelings About Some Aspect of Their Lives 33:35 
    To Use a Manipulated Situation to See What People Will Do in That Situation 34:08 
    Professor Xavier is Interested in Understanding the Relationship Between Self-Esteem and Social Anxiety 34:26 
    Dr. Jones Wishes to Investigate the Effects of a New Training Program on Employees' Job Performances 34:43 
    Professor Smith Wishes to Study the Effects of Food Deprivation on Learning in Rats 35:25 
    Dr. Watusi is Interested in Studying Peer Influence Among High School Students. He Decides to go to Several Local High Schools and Observe Students Over the Course of Several Weeks. 35:41 
  Research Methods: Statistics 37:16
   Intro 0:00 
   Objectives 0:22 
    Distinguish the Purposes of Descriptive Statistics and Inferential Statistics 0:26 
    Apply Basic Descriptive Statistical Concepts, Including Interpreting and Constructing Graphs, and Calculating Simple Descriptive Statistics (e.g. Measures of Central Tendency, Standard Deviation) 0:34 
   Types of Statistics 0:50 
    Descriptive Statistics: Summarize Numbers So They Become More Meaningful and Easier to Communicate To Other People 0:52 
    Inferential Statistics: Used For Making Decisions, For Generalizing From Small Samples, and For Drawing Conclusions 1:09 
   Number Scales -- Nominal 1:30 
    No Quantitative Properties 1:48 
    For Comparison Only -- Grouping Participants 1:51 
    E.g. a Likert Scale (e.g. On a Scale From 1-5) on Strongly Agree, Agree, Neutral, Disagree, Strongly Disagree Scale 1:55 
   Number Scales 2:34 
    Ordinal Scales 2:36 
    Determining Ranking 2:39 
    E.g. Seeds in NCAA Basketball Tournament 2:45 
    The Differences Between Seeds Has No Information Beyond the Ranking 2:48 
    Differences Between Rankings Not Equal -- Difference Between #1 and #4 Is Not The Same As Between #5 and #8 2:54 
    #1 Seed is NOT 4 Times Better Than #4 Seed 2:56 
   Number Scales -- Interval 3:14 
    Lots of Data and Can Add/Subtract 3:19 
    Classic e.g. is Temperature 3:25 
    SAT or ACT Scores 3:28 
    IQ Scores, Myers-Briggs, and Others Operate Under the Assumption of an Interval Scale 3:37 
    Do NOT Have a True Zero Point 3:47 
   Number Scale -- Ratio 3:55 
    Contain the Most Amount of Quantitative Information 4:02 
    Have a True Zero Point 4:00 
    E.g. Speed, Time, Weight, Distance 4:23 
    Can Meaningfully Describe Something as Twice as Fast or Four Times as Long 4:33 
   Graphical Representations 4:55 
    Presenting Numbers Pictorially (Usually in a Graph) So They Are Easier to Visualize 4:58 
    Frequency Distribution: Table That Divides an Entire Range of Scores Into a Series of Equal Classes and Then Records The Number of Scores That Fall Into Each Class 5:43 
    Histogram: Graph of a Frequency Distribution; Scores Are Represented By Vertical Bars 6:51 
    Frequency Polygon: Graph of a Frequency Distribution Where The Number of Scores In Each Class Is Represented By Points on a Line 6:56 
   Frequency Distribution 7:16 
    Graphic 7:18 
   Frequency Histogram 7:59 
    Graphic 8:01 
   Frequency Polygon 8:41 
    Graphic 8:43 
   Descriptive Statistics 9:17 
    Describing Data 9:22 
    Measures of Central Tendency 9:37 
   Mean 9:41 
    Mean (Arithmetic Average) 9:45 
    Mean: Add All the Scores For Each Group and Then Divide By the Total Number of Scores; One Type of Average 9:51 
   Median 11:57 
    Median (Middle Score) 11:59 
    Median: Arrange Scores From Highest to Lowest and Then Select The Score That Falls in The Middle; Half the Values Fall Above the Median, And Half Fall Below It 12:05 
   Mode 13:18 
    Mode (Occurs the Most) 13:20 
    Mode: Identifies the Most Frequently Occurring Score in a Group 13:26 
    A Number That Describes a Typical Score Around Which the Other Scores Fall 13:36 
   Measures of Variability 13:50 
    Variability -- How Spread Out or Compressed a Set of Scores Are -- Level of Dispersion 13:51 
    Range -- Of a Set of Data, The Range is the Difference Between the High and Low Values 14:01 
    Standard Deviation -- Represented by the Symbol σ 14:23 
   Measures of Variability 14:56 
    Normal Curve (Bell Shaped) 14:58 
    How Do We Visualize the Variability With a Normal Curve? 15:03 
    Deviations and Percentages -- Need to Become Familiar With Them 15:10 
    Z-Score: Indicates How Many Standard Deviations Above or Below The Mean a Score Is 15:16 
    Normal Curve: Bell Shaped Curve, With a Large Number of Scores in the Middle, and Very Few Extremely High and Low Scores 16:03 
   Normal and Skewed Curves 16:13 
    Examples of Negatively Skewed, Normal, and Positively Skewed Curves 16:24 
   Standard Deviation 17:50 
    Graphic of Bell Curve Displaying How To Measure Standard Deviations 17:53 
   Normal Curve 20:45 
    Graphic Showing Different Measurements of Ranges That Can Be Used With a Normal Curve 20:48 
   IQ Scores and S.D. 22:36 
    Always Assume That the Mean/Median/Mode is 100 for an IQ Score -- and That It's a Normal Curve 22:41 
    So if x̅ (the mean) is 100, the S.D. is 15, What is John's IQ if he is 2 S.D.s Above The Mean? 22:53 
    Lots of Questions Like This on the AP Exam 24:48 
   Examples of Standard Deviation Problems 24:56 
    What if the Mean is Not 100? 24:59 
    E.g. Mean is 85 and the S.D. is 6 25:02 
    E.g. Mean is 45 and the S.D. is 3 26:18 
   Inferential Statistics 28:38 
    Purpose is to Determine Whether or Not Findings Can Be Applied to the Larger Population From Which the Sample Was Selected 28:45 
    Infer versus Imply (Joey on Friends) 29:03 
    Why Might There Be Differences Between Two Groups in an Experiment? 30:12 
   Inferential Statistics 30:30 
    Population: Entire Set of Subjects, Objects, or Events of Interest (All Married Students in the United States) 30:34 
    Samples: Smaller Cross Section of a Population 30:59 
   Inferential Statistics 31:51 
    Sample Must Be Representative 31:54 
    Members of Sample Must Be Chosen Randomly 32:05 
    Statistical Significance: Degree to Which an Event (Results of an Experiment, Results of a Drug Trial) is Unlikely to Have Occurred By Chance Alone 32:33 
    Many Statistical Tests to Measure Magnitude of Difference --> T-Tests, Chi Square, and ANOVAs 32:46 
    AP Psych--- Need Only to Know -- P-Value 33:01 
   P-Value 33:13 
    The Smaller the P-Value, The More Significant the Results 33:15 
    In Science, a P-Value of .05 is Cutoff for Statistical Significance 33:19 
    A P-Value of .05 Means That a Five Percent Chance Exists That the Results Occurred By Chance 33:31 
    A P-Value of .01 Means That a One Percent Chance Exists That the Results Occurred By Chance 33:49 
    Most Psychological Research Will Be at the .05 Level 34:06 
   Review Questions 34:12 
    What is the Best Way to Choose Subjects? 34:16 
    Distinguish Between Descriptive and Inferential Stats 34:28 
    Distinguish Among Mean, Median and Mode 35:07 
    What is the Purpose of the Standard Deviation 36:12 
    How Does Random Selection Increase the Importance of the Results of a Study? 36:37 

Section 3: Biological Bases

  Biological Bases of Behavior 23:37
   Intro 0:00 
   Biological Bases of Behavior (8 - 10%) 0:23 
    Physiological Techniques (e.g. Imaging, Surgical) 0:44 
    Neuroanatomy 0:46 
    Functional Organization of Nervous System 0:50 
    Neural Transmission 0:52 
    Endocrine System 0:54 
    Genetics 0:58 
    Evolutionary Psychology 0:59 
    We Examine the Relationship Between Physiological Processes and Behavior -- Including the Influence of Neural Function, the Nervous System and the Brain, and Genetic Contributions to Behavior 1:09 
   Physiological Techniques 1:19 
    Ways to Approach the Brain 1:21 
    Brain Scans 1:25 
    Surgery 1:34 
   EEG -- Electroencephalogram 1:42 
    An Amplified Recording of the Waves of Electrical Activity That Sweep Across the Brain's Surface. These Waves are Measured by Electrodes Placed on the Scalp. 1:46 
   EEG -- Electroencephalogram 2:17 
    Picture of Person Wearing Recording Cap Used During EEG 2:19 
   EEG in Sleep 2:52 
    Image of Brain Waves Recorded With EEG During Sleep 3:05 
   MRI -- Magnetic Resonance Imaging 3:25 
    A Technique That Uses Magnetic Fields and Radio Waves to Produce Computer-Generated Images of Soft Tissue. MRI Scans Show Brain Anatomy 3:33 
   MRI -- Soft Tissue 4:05 
    Picture of Brain Through an MRI 4:06 
   MRI 4:43 
    Picture of Brain Through an MRI 4:44 
   fMRI (Functional MRI) 5:20 
    A Technique for Revealing Blood Flow and, Therefore, Brain Activity by Comparing Successive MRI Scans. fMRI Scans Show Brain Function 5:30 
   fMRI (Functional MRI) 5:43 
    Images of Brain Using fMRI 5:45 
   PET (Positron Emission Tomography) 6:22 
    A Visual Display of Brain Activity That Detects Where a Radioactive Form of Glucose Goes While the Brain Performs a Given Task. 6:29 
   CT (Computerized Tomography) 7:48 
    A Series of X-Ray Photographs Taken From Different Angles and Combined by Computer Into a Composite Representation of a Slice Through the Body. 7:54 
    Also Called CAT Scan 7:50 
   CT Scan 8:07 
    Images of Brain Using CT Scan 8:09 
   Physical Techniques 8:39 
    Surgery and Other Invasive Techniques 8:48 
    Case Studies 8:53 
   Lesion 8:59 
    Tissue Destruction; A Brain Lesion is a Naturally or Experimentally Caused Destruction of Brain Tissue 9:01 
   Lobotomy 10:59 
    Also Known as Prefrontal Lobotomy 11:02 
    Removing/Disconnecting the Front of the Frontal Lobe of the Brain -- Used Primarily on Schizophrenics in the 1930s - 1950s 11:06 
    More Detail in the Treatments of Mental Disorders Unit 12:56 
   Hemispherectomy 12:57 
    Used for Patients who Have Rasmussen's Syndrome, a Type of Epilepsy That Is Not Treatable With Medication 13:03 
    Best Used on Children -- More Plasticity 14:26 
    Made Famous by Jodi Miller in a Documentary About Her Condition 13:14 
   Case Study 15:27 
    Phineas Gage 15:31 
   Gage Representations 17:08 
    Diagrams of How Rail Impaled Gage's Head 17:09 
   Gage Photo 17:48 
    Photo of Phineas Gage After Accident 17:49 
   The Endocrine System and Behavior 18:11 
    Nervous System -- Via Brain/Spinal Cord and Nerves 18:23 
    Endocrine System -- Via Bloodstream and Hormones 18:30 
   The Brain and the Endocrine System 18:34 
    Hypothalamus Signals Pituitary Gland 18:47 
    Pituitary Signals Various Glands Via Bloodstream With Hormones 18:51 
    Endocrine System Slower to Operate than NS and has Longer Lasting Effects 18:58 
   Major Glands and Hormones 19:13 
    Diagram of Various Glands and the Hormones They Create and Secrete 19:15 
   Endocrine Alimentary System 20:35 
    Diagram of Various Organs and the Hormones They Create and Secrete 20:39 
   Reproductive 21:31 
    Diagram of Female Reproductive System 21:32 
   Review 22:01 
    Which Brain Technique: 22:05 
    Hormones -- Locations and Functions 22:51 
  Biological Bases of Behavior: Neuroanatomy & Organization of the Nervous System 56:59
   Intro 0:00 
   The Brain 0:29 
    Weight = 1300 - 1400 grams (about 3 - 3.5 pounds) 0:32 
    Pudding 0:50 
    500 Billion Neurons 1:05 
    Each Neuron May be Connected (Through a Synapse) to up to 10,000 Other Neurons 1:08 
    Has Plasticity 1:24 
    It's The Weirdest Thing in the Universe 2:22 
   The Nervous Systems 3:06 
    Graphic Showing How Various Nervous Systems in the Body Work With Each Other 3:08 
   The Nervous System 7:44 
    Graphic of Overall Nervous System 7:46 
   Brain Parts: What You Need to Know 8:38 
    Hindbrain (Top of the Spinal Cord; Life Support) 8:49 
    Thalamus 9:53 
    Midbrain -- Numerous Brain Parts Connecting the Hindbrain and the Forebrain -- Includes Vision and Movement 9:57 
    Forebrain 10:24 
   Brain Parts: What You Need to Know 11:12 
    Getting to the Brain 11:14 
    Hair, Skin, Fatty Tissue, Muscle, and Connective Tissue 11:16 
    Skull 11:41 
    CSF (Cerebral Spinal Fluid) 11:51 
    Meninges (Three Protective Layers) 12:18 
    Dura Mater, Pia Mater, Arachnoid 12:22 
    Sulcus/Sulci and Gyrus/Gyri -- Grooves and Peaks 13:15 
    Neurogenesis -- Formation of New Neurons 14:45 
    Plasticity -- Ability of Brain's Functions to Reorganize 14:57 
   Brain Parts: Cerebrum/Cerebral Cortex 15:09 
    Diagram of Different Parts of the Human Brain 15:10 
   Three Ways to View Brains -- Cross Sections 18:55 
    Diagrams of the Sagittal View, the Horizontal View, and the Coronal View 18:58 
   Brain Parts: Cerebrum/Cerebral Cortex 19:35 
    Brain Parts 19:38 
    Aphasia 22:55 
    All Functions for AP Psych-Will Be Oversimplified 23:52 
   The Brain 24:07 
    Diagram of The Parts of the Brain and What Their Primary Purpose Is 24:10 
   Medulla, Pons, and Cerebellum 25:32 
    Medulla -- Breathing and Heart Rate 25:40 
    Pons -- Named After Latin Word for Bridge 25:50 
    Cerebellum -- Little Brain 26:18 
   Limbic System 27:06 
    Diagram of the Limbic System 27:08 
   Limbic System 30:17 
    Thalamus -- All Senses Except Smell 30:20 
    Hypothalamus -- Hunger, Thirst, Body Temp., and Sexual Arousal 30:23 
    Amygdala -- Fear and Aggression, Emotions - (4 Fs) - Fighting, Fleeing, Food and Mating 30:30 
    Hippocampus -- Memory 30:45 
    Basal Ganglia -- Habits 30:49 
   One View of the Brain 30:56 
    Diagram of the Human Brain 30:58 
   Sensory Homunculus 32:09 
    Picture of Sculpture Showing How Much Brain Power and Space in The Brain is Devoted to the Function of the Parts of the Body 32:37 
   Sensory Homunculus 33:53 
    Diagram of Functions of the Somatosensory Strip and Motor Strip of the Brain 33:55 
   Broca's and Wernicke's Area 34:32 
    Diagram of The Parts of the Brain and What Their Primary Purpose Is 34:37 
   Paul Broca 36:14 
    Worked With Patients Who Had Aphasia (Inability to Speak) 36:17 
    Discovered Brain Region That Bears His Name -- Lesions Created Aphasia 36:25 
    First Anatomical Proof of Localization of Brain Function 36:30 
   Carl Wernicke 36:48 
    Followed Broca's Research 36:50 
    Receptive Aphasia in the Posterior, Superior Temporal Gyrus of the Left Hemisphere 36:54 
    Wernicke Aphasia = Inability to Understand Speech 37:05 
   Brain Regions Review 37:24 
    Graphic of Side View of Brain, Review of Its Different Areas 37:27 
   One View of the Brain 38:54 
    Diagram of Brain 38:57 
   Review of Brain Functions 40:03 
    Visual Processing 40:06 
    Memory 40:13 
    Thought Process 40:15 
    Dealing With Sensory Information 40:21 
    Balance and Fine Motor Coordination 40:31 
    Emotional Responses, Esp. Fear 40:35 
    Breathing and Heart Rate 40:40 
    Sensory Relay Station 40:46 
    Sense of Smell 40:54 
    Connects the Two Hemispheres 40:58 
    Location of Motor Cortex 41:05 
    Attention 41:10 
    Hunger/Thirst 41:21 
    Physiological Arousal 41:30 
    Body Senses 41:48 
    Speaking 41:56 
    Comprehending Language 42:00 
    Impairment of Language 42:03 
   The Divided Brain 42:12 
    Brain Lateralization 42:19 
    Hemispheric Specialization 42:21 
    Vogel and Bogen, Sperry 42:30 
   Roger Sperry 42:42 
    Neural Specificity and Regeneration Studies -- i.e. Neurons had Specific Functions 42:45 
    1981 Nobel Prize -- Split-Brain Research With Hubel and Wiesel 42:59 
    Severing Corpus Callosum -- Hemispheres Can Not Communicate 43:46 
    Gazzaniga Was Student 43:52 
   Split Brain 43:59 
    A Condition Resulting From Surgery That Isolates the Brain's Two Hemispheres by Cutting the Fibers (Mainly of the Corpus Callosum) Connecting Them 44:03 
   Michael Gazzaniga 44:17 
    Cognitive Neuroscience 44:19 
    Work in Split-Brain Research in Humans 44:24 
    Higher Brain Functioning and Lateralization of Brain Functioning -- How Each Side of Brain Has Primary Functions -- e.g. Left Side of Brain Handles Most Language Processing 44:27 
    Work is Cited in Intro Texts In Divided Brain Sections 44:53 
    Alien Hand Syndrome In Split-Brain Patients 45:00 
   Visual Pathways 46:27 
    Graphic of How Brain and Eyes Work Together to See 46:29 
   Split-Brain Outcomes 49:27 
    Graphic Depicting Split-Brain Test 49:30 
   Brain Lateralization 50:12 
    Diagram of Left and Right Brain Aptitudes 50:27 
   Hemispheric Dominance 51:54 
    Left Side 51:58 
    Words 51:59 
    Letters 51:59 
    Language/Sounds 52:00 
    Verbal Memory 52:01 
    Speech, Grammar, Writing, Arithmetic 52:04 
    Logic 52:06 
    Explaining Events 52:07 
    Right Side 52:51 
    Faces 52:56 
    Emotional Cognition 52:58 
    General Patterns 53:08 
    Non-Language Sounds 53:11 
    Music 53:14 
    Emotional Tone of Speech 53:17 
    Geometry 54:13 
    Sense of Direction 54:16 
    Judgment of Distance 54:17 
    Mental Rotation of Objects 54:18 
   Review 54:37 
    Which Brain Parts Will Likely Deal With the Following Functions? 54:49 
  Neurons, Neurotransmitters, and Neural Communication 40:38
   Intro 0:00 
   Objectives 0:16 
    Identify Basic Processes and Systems in the Biological Bases of Behavior, Including Parts of the Neuron and the Process of Transmission of a Signal Between Neurons 0:18 
    Discuss the Influence of Drugs on Neurotransmitters (e.g. Reuptake Mechanisms, Antagonists, and Agonists) 0:26 
   Neuron Parts 0:39 
    Dendrite 0:44 
    Cell Body 0:48 
    Axon 0:56 
    Myelin Sheath (Myelin) 1:04 
    Axon Branches = Terminal Branches 1:25 
    Terminal Buttons (End Buttons, Axon Terminal, Terminal Branches of Axon, Synaptic Knobs) 1:30 
    Vesicles = Synaptic Vesicles 1:52 
    Synapse = Synaptic Gap 1:56 
    Neural Impulse 1:59 
    Glial Cells: 10-50 x More Glial Cells Than Neurons; Housekeeping, Nutrition, and Support 2:10 
   Structure of a Typical Neuron 2:34 
    Diagram of Neuron and its Parts 2:35 
   Neuron Anatomy Quick Quiz 3:41 
    Label the Parts of the Neuron 3:43 
   Neural Conduction 4:43 
    Voltage 4:50 
    Resting Potential 4:55 
    Action Potential 5:03 
    Threshold 5:10 
    Refractory Period 5:25 
    All-or-None Response (Principle) 5:36 
    Depolarization 6:24 
    Repolarization 6:34 
   Firing of a Neuron 6:54 
    Firing of a Neuron 6:57 
   Technique to Recall Chemicals 9:13 
    Salty Banana -- What is This? 9:26 
    Salt is Na+. Bananas Have a Lot of Potassium K+ 9:32 
   Electrical Nature of Neurons 10:37 
    Graph Showing Voltage Measurement of a Firing Neuron and at Rest 10:38 
   Neural Speed 11:58 
    Speed of a Neuron Impulse 12:02 
   Neural Speed 13:57 
    Class Demonstration 13:59 
    Three Conditions 14:16 
   The Neuron 16:32 
    Detailed Diagram of Parts of Neuron 16:36 
   Neuron and Synapse 18:17 
    Graphic of Neuron Transmission 18:18 
   Neural Reuptake (Recycling) 19:46 
    Graphic of Neuron Recycling Neurotransmitters Between Receptors 19:54 
   Neural Communication 21:42 
    Picture of How Neurons Communicate With Each Other 21:46 
   Nerves and Neurons 22:40 
    Nerves: Large Bundles of Axons 22:43 
    Myelin: Fatty Layer That Coats Some Axons 22:49 
   Neurotransmitters 23:43 
    Dopamine (DA) 23:53 
    Serotonin (5-HT) 23:54 
    Acetylcholine (ACh) 23:55 
    Epinephrine (NE) 23:57 
    Norepinephrine 23:58 
    GABA 23:59 
    Caution -- These Descriptions Are Oversimplified -- Reality is Much More Complex (As Will Be Your Biological Psych-Course at University) 24:05 
   Neurotransmitters 24:32 
    Acetylcholine: Activates Muscles 24:34 
    Dopamine: Muscle Control 24:45 
    Serotonin: Mood and Appetite Control 25:19 
   Dopamine 25:32 
    Pleasure Centers of Brain -- Nucleus Accumbens 25:34 
    Parkinson's -- Loss of Dopamine Generating Neurons 25:50 
    Schizophrenia -- Elevated Levels of Dopamine in Mesolimbic Pathway 26:11 
    Low Levels Assoc. With Addiction 26:29 
    Dopaminergic 26:34 
    Recent Research Show That It's Not the Actual Release Associated With Pleasure, But the Anticipation of Reward 26:53 
   Serotonin 27:28 
    Inhibitory Neurotransmitter 27:33 
    Connected to Mood and Emotion, Appetite and Sleep 27:40 
    Low Levels Associated With Depression, Anger-Control, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Suicide 27:48 
    Plays a Role in Perception (Think Raves, E, and Molly) 28:32 
   Dopamine and Serotonin Pathways 29:53 
    Picture of Brain and Dopaminerges System and Serotonerges System 29:55 
   Acetylcholine (ACh) 30:56 
    First Neurotransmitter Discovered 31:01 
    Both in Peripheral and Central NS 31:05 
    Primary Function is in Somatic Nervous System 31:09 
    Activates Muscles 31:13 
    Associated With Movement 31:25 
    Loss Associated With Alzheimer's 31:28 
   Epinephrine 31:34 
    Associated With Energy and Emergency Systems in the Endocrine System (Sympathetic NS) 31:41 
    Connected to Forming Memories 31:57 
    Related to Traumatic or Incidents With Really Strong Emotions 32:00 
   Norepinephrine 32:32 
    Part of Sympathetic Nervous System Response to Danger -- Fight or Flight Response 32:35 
    Increases Blood Pressure and Heart Rate, Releases Glucose Stores 32:42 
    Connected to Amygdala Function 32:50 
   GABA 33:06 
    Gamma Amino Butyric Acid 33:11 
    An Inhibitory Neurotransmitter -- Slows Things Down 33:16 
    Associated with Anxiety -- Too Little Associated With Anxiety Disorders 33:23 
   Glutamate 33:47 
    At This Point, Not on AP Exam as a Neurotransmitter 33:50 
    Plays Key Role in Long-Term Potentiation 33:55 
    Important for Learning and Memory 34:08 
   Other Neurotransmitters 34:19 
    Others Definitely Exist 34:24 
    Will Be Part of a BioPsych-Course 34:25 
    Do Not Worry About Them for AP Psych 34:28 
   Neural Regulators 34:35 
    Neuropeptides: Regulate Activity of Other Neurons 34:40 
   Neural Regulators 35:37 
    Agonist (Chemicals That Mimic the Actions of a Neurotransmitter) 35:39 
    Antagonist (Chemicals That Oppose the Action of a Neurotransmitter) 35:58 
    Excitatory Neurotransmitters: Chemicals Released From the Terminal Buttons of a Neuron That Excite the Next Neuron Into Firing 36:27 
    Inhibitory Neurotransmitters: Chemicals Released From the Terminal Buttons of a Neuron That Inhibit (Prevent) the Next Neuron Into Firing 36:36 
   Review 37:24 
    Neural Parts -- Direction of Signal 37:30 
    Action Potential 38:15 
    Neurotransmitters 38:40 
  Behavioral Genetics, Evolutionary Psychology, & Behavior 36:10
   Intro 0:00 
   Behavioral Genetics 0:11 
    Objective: Discuss Psychology's Abiding Interest in How Heredity, Environment, and Evolution Work Together to Shape Behavior 0:16 
    What Influences do our Genetics Have on Our Behavior, Both as an Individual, as Well as in Groups? 0:24 
   Nature Versus Nurture 0:34 
    Nature Refers to Heredity, a Person's Biological Makeup 0:38 
    Nurture Refers to the Environment, a Person's Life Experiences, Family and Education 0:45 
   Heredity 0:58 
    Developmental Psychology: The Study of Progressive Changes in Behavior and Abilities 1:01 
    Heredity (Nature): Transmission of Physical and Psychological Characteristics From Parents to Their Children Through Genes 1:15 
    DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid): Molecular Structure Shaped Like a Double Helix That Contains Coded Genetic Information 1:25 
    Genome: The Entirety of an Organism's Hereditary Information (Includes Info Coded in DNA or RNA) 1:49 
   Genes 2:17 
    Genes: Specific Areas on a Strand of DNA That Carry Hereditary Information 2:23 
   Genetic Makeup 2:46 
    DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid) is the Means by Which Heredity Characteristics Pass From One Generation to the Next 2:49 
    Fraternal Twins are Dizygotic Twins That Develop From the Union of Two Separate Sperms and Eggs 3:06 
    Identical Twins are Monozygotic Twins That Develop From the Union of the Same Egg and Sperm That Have Split and Have Exactly the Same Genotype (May Have the Same Genes, But Not Necessarily the Same Number of Copies of Those Genes) 3:28 
   Genetic Building Blocks 4:13 
    The Human Body Contains 100 Trillion Cells 4:16 
    There is a Nucleus Inside Each Human Cell (Except Red Blood Cells) 4:27 
    Each Nucleus Contains 46 Chromosomes, Arranged in 23 Pairs 4:34 
    One Chromosome of Every Pair is From Each Parent 4:49 
    The Chromosomes are Filled With Tightly Coiled Strands of DNA. 4:53 
    Genes are Segments of DNA That Contain Instructions to Make Proteins -- The Building Blocks of Life 4:59 
   Chromosomes 5:08 
    Picture of What is Inside a Chromosome 5:10 
   DNA 5:47 
    Linked Molecules (Organic Bases) Make Up the Rungs on DNA's Twisted Molecular Ladder. The Order of These Molecules Serves as a Code for Genetic Information 5:49 
    The Code Provides a Genetic Blueprint That is Unique for Each Individual (Except Identical Twins). The Drawing Shows Only a Small Section of a DNA Strand. An Entire Strand of DNA is Composed of Billions of Smaller Molecules 6:04 
    The Nucleus of Each Cell in the Body Contains Chromosomes Made up of Tightly Wound Coils of DNA. 6:25 
    Don't be Misled By the Drawing: Chromosomes are Microscopic in Size, and the Chemical Molecules That Make Up DNA are Even Smaller 6:41 
   Gene Patterns: Eye Color 7:01 
    Dominant and Recessive Traits 7:09 
    Gene Patterns for Children of Brown-Eyed Parents, Where Each Parent has One Brown-Eye Gene and One Blue-Eye Gene 7:12 
    Because the Brown Eye Gene is Dominant, One out of Every Four Children Will Be Blue-Eyed 7:22 
    There is a Significant Chance That Two Brown-Eyed Parents Will Have a Blue-Eyed Child 7:29 
   Dominant Recessive 7:43 
    Graphic Depicting All the Eye Color Combinations a Brown-Eyed Mother and Brown-Eyed Father Could Have 7:44 
   Temperament and Environment 9:53 
    Temperament: The Physical Core of Personality; Includes Sensitivity, Irritability, Distractibility, and Typical Mood 9:56 
    Easy Children: 40% Relaxed and Agreeable 10:09 
    Difficult Children: 10% Moody, Intense, Easily Angered 10:26 
    Slow-to-Warm-Up Children: 15% Restrained, Unexpressive, Shy 10:38 
    Remaining Children: Do Not Fit Into Any Specific Category 10:55 
   Environment 11:09 
    Environment (Nurture): All External Conditions That Affect a Person, Especially the Effects of Learning; the World Around a Person. 11:14 
    Sensitive Periods: A Period of Increased Sensitivity to Environmental Influences; Also a Time When Certain Events Must Occur for Normal Development to Take Place 11:27 
   Prenatal Issues 13:10 
    Congenital Problem: A Problem or Defect That Occurs During Prenatal Development; Birth Defect 13:14 
    Genetic Disorder: Problem Caused by Inherited Characteristics From Parents; e.g. Cystic Fibrosis, Neurofibromatosis 13:23 
    Website Link to Information on Genetic Disorders 13:56 
   Twin and Adoption Studies 14:14 
    Some Research Conclusions 14:19 
    Shared Genes Can Also Mean a Shared Experience -- Most, Not All, Identical Twins Share Placentas 14:25 
    A Person Whose Identical Twin Has Alzheimer's Has a 60% Chance of Getting It; Fraternal Twin, Only 30%. 14:44 
    On Extraversion and Neuroticism (Emotional Stability), Identical Twins are More Alike Than Fraternal Twins 14:58 
    Divorce -- If Fraternal Twin Divorced, Your Odds Increase 1.6 Times; If Identical Twin Divorced, Odds Go Up 5.5 Times 15:24 
   The Jim Twins 16:03 
    Separated at Birth -- Reconnected After 38 Years 16:09 
    Both Named Jim (Lewis and Springer) 16:13 
    Both Liked Woodworking, Driving their Chevy Cars, Watching Stock-Car Races, and Drinking Miller Lite. 16:19 
    Both Had Nearly Identical Voices 16:28 
    Personalities, Intelligence, Heart Rates and Brain Waves -- Nearly Identical 16:35 
    It Would Seem Genes Had a Profound Impact on Personality -- But the Question Remains to This Day -- Just How Much? 16:40 
    But This is Anecdote, What About Real Data? 16:52 
   Big Conclusion 17:00 
    The Environment Shared By A Family's Children Has Virtually No Identifiable Impact on Personalities of Children 17:04 
    But Why? Geneticists Are Working on It. 17:12 
    But What About Family Life? 17:47 
    So, The Question For You -- Would You Be the Same Person if You Had Been Raised in a Different Family or Culture? 17:56 
   Heritability 18:32 
    The Proportion of Variation Among Members of a Group That We Can Attribute to Genes 18:40 
    So This Compares, Within Populations, Genotypes (Genetic Makeup) and Phenotypes (The Outward, Physical Manifestation of the Organism) on Specific Traits 19:14 
    This Difference Involves Mathematics and Analysis That is Far Beyond This Course -- Take AP Bio or Genetics for Mendelian Genetics 19:34 
   Heritability 20:00 
    It is Not Behaviors That Are Inherited, But Genetic Predispositions That May Lead to the Behavior 20:03 
    Heritable Differences Between Individuals Does Not Imply Heritable Group Differences 21:23 
   Genes and Interaction 21:43 
    Interaction: The Interplay When the Effect of One Factor (Such as Environment) Depends on Another Factor (Such as Heredity) 21:47 
    Genes and Environment Work Together (Like Two Hands Clapping). Genes Code for Proteins But Also Respond to Environments 21:55 
    Example: Happy Baby Draws in More Adults Who Respond to the Happiness With Warmth of Their Own -- This Can Become a Cycle, With the Happy Baby Becoming More Outgoing and Socially Confident 22:39 
    This Kind of Interaction Can Be Applied to Virtually Any Trait, Especially Anxiety and Depression 23:17 
   Natural Selection and Adaptation 24:20 
    Only the Strong Survive is a Myth -- It's the Ones With the Most Adaptive Traits For Their Environment 24:25 
    Evolutionary Psychology: The Study of the Evolution of Behavior and the Mind, Using Principles of Natural Selection 24:42 
    Natural Selection: The Principle That, Among the Range of Inherited Trait Variations, Those That Lead to Increased Reproduction and Survival Will Most Likely Be Passed on to Succeeding Generations 24:55 
    Mutation: The Random Error in Gene Replication That Leads to Change 25:35 
   Evolutionary Psychology 25:50 
    Evolutionary Success Helps Explain Similarities Among People 25:54 
    However, We Have Some Outdated Tendencies -- Some Genetic Traits That Were Previously Helpful May Harm Us Today 26:42 
   Evolutionary Psychology, Continued 28:07 
    Examines Psychological Traits Such as Memory, Perception and Language Using Modern Evolutionary Perspective 28:10 
    Which Human Psychological Traits Are Evolved Adaptations -- That is, The Products of Natural or Sexual Selection? 28:18 
    Examples Could Include an Ability to Infer Emotions of Others, Discern Kin From Non-Kin, Identify and Prefer Healthier Mates, and Cooperate With Others 28:27 
   Sexual Adaptations 29:47 
    Both Men and Women Looking For Signs of a Healthy Potential Mate 29:50 
   Criticisms of Evolutionary Psychology 31:47 
    Looks at Modern Traits and Looks Backward to Propose an Explanation (Similar Criticism of Freud) 31:50 
    What About the Social Implications? What Does it Mean for Our Desire to Reduce Prejudice and Discrimination? What About Our Moral Responsibilities? 32:13 
    What About Cultural Differences That Seem to Work Against Evolutionary Explanations? 33:19 
   David Myers 33:50 
    One Quote of His I've Been Using for Years: Everything Psychological is Simultaneously Biological. 33:57 
   Review 34:39 
    What Are Genes and How Do Behavior Geneticists Explain Our Individual Differences? 34:43 
    What Is Heritability, and How Does it Relate to Individuals and Groups? 34:50 
    How Do Evolutionary Psychologists Use Natural Selection to Explain Behavior Tendencies? 35:02 
    How Might an Evolutionary Psychologist Explain Gender Differences in Sexuality and Mating Preferences? 35:09 

Section 4: Senses and Perception

  Thresholds & Signal Detection Theory 54:03
   Intro 0:00 
   Sensation and Perception (6-8%) 0:09 
    Everything That Organisms Know About the World is First Encountered When Stimuli in the Environment Activate Sensory Organs, Initiating Awareness of the External World. 0:26 
    Perception Involves the Interpretation of the Sensory Outputs as a Cognitive Process 0:36 
    Discuss Basic Principles of Sensory Transduction, Including Absolute Threshold, Difference Threshold, Signal Detection and Sensory Adaptation. 0:42 
    Discuss How Experience and Culture can Influence Perceptual Processes (e.g. Perceptual Set, Context Effects) 0:53 
   General Properties of Sensory Systems 1:16 
    Data Reduction System: Any System That Selects, Analyzes, and Condenses Information 1:20 
    Perceptual Features: Basic Stimulus Patterns 1:57 
    Sensory Coding: Converting Important Features of the World Into Neural Messages Understood by the Brain 2:02 
   Sensation and Perception 2:12 
    Sensation: Information Arriving From Sense Organs (Eye, Ear, Etc.) 2:15 
    Perception: Mental Process of Organizing Sensations Into Meaningful Patterns 2:32 
   Terms 2:58 
    Psychophysics 3:02 
    Sensory Transduction 3:04 
    Absolute Threshold 3:05 
    Difference Threshold 3:06 
    Signal Detection 3:08 
    Sensory Adaptation 3:09 
    Bottom-Up Processing 3:10 
    Top-Down Processing 3:11 
    Weber's Law 3:13 
   Psychophysics 3:22 
    The Study of the Relationships Between the Physical Characteristics of Stimuli, Such as Their Intensity, and Our Psychological Experience of Them 3:24 
   Ernst Weber 4:24 
    A Founder of Modern Experimental Psych 4:30 
    Influenced Psychophysics 4:34 
    Studied Weight Perception and How There was a Proportional Relationship Between Increase of Magnitude of Weight and Ability to Make the Discrimination Between the Weights(Fechner Later Called it Weber's Law) 4:36 
    Weber-Fechner Law -- Ratio of Intensity to Have a Just Noticeable Difference (JND) 5:51 
    Studied Absolute Thresholds -- Our Awareness of Faint Stimuli 6:13 
   Gustav Fechner 6:29 
    Influenced Modern Experimental Psych 6:31 
    Founder of Psychophysics 6:34 
    Studied Absolute Thresholds -- Our Awareness of Faint Stimuli 6:36 
    Illustrated the Non-Linear Relationship Between Psychological Sensation and Physical Intensity of a Stimulus 6:43 
    Weber-Fechner Law -- Ratio of Intensity to Have a Just Noticeable Difference 7:19 
   Sensory Transduction 7:32 
    Conversion of One Form of Energy Into Another. In Sensation, The Transforming of Stimulus Energies, Such as Sights, Sounds, and Smells Into Neural Impulses Our Brains Can Interpret. 7:40 
   Absolute Threshold 8:22 
    The Minimum Stimulation Necessary to Detect a Particular Stimulus 50% of the Time 8:26 
    Exploited by Students Who May Use the Mosquito Ringtone to Evade Phone Use in Class 8:44 
    Vision -- Candle Flame Seen at 30 Miles on a Clear Dark Night 9:20 
    Hearing -- Tick of a Watch Under Quiet Conditions at 20 Feet (The Buzz of the Fluorescent Lights in a Quiet Room) 9:51 
    Taste -- One Teaspoon Sugar in 2 Gallons of Water 10:28 
    Smell -- One Drop Perfume Diffused Into a Three-Room Apartment 10:42 
    Touch -- A Bee's Wing Falling On Your Cheek from One Centimeter Above. 10:57 
   Difference Threshold 11:11 
    The Minimum Difference Between Two Stimuli Required for Detection. We Experience the Difference Threshold as a Just Noticeable Difference (JND). 11:14 
    The Detectable Difference Increases With the Magnitude -- is Done in a Constant Proportion 11:32 
    E.g. You Will Notice is One Ounce is Added to a 10 Ounce Weight, But Not if One Ounce is Added to a 100-Ounce Weight 11:38 
    Volume on the Television 12:11 
   Weber's Law 12:40 
    The Principle That, to be Perceived as Different, Stimuli Must Differ by a Constant Percentage (Rather Than a Constant Amount) 12:43 
    The Amount of Change Needed to Produce a Constant JND is a Constant Proportion of the Original Stimulus Intensity 12:56 
   Signal Detection 13:21 
    A Theory Predicting How and When We Detect the Presence of a Faint Stimulus (Signal) Amid Background Stimulation (Noise). 13:27 
    Assumes There is no Absolute Threshold and that Detection Depends Partly on a Person's Experience, Expectations, Motivation, and Alertness 13:38 
    Separating the Music From the Noise or the Signal From the Noise 13:53 
    Important Info Versus Background and Irrelevant 14:04 
   Sensory Adaptation 15:47 
    AKA Neural Adaptation 15:54 
    Neural or Sensory Receptors Change/Reduce Their Sensitivity to a Continuous, Unchanging Stimuli 16:04 
    This Occurs in the Brain at an Unconscious Level 16:11 
    E.g. The Smell of Your Own Car or Home 16:22 
    E.g. Adapting to Hot or Cold Water After a Brief Time in It. 17:12 
    E.g. The Eyes Adjusting to a Darker Room -- Rods and Cones Will Fire Differently to Adjust (Cones Take About 10 Minutes, the Rods 30 Minutes to Fully Adapt) 17:39 
    Why Certain Foods Do Not Taste the Same on the 20th Bite as They Did on the First 18:24 
    In Economics, This is Diminishing Marginal Utility 19:05 
    NOT The Same as Habituation (We Will Go Over That Later) 19:31 
   Top-Down Processing 19:42 
    Information Processing Guided by Higher-Level Mental Processes, as When We Construct Perceptions Drawing on Our Experience and Expectations 19:45 
    People Look at the Big Picture, the Whole, Try to Find Patterns to Make Meaning and Then Examine the Details (We Use Background Knowledge to Fill Gaps) 20:03 
    The Stroop Effect Was One Experiment That Dealt With This 20:18 
    Deductive Reasoning 21:54 
    Even Though the Second Letter in Each Word is Ambiguous, T-D Processing Allows for Context to Clarify For Us 22:03 
   Bottom-Up Processing (AKA Feature Analysis) 22:47 
    Analysis That Begins With the Sensory Receptors And Works Up to the Brain's Integration of Sensory Information 22:55 
    Works From the Details and Moves Out to the Whole Picture 23:06 
    Inductive Reasoning -- Going From the Examples First and Working One's Way Out to the General Propositions -- Uses Probabilities Based Upon Specific Observations 23:17 
    Based Upon Current Knowledge, So Potentially Biased (e.g. Confirmation Bias, Availability Heuristic, Illusory Correlation) 23:39 
    e.g. Since 100% of Bio Life Forms Depend on Liquid Water to Exist, if We Were to Discover a New Bio Form, It Will Probably Depend on Liquid Water to Exist 24:46 
    Man With Prosopagnosia 25:20 
   Sensation Chart Overview 27:06 
    Chart Looks at Sense, Stimulus, Sense Organ, Receptor, and Sensation 27:08 
   David Hubel and Torsten Wiesel 29:42 
    Nobel Prize with Wiesel and Sperry 29:49 
    Microelectrode in Cat Brain -- When Would Neurons Fire When Cat Presented With Simple Lines 30:05 
    Worked on Visual System Neurons and Processing Certain Neurons Responded Only to Certain Lines -- Simple Cells 30:36 
    Other Cells Detected Motion -- Complex Cells 30:52 
    Cats and Restricting Visual System 31:22 
    Showed How the Visual System Built an Image From Simple Stimuli by Combining Them Into More Complex Formats 31:25 
    Big Idea Here is Feature Detectors -- Certain Brain Cells Pick Up Certain Kinds of Visual Stimulation -- Vertical Lines, Curves. Motion, Etc. 31:01 
   Perceptual Set 31:51 
    A Mental Disposition to Perceive One Thing and Not Another 32:03 
    This Goes Back to the Simon and Garfunkel Song 32:12 
    We See What We Want to See 32:25 
    E.g. Friendliness Is Mistaken for Flirting if We Find The Other Person Attractive 32:34 
   Perceptual Set 34:29 
    Is This a Cloud or a Flying Saucer? 34:32 
   Perceptual Set -- Culture and Context Effects 35:34 
    Magic -- Creates Certain Expectations and Uses Movements to Distract the Eye 35:38 
    I am 6'3 -- When I'm Standing Next to 4th Graders, I Appear to be Huge. If at an NBA Game, I Look Pretty Small 36:13 
    Our Moods and Circumstances Can Create Some Top-Down Processing Errors -- Have You Ever Been in a Bad Mood and Thought Someone Slammed You But They Really Said Something Else? 37:08 
    Walter Cronkite Was Sailing Into a Port and Thought the Crowd was Saying Hello Walter Repeatedly. The Reality Was Low Water 37:33 
    Cultures -- Not All Cultures Perceive the Same Stimuli Equally -- Shaping Stereotypes, Directing Our Attention, and Telling Us What Is Important to Notice 38:04 
   Perceptual Set -- Culture and Context Effects 38:53 
    James Burke, an Historian, Had a Great Segment in The Day The Universe Changed -- We All See Our Own Witches -- We Change our Perceptions to Make it Fit the Reality of What We Think It Should Be 38:58 
    Rural Africans in One Study Live in an Environment Without Right Angles -- They Were Less Likely to Fall For the Muller-Lyer Illusion 40:47 
   Basic Illusions -- Muller-Lyer 41:12 
    Which of These Three Lines is Longer? (They are All The Same Length) 41:14 
   Basic Illusions -- Poggendorf 42:22 
    Is There One Straight Line or Two Line Segments on Each Side? 42:27 
   Basic Illusions -- Ponzo 43:19 
    Which Line Appears Longer? The one In Between Tracks or the One Lying Across It? 43:23 
   Basic Illusions -- Hermann Grid 44:06 
    The Appearance of White and Black Dots Moving Between Each Gray Line's Intersection 44:10 
   Attention 45:04 
    Selective Attention -- The Focusing of Conscious Awareness on a Particular Stimulus 45:10 
    Inattentional Blindness -- Failing to See Visible Objects When Our Attention is Directed Elsewhere 46:56 
    Change Blindness -- Failing to Notice Changes in the Environment 47:50 
   Perceptual Defense and Subliminal Perception 49:26 
    Subliminal Perception: Perception of a Stimulus Below the Threshold for Conscious Recognition 49:32 
   Review 51:26 
    What's the Difference Between Sensation and Perception? 51:29 
    What Process Does the Brain Have of Converting Wave Signals into Electrical Signals? 51:42 
    Science of Physical Properties and Human Perceptions is Called…? 52:08 
    Describe Absolute Threshold, Difference Threshold, and Weber's Law 52:27 
    Describe the Impact of Hubel and Weisel 52:58 
    How Do Perceptual Sets Alter Our Views as Compared to Reality? 53:15 
    Do We Really Share the Same Reality? Explain. 53:36 
  Visual Processes 52:22
   Intro 0:00 
   Objectives 0:17 
    Describe Sensory Processes (e.g. Hearing, Vision, Touch, Taste, Smell, Vestibular, Kinesthesis, Pain), Including the Specific Nature of Energy Transduction, Relevant Anatomical Structures, and Specialized Pathways in the Brain for Each of the Senses 0:20 
   What Can We See? 0:40 
    Do You All See Those Two Large Black Circles? 0:48 
    Our Vision is Actually Upside Down, Blurry, and Riddled With Black Splotches 1:50 
    Our Brain Cleans it Up 2:07 
   Vision 2:12 
    What Can We Really See? 2:14 
    Do We Really See Each Other? 2:16 
    Light Comes to Us in Waves as Part of the Electromagnetic Spectrum (Vision, Hearing, and Touch -- The Energy Senses) 3:22 
    Wavelength (Distance From One Wave Peak to the Next) 3:38 
    Hue (The Color We Experience -- Blue, Green, Red) 4:03 
    Intensity (The Amount of Energy in the Wave -- Measured by Amplitude or Height) 5:10 
   Vision 5:24 
    Graphic of Measurement in Nanometers of Different Kinds of Light and Sound Waves 5:34 
   Wavelengths 10:58 
    Drawing Depicting Short Wavelengths (High Frequency and Bluish Colors) and Long Wavelengths (Low Frequency and Reddish Colors) 11:01 
   Wavelengths 11:20 
    Picture Showing Bright Colors Have a Greater Amplitude than More Dull Colors 11:22 
   Parts of the Eye 11:46 
    Lens: Structure in the Eye That Focuses Light Rays -- When it Does This = Accommodation 11:57 
    Photoreceptors: Light-Sensitive Cells in the Eye -- The Rods and Cones 12:18 
    Retina: Light-Sensitive Layer of Cells in the Back of the Eye 13:08 
    Easily Damaged from Excessive Exposure to Light (Staring at a Solar Eclipse) 13:16 
    Cornea: Transparent Membrane Covering the Front of the Eye; Bends Light Rays Inward 13:45 
   Eye Anatomy 14:45 
    Graphic Showing Location of Parts of the Eye 14:48 
   Anatomy of the Eye 17:47 
    Another View of the Parts of the Eye 17:50 
   The Retina and Photoreceptors 18:52 
    Picture of Photoreceptors 18:54 
   The Eye and Transduction 19:51 
    Light Waves Enter Through the Cornea (Outer Covering of the Eye) 19:55 
    Retina 20:15 
    Blind Spot 20:39 
   The Eye, Continued 21:07 
    Back of the Retina (The Light-Sensitive Inner Surface of the Eye, Containing the Receptor Rods and Cones Plus Layers of Neurons That Begin the Processing of Visual Information.) 21:09 
    Rods/Cones Transduce the Information Into Electrical Signals 21:19 
    Signals Go Through: 21:27 
    Steps of Light -- Cornea, Pupil, Lens, Retina Rods/Cones, Bipolar Cells, Ganglion Cells (Amacrine cells, Horizontal, and Muller cells) 21:37 
   The Eye and Transduction 22:05 
    Graphic Showing Path Light Takes Through the Eye to be Seen 22:07 
   Light Control 22:56 
    Visual Acuity: Sharpness of Visual Perception 22:59 
    Fovea: Area at the Center of the Retina Containing Only Cones -- When Focused Here, See Only Color 24:04 
    Peripheral Vision: Vision at Edges of Visual Field; Side Vision 24:14 
    Tunnel Vision: Loss of Peripheral Vision 27:15 
   Visual Information Processing 28:02 
    Feature Detectors: Nerve Cells in the Brain That Respond to Specific Features of the Stimulus, Such as Shape, Angle, or Movement. 28:08 
    Different Locations in the Brain Have Specialized Functions, e.g. Color, Form, Edge, Motion, Depth, Etc. 28:25 
    Saccade: Reflexive Movement of Eyes From Side to Side so that the Neurons Will Continue Firing and so Fill In Information Due to Blind Spot 30:04 
   Visual Acuity -- Snellen Test 31:55 
    Snellen Test is Another Name for an Eye Chart 31:59 
   Trichromatic Theory 33:46 
    The Trichromatic, or Young-Helmboltz, Theory 33:53 
    Color Vision Theory That Hypothesizes We Have Three Cone Types in the Retina: Red, Green, Blue 34:49 
    Most Researchers Conclude That This Theory Along With the Trichromatic Can Explain Color Vision -- Individually, Each is Lacking 36:11 
   Trichromatic Theory 36:28 
    The Trichromatic, or Young-Helmboltz, Theory 36:40 
    Color Vision Theory That Hypothesizes We Have Three Cone Types in the Retina: Red, Green, Blue 37:02 
   Trichromatic Theory 37:59 
    We See a Specific Color by Comparing Responses From 3 Kinds of Cones, Each Most Sensitive to a Short, Medium, or Long Wavelength of Light 38:02 
    Fewer Short Wavelength Cones (Blue) So We See Red, Yellow, and Green Colors Better 38:53 
    When All 3 Cones Are Equally Active, We See White or Gray 39:04 
    Incomplete Theory, e.g., Can't Explain Negative Color Afterimage 39:20 
   Opponent Process Theory 39:28 
    Color Vision Theory Based on Three Systems: Red or Green, Blue or Yellow, Black or White 39:32 
   Optical Illusion 41:11 
    Demonstration of Opponent Process Theory With Picture of Green, Black, and Yellow American Flag 41:13 
   Continuation of Illusion 42:13 
    Optical Illusion Continued: Staring at Black Dot on Picture on Last Slide Will Produce a Red, White, and Blue Flag on This Slide 42:17 
   Negative Afterimage 42:26 
    Why Did You See an American Flag When You Looked at the White Screen? 42:36 
   Color Vision Deficiency 43:14 
    Inability to Perceive Color Differences 43:23 
   Color Blindness 44:09 
    Inability to Perceive Colors; Lack Cones or Has Malfunctioning Cones 44:12 
    Color Weakness: Inability to Distinguish Some Colors 44:23 
   Ishihara Test 44:38 
    Test for Color Blindness and Color Weakness 44:41 
   Color Blindness 45:20 
    Pictures of Different Apples Viewed By A Trichromatic Color Viewer and One Who is Colorblind 45:22 
   Wiki Color Test 45:54 
    Demonstration of Test 45:57 
   Dark Adaptation 46:20 
    Increased Retinal Sensitivity to Light After Entering the Dark, Similar to Going From Daylight Into a Dark Movie Theater 46:27 
    Rhodopsin: Light-Sensitive Pigment in the Rods; Involved with Night Vision 46:40 
    Night Blindness: Blindness Under Low-Light Conditions; Hazardous for Driving at Night 47:01 
   Dark Adaptation 47:36 
    Graph Showing Length of Time it Takes Cones and Rods to Acclimate to the Dark 47:38 
   Review 49:22 
    What is the Order of Eye Parts That a Light Wave Travels Through Before it Gets to the Optic Nerve? 49:25 
    Describe What Transduction Is 50:01 
    Compare and Contrast (or Differentiate) the Two Theories of Color -- Trichromatic and Opponent-Process Theory 50:12 
    What Makes Someone Colorblind? What Do They See as Compared to Others? 50:29 
    What is the Electromagnetic Spectrum? Why Can We See Only Part of It? 51:05 
  Hearing 29:57
   Intro 0:00 
   Hearing, Taste, Smell, Touch, Body Senses 0:18 
    Describe Sensory Processes, Including the Specific Nature of Energy Transduction, Relevant Anatomical Structures, and Specialized Pathways in the Brain for Each of the Senses 0:22 
   The Senses 0:40 
    Vision 0:46 
    Audition/Auditory 0:49 
    Olfaction/Olfactory 1:05 
    Gustation/Gustatory 1:11 
    Somesthetic/Skin Senses 1:17 
    Vestibular/Balance 1:30 
    Kinesthesis/Kinesthetic 1:34 
    Pain/Ouchies 1:45 
   Hearing 1:52 
    Audition: The Sense or Act of Hearing 1:55 
    Sound Waves: Rhythmic Movement of Air Molecules 2:01 
    Frequency: The Number of Complete Wavelengths That Pass a Point in a Given Time (i.e. Per Second, Measured in Megahertz) 2:41 
    Pitch: Higher or Lower Tone of a Sound: a Tone's Experienced Highness or Lowness; Depends on Frequency 2:54 
    Loudness: Sound Intensity 3:37 
   Hearing: Parts of the Ear 4:01 
    Pinna: External Part of the Ear 4:13 
    Auditory Canal 4:24 
    Tympanic Membrane: Eardrum 4:34 
    Auditory Ossicles: Three Small Bones That Vibrate; Link Eardrum With Cochlea 5:00 
    These Bones Concentrate the Vibrations of the Cardrum on the Cochlea's Oval Window 5:50 
    Transduction Occurs in the Cochlea (In the Cilia of the Basilar Membrane) Where the Signals are Sent to the Auditory Nerve 5:59 
   Ear Anatomy 6:26 
    Diagram of the Ear and Its Parts 6:29 
   Hearing: The Inner Ear 7:44 
    Oval Window 7:46 
    Cochlea: Snail Shaped Organ That Makes Up Inner Ear 7:53 
    Hair Cells (aka Cilia or Stereocilia): Receptor Cells Within Cochlea That Transduce Vibrations Into Nerve Impulses 7:58 
    Basilar Membrane: Inner Surface of Cochlea That Contains the Hair Cells -- Pressure of Fluid Moves the Fibers, Creating the Transduction to the Auditory Nerve 8:13 
    Semicircular Canals 8:49 
    Vestibular Sacs 8:50 
    Auditory Nerve 8:55 
    Auditory Cortex 9:05 
   Theories of Sound/Hearing 9:10 
    How Do We Hear Certain Pitches or Tones 9:14 
    Place Theory Says That Hair Cells in the Cochlea Respond to Different Frequencies of Sound Based Upon Where They Are in the Cochlea 9:19 
    Pitch Theory Indicates That Some Hair Cells Sense the Upper Range and Some Hair Cells Respond to the Lower Range. 10:00 
    Lower Tones are Sensed By the Rate at Which The Cells Fire. We Sense Pitch Because the Hair Cells Fire at Different Rates (Frequencies) in the Cochlea 10:08 
   Auditory Frequencies of Humans 10:29 
    Audible Range of Frequencies is Usually 20-20,000 Hz. 10:43 
    This Means 20 to 20K Vibrations Per Second 11:05 
    One Hertz is One Vibration Per Second 11:11 
    Ultrasound (Higher Frequency) -- We Cannot Perceive -- Beyond Our Upper Limit (e.g. Dog Whistle and Bats With Echolocation) 11:22 
    Infrasound (Lower Frequency) -- We Can Not Perceive 14:44 
    Diagram of Hearing Continuum -- What Humans Can and Can Not Hear 14:50 
   How Do We Detect Higher and Lower Sounds? 17:02 
    Frequency Theory: As Pitch Rises, Nerve Impulses of a Corresponding Frequency Travel Up the Auditory Nerve That Matches the Frequency of the Tone 17:12 
    This Enables Us To Perceive Pitch 17:22 
    Place Theory: Higher and Lower Tones Excite Specific Areas of the Cochlea -- See Previous Graphic 17:26 
    Examples: Singing and Pitch -- The Film Pitch Perfect Singing A Capella 17:35 
    Randy Jackson -- You're Pitchy, Dawg -- Pitch Not Identical to Frequency -- Pitch is Subjective 18:14 
   Decibels and Hearing 20:00 
    140 -- Rock Concert/Fireworks/Jet Takeoff 22:41 
    120 -- Dance Clubs, Chainsaw 21:53 
    110 -- Personal Stereo 21:48 
    100 -- Exercise Class, Video Arcade 21:39 
    90 -- Lawnmower, Most Motorcycles, Crying Child 21:16 
    80 -- Traffic Around Town, Old Style Phone Ring 20:50 
    60 -- Normal Conversation 20:38 
    40 -- Refrigerator, Quiet Living Room, Library 20:11 
   Conduction Deafness 24:23 
    Poor Transfer of Sounds From Tympanic Membrane to Inner Ear 24:29 
   Nerve Deafness 25:19 
    Caused by Damage to Hair Cells or Auditory Nerve 25:22 
    Hearing Aids Useless in These Cases, Since Auditory Messages Cannot Reach the Brain 25:33 
    Cochlear Implant: Electronic Device That Stimulates Auditory Nerves 25:39 
    Picture of Cochlear Implant Being Worn 25:41 
   Preventable Hearing Problems 26:17 
    Stimulation Deafness: Damage Caused by Exposing Hair Cells to Excessively Loud Sounds 26:21 
    e.g. Use of Earbuds, Sound is Too Loud 26:27 
    Natural Aging: Mosquito Ringtone 26:47 
   Review 28:23 
    What Are The Parts of the Ear? 28:26 
    In What Order Do the Sound Waves Go (In Terms of Ear Parts)? 28:28 
    How is Sound Measured? 29:14 
    At What Point is Sound Potentially Dangerous? 29:22 
    Describe the Different Kinds of Hearing Loss -- Conduction and Nerve Deafness 29:36 
  The Other Senses 38:51
   Intro 0:00 
   Smell 0:13 
    Olfaction: Sense of Smell -- A Chemo Sense 0:24 
    Receptors are Located in a Mucous Membrane in the Upper Nasal Cavity (as Many as 100x Kinds of Receptors May Exist) 0:39 
    Olfactory Nerve Fibers Respond to Gaseous Molecules -- Approx. 5 Million in Each Nasal Cavity 1:05 
    Nerve Fibers From the Olf. Bulb Connect to the Brain at the Amygdala, Then to Hippocampus (Connected to Emotions and Memory) 1:33 
    Pheromones: Airborne Chemical Signal 2:53 
    Lock and Key Theory: Odors are Related to Shapes of Chemicals and Molecules 3:21 
    Anosmia: Defective Sense of Smell for a Single Odor 4:14 
   Olfactory System 4:41 
    Picture of What the Olfactory System Looks Like 4:42 
   Olfactory System 5:26 
    Animals and Scent Marking, e.g. Cats and Dogs 5:29 
    Cats Have Special Glands in Their Faces --> Rubbing 6:01 
    Women Tend to be Able to Smell More Accurately Than Men at All Ages 8:14 
    Ability to Smell Peaks From About 30-50 8:26 
    Decline After 50 8:30 
    Think Old Ladies and Perfume 8:35 
    Smells Tend to be Very Evocative of Memories -- Even of Ones Long Past -- From Learned Associations 9:18 
    Malls and Stores -- Will Pump in Certain Smells to Lure You In 10:20 
   Gustation and Taste Buds 11:08 
    Taste-Receptor Cells on Tongue Absorb Chemicals From Food We Eat 11:20 
    Papillae are the Cells on the Tongue -- The More Packed Together The Papillae Are, the More Chemicals Are Absorbed, The More Intense the Taste 11:31 
    Sense of Taste 12:11 
    Taste Works With Smell to Work 14:11 
    As We Age, Sense Gets Weaker 14:15 
   Taste and Survival Functions 14:31 
    Sweet -- A Source of Energy 14:35 
    Salty -- We Need Sodium for Our Basic Physiology 14:54 
    Sour -- Potentially Toxic Acid 15:06 
    Bitter -- Potential Poison 15:14 
    Umami -- Proteins for Growth and Tissue Repair 15:30 
    Dr. Linda Bartushock -- Research on Super-Tasters 15:45 
   The Tongue 17:08 
    Diagram of Tongue and Its Types of Papillae 17:09 
   Sensory Interaction 17:28 
    If You Close Your Eyes and Close Your Nose, Have Someone You Trust Feed You Various Foods 17:36 
    McGurk Effect 18:42 
   Somethetic Senses 19:31 
    Skin Senses (Touch): Light Touch, Pressure, Pain, Cold, Warmth 19:34 
   The Skin 19:41 
    Diagram of Layers of the Parts of the Skin 19:43 
   Vestibular System 20:47 
    Vestibular: Balance, Gravity, and Acceleration of the Head 20:52 
    Kinesthetic: Detect Body Position and Movement (Where is the Body in Space -- Gymnasts, Divers, Dancers, etc.) Procioreceptors 21:01 
    Otolith Organs: Sensitive to Movement, Acceleration, and Gravity 21:47 
    Semicircular Canals: Fluid-Filled Tubes in Ears That are Sensory Organs for Balance 22:10 
    Crista: Float That Detects Movement in Semicircular Canals 23:10 
    Ampulla: A Wider Part of the Canal 23:15 
   Vestibular System and Motion Sickness 23:25 
    Motion Sickness is Directly Related to Vestibular System 23:32 
    Sensory Conflict Theory: Motion Sickness Results From a Mismatch Between Information From Vision, Vestibular System, and Kinesthesis 23:36 
    Medications, Relaxation, and Lying Down Might Help 24:17 
   Pain 24:28 
    Visceral Pain: Pain Originating in Internal Organs 24:38 
    Referred Pain: Pain Felt on Surface of Body, Away from Origin Point 24:50 
    Somatic Pain: Sharp, Bright, Fast; Comes From Skin, Joints, Muscles, Tendons 24:55 
    Phantom Limb: Missing Limb Feels Like It is Present, Like Always Before Amputation or Accident (V.S. Ramachandran's Work Phantoms in the Brain) 25:14 
   Types of Pain 26:51 
    Warning System: Pain Carried by Large Nerve Fibers; Sharp, Bright, Fast Pain That Tells You Body Damage May Be Occurring (e.g. Knife Cut) 26:57 
    Reminding System: Small Nerve Fibers: Slower, Nagging, Aching, Widespread; Gets Worse if Stimulus is Repeated; Reminds System That Body has Been Injured 27:29 
   Gate-Control Theory of Pain 28:16 
    Sensory (Afferent) Receptors That Respond to Damaging Tissue (or Other Noxious Stimuli) Are Pain Receptors or Nociceptors 28:21 
    The More the Neurons Fire, The More Intense the Pain 28:38 
    Theory That Pain Messages From Different Nerve Fibers Pass Through the Same Neural Gate in the Spinal Cord 28:42 
    If Gate is Closed by One Pain Message, Other Messages May Not be Able to Pass Through 28:50 
    Substance P is a Neuropeptide (regulatory) Neurotransmitter -- Along With Other NTs Can Increase Neural Inflammation 29:38 
   Adaptation, Attention, and Sensory Gating 30:22 
    Sensory Adaptation: When Sensory Receptors Respond Less to Unchanging Stimuli 30:28 
    Perceptual Adaptation (Sensory Habituation): One's Perceptions of Senses Depends Upon How Focused We Are on Them 32:03 
   Adaptation, Attention, and Sensory Gating 32:44 
    Selective Attention: Voluntarily Focusing on a Specific Sensory Input 32:46 
    Sensory Gating: Facilitating or Blocking Sensory Messages in the Spinal Cord 34:17 
   Controlling Pain 34:32 
    Fear, or High Levels of Anxiety, Almost Always Increase Pain 34:35 
    If You Can Regulate a Painful Stimulus, You Have Control Over It 34:46 
    Distraction Can Also Significantly Reduce Pain 35:07 
    The Interpretation You Give A Stimulus Also Affects Pain 35:22 
    Beta-endorphins -- Natural Pain Chemical Similar to Morphine (Endogenous Opioid Peptides) 35:55 
    e.g. Runner's High 36:34 
   Review 37:33 
    How Do We Taste and Smell? What Parts of the Head and Brain are Involved? 37:36 
    What Does the Term Chemoreceptors Mean? 37:53 
    What are the Senses That We Have? Go Beyond the Main Five 38:00 
    Describe Different Kinds of Pain 38:26 
    What is Sensory Adaptation? Give at Least Two Examples 38:30 
  Perception, Part 1 23:59
   Intro 0:00 
   Objectives 0:57 
    Describe General Principles of Organizing and Integrating Sensation to Promote Stable Awareness of the External World (e.g., Gestalt Principles, Depth Perception). 1:01 
    Discuss How Experience and Culture Can Influence Perceptual Processes (e.g., Perceptual Set, Context Effects). 1:15 
   Gestalt 1:25 
    Cognitive Viewpoint 1:35 
    German Word Meaning Pattern or Whole 1:37 
    Gestalt Psychologists Emphasized Our Tendency to Integrate Pieces of Information Into Meaningful Wholes 1:53 
   Form Perception: Figure and Ground 4:54 
    Two Pictures: Two Profiles or One Vase? 5:15 
   Form Perception: Figure and Ground 6:39 
    Two Pictures: Profile of Old Woman or Young Girl With Head Turned Away? 6:43 
   Form Perception 8:18 
    Grouping (Proximity) 8:32 
    Diagram: Six Rows or Three Sets of Two Columns? 8:37 
   Form Perception 9:25 
    Grouping (Similarity) 9:27 
   Form Perception 9:54 
    Grouping (Continuity) 10:00 
   Form Perception 10:37 
    Grouping (Connectedness) 10:42 
   Form Perception 11:09 
    Grouping (Closure) 11:12 
   Depth Perception 12:36 
    The Ability to See Objects in Three Dimensions Although The Images That Strike the Retina are Two Dimensional; Allows Us To Judge Distance 12:58 
    How and When Do We Perceive That? 13:10 
    Visual Cliff 13:13 
    A Demonstration That Shows Babies of a Certain Age Do Not Possess Depth Perception 13:26 
    Ability Develops With Age and Needs of Species 14:39 
    Developed by Gibson and Walk 14:56 
   Depth Perception 15:10 
    Binocular Cues 15:14 
   Depth Perception: Monocular Cues 17:32 
    Relative Height 17:52 
    Relative Size 17:53 
    Interposition 17:54 
    Linear Perspective 15:55 
    Relative Motion 15:56 
    Light and Shadow 15:57 
   Depth Perception: Monocular Cues 17:59 
    Relative Height 18:03 
   Depth Perception: Monocular Cues 18:38 
    Relative Size -- In Two-Dimensional Drawings or Paintings You Assume Smaller Things Are Further Away Since They Are Likely Similar Size 18:41 
   Depth Perception: Monocular Cues 19:47 
    Interposition -- If One Object Blocks Our View of Another Object, We Assume That It Is Closer 20:01 
   Depth Perception: Monocular Cues 20:32 
    Linear Perspective -- When Parallel Lines Seem to Converge In the Distance, The More They Converge, the Greater the Distance 20:56 
   Depth Perception: Monocular Cues 21:24 
    Linear Perspective -- Example Two (Train Tracks) 21:27 
   Depth Perception: Monocular Cues 21:55 
    Relative Motion: As We Move, Objects That Are Actually Stable May Appear To Move -- e.g. While Riding in a Car, You May Fix Your Eyes on a House -- The Objects Beyond that Point May Appear to Move With You -- Objects in Front of That Object Appear to Move Backward 21:59 
    Increase Distance From the Fixation Point Increases Perceived Speed 22:37 
   Review 22:52 
    Describe at Least Three Gestalt Principles That Impact Our Perceptions 22:55 
    Describe at Least Three Monocular Cues That Allow People to See Depth 23:01 
    Describe The Primary Binocular Cue 23:07 
  Perception, Part 2 28:07
   Intro 0:00 
   Motion Perception 0:12 
    Stroboscopic Movement -- In the Case of Motion Pictures -- 24 fps -- a Series of Still Photos Creating The Illusion of Movement 0:18 
    Phi Phenomenon -- An Illusion of Movement Created When Two or More Adjacent Lights Blink On and Off in Quick Succession (Think a Movie Marquee or Lights on the Vegas Strip) 2:17 
   Perceptual Constancy 3:04 
    Perceiving Objects as Unchanging (Having Consistent Shapes, Sizes, Lightness, and Color) Even as Illumination and Retinal Images Change 3:11 
   Color Constancy 3:33 
    Perceiving Familiar Objects as Having Consistent Color, Even if Changing Illumination Alters the Wavelengths Reflected by the Object 3:46 
    (Picture of Balloon, Part of Which is in Direct Light and Appears to Be a Different Color) 3:57 
   Shape Constancy 4:35 
    Although Our Viewing Angle May Change or the Object May Rotate, We Still See the Object as Staying the Same Shape 4:39 
    e.g. When We See a Door -- Closed, Partially Open, Mostly Open -- From the Same Angle 4:50 
   The Ames Room and Forced Perspective 5:37 
    Diagram Showing Example of Ames Room and Forced Perspective 5:47 
   Illusions 7:47 
    Mega Site 8:07 
    Animated Necker Cube 8:23 
    Dogfeathers 9:20 
    Table Illusion 9:32 
    Spiral Illusion 10:01 
    Hollow Face Illusion 11:10 
   Impossible Figure: Blivet 12:11 
    Where Does the Middle Prong Start? (Top-Down Processing) 12:18 
   Top-Down Processing and Illusions 13:40 
    So Why Do We See These Illusions? 13:44 
    Most of the Examples of Illusions We've Seen are From Top-Down Processing 13:48 
    Examples -- Figure Ground (Vase-Face), Old Woman-Young Woman, Ambiguous Figures, Seeing Patterns Where There is Randomness 13:52 
    Seeing Impossible Figures -- Our Brain Sees 2-D But Interprets the Visual as 3-D 14:33 
    Vertical v Horizontal Stripes Making a Person Look Thinner or Thicker 15:22 
    The Moon Raching Through the Clouds as We Are Driving 16:25 
   Extrasensory Perception (ESP) 16:52 
    The Highly Controversial Claim That Perception Can Occur Apart From Sensory Input; Includes Telepathy, Clairvoyance, and Precognition 17:06 
    Parapsychology 17:49 
    Ultimately -- What is the Evidence? 18:02 
    James Randi (The Amazing Randi and JREF $1M) 18:18 
    Skeptical Inquirer (Michael Schermer) 19:54 
   Review 21:33 
    Take One Constancy and Illustrate How It Alters What We View Things That May Appear to be Something They Are Not 21:38 
    Connect the Ideas of Perception and Schema and How They Interact 22:03 

Section 5: States of Consciousness

  States of Consciousness 48:07
   Intro 0:00 
   States of Consciousness (2-4%) 0:12 
    Sleep and Dreaming 0:32 
    Hypnosis 0:33 
    Psychoactive Drug Effects 0:35 
   Overview and Objectives 0:38 
    Understanding Consciousness and What it Encompasses is Critical to an Appreciation of What is Meant by a Given State of Consciousness 0:40 
    Objectives 0:58 
   Objectives, Continued 1:16 
    Describe Historic and Contemporary Uses of Hypnosis (e.g. Pain Control, Psychotherapy). 1:18 
    Explain Hypnotic Phenomena (e.g., Suggestibility, Dissociation). 1:23 
    Identify the Major Figures in Consciousness Research (e.g. William James, Sigmund Freud, Ernest Hilgard). 1:26 
   States of Consciousness 1:39 
    What is Consciousness? 1:41 
   States of Consciousness 2:50 
    Philosophical Discussion on the Nature of Consciousness 2:52 
   Levels of Consciousness 4:03 
    Conscious Level 4:07 
    All the Sensations, Perceptions, Memories and Feelings You Are Aware of at Any Instant 4:12 
    Nonconscious Level 4:42 
    Preconscious Level 5:26 
    Subconscious Level 5:45 
    Unconscious 6:22 
   Consciousness 6:36 
    Chart Describing the Various States of Consciousness, Which Can Occur Spontaneously, Be Physiologically Induced, or Psychologically Induced 6:38 
   Biological Rhythms -- Circadian Rhythms 8:20 
    Circadian Rhythms 8:36 
   Biological Rhythms -- Infradian Rhythms 10:35 
    Rhythm With a Period Longer Than a Circadian Rhythm With a Frequency Less Than One Cycle in 28 Days 10:40 
   Biological Rhythms -- Ultradian Rhythms 11:50 
    Recurrent Periods or Cycles Repeated Throughout a Circadian Rhythm Multiple Times Per Day 11:54 
   Sleep and Dreams 12:42 
    Characteristics of Sleep 12:53 
   Measuring Sleep Changes 15:29 
    Electroencephalograph (EEG): Brain-Wave Machine Amplifies and Records Electrical Activity in the Brain 15:31 
    Beta Waves: Small Fast Waves Associated With Alertness and Awakeness 15:45 
    Alpha Waves: Large, Slow Waves Associated With Relaxation and Falling Asleep 15:53 
   Stages of Sleep 16:24 
    Awake -- Alpha (Getting Relaxed) 16:26 
    Stage Zero 16:32 
    Stage One 26:33 
   Stages of Sleep 18:00 
    Stage Two 18:02 
    Stage Three 18:17 
    Stage Four 18:50 
   REM (Rapid Eye Movement) Sleep 19:09 
    Active Sleep: REM (Rapid Eye Movement) 19:16 
   Non-REM or NREM Sleep 21:56 
    Occurs During Stages One, Two, Three, and Four; No Rapid Eye Movement Occurs 22:00 
    90 Percent of Sleep Here is Dream-Free 22:05 
    Seems to Help Us Recover From Daily Fatigue 22:08 
   Sleep Stages 22:19 
    Graphic of Hypnogram, Which Measures a Sleeping Person's Brain Waves 22:21 
   REM 23:17 
    Good Band 23:21 
    Rapid Eye Movement 23:23 
    Occurs at Second Descent 23:24 
    Function is Somewhat Mysterious 23:27 
    REM Sleep Function vs. NREM Sleep Function 23:51 
   Why We Sleep 24:01 
    Sleep Theories 24:04 
   Sleep Over Time 24:25 
    Infants -- 16 Hours of Sleep Per Day, Half REM 24:27 
    Five to 13 Year-Olds -- 10 Hours Sleep Per Day, 2+ Hours REM 24:36 
    Twenty Year-Olds -- 7.5 Hours Sleep Per Day, 2 Hours REM 24:42 
    Fifty+ -- Typically Six Hours Per Day, Less Than 2 Hours REM 24:49 
    We Need Less Sleep as We Get Older 24:58 
   Sleep Issues 25:25 
    Variations in Sleeping Patterns 25:27 
    Cultural Influences 25:37 
    Sleep Debt -- Effects of Sleep Loss -- Need an Alarm to Wake Up; Struggle to Get Out of Bed, Feeling Tired and Irritable, Difficulty Concentrating and Remembering, Slow Thinking and Problem Solving, Sleepy When Not Moving (Lectures, TV, Riding in Cars), etc. 26:38 
    Sleepwalking (Somnambulism): Occurs in NREM Sleep During Stages 3 and 4. 28:00 
    Sleeptalking: Speaking While Asleep; Occurs in NREM Sleep 28:33 
   Shift Work and Sleep Deprivation 28:42 
    What Is Sleep Debt and What Symptoms Does it Have? 29:46 
    How Does Shift Work Disrupt People's Sleep Habits? 29:59 
    What Are Good Sleep Habits? 30:05 
    Restaurants and How to Get Rid of an Employee 30:23 
   Theories of Dreaming 31:48 
    Dreaming -- The Experience of Envisioned Images, Sounds, and Other Sensations During Sleep 31:58 
    Sigmund Freud/Psychodynamic Theory 32:13 
    Activation-Synthesis Theory 33:59 
    Problem Solving/Information Processing Theory 35:03 
    Physiological Function Theory 35:24 
   Sleep Disorders 36:09 
    Insomnia -- Temporary and Chronic 36:15 
    Narcolepsy -- May Include Cataplexy 36:29 
    Sleep Apnea 37:11 
    Parasomnias 39:22 
   Hypnosis (Framz Mesmer) 40:38 
    An Altered State of Consciousness In Which a Person is Highly Suggestible 41:00 
    What Hypnosis Can Do: 41:30 
   Theories of Hypnosis 43:11 
    Social Influence Theory (Role Theory) 43:14 
   Theories of Hypnosis 44:15 
    Divided Consciousness Theory (Dissociation Theory) 44:17 
   Review 46:28 
    Distinguish Among Circadian, Infradian and Ultradian Rhythms. 46:31 
    Give an Example of Each of the Above 46:38 
    Describe the Difference Between REM and NREM Sleep 46:41 
    What are Two Common Sleep Disorders and Their Likely Causes? 46:47 
    Compare the Different Theories of Dreaming -- Which Makes the Most Sense from a Scientific Point of View? 46:55 
    What are the Best and Worst Uses For Hypnosis? 47:08 
    Is Hypnosis Widely Accepted Among Psychologists? 47:29 
  States of Consciousness: Drugs 36:21
   Intro 0:00 
   Objectives 0:11 
    Identify the Major Psychoactive Drug Categories (e.g. Depressants, Stimulants) and Classify Specific Drugs, Including Their Psychological and Physiological Effects 0:12 
    Discuss Drug Dependence, Addiction, Tolerance, and Withdrawal 0:25 
   Drugs 0:32 
    Psychoactive Drugs 0:33 
    Physical Dependence/Addiction 1:21 
    Psychological Dependence -- Drugs That Reduce Stress Become and Increasingly Important Part of a User's Life, Often as a Way to Relieve Negative Emotions (Sometimes Called Self-Medication) 3:09 
   Misconceptions About Addiction 3:54 
    Addiction -- Compulsive Drug Craving and Use, Despite Adverse Consequences 3:55 
    Myths 5:05 
   How Drugs Affect the Brain 6:58 
    Psychoactive Drugs Affect Synapses and Neurotransmitters in Three Ways 6:59 
    Tolerance: The Brain Will Produce Less of a Specific Neurotransmitter if it is Being Artificially Supplied by a Psychoactive Drug 7:31 
   Categories of Drugs 8:06 
    Depressants 8:10 
    Hallucinogens 8:20 
    Stimulants 8:31 
   Depressants 9:20 
    Alcohol, Barbiturates, Opiates 9:22 
    Drugs That Reduce Neural Activity and Slow Body Functioning 9:26 
    Includes Alcohol and Sedatives 9:39 
    All Depressants Can Cause Dependence, Tolerance, Withdrawal, and Psychological Addiction 12:19 
   Sedatives 13:10 
    Drugs That Reduce Anxiety or Induce Sleep 13:11 
    Also Called Tranquilizers or Hypnotics 13:20 
    Include Barbiturates (Drugs That Depress the Activity of the Central Nervous System, Reducing Anxiety but Impairing Memory and Judgment e.g. Phenobarbital or Seconal) and Benzodiazepines (Anti-Anxiety Drugs) 13:29 
   Opiates 14:39 
    Drugs That Depress Neural Activity, Temporarily Lessen Pain and Anxiety 14:40 
    Include: Opium, Morphine, Codeine, and Heroin 14:54 
    Strong Sedative and Pain-Relieving Drugs 15:31 
    Work By Preventing Pain Neurons From Firing or Releasing Pain-Signaling Neurotransmitters Into the Synapse, and Increasing Endorphin Levels 15:35 
    Over Time, the Brain Eventually Stops Producing Its Own Endorphins (Endogenous Opioid Peptides) 15:48 
    All Opiates Can Cause Dependence, Tolerance, Withdrawal, and Psychological Addiction 17:44 
   Stimulants 18:02 
    Drugs That Excite Neural Activity and Speed Up Body Functions 18:03 
    Include: Caffeine, Nicotine, Amphetamines, and Cocaine 18:18 
    Provides User With a Sense of Increased Energy, Mental Alertness and Forced Wakefulness 18:52 
    Blocks Neurological Receptor Sites That, If Activated, Sedate the Central Nervous System 19:08 
    All Stimulants Can Cause Dependence, Tolerance, Withdrawal, and Psychological Addiction 19:30 
    Methamphetamines = Super Stimulant 19:55 
   Stimulants -- Cocaine 20:50 
    Sniffed/Snorted, Injected or Smoked -- Gets Into Bloodstream Quickly 20:51 
    Euphoria Created Depletes Brain's Supply of Dopamine, Serotonin, and Norepinephrine 21:00 
    Crack is More Potent Version -- Briefer, More Intense High, a Craving for More 21:40 
    Cocaine is a Reuptake Inhibitor -- This Means it Blocks Neurotransmitters Already in the Synapse 21:52 
    Once Cocaine Level Drops, There is a Crash 22:33 
   Stimulants -- MDMA 22:42 
    Ecstasy, Molly -- Methylenedioxymethamphetamine 22:43 
    First Used in Northern California in Therapists' Offices 23:06 
    Releases Stored Serotonin & Blocks Reabsorption (Reuptake Inhibitor) -- Creates Longer Effect 24:00 
    3-4 Hour Impact 24:16 
    Lower Inhibitions, Increases Pleasant Feelings, and Greater Acceptance of Others Increased Light and Tactile Sensitivity 24:23 
    Dehydrating Effect (Made Worse by Dancing), Overheating, Increased Blood Pressure, and Even Death 25:37 
    Suppresses Immune System, Impairs Memory, and Disrupts Sleep (Part of Serotonin Connection) 26:18 
    Long-term Usage Reduces Serotonin's Creation and a Depressed Mood 26:34 
   Hallucinogens 27:00 
    LSD (Lysergic Acid Diethylamide), PCP, Marijuana (THC) 27:01 
    Drugs That Distort Perceptions and Evoke Sensory Images in the Absence of Sensory Input 27:09 
    Include: LSD and Ecstasy (MDMA) 27:40 
    Sometimes Called Psychedelics 27:53 
    LSD Effects Vary From Person to Person 27:56 
    Many Have a Near Death Type of Experience -- Related to Oxygen Deprivation 28:00 
    Can Cause Physiological Dependence/Tolerance in Some People, But Not Everyone. Can Cause Psychological Dependence 28:07 
   Marijuana 29:41 
    Leaves, Stems, Resin, and Flowers From the Hemp Plant That, When Smoked, Lower Inhibitions and Produce Feelings of Relaxation and Mild Euphoria 29:42 
    THC (Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol) is the Active Ingredient 30:10 
    Disrupts Memory; Lung Damage From Smoke 30:17 
    Can Cause Physiological Dependence/Tolerance in Some People, But Not Everyone. Can Cause Psychological Dependence 30:31 
   Why Do People Use Drugs? 31:36 
    Biological Influences 31:37 
    Psychological Influences 32:22 
    Socio-Cultural Influences 33:31 
   Review 34:35 
    What Are the Major Categories of Psychoactive Drugs? 34:36 
    What Are the Effects of the General Categories of Drugs? 34:47 
    If One Looks for Energy, One Will Likely Take… 34:55 
    If One Looks to Calm Down… 35:06 
    If One Wants to Alter Their Perceptions… 35:12 
    Which Drug is a Mood Enhancer as Well as a CNS Depressant? 35:21 
    Which One is Similar to Endogenous Opioid Peptides? 35:31 
    Distinguish Between Addiction and Dependence 35:51 

Section 6: Learning

  Learning: Intro & Classical Conditioning 33:26
   Intro 0:00 
   Learning (7-9%) 0:19 
    Classical Conditioning 0:38 
    Operant Conditioning 0:40 
    Cognitive Processes 0:42 
    Biological Factors 0:44 
    Social Learning 0:46 
    This Section of the Course Introduces Students to the Differences Between Learned and Unlearned Behavior. The Primary Focus is Exploration of Different Kinds of Learning, Including Classical Conditioning, Operant Conditioning, and Observational Learning. The Biological Bases of Behavior Illustrate Predispositions for Learning. 2:17 
   Objectives 1:15 
    Distinguish General Differences Between Principles of Classical Conditioning, Operant Conditioning, and Observational Learning (e.g. Contingencies). 1:24 
    Describe Basic Classical Conditioning Phenomena, Such as Acquisition, Extinction, Spontaneous Recovery, Generalization, Discrimination, and Higher Order Learning. 1:28 
    Predict the Effects of Operant Conditioning (e.g. Positive Reinforcement, Negative Reinforcement, Punishment, Schedules of Reinforcement). 2:29 
    Predict How Practice, Schedules of Reinforcement, and Motivation Will Influence Quality of Learning. 2:38 
   Objectives, Continued 2:45 
    Describe the Essential Characteristics of Insight Learning, Latent Learning, and Social Learning 2:48 
    Apply Learning Principles to Explain Emotional Learning, Taste Aversion, Superstitious Behavior, and Learned Helplessness 2:53 
    Suggest How Behavior Modification, Biofeedback, Coping Strategies, and Self-Control Can Be Used to Address Behavioral Problems 3:06 
    Identify Key Contributors in the Psychology of Learning (e.g. Albert Bandura, John Garcia, Ivan Pavlov, Robert Rescale, B.F. Skinner, Edward Thorndike, Edward Dolman, John B. Watson) 3:20 
   Learning = Conditioning 3:43 
    Relatively Permanent Change in Behavior 4:02 
    As a Result of Experience 4:07 
    Does NOT Include Instincts, Reflexes, and Maturation 4:11 
    In This Unit, We Will Examine Learning By Association by Consequence and By Observation 4:36 
    Lots of Terms and Relationships to Each Other 4:41 
    Learning is Inferred From a Change in Behavior/Performance 4:59 
    Learning Results in an Inferred Change in Memory 5:09 
   Learning 5:22 
    This Means That Behavior Changes That are Temporary or Due to Things Like Drugs, Alcohol, etc. are NOT Learned 5:29 
   Classical Conditioning 5:46 
    One Type of Learning 6:19 
    Learning That Takes Place When an Originally Neutral Stimulus Comes to Produce a Conditioned Response Because of its Association With an Unconditioned Stimulus. 6:23 
    History: Discovered by Russian Psychologist, Ivan Pavlov. 7:56 
    Studied Dogs and Salivation 8:01 
   Pavlov and Contiguity 8:34 
    Temporal Association Between Two Events That Occur Closely Together in Time. 8:58 
    The More Closely in Time Two Events Occurred, the More Likely They Were to Become Associated; as Time Passes, Association Becomes Less Likely 9:28 
   Terms 10:22 
    Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS or US) -- Any Stimulus That Creates an Autonomic/Automatic/Reflexive Response in an Organism 10:27 
    Unconditioned Response (UCR or UR) -- Response That Occurs Due to Autonomic or Reflective Stimulus 10:52 
    Conditioned Stimulus (CS) -- Anything That Can Be Perceived 11:10 
    Conditioned Response (CR) -- Anything That Can Be a UCR/UR Can Become a CR. For AP Psych, the UR is ALWAYS the Same as the CR 11:26 
   Diagram of Classical Conditioning 11:56 
    Unlearned S-R (Relationship) + (Association Formed/Pairing Made) --> Learned S-R 12:05 
   Pavlov and the Dogs 13:28 
    Same Diagram Using Examples from Pavlov's Research -- Food --> Salivation + Bell rung with food eventually becomes Bell Rung --> Salivation 13:35 
   Watson, Ramer, and Little Albert 16:20 
    Baby Albert -- 8 Months Old 16:38 
    Use of Metal Bar on Metal Bar 17:16 
    Paired Loud Noise With Rat, Rabbit, and More 17:36 
    Questions: 18:26 
   Watson and Little Albert 20:24 
    Unlearned S-R (Relationship) + (Association Formed/Pairing Made) 20:33 
    Loud Sound --> Fear then Rat+ Loud Sound eventually becomes Rat --> Fear 20:38 
   Stimulus Generalization 21:50 
    Little Albert Generalized His Fear of Rats Into Fear of Anything With White Fur, Including a Santa Claus Mask, a Rabbit, etc., 22:45 
   Restaurants, The Flu, and Nausea 23:23 
    Flu (UCS) --> Nausea/Vomiting (UCR) then Jack in the Box + With Flu Eventually Becomes Jack in the Box --> Nausea 23:40 
   Food, Blood Sugar, Hunger, and Time 24:52 
    Needing Food/Having Low Blood Sugar (UCS) --> Hunger (UCR) then Time on Clock or In Class Right Before Lunch --> Associate Class With Hunger Eventually Becomes Time on Clock --> Hunger 25:05 
   Classic Puff of Air and Tone Example 27:46 
    Puff of Air (UCS) --> Blink (UCR) then Tone + Puff of Air Eventually Becomes Tone --> Blink 27:57 
   Trauma (Bomb), Context, and Fear 29:11 
    Bomb Explosion (UCS) --> Fear (UCR) then Art Museum + Bomb Explosion Eventually Becomes Art Museum --> Fear 31:19 
   Review 32:23 
    What is Learning? How is it Different From Taking a Psychoactive Substance? 32:26 
    Describe the Relationship Among the US, the UR, the CS and the CR 32:41 
    What Can Be a Conditioned Stimulus? 32:50 
    What Can Be an Unconditioned Stimulus? 32:58 
    Come Up With Your Own Examples of Classical Conditioning in Your Life -- Label the Parts 33:03 
  Classical Conditioning, Part II 21:57
   Intro 0:00 
   Some More Examples 0:08 
   Romance, Kissing, Arousal, and Onions 0:20 
    Kissing(UCS) --> Arousal (UCR) then Kissing + Onions (CS) --> Eventually Becomes Onions --> Arousal 0:33 
   Beer Ads Example 1:42 
    Beer Ads Often Feature Attractive Young Women Wearing Bikinis. The Goal is to Get Men to Buy the Beer. What are the Parts of the CC Diagram With This Example? 1:45 
   Beer Ads 2:02 
    Attractive Women (UCS) --> Arousal (UCR) then Attractive Women + Beer (CS) --> Eventually Becomes Beer --> Arousal 2:08 
   Crime Example 2:52 
    When a Professor Was in College, He Was Robbed at Gun Point by a Young Man Who Gave Him the Choice (Your Money or Your Life) It was an Unexpected and Frightening Experience 2:55 
    This Event Occurred At Just About Dusk and for a Long Time Thereafter, He Often Experienced Moments of Dread in the Late Afternoons Particularly When He Was Just Walking Around the City 3:05 
    Even Though He Was Quite Safe, The Lengthening Shadows of the Day Were So Strongly Associated With the Dear He Experienced in the Robbery, That He Could Not But Help Feel the Emotion All Over 3:16 
   Label the Crime Experience 4:15 
    Threat (UCS) --> Fear (UCR) then Dusk + Robbery Became Dusk (CS) --> Fear (CR) 4:17 
   Alcoholism 4:56 
    Another Way to Treat Alcoholics is to Have Them Take a Drug Called Antabuse (Disulfiram). If They Ingest Any Alcohol at All, They Will Have Serious Vomiting Issues. The Desire is to Pair the Vomiting With the Alcoholic Drink. 4:58 
    Can You Label the Diagram? 5:19 
   Antabuse Example 6:19 
    Antabuse (UCS) --> Vomiting (UCR) then Alcohol + Antabuse (CS) Eventually Becomes Alcohol --> Vomiting (CR) (But WITHOUT Use of Antabuse) 6:22 
   Photos 7:12 
    Anna Learns to Blink When She Sees Her Father Hold The Camera to His Eye 7:31 
   Anna With the Camera and Flash 9:55 
    Flash (UCS) --> Blink (UCR) then Flash + Camera Eventually Becomes Camera (CS) --> Blink (CR) 10:03 
   Stimulus Generalization and Discrimination 10:21 
    Stimulus Generalization 10:24 
    Applies Learning to Similar Things to What Was Associated 10:27 
    Stimulus Discrimination 10:58 
    Does NOT Apply Learning to Similar Things To What Was Associated -- Responds Only to the Original Association 11:00 
   Glaucoma Test 11:36 
    Opticians and the Puff Machines -- How My Chin Made Me Cry 11:58 
    Air Puff (UCS) --> Eyes Watering (UCR) then Air Puff + Chin Cup Eventually Becomes Chin Cup --> Eyes Watering 13:02 
   Extinction and Spontaneous Recovery 13:33 
    Extinction 13:37 
    A Procedure That Leads to the Gradual Weakening And Eventual Disappearance of the CR. 13:40 
    Involves Repeatedly Presenting the CS Without Pairing it With the UCS. 13:50 
    Spontaneous Recovery 15:09 
    Occurs When a Previously Extinguished CR Reappears After a Period of No Training 15:12 
    Will Often Result From Non-Recognized Factors Not Previously Identified 15:24 
   The (John) Garcia Effect 15:51 
    This is the Conditioned Taste Aversion That is Rapidly Achieved by a Single Pairing of an Illness Such as Nausea With Eating a Specific Food 16:36 
    Originally Discovered While Working With Rats and Studying Radiation Effects -- Initial Exposure to Food Followed by Toxic Reaction (Even if Several Hours Later) Made Rats Averse to Food 17:18 
    Conditioned Animals to Avoid Foods Paired With a Previously Aversive Taste 17:35 
    Conditioning Applied to Tastes But Not to Sights and Sounds 17:44 
    Process Not Traditional CS --> UCS --> CR/UCR Process Since CS Occurred Long Afterward, Not Immediately 17:53 
    Taste Aversion in Chemotherapy Patients is Very Common 18:07 
   Higher Order (Second Order) Conditioning 18:40 
    Starts Off With Traditional Unlearned Stimulus-Response Relationship, With First Association Pairing Made But Then a Second Association is Introduced 18:47 
    Ex: Training Involving a Tone Then Adding Light as Second Association 19:02 
   Review 20:15 
    Describe the Relationship Among the US, the UR, the CS and the CR 20:18 
    What Can Be a Conditioned Stimulus? 20:30 
    What Can Be an Unconditioned Response? 20:50 
    What Can Be an Unconditioned Stimulus? 21:08 
    Come Up With Your Own Examples of Classical Conditioning in Your Life -- Label the Parts 21:18 
  Operant Conditioning, Part I 31:01
   Intro 0:00 
   Operant Conditioning 0:11 
    Predict the Effects of Operant Conditioning (e.g. Positive Reinforcement, Negative Reinforcement, Punishment, Schedules of Reinforcement). 0:16 
    Predict How Practice, Schedules of Reinforcement, And Motivation Will Influence Quality of Learning. 0:28 
   Thorndike and the Law of Effect 1:07 
    Responses That Produce a Satisfying Effect in a Particular Situation Become More Likely to Occur Again in That Situation, and Responses That Produce a Discomforting Effect Become Less Likely to Occur Again In That Situation 1:20 
    In Other Words, When Better Things Happen After We Do Something, We Are More Likely to Do It Again 1:36 
    Connectionism -- Organisms Connect Behaviors to What Occurs After -- Early Form of Behaviorism 1:46 
    Thorndike is Father of Modern Educational Psychology 1:56 
   Thorndike's Puzzle Box 2:35 
    Picture of Puzzle Box and Graph Illustrating The More Trials a Subject Went Through, The Less Time it Took to Solve Puzzle. 2:40 
   Cats, Puzzle Box, and Law of Effect 3:27 
    First Trial in Puzzle Box -- More Likely to Scratch at Bars, Yeowl, Dig at Door, etc. Before Pushing Release Lever 3:29 
    After Many Trials in Box, Cat is More Likely to Push Release Lever First to Escape Box. 3:56 
   B.F. Skinner 4:17 
    Founder of Modern Behavioral Perspective 4:20 
    Operant Conditioning -- An Organism Operates in Its Environment, Exhibiting Behaviors That are Inborn or Learned 4:32 
    Environmental Determinism 5:17 
    Invented the Operant Conditioning Box -- Sometimes Called a Skinner Box -- He Hated That Term 5:28 
    Trained Rats, Birds, and People 5:40 
    So Much Research in This Area -- One of the Most Scientifically Validated Theories/Approaches 5:55 
   Operant Conditioning 6:09 
    A Type of Learning in Which Behavior is Strengthened if Followed by a Reinforcer or Diminished if Followed by a Punisher 6:11 
    What We Are Trying to do is Learn How We Can Modify an Organism's Behavior Using the Most Effective Means Possible. We Use Reinforcement and Punishment. Each Organism Interprets This Differently. 6:27 
    Key Distinction in Terms -- in OC, The Organism EMITS Behavior. In CC, The Behavior is ELICITED (Drawn Out of the Organism) 7:02 
   Skinner's Experiments 7:28 
    Operant Conditioning Chamber (aka Skinner Box) 7:30 
    Diagram of Box and Its Parts, and Rat Inside Box 7:38 
   Terms and Ideas 11:05 
    These Are Labels That Are Put on After Behavior Is Seen 11:11 
   Kinds of Reinforcement & Punishment 12:53 
    Positive and Negative Reinforcement/ Positive and Negative Punishment 13:01 
   Positive Reinforcement 15:46 
    Positive Reinforcement -- Adding a Pleasant Stimulus to Increase a Behavior 15:47 
    e.g. Getting a Hug 15:57 
    e.g. Receiving a Paycheck 16:38 
    e.g. Getting a Great Job! From Coach or Teacher 16:48 
    There was this Goose -- Tale of Reinforcement 17:16 
   Negative Reinforcement 20:05 
    Negative Reinforcement -- Removing an Unpleasant/Aversive Stimulus to Increase a Behavior 20:08 
    e.g. The Buzzing Stops When You Fasten Seat Belt 20:16 
    e.g. You Put on Sunscreen Before Getting in the Sun at the Beach 21:22 
   Punishment 21:38 
    Positive Punishment -- Adding an Unpleasant/Aversive Stimulus to Reduce a Behavior 21:43 
   Punishment 23:26 
    Negative Punishment -- Removing a Pleasant Stimulus to Reduce a Behavior 23:30 
   All Consequences 25:11 
    Most Effective When Immediately Follows a Response AND is Applied Consistently 25:17 
   Review 28:19 
    What is Operant Conditioning and How Does It Differ From Classical Conditioning? 28:22 
    Describe the Law of Effect 28:35 
    Describe the Difference Between Reinforcement and Punishment 28:42 
    How is Positive Punishment Related to Negative Reinforcement? 28:49 
    Examine Your Own Life and Find an Example of Operant Conditioning in Which You Were Conditioned and Another Example in Which You Conditioned Someone Else 30:01 
  Operant Conditioning, Part II 31:22
   Intro 0:00 
   Kinds of Reinforcement & Punishment 0:11 
    Chart Looking at Positive/Negative (Adding or Removing Stimulus And Reinforcement vs. Punishment 0:16 
   Escape Conditioning 1:12 
    Escape Conditioning Occurs When the Animal Learns to Perform an Operant to Terminate an Ongoing, Aversive Stimulus. It is a Get Me Out of Here or Shut This Off Reaction, Aimed at Escape From Pain or Annoyance. The Behavior That Produces Escape is Negatively Reinforced (Reinforced by the Elimination of the Unpleasant Stimulus). 1:15 
   Avoidance Conditioning 2:52 
    When an Organism Learns to Avoid Unpleasant or Punishing Stimuli by Learning the Appropriate Anticipatory Response to Protect it From Further Stimuli (Learns a Cue Before the Stimuli -- Follows Escape Conditioning) 2:56 
    Occurs Quickly and is Very Durable. 3:18 
    e.g. If You Sounded a Tone Before You Electrified the Platform. After One or Two Trials, the Rat Would Respond to the Tone by Jumping Into the Water. It Would Not Wait for the Shock. 3:53 
    This is a Form of Stimulus Control, Because it Puts Behavior Under Control of a Stimulus, in This Case, the Warning Tone. 4:08 
    Avoidance Behaviors are Incredibly Persistent. This is True When There is No Longer Anything to Avoid. 4:15 
   Schedules of Reinforcement 5:17 
    Continuous Reinforcement: Every Instance of a Behavior Occurs is Reinforced 5:33 
    Partial (Intermittent) Reinforcement -- Reinforcing a Response Only Part of the Time; Results in Slower Acquisition of a Response But Much Greater Resistance to Extinction Than Does Continuous Reinforcement 5:44 
    Ratio Schedules: Reinforcement is Based on the Number of Behaviors Required 6:34 
    Interval Schedules: Reinforcement is Based on the Passage of Time 6:39 
    Variable -- Uncertain Number of Times/Behaviors 6:44 
    Fixed -- Certain Number of Times/Behaviors 6:49 
    Immediate v. Delayed Reinforcers -- Like Pavlov and Contiguity, the Longer the Delay, the Less, the Connection. 6:54 
   Schedules of Reinforcement 7:13 
    Fixed Ratio and Variable Ratio vs. Fixed Interval and Variable Interval 7:17 
   Fixed Interval Examples 11:11 
    Doing My Job and Receiving my Paycheck Monthly (Last Day of the Month) 11:18 
    The Daily Mail -- I Receive My Mail at Roughly the Same Time Each Day 11:35 
    A Course Where There are Exams Every Three Weeks (Studying Right Before the Exam and Then Stopping Until the Next Round) 11:49 
   Variable Interval Examples 12:22 
    Unpredictable -- Reinforcement Occurs After a Random Amount of Time 12:26 
    Checking Your Phone For Text Messages -- You Do Not Know When You Will be Rewarded With a Message, But Continue to Check Until You Do. 12:34 
    A Parent Attending to the Cries of a Child. Parents Will Not Typically Attend to the Child Each Time It Cries, But Will Leave He or She to Fuss For a Period Before Attending 13:06 
   Fixed Ratio Examples 13:43 
    Giving a Child Candy EVERY Time She Picks Up Her Toys 13:46 
    Getting Paid After Each Car Gets Sold 13:59 
    Student May Be Given a Prize After Reading Ten Books 14:24 
    Factory Workers Getting Paid by the Piece (e.g. $10 for Each Widget Made) 14:35 
    Getting a Free Sandwich Upon Purchase of 10 Sandwiches 14:54 
   Variable Ratio Examples 15:11 
    The Classic of Winning the Jackpot on the Slot Machine After Changing a Number of Times Playing It. 15:23 
    Playing Poker -- I Do Not Win Every Time, But Must Play in Order to Have a Chance 17:11 
    Buying Lottery Tickets and Winning Occasionally 17:22 
    Going Fly Fishing 18:03 
    Playing The Lottery 18:41 
   Shaping 19:38 
    Shaping is a Technique Using Positive Reinforcements in Order to Create a More Complex Behavior 19:43 
   Television Examples 23:45 
    The Office 23:52 
    The Big Bang Theory 25:23 
    Now That You Know These Ideas, You Will Begin to See Them Everywhere -- This is Called Selective Perception -- It's Due to a Recent Change in Your Schema 26:01 
   Operant and Classical Conditioning on TV 26:52 
    Cesar Milan -- Dogs 26:56 
    Jackson Galaxy -- Cats 26:58 
    Both are Animal Behaviorists 26:59 
    Watch One or Two Episodes Each -- They Modify the Owner's Behavior as Much as the Animal 27:06 
   Review 27:51 
    Which Schedule of Reinforcement is Most Effective in Training Someone/Thing to Do a Behavior? 27:54 
    Which is Most Difficult to Extinguish? 28:17 
    Examine Your Own Life and Find an Example of Operant Conditioning in Which You Were Conditioned and Another Example in Which You Conditioned Someone Else -- Now Connect Reinforcement Schedules -- Where Are Some of These in Your Life? 28:23 
  Cognitive Aspect of Learning 34:01
   Intro 0:00 
   Objectives 0:12 
    Describe the Essential Characteristics of Insight Learning, Latent Learning, and Social Learning. 0:18 
    Apply Learning Principles to Explain Emotional Learning, Taste Aversion, Superstitious Behavior, and Learned Helplessness. 0:23 
    Suggest How Behavior Modification, Biofeedback, Coping Strategies, and Self-Control Can Be Used to Address Behavioral Problems. 0:31 
    Identify Key Contributors in the Psychology of Learning (e.g. Albert Bandura, John Garcia, Ivan Pavlov, Robert Rescorla, B.F. Skinner, Edward Thorndike, Edward Tolman, John B. Watson). 0:42  
   Observational Learning 0:52 
    Monkey See, Monkey Do 1:03 
    Children See, Children Do 1:05 
    Ever Watch a Child View a TY Show With Violent Characters and Then See His/Her Behavior Change? 1:41 
    Albert Bandura -- Bobo Doll Learning 3:02 
    Observational Learning 3:57 
    Model and Imitation 3:53 
    In Sociology, Anticipatory Socialization 5:35 
    Mirror Neurons -- Frontal Lobe Neurons That Fire When Performing Certain Actions or When Observing Another Doing So. The Brain's Mirroring of Another's Action May Enable Imitation and Empathy 7:05 
   Observational Learning 8:04 
    Prosocial Effects 8:07 
    Antisocial Effects 8:28 
   Bandura, Continued 9:55 
    Social Cognitive Theory -- Learn by Imitating Actions of Others, Vicarious Learning 9:58 
    Self-Efficacy Theory (Sense of Control) 10:32 
    Reciprocal Determinism -- The Individual And Environment Influence and Change Each Other 11:20 
   Pavlov's Ideas Extended 13:06 
    Robert Rescorla 13:10 
   Skinner's Ideas Extended 14:17 
    Cognition and Operant Conditioning 14:21 
    Latent Learning -- Learning That Becomes Apparent When There is an Incentive to Show It -- Can Seemingly Lay Dormant 14:25 
   Skinner's Ideas Extended 17:15 
    Biological 17:18 
   Applications of Skinner's Ideas 18:26 
    Operant Conditioning 18:30 
   Comparing Classical/Operant Conditioning 21:59 
    Differences in Their Basic Ideas, Responses, and Acquisition 22:04 
   Comparing Classical/Operant Conditioning 22:50 
    Differences in How Conditioning Becomes Extinct, and in Spontaneous Recovery 22:54 
   Comparing Classical/Operant Conditioning 23:52 
    Differences in Generalization and Discrimination 23:57 
   Additional Concepts in Learning 25:11 
    Habituation -- Gradual Process Where the Organism Decreases a Response to Stimulus That is Repeated Over Time 25:14 
    Learned Helplessness -- Martin Seligman, Puppies, and Humans -- Condition of a Human or Animal That Has Learned to Behave Helplessness, Failing to Respond Even Though There are Opportunities For It to Help Itself by Avoiding Unpleasant Circumstances or by Gaining Positive Rewards 26:00 
    Superstitious Behavior 29:47 
    Biofeedback 29:26 
   Review 32:43 
    What is a Model and What Is Imitation in Social Learning Theory? 32:45 
    What Is Reciprocal Determinism and How Can It Create Certain Outcomes for Individuals Who Isolate Themselves? 32:57 
    Describe the Bobo Doll Study and Why it was so Important for Understanding Social Learning Theory 33:08 
    Compare and Contrast CC and OC in Terms of Acquisition, Reinforcement, Generalization, Discrimination, and Extinction 33:15 

Section 7: Cognition

  Cognition Memory 51:03
   Intro 0:00 
   Cognition (8-10%) 0:08 
    Memory 0:21 
    Language 0:22 
    Thinking 0:23 
    Problem Solving and Creativity 0:24 
    In This Unit, You Will Learn How Humans Convert Sensory Input Into Kinds of Information. We Examine How Human Learn, Remember, and Retrieve Information. This part of the Course Also Addresses Problem Solving, Language, and Creativity. 0:27 
   Objectives 0:50 
    Compare and Contrast Various Cognitive Processes 0:54 
    Describe and Differentiate Psychological and Physiological Systems of Memory (e.g., Short-Term Memory, Procedural Memory) 1:14 
    Outline the Principles That Underlie Effective Encoding, Storage, and Construction of Memories 1:20 
    Describe Strategies For Memory Improvement 1:25 
   Objectives, Continued 1:41 
    Synthesize How Biological, Cognitive, and Cultural Factors Converge to Facilitate Acquisition, Development, and Use of Language 1:43 
    Identify Problem-Solving Strategies as Well as Factors That Influence Their Effectiveness 1:55 
    List the Characteristics of Creative Thought and Creative Thinkers 1:57 
    Identify Key Contributors in Cognitive Psychology (e.g. Noam Chomsky, Hermann Ebbinghaus, Wolfgang Kohler, Elizabeth Loftus, George A. Miller). 2:00 
   Memory Demo #1 2:13 
    Memorizing a 20 Digit Number 2:18 
    Without Writing it Down 2:47 
    Listen Carefully 3:03 
    Debriefing and Explanation 3:19 
   Memory Demo #2 3:54 
    Recalling the Presidents of the US 3:59 
    Debriefing and Explanation 4:19 
   Memory Demo #3 6:24 
    Make a List of the US States in Any Order 6:27 
    Debriefing and Explanation 6:55 
   Memory: Some Key Terms 8:57 
    Memory: Active System That Stores, Organizes, Alters, and Recovers (Retrieves) Information 9:00 
    Encoding: Converting Information Into a Useable Form 9:10 
    Rehearsal: The Conscious Repetition of Information, Either to Maintain it in Consciousness or to Encode It For Storage 9:16 
    Storage: Holding This Information in Memory 9:25 
    Retrieval: Taking Memories Out of Storage 9:29 
    Schema: The Mental Map or Filter That One Uses to Connect New Information to Old, Established Information -- Can Make Learning New Things Much Easier 9:33 
   Sensory Memory 9:47 
    Storing an Exact Copy of Incoming Information For a Few Seconds (Either What is Seen or Heard); The First Stage of Memory 9:52 
    Icon: A Fleeting Mental Image or Visual Representation 10:01 
    Echo: After a Sound is Heard, a Brief Continuation of the Activity in the Auditory System 10:25 
   Short-Term Memory (STM) 10:51 
    Storing Small Amounts of Information Briefly 10:56 
    Very Sensitive to Interruption or Interference 12:25 
   Long-Term Memory (LTM) 13:41 
    Storing Information Relatively Permanently 13:47 
    Stored on Basis of Meaning and Importance 13:51 
   Atkinson-Shiffrin Memory Model -- Modified 14:27 
    Diagram 14:31 
   Processing 16:24 
    Parallel: The Processing of Many Aspects of a Problem Simultaneously; The Brain's Natural Mode of Information Processing for Many Functions. Contrasts With the Step-by-Step (Serial) Processing of Most Computers and of Conscious Problem-Solving 16:30 
    Automatic -- Unconscious Encoding of Incidental Information, Such as Space, Time, and Frequency, and of Well-Learned Information, Such as Word Meanings 16:56 
    Effortful -- Encoding that Requires Attention and Conscious Effort 18:26 
   Short-Term Memory Concepts 19:47 
    Digit Span: Test of Attention and Short-Term Memory; String of Numbers is Recalled Forward or Backward 19:51 
    Magic Number 7 (Plus or Minus 2): STM is Limited to Holding Seven (Plus or Minus 2) Information Bits at Once 20:13 
   More STM Concepts 20:57 
    Recoding: Reorganizing or Modifying Information to Assist Storage in STM 21:01 
   Maintenance Rehearsal 22:25 
    Repeating Information Silently to Prolong Its Presence in STM 22:28 
   Elaborative Rehearsal 24:34 
    Links New Information With Existing Memories and Knowledge in LTM 24:37 
   Long-Term Memory Concepts 26:37 
    Constructive Processing: Updating Long-Term Memories on Basis of Logic, Reasoning, or New Information 26:41 
    Pseudo-Memories: False Memories That a Person Believes are True or Accurate 26:55 
   Types of Long-Term Memories 28:00 
    Procedural (Skilled): Long-term Memories of Conditioned Responses and Learned Skills, e.g. Driving 28:05 
    Declarative (Fact): LTM Factual Information -- Also Called Explicit Memory 28:40 
   Types of Memory 30:06 
    Chart Showing Hierarchies of Memory 30:08 
   Measuring Memory 31:06 
    Tip-of-the-Tongue (TOT) State: Feeling That a Memory is Available But Not Quite Retrievable 31:10 
    Feeling of Knowing: Feeling That Allows People to Predict Beforehand Whether They'll Be Able to Remember Something 31:46 
   Serial Position Effect 32:02 
    Chart 32:23 
   Measuring Memory 33:16 
    Recognition Memory: Previously Learned Material is Correctly Identified 33:20 
    Distractors: False Items Included With Correct Item 34:12 
    False Positive: False Sense of Recognition 34:26 
    Recall: Direct Retrieval of Facts or Information 34:47 
   Measuring Memory Continued 35:46 
    Relearning: Learning Again Something That Was Previously Learned 35:50 
    Used to Measure Memory of Prior Learning 36:13 
    Savings Score: Amount of Time Saved When Relearning Information 36:48 
   Memory Features 37:01 
    Recalled Better With Use of Mnemonics 37:05 
    Spaced Practice Better Than Massed Practice 37:09 
   Measuring Memory -- Concluded 37:38 
    Explicit Memory: Past Experiences That Are Consciously Brought to Mind 37:40 
    Implicit Memory: A Memory Not Known to Exist; Memory That is Unconsciously Retrieved 37:46 
    Priming: When Cues Are Used to Activate Hidden Memories 39:07 
    Internal Images: Mental Pictures Used in Memory and Thinking 39:26 
   Eidetic Memory 39:56 
    Occurs When a Person (Usually a Child) Has Visual Images Clear Enough to be Scanned or Retained for at Least 30 Seconds 40:00 
    Usually Projected Onto a Plain Surface, Like a Blank Piece of Paper 40:09 
    Usually Disappears During Adolescence and is Rare by Adulthood 40:16 
    Sheldon From TBBT Claims to Have This 40:20 
   Forgetting 41:01 
    Ebbinghaus Research 41:10 
    Nonsense Syllables: Meaningless Three-Letter Words (Fej, Quf) That Test Learning and Forgetting 41:14 
    Encoding Failure: When a Memory Was Never Formed in the First Place 41:41 
    Memory Traces: Physical Changes in Nerve Cells or Brain Activity That Occur When Memories are Stored 42:04 
    Memory Decay: When Memory Traces Become Weaker; Fading to Weakening of Memories 42:45 
    Disuse: Theory That Memory Traces Weaken When Memories Are Not Used or Retrieved 42:58 
   More Forgetting Theories 43:16 
    Memory Cue: Any Stimulus Associated With a Memory; Usually Enhances Retrieval of a Memory 43:19 
    State Dependent/Mood Dependent 44:33 
    When Memory Retrieval is Influenced by Body State; If Your Body State is the Same at the Time of Learning AND The Time of Retrieval, Retrievals Will Be Improved 44:38 
   Interference 45:30 
    Tendency for New Memories to Impair Retrieval of Older Memories, and the Reverse 45:36 
    Retroactive Interference: Tendency for New Memories to Interfere With Retrieval of Old Memories 45:46 
    Proactive Interference: Prior Learning Inhibits (Interferes With) Recall of Later Learning 47:21 
    Two Ways 48:06 
   Review 49:17 
    How Do Psychologists Describe The Human Memory System? 49:20 
    What Information Do We Encode Automatically? 49:25 
    What Information Do We Encode Effortfully, and How Does the Distribution of Practice Influence Retention? 49:28 
    What Effortful Processing Methods Aid in Forming Memories? 49:42 
    What is Sensory Memory? 49:49 
    What are the Duration and Capacity of Short-Term and Long-Term Memory? 49:52 
    How Does the Brain Store Our Memories? 50:21 
    How Do We Get Information Out of Memory? 50:25 
    How Do External Contects and Internal Emotions Influence Memory Retrieval? 50:32 
    Why Do We Forget? 50:40 
  Memory, Part II 27:44
   Intro 0:00 
   Transfer of Training 0:08 
    Positive Transfer: Mastery of One Task Aids Learning or Performing Another 0:12 
    Negative Transfer: Mastery of One Task Conflicts With Learning or Performing Another 0:20 
    e.g. Volleyball and Softball Training Helps One Another 0:26 
   Repression and Suppression 1:03 
    Repression: Unconsciously Pushing Painful, Embarrassing, or Threatening Memories Out of Awareness/Consciousness 1:09 
    Suppression: Consciously Putting Something Painful or Threatening Out of Mind Or Trying to Keep It From Entering Awareness 1:33 
   Flashbulb Memories 2:00 
    Memories Created During Times of Personal Tragedy, Accident, or Other Emotionally Significant Events 2:04 
    Includes Both Positive and Negative Events 3:19 
    Not Always Accurate 3:25 
    Great Confidence is Placed in Them Even Though They May Be Inaccurate 3:29 
   Memory Formation 3:40 
    Retrograde Amnesia: Forgetting Events That Occurred Before an Injury or Trauma 3:45 
    Anterograde Amnesia: Forgetting Events That Follow an Injury or Trauma (e.g. 50 First Dates or Memento) 3:54 
    Consolidation: Forming a Long-Term Memory 4:30 
   Electroconvulsive Shock (ECS) 4:47 
    Mild Electrical Shock Passed Through the Brain Produces a Convulsion, Destroys Any Memory That is Being Formed; One Way to Prevent Consolidation 4:52 
   Memory Structures 5:23 
    Hippocampus: Brain Structure Associated With Emotion and Transfer of Information Passing From Short-Term Memory Into Long-Term Memory 5:27 
    Long-Term Potentiation (LTP): An Increase in a Synapse's Firing Potential After Brief, Rapid Stimulation. Believed to be a Neural Basis for Learning and Memory 8:29 
   Ways to Improve Memory 9:01 
    Practice, Practice, Practice 9:07 
    Remember the First Time You Played Rock Band or Some Other Video Game? Were You Immediately an Expert? 9:24 
    Priming: The Activation, Often Unconsciously, of Particular Associations in Memory 10:26 
    Recitation: Summarizing Aloud While You Are Learning 10:50 
    Meaningful -- Make the Ideas You Are Studying Meaningful -- When Possible, Make Connections to Ideas You Already Know 11:43 
    Organization: Organizing Difficult Items Into Chunks; a Type of Reordering 11:58 
   Ways to Improve Memory, Continued 13:40 
    Study Repeatedly: Use Distributed/Spaced Practice-Take Advantage of Down Time -- Little Bits to Review Material 13:45 
    Minimize Interference -- Do Not Study Similar Subjects Back to Back 14:01 
    Sleep -- Get Enough 14:32 
    Overlearning: Studying is Continued Beyond Bare Mastery 14:51 
    Knowledge of Results: Feedback Allowing You to Check Your Progress -- Test Yourself 15:13 
   More Ways to Improve Memory 15:51 
    Spaced Practice: Alternating Short Study Sessions With Brief Rest Periods 15:55 
    Massed Practice: Studying for Long Periods Without Rest Periods 16:01 
    Lack of Sleep Decreases Retention; Sleep Aids Consolidation 16:10 
    Hunger Decreases Retention 16:18 
    Cognitive Interview: Technique Used to Improve Memories of Witnesses 16:36 
   Mnemonics: Memory Tricks 17:26 
    Any Kind of Memory System of Aid 17:34 
   Using Mnemonics to Recall an Order 18:37 
    Form a Chain or a Story: Remember Lists in Order, Forming an Exaggerated Association Connecting Item One to Two and So On 18:38 
    Take a Mental Walk: Mentally Walk Along a Familiar Path, Placing Objects or Ideas Along The Path 18:52 
    Form Acronyms -- My Very Eager Mother Just Served Us Nine (Pizzas) -- The Planets 19:44 
    SOHCAHTOA -- Trigonometry 20:28 
   Eyewitness Memory 21:17 
    Elizabeth Loftus -- Lots of Research Into the Consolidation of Memory and How Memories Are Easily Changed -- Includes Planting False Memories, Misinformation and Incorrect Attribution 21:21 
    Misinformation Effect: By Incorporating Misleading Information or Asking Leading Questions, An Investigator Can Change One's Memory of an Event 21:48 
    Source Amnesia: Attributing to the Wrong Source an Event We Have Experienced, Heard About, Read About, or Imagined. (Also Called Source Misattribution.) Source Amnesia, Along With the Misinformation Effect, is at the Heart of Many False Memories 22:32 
   Elizabeth Loftus, Continued 23:10 
    False Memories -- In Court, Gave Evidence of the Malleability of Memory and Showed How the Idea of Repressed Memories Are Likely Just Ideas Implanted During Therapy Sessions, Not Recollections of Actual Events 23:11 
    The Lost in the Mall Technique With Children -- Gave Children the Idea That They Had Had an Experience of Being Lost. 25% Indicated That They Later Thought That This Was a Real Occurrence in Their Lives, They Had a Memory For it 23:45 
    Later Variations Showed the 1/3 of Subjects Could Be Convinced That They Had Traumatizing Events That Had Occurred to Them 24:21 
   Eyewitness Memory 24:40 
    The Book, Picking Cotton 24:50 
    Wrongfully Accused Man, Ronald Cotton -- Convicted of Rape by Eyewitness Testimony 24:58 
    Eventually Overturned When Real Rapist Was Arrested On Another Charge 25:51 
    Link to Book 24:55 
    Link to The Innocence Project 26:16 
   Review 26:38 
    How Do Misinformation, Imagination, and Source Amnesia Influence Our Memory Construction? 26:40 
    How Real Seeming Are False Memories? 26:49 
    What Is The Controversy Related to Claims of Repressed and Recovered Memories? 26:52 
    How Can an Understanding of Memory Contribute to More Effective Studying Techniques? 27:24 
  Cognition 31:56
   Intro 0:00 
   Overview 0:07 
    Synthesize How Biological, Cognitive, and Cultural Factors Converge to Facilitate Acquisition, Development, and Use of Language. 0:10 
    Identify Problem-Solving Strategies as Well as Factors That Influence Their Effectiveness. 0:21 
    List the Characteristics of Creative Thought and Creative Thinkers 0:26 
   Cognition 0:30 
    Cognition: The Mental Activities Associated With Thinking, Knowing, Remembering, and Communicating 0:33 
    Ideas Behind Thinking 0:48 
   Solving Problems 2:42 
    Algorithms: a Methodical, Logical Rule or Procedure That Guarantees Solving a Particular Problem 2:49 
    Heuristics: Rules of Thumb or a Simple Thinking Strategy That Often Allows Us to Make Judgments and Solve Problems Efficiently 3:11 
    Insight: A Sudden and Often Novel Realization of the Solution to a Problem; It Contrasts With Strategy-Based Solutions 3:32 
   Friendship Algorithm 3:50 
    Sheldon (of BBT) made up a Friendship Algorithm, Which is Displayed Here 3:53 
   Problems in Problem Solving 5:33 
    Confirmation Bias: A Tendency to Search for Information That Supports Our Preconceptions and to Ignore or Distort Contradictory Evidence -- We Are Uncomfortable With Cognitive Dissonance 5:37 
    Fixation: The Inability to See a Problem From a Fresh Point of View -- This Relates to How We See/Define a Problem -- Can Lead to Others 6:58 
   More Problems: Representative Heuristic 8:55 
    Representative Heuristic: Judging the Likelihood of Things in Terms of How Well They Seem to Represent, or Match, Particular Prototypes; May Lead Us to Ignore Other Relevant Information. 9:04 
   More Problems: Representative Heuristic 10:59 
    e.g. A Person Might Judge a Young Person More Likely to Commit Suicide Because of a Prototype of the Depressed Adolescent -- The Reality is That Suicide Rates are Not Higher in Younger Populations 11:01 
   More Problems: Availability Heuristic 12:02 
    Availability Heuristic: Estimating the Likelihood of Events Based on Their Availability in Memory; If Instances Come Readily to Mind (Perhaps Because of Their Vividness), We Presume Such Events are Common 12:06 
    We May Fear Flying Because of 9/11 or Some Other Notable Event -- This Influences Our Thinking 13:35 
   More Impediments to Problem Solving 14:06 
    Overconfidence: The Tendency to Be More Confident Than Correct -- To Over-Estimate the Accuracy of Our Beliefs and Judgments 14:10 
    Belief Perseverance: Clinging to One's Initial Conceptions After The Basis On Which They Are Formed Has Been Discredited 14:31 
    Framing: The Way an Issue Is Posed or Presented; How an Issue is Framed Can Significantly Affect Decisions and Judgments 15:32 
   In Short 17:19 
    Humans Are Not the Rational Creatures We Often Presume Them to Be 17:22 
    They Are Often Irrational, But Predictably So 17:28 
    Other Biases We Often Exhibit (Will Visit These in Later Units): 18:02 
   Creativity 20:29 
    The Ability to Produce Novel and Valuable Ideas 20:32 
    Characteristics/Components of Creativity 21:03 
   Creativity 24:30 
    Wolfgang Kohler Documented the Aha Experience While Studying Chimps When They Were Trying to Obtain a Banana That Was Out of Reach 24:32 
    Convergent Thinking -- Limits Creativity 25:09 
    Divergent Thinking -- Increases Likelihood of Creativity 25:56 
   Intuition 27:13 
    An Effortless Immediate, Automatic Feeling or Thought, As Contrasted With Explicit, Conscious Reasoning 27:15 
   Review 29:52 
    How Can Shortcuts That The Mind Uses Inhibit Our Thinking Skills? 29:55 
    How Do Smart Thinkers Use Intuition? 30:01 
    What is Framing? 30:04 
    What Factors Assist Creativity? 30:11 
    What is the Difference Between Convergent and Divergent Thinking? 30:15 
    How is Intuition Different From Conscious Cognition? 30:22 
  Language 31:02
   Intro 0:00 
   Objective 0:10 
    Synthesize How Biological, Cognitive, and Cultural Factors Converge to Facilitate Acquisition, Development, and Use of Language 0:13 
   Linguistics 0:26 
    Graphic Depicting the Various Types of Linguistic Study 0:29 
   Language 1:15 
    Our Spoken, Written, or Signed Words and the Ways We Combine Them to Communicate Meaning 1:17 
    Linguistics: The Scientific Study of Language -- Subcategories Include Phonology, Morphology, Syntax, Grammar, Semantics, Pragmatics, and More 1:51 
    Phoneme: The Smallest Distinctive Sound Unit 2:12 
   Phonemes 3:47 
    Practice Hearing the Sounds 3:49 
    What's the First Sound in the Word Cut? What's the Final Sound? What's the Medial Sound/Vowel Sound? Now, What's the First Sound in the Word Cute? The Final Sound? The Vowel Sound (Medial Sound)? 3:52 
    What's the First Sound in the Following Words? 4:34 
   Phonology -- Is It Any Wonder…English? 4:59 
    What is the Final Sound in the Following Words? 5:23 
    How Many Phonemes (Sounds) Are in These Words? 5:59 
    Very Little Weight is Given to This Idea in AP Psych 6:38 
   More Phonology 6:51 
    The Underlined Sounds in Each Pair of Words May Look the Same, But They Are Different. Can You Detect the Differences? 6:58 
    How are the Underlined Sounds Different in These Pairs? 8:22 
   Phonology -- The Last Bit 8:51 
    How Are These Pairs Different in Spoken English? 8:55 
    What Distinguishes the Underlined Words in These Sentences? 9:42 
   Morphemes 10:57 
    Morpheme: In a Language, the Smallest Unit That Carries Meaning; May Be a Word or Part of a Word (Such as a Prefix) 11:00 
   Language 11:19 
    Grammar: In a Language, a System of Rules That Enables Us to Communicate With and Understand Others 11:24 
    Syntax: The Rules for Combining Words Into Grammatically Sensible Sentences in a Given Language 12:24 
   Semantics 13:24 
    Semantics: The Set of Rules by Which we Derive Meaning From Morphemes, Words, and Sentences in a Given Language; Also the Study of Meaning 13:30 
    Ambiguity 13:40 
    Stress on a Word Changes Meaning 15:16 
   Language Development 16:02 
    Babbling: Beginning at About 4 Months, the Stage of Speech Development in Which the Infant Spontaneously Utters Various Sounds at First Unrelated to the Household Language 16:08 
    One-Word Stage: The Stage in Speech Development, From About Age 1 to 2, During Which a Child Speaks Mostly in Single Words 16:30 
    Sometimes Called the Holophrastic Stage Since the Meaning of an Entire Sentence Can Be Condensed Into One Word 16:51 
   Language Development 17:13 
    Two-Word Stage: Beginning About Age 2, the Stage in Speech Development During Which a Child Speaks Mostly Two Word Statements 17:15 
    Telegraphic Speech: Early Speech State in Which a Child Speaks Like a Telegram -- Go Car -- Using Mostly Nouns and Verbs 17:26 
   Ages 6-10 18:12 
    Children Can Master Syllable Stress Patterns to Distinguish Among Words 18:22 
    Children Have Learned 80% of the Language They Will Ever Need. Nearly All the Rest is Learning Complexity, Metaphors, Irony, Puns, Simile, Allegory, etc. 18:32 
   Language Development: Nativist Theory 19:34 
    Noam Chomsky, MIT Linguist 19:39 
    LAD or Language Acquisition Device 19:50 
    Inborn Ability (Biologically Created in the Brain) to Learn Whichever Language(s) One Grows Up With -- This Occurs Universally 19:58 
   Language Development: Behavioral 20:59 
    Skinner: Operant Learning 21:01 
   Language Development 21:39 
    Statistical Learning and Critical Periods 21:41 
   Linguistic Theories and Cognition 22:54 
    Linguistic Determinism: Whorf's Hypothesis That Language Determines the Way We Think 23:16 
    Linguistic Relativity: Variation of Whorf's Hypothesis That Assumes That Language and Thought Have Influences on Each Other -- The Language One Speaks Influences How One Thinks, and Vice Versa 23:21 
   Advantages to Being a Polyglot 27:02 
    Bilingual Advantage 27:11 
   Language Development: Interactionist 28:45 
    The Interactionist Perspective Consisting of Social-Interactionist 28:49 
    Children Learn Language in the Interactive and Communicative Context 28:56 
    Learning Language Forms Meaningful Moves of Communication 29:19 
    These Theories Focis Mainly on the Caregiver's Attitudes and Attentiveness to Their Children in Order to Promote Productive Language Habits 29:27 
   Review 29:52 
    What Are the Structural Components of a Language? 29:55 
    What are the Milestones in Language Development? 30:05 
    How Do We Learn Language? 30:11 
    What is the Relationship Between Language and Thinking? 30:18 

Section 8: Motivation and Emotion

  Motivation, Part I 27:01
   Intro 0:00 
   Motivation and Emotion (6-8%) 0:07 
    Biological Bases 0:21 
    Theories of Motivation 0:24 
    Hunger, Thirst, Sex, and Pain 0:25 
    Social Motives 0:28 
    Theories of Emotion 0:30 
    Stress 0:31 
    In This Part of the Course, We Will Explore Biological and Social Factors That Motivate Behavior and Biological and Cultural Factors That Influence Emotion 0:33 
   Objectives 0:42 
    Identify and Apply Basic Motivational Concepts to Understand the Behavior of Humans and Other Animals (e.g., Instincts, Incentives, Intrinsic Versus Extrinsic Motivation). 0:44 
    Discuss the Biological Underpinnings of Motivation, Including Needs, Drives, and Homeostasis. 0:51 
    Compare and Contrast Motivational Theories (e.g., Drive Reduction Theory, Arousal Theory, General Adaptation Theory), Including the Strengths and Weaknesses of Each. 0:57 
    Describe Classic Research Findings in Specific Motivation Systems (e.g. Eating, Sex, Social) 1:08 
   Objectives, Continued 1:16 
    Discuss Theories of Stress and the Effects of Stress on Psychological and Physical Well-Being. 1:18 
    Compare and Contrast Major Theories of Emotion (e.g. James-Lange, Cannon-Bard, Schachter Two-Factor Theory). 1:24 
    Describe How Cultural Influences Shape Emotional Expression, Including Variations in Body Language. 1:31 
    Identify Key Contributors in the Psychology of Motivation and Emotion (e.g. William James, Alfred Kinsey, Abraham Maslow, Stanley Schachter, Hans Selye). 1:39 
   A Couple of Videos 1:49 
    Motivational Speech Videos From YouTube 1:51 
    Overcoming Obstacles 2:05 
    No Arms, No Legs, No Worries 2:35 
   Defining Motivation and a Model 3:28 
    Dynamics of Behavior That Initiate, Sustain, Direct, and Terminate Actions 3:32 
    Model of How Motivated Activities Work 3:40 
   Instincts and Evolutionary Psychology 4:18 
    Instinct (Fixed Action Pattern): A Complex Behavior/Set of Behaviors Done in the Same Way by Every Member of the Species 4:22 
   Motives and Incentives 8:41 
    Motivation is a Psychological Feature That Arouses an Organism to Act Toward a Goal and Elicits, Controls, and Sustains Certain Goal-Directed Behaviors 8:46 
    Incentives -- Something That Motivates an Individual to Perform an Action -- Within Economics, Incentives are External Rewards to Draw Out Particular Desired Behaviors 9:26 
    Motives are Internal, Incentives are External 10:34 
   Drives and Incentives 11:23 
    Drive-Reduction Theory 11:27 
    Homeostasis-Steady State of Body Equilibrium; Balance 11:30 
    Need -- Biological Imperative 11:43 
    Drive -- Biological Action Affect Need 11:46 
    Drive Reduction -- Behavior to Reduce Drive 11:52 
    Need --> Drive --> Drive Reduction 11:58 
    We May Need Water, We Get Thirsty, We Quench Thirst by Doing Drive-Reducing Behaviors, Like Drinking Water or Another Drink 12:03 
    We May Have the Same Drives, But Reduce Them in Different Ways 12:43 
   Incentive Value 12:48 
    Goal's Appeal Beyond Its Ability to Fill a Need 12:52 
   High and Low Incentive Value Goals 13:07 
    Incentive: A Positive or Negative Environment Stimulus That Motivates Behavior 13:13 
    ex: High Incentive Value Goal -- Ice Cream 13:22 
    ex: Low-Incentive Value Goal -- Carrot 13:25 
   Would This Interest You? 14:10 
    Picture of Larvae or Worms 14:14 
   Types of Motives 15:53 
    Primary Motive: Innate (Inborn) Motives Based on Biological Needs That Must Be Met to Survive 15:56 
    Stimulus Motive: Needs For Stimulation and Information; Appear to be Innate, But Not Necessary for Survival 16:05 
    Secondary Motive: Based on Learned Needs, Drives, And Goals 16:58 
   Arousal Theory 17:09 
    People Will Do Certain Actions to Maintain Certain Optimal Levels of Physiological Arousal. If the Level is Too High, They Will Seek to Relax. If Level is too Low, They Will Seek Out Action or Something That Stimulates Them 17:18 
    Based Upon Individual and Situation -- Highly Variable 18:04 
    Being an Introvert or Extrovert May Change One's View of What is a Pleasant Arousal Level 18:15 
   Arousal Theory 19:58 
    Yerkes-Dodson Law of Arousal 20:07 
   Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs 20:31 
    Physiological --> Safety --> Love/Belonging --> Esteem --> Self-Actualization 20:58 
   Maslow Part 2 22:57 
    Chart of More Complex Hierarchy System 23:01 
   Review 24:00 
    What is the Difference Between a Motive and an Incentive? 24:05 
    Describe the Drive Reduction Model of Motivation 24:16 
    Is There a Difference Between Needs and Wants? 24:26 
  Motivation, Part II 16:36
   Intro 0:00 
   Hunger 0:10 
    Hypoglycemia: Low Blood Sugar (Glucose and Insulin) 0:16 
    Hypothalamus: Brain Structure; Regulates Many Aspects of Motivation and Emotion, Including Hunger, Thirst, and Sexual Behavior 0:27 
    Feeding System: Area in the Lateral Hypothalamus (LH) That, When Stimulated, Initiates Eating 0:43 
    Satiety System: Area in the Ventromedial Hypothalamus (VMH) That Terminates Eating 0:56 
    Hormones 1:15 
   More on Eating Behavior 2:07 
    Neuropeptide Y (NPY): Substance in the Brain That Initiates Eating; Works on Paraventricular Nucleus in Hypothalamus 2:10 
    Glucagon-like Peptide 1 (GLP-1): Substance in Brain That Terminates Eating 2:33 
    Set Point: Proportion of Body Fat That is Maintained by Changes in Hunger and Eating; Point Where Weight Stays the Same When You Make No Effort to Gain or Lose Weight 2:51 
    Basal Metabolic Rate: The Body's Resting Rate of Energy Expenditure 3:29 
    External Eating Cues -- Signals and Situations That Are Linked With Food (Includes Environment, People and Emotions -- Think Classical Conditioning) 3:51 
   Hyperphagic Rat 4:42 
    Picture of Rat Who Eats More Due to VMH Removal 4:44 
   Taste Preferences: Biology and Culture 6:03 
    Taste Preferences 6:06 
   Eating Disorders 9:21 
    Anorexia Nervosa: An Eating Disorder in Which a Person (Usually an Adolescent Female) Diets and Becomes Significantly (15 Percent or More) Underweight, Yet, Still Feeling Fat, Continues to Starve 9:29 
    Bulimia Nervosa: An Eating Disorder Characterized by Episodes of Overeating, Usually High-Calorie Foods, Followed by Vomiting, Laxative Use, Fasting, or Excessive Exercise 10:02 
    Binge-Eating Disorder: Significant Binge-Eating Episodes, Followed by Distress, Disgust, or Guilt, But Without the Compensatory Purging, Fasting, or Excessive Exercise That Marks Bulimia Nervosa 10:33 
   Obesity and Weight Control 11:14 
    Historical Explanations for Obesity 11:18 
    Obesity (Some Text Authors Focus on This a Lot, Others Not So Much) 12:10 
   Review 14:52 
    What Psychological Factors Produce Hunger? 14:55 
    What Psychological and Cultural Factors Influence Hunger? 14:58 
    How Do Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa, and Binge Eating Disorder Demonstrate the Influence of Psychological Forces on Physiologically Motivated Behaviors? 15:04 
  Motivation, Part III 25:52
   Intro 0:00 
   The Physiology of Sex 0:12 
    The Sexual Response Cycle -- as Described by Masters and Johnson 0:16 
    Pioneering Sex Researcher -- Alfred Kinsey of Indiana University -- Behavior in Men and Women 1:08 
    The Kinsey Report -- Heavily Criticized for Methods 1:24 
    Kinsey Scale (of Continuum From Hetero to Homosexuality) 1:51 
   Effects of Hormones 2:38 
    Development of Sexual Characteristics 2:44 
    Activate Sexual Behavior -- Levels Change 2:46 
    Social Constraints and Influences 3:19 
    External Stimuli 4:46 
    Imagined Stimuli 4:57 
   Adolescent Sexuality 6:03 
    Teenage Pregnancy -- While Rates are Decreasing, Why Does it Still Occur? 6:40 
   Adolescent Sexuality 10:20 
    Sexually Transmitted Diseases/Infections 10:23 
    Sadly, Many Who Focus on Abstinence Engage in Other Risky Behaviors, Negating the Impact 11:13 
   Sexual Orientation 12:32 
    An Enduring Sexual Attraction Toward Members of Either One's Own Sex (Homosexual Orientation) or the Other Sex (Heterosexual Orientation) 12:41 
    Sexual Orientation Statistics (LGBT) 13:38 
   Origins of Sexual Orientation 14:36 
    Origins of Sexual Orientation Studies 14:56 
    Same-Sex Attraction in Animals -- 1500 Species of Animals Engage in This Behavior, Most Often in Herding Animals 15:20 
    The Brain and Sexual Orientation 15:32 
    Genes and Sexual Orientation (Predisposition?) 15:49 
    Prenatal Hormones and Sexual Orientation 16:17 
    Bottom Line is That One's Sexual Orientation is Not Some Choice One Makes -- It Is Biologically Created 16:42 
   The Need to Belong 16:59 
    Aiding Survival 17:11 
    Wanting to Belong 17:22 
    Sustaining Relationships 17:39 
    The Pain of Ostracism 18:11 
   When Motives Conflict 18:37 
    Approach-Approach Conflict -- Choice of Two Desirable Options 18:43 
    Avoidance-Avoidance Conflict -- Choice of Two Undesirable Options 19:06 
    Approach-Avoidance Conflict -- One Event or Goal Has Both Attractive and Unattractive Features 19:20 
    Multiple Approach-Avoidance Conflict -- Choice Between Two or More Things, Each With Desirable and Undesirable Aspects 20:10 
    Sometimes This Set of Ideas Can Be Found in a Chapter on Stress 20:47 
   Summary 21:01 
    Theories of Motivation 21:04 
    Motivation of Hunger 21:40 
    Motivation of Sex 21:42 
    Social Motives -- Acquired by Growing Up in a Particular Society or Culture 21:44 
    Achievement Motivation (nAch) 22:22 
    Intrinsic/Extrinsic Motivation 23:31 
    Management Theory (Theory X and Theory Y) -- Related to Int./Ext -- Theory X -- Employees Only Motivated by Rewards and Threats of Punishment 24:01 
   Review 24:51 
    What Stages Mark The Human Sexual Response Cycle? 24:55 
    How Do Internal and External Stimuli Influence Sexual Motivation? 25:02 
    What Factors Influence Teen Sexuality, Teen Pregnancy, and Risk of Sexually Transmitted Infections? 25:19 
    What Has Research Taught Us About Sexual Orientation? 25:26 
  Emotions, Stress & Health 28:08
   Intro 0:00 
   Objectives 0:11 
    Compare and Contrast Major Theories of Emotion (e.g. James-Lange, Cannon-Bard, Schachter Two-Factor Theory) 0:15 
    Describe How Cultural Influences Shape Emotional Expression, Including Variations in Body Language 0:27 
    Discuss Theories of Stress and the Effects of Stress on Psychological and Physical Well-Being, 0:35 
    Identify Key Contributors in the Psychology of Motivation and Emotion (e.g. William James, Alfred Kinsey, Abraham Maslow, Stanley Schachter, Hans Selye.) 0:42 
   Emotions 0:56 
    How Do We Experience Emotion? 0:59 
    Do We Feel the Emotion and Then Have a Bodily Response? 1:06 
    Do We Have a Bodily Response and Then Feel the Emotion? 1:03 
    Do They Happen Simultaneously? 1:11 
    Is There Something Else? 1:13 
    How Do We Express Emotion? 1:15 
    What is Our Conscious Experience of Emotion? 1:37 
   Emotions 1:48 
    State Characterized by Physiological Arousal and Changes in Facial Expressions, Gestures, Posture, and Subjective Feelings 1:51 
    Adaptive Behaviors: Aid Our Attempts to Survive and Adjust to Changing Conditions 2:37 
    Physiological Changes (in Emotions): Include Heart Rate, Blood Pressure, Perspiration, and Other Involuntary Responses 2:45 
    Emotional Expression: Outward Signs of What a Person is Feeling 3:17 
    Emotional Feelings: Private Emotional Experience 3:25 
   Primary Emotions and Mood 3:46 
    Plutchik Research (2003) 3:50 
    Eight Primary Emotions 3:53 
    Mood -- Low Intensity, Long-Lasting Emotional State 4:15 
   Emotions Wheel: Plutchik 4:39 
    Eight Emotions Can Be Intensified or Combined With Adjacent Moods to Create New Ones 4:44 
   Theories Of Emotions: So I Encounter A Bear 7:54 
    Picture of Bears and Description of how Instructor Felt When Meeting One 8:09 
   Common Sense Approach 8:22 
    Common Sense 8:23 
    I Tremble Because I Am Afraid 8:25 
    Stimulus --> Fear (Experience) --> Arousal 8:27 
    Stimulus --> Emotion --> Body Change 8:35 
   Cannon-Bard 8:55 
    The Bear Makes Me Tremble And Feel Afraid 8:59 
    Stimulus --> Subcortical Brain Activity --> Fear (Experience) + Physiological Arousal 9:04 
    Stimulus --> Brain --> Emotion + Body 9:14 
   James-Lange 9:23 
    I Feel Afraid Because I Tremble 9:29 
    Stimulus --> Arousal --> Fear (Experience) 9:32 
    Stimulus --> Body Change --> Emotion Of Fear 9:37 
   Singer-Schachter Two-Factor 9:44 
    I Label My Trembling As Fear Because I Appraise The Situation As Dangerous 9:49 
    Stimulus --> Arousal --> That Is One Scary Bear! I Am Afraid Of It! (Appraisal) --> Fear (Experience) 9:58 
    Stimulus --> Body --> Cognitive Response/Label --> Emotion 10:18 
   Facial Feedback Hypothesis 10:33 
    Sensations From Facial Expressions And Becoming Aware Of Them Is What Leads To Emotional Experience 10:38 
    Most Connected To The James-Lange Theory 10:44 
    How Some Tests Are Done -- Pencil Or Coffee Stirrer 10:51 
    When We Do This Test Or Make Different Faces -- Our Expressions Feed Into Our Feelings 12:32 
    Fake It Til You Make It 13:11 
    How You Walk -- Speed, Stride And More Can Send Signals About Our Emotions 14:23 
   Modern View Of Emotion 15:09 
    Emotional Appraisal: Evaluating Personal Meaning Of A Stimulus 15:12 
    Emotional Intelligence: Emotional Competence, Including Empathy, Self-Control, Self-Awareness, And Other Skills 15:40 
   Emotions In The Body 17:14 
    Autonomic Nervous System 17:18 
   Emotions And The Body 19:07 
    Physiological Similarities Among Emotions 19:11 
    Differences In Brain Activity 19:53 
   Lie Detectors 21:24 
    Polygraph: Device That Records Changes In Heart Rate, Blood Pressure, Respiration, And Galvanic Skin Response (G S R); Lie Detector 21:31 
    Polygraphs -- Why Are They Not Necessarily Accurate? 21:47 
    Questions Asked 23:07 
    Irrelevant Questions 23:09 
    Relevant Questions 23:16 
    Control Questions 23:23 
   Detecting Emotions 24:14 
    Nonverbal Cues 24:18 
    In Animals, The Baring Of Teeth Is A Threat Or Warning Display 26:52 
   Review 27:12 
    What Are The Components Of An Emotion? 27:15 
    What Is The Link Between Emotional Arousal And The Autonomic Nervous System? 27:20 
    Do Different Emotions Activate Different Physiological And Brain Pattern Responses? 27:25 
    To Experience Emotions, Must We Consciously Interpret And Label Them? 27:35 
    Can You Spot A Fake Smile? What Should You Look At To Find A Fake? 27:46 
  Emotions: Non-Verbal Communication 28:28
   Intro 0:00 
   Three Types of Facial Expressions 0:12 
    Pleasantness-Unpleasantness 0:21 
    Attention-Rejection 0:27 
    Activation: Degree of Arousal a Person is Experiencing 0:37 
    Paul Ekman (Most Recently Famous For Being Connected to the Show Lie To Me, About a Psychologist Who Could Read People's NVC and Tell if They Were Lying 0:43 
    Microexpressions 1:11 
   Universal Emotions 2:47 
    Pictures Of Seven Emotions Whose Expressions Are Recognized Throughout The World 2:54 
   Nonverbal Communication (NVC) 5:35 
    Functions of NVC 5:41 
   Nonverbal Communication 9:52 
    Kinesics -- Study of Gestures and Movements During Communication 9:57 
   Nonverbal Communication 11:48 
    Proxemics -- Study of Space People Place Between Themselves and Others -- How the Space is Used -- Territory Markers 11:50 
   Nonverbal Communication, Continued 14:34 
    Paralanguage 14:41 
   Nonverbal Communication, Continued 19:26 
    Haptics -- The Study of Touching as NVC 19:30 
    Metacommunication 20:51 
   Nonverbal Communication, Continued 23:20 
    NVC is Not Universal -- Each Culture Has Its Own Display Rules 23:22 
   Review 24:23 
    How Do We Communicate Nonverbally? 24:26 
    Are Nonverbal Expressions of Emotion Universally Understood? 24:38 
    How Can Space Be Used to Communicate an Idea? 24:44 
    How Do Our Voices Send Messages That We May Not Be Aware Of? 25:50 
    Do Men and Women Communicate Differently? 27:37 
  Stress & Coping 47:10
   Intro 0:00 
   Objectives 0:08 
    Discuss Theories of Stress and the Effects of Stress on Psychological and Physical Well-Being 0:11 
   Health Psychology 0:33 
    Uses Behavioral Principles to Prevent Illness and Promote Health 0:41 
    Behavioral Medicine: Applies Psychology to Manage Medical Problems e.g. Asthma and Diabetes 0:46 
    Lifestyles Diseases: Diseases Related to Health-Damaging Personal Habits 1:12 
   Behavior Risk Factors 1:31 
    Behaviors That Increase the Chance of Disease, Injury, or Premature Death. 1:33 
    Disease-Prone Personality: Personality Type Associated With Poor Health; Person Tends to be Chronically Depressed, Anxious, Hostile, and Frequently Ill. 2:28 
   Stress, Hormones, and the Brain 2:51 
    Stress Activates the Sympathetic Nervous System 2:55 
    Adrenaline and Noradrenaline (Epinephrine and Norepinephrine) 3:06 
    Cortisol -- Not as Quick to Act, But Arouses the Body 3:32 
    Amygdala Recognizes a Threat, Message to Hypothalamus…Adrenal Glands Release Cortisol -- Great For Survival Situations 3:58 
    BUT -- In the Long Term, Elevated Levels Can Suppress the Immune System, Increase Blood Pressure and Blood Sugar, Decrease Libido, Produce Acne, Contribute to Obesity (Especially Belly Fat) and More 4:48 
    Anxiety Issues 5:08 
   Ways to Promote Health and Prevention 5:24 
    Refusal Skills Training: Program That Teaches Young People How to Resist Pressures to Begin Smoking 5:29 
    Life Skills Training: Teaches Stress Reduction, Self-Protection, Decision Making, Self-Control, and Social Skills 5:53 
    Community Health Campaign: Community-wide Education Program That Provides Information About How to Decrease Risk Factors and Promote Health 6:06 
    Role Model: Person Who Serves as a Positive Example of Good and Desirable Behavior 6:50 
    Wellness: Positive State of Good Health and Well-Being; More Than the Absence of Disease 6:59 
   Major Health Promoting Behaviors 7:17 
    Nutrition: Eat a Balanced, Low-Fat Diet; Appropriate Caloric Intake, Maintain Healthy Body Weight 7:29 
    Exercise: At Least 30 Mins. Of Aerobics 3-5 Days/Week 7:39 
    Blood Pressure: Lower BP With Diet and Exercise -- See Physician if Need Meds 7:51 
    Alcohol and Drugs: No More Than Two Drinks Per Day; Abstain From Doing Drugs 8:11 
    Tobacco: Do Not Smoke or Use Smokeless Tobacco 8:33 
    Sleep and Relaxation: Avoid Sleep Deprivation; Give Time for Relaxation/Meditation Daily 8:36 
    Sex: Practice Safer Sex; Avoid Unplanned Pregnancy 9:18 
    Injury: Curb Dangerous Driving Habits, Use Seat Belts, Minimize Sun Exposure, Avoid Dangerous Activities 9:32 
    Stress: Learn Stress Management; Lower Hostility 9:48 
   Stress 10:02 
    Mental and Physical Condition That Occurs When a Person Must Adjust or Adapt to the Environment 10:26 
    Stress Reaction: Physical Reaction to Stress 10:55 
    Stressor 11:07 
   Appraisal 11:52 
    Primary Appraisal -- Is It Relevant? Is It Positive? Threatening? 12:00 
    Secondary Appraisal -- Are There Coping Resources Available? Do I Have a Course of Action I Can Take? 12:15 
    Stressor -- Is It Intense? Repeating? Unpredictable? Uncontrollable? Pressure? 12:27 
    A Perceived Lack of Control is Just as Threatening as an Actual Lack of Control 13:43 
   Stressful Life Events and Illnesses 14:14 
    Catastrophes 14:19 
    Significant Life Changes 14:21 
    Daily Hassles 14:30 
    My Students Usually Make Lists About Stressors and Various Symptoms of Stress 16:09 
    By the End of the Period, They are Usually Incredibly Stressed Just Thinking About Stress 18:10 
   Signs of Ongoing Stress 18:30 
    Emotional Signs: Anxiety, Apathy, Irritability, Mental Fatigue 18:33 
    Behavioral Signs: Avoidance of Responsibilities and Relationships, Extreme or Self-Destructive Behavior, Self-Neglect, Poor Judgment 18:43 
    Physical Signs: Excessive Worry About Illness, Frequent Illness, Overuse of Medicines 19:14 
   Stress Response System 19:52 
    Hans Seyle Connected Physiology and Endocrine System to Stress 19:54 
    General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) 20:04 
    Exhaustion Phase Can Be Where Burnout Occurs and a Person Gets Sick 20:31 
   Burnout 20:40 
    Job-Related Condition (Usually in Helping Professions) of Physical, Mental, and Emotional Exhaustion, Has Three Aspects 20:47 
    Emotional Exhaustion 21:11 
    Cynicism 21:23 
    Feeling of Lack of Accomplishment 21:32 
   Stressful Life Events and Illness 22:04 
    Coronary Heart Disease 22:08 
    Type A and Type B Personalities 22:15 
    Type A -- Friedman and Rosenman's Term For Competitive, Hard-Driving, Impatient, Verbally Aggressive, and Anger-Prone People 22:18 
    Type B -- Friedman and Rosenman's Term for Easygoing, Relaxed People 22:35 
    Psychophysiological Illnesses: Literally Mind-Body Illness; Any Stress-Related Physical Illness, Such as Hypertension and Some Headaches 23:07 
    Psychoneuroimmunology: The Study of How Psychological, Neural and Endocrine Processes Together Affect the Immune System and Resulting Health 25:24 
   Coping With Threats 25:51 
    Emotion-Focused Coping: Trying to Control One's Emotional Reactions to the Situation 25:54 
    Problem-Focused Coping: Managing or Remedying the Distressing Situation 26:25 
    Traumatic Stresses: Extreme Events That Cause Psychological Injury or Intense Emotional Pain 27:03 
   Frustration 27:36 
    Negative Emotional State That Occurs When One is Prevented From Reaching Desired Goals 28:02 
    External Frustration: Based on External Conditions That Impede Progress Toward a Goal 28:23 
    Personal Frustration: Caused by Personal Characteristics That Impede Progress Toward a Goal 28:32 
   Reactions to Frustration 28:48 
    Aggression: Any Response Made With the Intention of Harming a Person, Animal, or Object 28:52 
    Displaced Aggression: Redirecting Aggression to a Target Other Than the Source of One's Frustration 29:21 
    Scapegoating: Blaming a Person or Group for Conditions They Did Not Create; The Scapegoat is a Habitual Target of Displaced Aggression 29:32 
    Escape: May Mean Actually Leaving a Source of Frustration (Dropping Out of School) or Psychologically Escaping (Apathy) 29:44 
    Conflict: Stressful Condition That Occurs When a Person Must Choose Between Contradictory Needs, Desires, Motives, or Demands 30:43 
   Cognition and Stress 31:17 
    Later, in the Personality Unit, We Will Examine Defense Mechanisms, a Freudian Set of Ideas 31:20 
   Self-Defeating Fears and Attitudes 32:43 
    It Would Be Terrible to be Rejected, Abandoned or Alone. I Must Have Love and Approval Before I Can Feel Good About Myself. 32:52 
    If Someone Criticizes Me, It Means There's Something Wrong With Me. 33:05 
    I Must Always Please People and Live Up to Everyone's Expectations. 33:15 
    I Am Basically Defective and Inferior to Other People. 33:30 
   Self-Defeating Fears and Attitudes 33:53 
    Other People Are to Blame For My Problems. 33:54 
    The World Should Always Be the Way I Want it To Be. 34:03 
    Other People Should Always Meet My Expectations. 34:17 
    If I Worry or Feel Bad About a Situation, It Will Somehow Make Things Better. It's Not Really Safe to Feel Happy and Optimistic. 34:23 
    I'm Hopeless and Bound to Feel Depressed Forever Because the Problems in My Life Are Impossible to Solve. 34:44 
    I Must Always Try to Be Perfect. There Are Several Kinds of Perfectionism That Can Make You Unhappy. 35:07 
   Learned Helplessness (Seligman) 35:16 
    Acquired (Learned) Inability to Overcome Obstacles and Avoid Aversive Stimuli; Learned Passivity 35:28 
    Can Lead to or Contribute to Depression 36:00 
   Measuring Stress 36:55 
    Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS): Rates The Impact of Various Life Events on the Likelihood of Contracting Illness 36:59 
    Microstressors (Hassles): Minor But Frequent Stressors 37:30 
    Accultative Stress: Caused By Many Changes and Adaptations Required When a Person Moves to a Foreign Culture 37:56 
   Managing Stress 38:32 
    Use of Behavioral Strategies to Reduce Stress and Improve Coping Skills 38:38 
    Progressive Relaxation: Produces Deep Relaxation Throughout the Body By Tightening all Muscles in an Ares and then Relaxing Them 38:40 
    Guided Imagery: Visualizing Images That Are Calming, Relaxing, or Beneficial in Other Ways 39:44 
    Stress Inoculation: Using Positive Coping Statements Internally to Control Fear and Anxiety; Designed to Combat Negative Self-Statements. 39:58 
    Coping Statements: Reassuring, Self-Enhancing Statements Used to Stop Self-Critical Thinking 40:00 
    Find Positive Message Accounts on Social Media 41:31 
   Managing Stress 42:15 
    Reduce Your Vulnerabilities 42:17 
    Use Your Support System 42:28 
    Prepare Rather Than Worry 42:37 
    Breathe 42:43 
    Choose Instead of Reacting 42:47 
    Prioritize 42:57 
    Learn to Say No 43:02 
    Journal 43:14 
    Unplug 45:10 
    Laugh 45:26 
    Know Yourself 45:34 
   Review 45:54 
    What is Stress? 45:57 
    What Events Provoke Stress Responses? 46:03 
    Why Are Some of Us More Prone Than Others to Coronary Heart Disease? 46:06 
    How Does Our Thinking Promote Stress Reactions? 46:12 
    What Behaviors Help Us Reduce Stress Reactions? 46:16 

Section 9: Developmental Psychology

  Development, Part 1 34:36
   Intro 0:00 
   Developmental Psychology (7-9%) 0:08 
    Life-Span Approach 0:21 
    Research Methods (e.g. Longitudinal, Cross-Sectional) 0:26 
    Heredity-Environment Issues 0:29 
    Developmental Theories 0:32 
    Dimensions of Development 0:37 
    Sex Roles and Gender Roles 0:42 
    Developmental Psychology Deals With the Behavior of Organisms From Conception to Death and Examines the Processes That Contribute to Behavioral Change Throughout the Life Span. The Major Areas of Emphasis in the Course are Prenatal Development, Motor Development, Socialization, Cognitive Development, Adolescence, and Adulthood 0:52 
   Developmental Psychology 1:20 
    Branch of Psychology That Studies Physical, Cognitive, and Social Change Throughout the Life Span (The Study of Progressive Changes in Behavior and Abilities) 1:22 
    Issues Within Developmental Psych 1:33 
    Nature vs. Nurture 1:39 
    Continuity and Stages 1:58 
    Stability and Change 2:12 
   Heredity 2:42 
    Heredity (Nature): Transmission of Physical and Psychological Characteristics From Parents to Their Children Through Genes 2:50 
    DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid): Molecular Structure, Shaped Like a Double Helix That Contains Coded Genetic Information 3:00 
    Genes: Specific Areas on a Strand of DNA That Carry Hereditary Information 3:10 
   Prenatal Development and the Newborn 3:31 
    Conception 3:34 
    Prenatal Development 4:25 
   Prenatal Issues 5:21 
    Placenta: An Organ That Connects the Developing Fetus to the Uterine Wall to Allow Nutrient Uptake. Waste Elimination, and Gas Exchange Via the Mother's Blood Supply 5:26 
    Teratogens: Agents, Such as Chemicals and Viruses, That Can Reach the Embryo or Fetus During Prenatal Development and Cause Harm 6:34 
    Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Physical and Cognitive Abnormalities -- Low Birth Weight, Small Head, Body Defects, Facial Malformations 9:16 
   Minimizing Prenatal Risks 10:04 
    Maintain Good Nutrition During Pregnancy 10:07 
    Learn Relaxation and Stress Reduction Techniques to Ease Transition to Motherhood 10:16 
    Avoid Teratogens and Other Harmful Substances 10:32 
    Get Adequate Exercise During Pregnancy 10:38 
    Obtain General Education About Pregnancy and Childbirth 11:01 
    Teenage Females and Hip Bones -- Difficulty During Childbirth 11:14 
   Childbirth 11:52 
    Medicated Birth: Traditional in West; Mother is Assisted by Physician and Given Drugs For Pain (Recent Research Indicates Epidurals Can Be Quite Dangerous) 11:55 
    Prepared Childbirth: Parents Learn Specific Behavioral Techniques to Manage Pain and Facilitate Labor. Lamaze Methods is Most Famous 12:21 
    Traditional Childbirth in Remote Cultures (Attendants, Family, Solo, Midwife) 12:38 
    The Placenta -- What Should Be Done With It? 13:22 
   Potential Problems 14:10 
    Congenital Problem: A Problem or Defect That Occurs During Prenatal Development -- Exists at Birth and Sometimes Before Birth; Birth Defect 14:14 
    Genetic Disorder: Problem Caused by Inherited Characteristics From Parents; May Not be Visible at Birth (e.g. Cystic Fibrosis, Metabolic Disorders (Hypothyroidism), and Many Others 15:40 
   The Newborn (Neonate): Reflexes 16:23 
    Grasping: If an Object is Placed in the Infant's Palm, She'll Grasp It Automatically (All Reflexes Are Automatic Responses; i.e., They Come From Nature, Not Nurture) 16:39 
    Rooting: Lightly Touch the Infant's Cheek and He'll Turn Toward The Object and Attempt to Nurse; Helps Infant Find Nipple or Food 17:02 
    Sucking: Touch an Object or Nipple to the Infant's Mouth And She'll Make Rhythmic Sucking Movements 17:22 
    Moro: If a Baby's Position is Abruptly Changed or if He is Startled by a Loud Noise, He Will Make a Hugging Motion 18:30 
    Babinski: Firmly Touch Foot, Toes Fan Out 18:42 
    There Are Others, But These You Need to Know 18:55 
   The Newborn 19:13 
    Temperament: The Physical Core of Personality; Includes Sensitivity, Irritability, Distractibility, and Typical Mood 19:16 
   Emotional and Social Development 20:29 
    Basic Emotions: Anger, Fear, Joy; Appear to be Unlearned 20:33 
    Social Smile: Smiling Elicited by Social Stimuli; Not Exclusive to Seeing Parents 20:45 
    Self-Awareness: Awareness of Oneself as a Person; Can Be Tested by Having Infants Look in a Mirror and See if They Recognize Themselves 21:10 
    Social Referencing: Observing Other People To Get Information or Guidance 21:56 
   Maturation 23:25 
    Physical Growth and Development of the Body, Brain, and Nervous System -- Coded in Genes 23:29 
    Sets the Basic Course of Development; Experience Adjusts It 23:40 
    Increased Muscular Control Occurs in Patterns; Order of Maturation is Almost Universal 24:08 
    Readiness: When Maturation Has Advanced Enough to Allow Rapid Acquisition of a Particular Skill 25:01 
   Newborns and the Brain 25:56 
    In Womb, Brain Cells Were Formed at Almost 1/4 Million Per Minute 26:00 
    Newborns Have All the Brain Cells They Will Ever Possess 26:09 
    The Brain Begins to Network -- Lots of Neurons, But Few Connections -- Explosive Growth as an Infant -- Walking, Talking, Remembering 26:45 
   Deprivation and Enrichment 28:00 
    Deprivation: Lack of Normal Stimulation, Nutrition, Comfort, or Love 28:04 
    Enrichment: When an Environment is Deliberately Made More Complex and Intellectually Stimulating and Emotionally Supportive 32:09 
   Review 33:09 
    How Does Life Develop Before Birth? 33:12 
    What Are Some Birth Defects That Babies Can Be Born With? 33:15 
    What Are Some Newborn Abilities, and How Do Researchers Explore Infants' Mental Abilities? 33:18 
    What is Maturation And How Does it Differ From Development? 33:57 
    During Infancy and Childhood, How Do the Brain and Motor Skills Develop? 34:01 
    What Are Some Different Ways in Which We Develop? 34:06 
  Development, Part II 29:30
   Intro 0:00 
   Attachment 0:08 
    Rapid, Relatively Permanent Type of Learning That Occurs During a Limited Time Period Early in Life 0:13 
    Conrad Lorenz (an Ethologist) Studied Natural Behavior Patterns of Animals 0:25 
    Hatched Baby Geese in an Incubator; When Geese Were Born, First Moving Object They Saw Was Lorenz 0:33 
    They Followed Him Around and Acted as Though He Were Their Mother 0:46 
   Attachment and Ainsworth 1:42 
    Attachment is the Strong Emotional Bond Young Children Form With Their Parents or Primary Caregivers 1:44 
    Ainsworth's Strange Situation 1:55 
    Secure and Insecure Attachment Styles 2:03 
    Emotional Attachment: Close Emotional Bond That Infants Form With Parents, Caregivers, or Others 2:10 
    Separation Anxiety: Crying and Signs of Fear When a Child is Left Alone or is With a Stranger; Generally Appears Around 8-12 Months 2:33 
    Separation Anxiety Disorder: Severe and Prolonged Distress Displayed by Children When Separated From Parents/Caregivers 3:13 
   The Strange Situation Experiment 3:36 
    The Strange Situation Experiment 3:38 
    Different Combinations Where Baby is in the Company of a Parent, Stranger, Both, or None 3:45 
    YouTube Has a Video of Experiment 4:29 
   Quality of Attachment 4:50 
    Secure: Stable and Positive Emotional Bond 5:00 
    Insecure -Avoidant: Anxious Emotional Bond; Tendency to Avoid Reunion With Parent or Caregiver 5:07 
    Insecure-Ambivalent: Anxious Emotional Bond; Desire to be With Parent or Caregiver and Some Resistance to Being Reunited With Mom 5:27 
    Disorganized/Disoriented: Show a Lack of Clear Attachment Behavior; May Seem Confused or Apprehensive in Presence of Caregiver 5:48 
   Harlow and Contact Comfort 6:06 
    Pleasant and Reassuring Feeling Babies Get From Touching Something Warm and Soft, Especially the Mother 6:23 
    Research With Rhesus Monkeys (Macaques) -- Maternal Separation/Deprivation 6:39 
    Social Isolation Experiments (Severe Disturbances) 6:52 
    Cloth and Wire Mother (With Food) 8:02 
    Importance of Care-Giving and Companionship in Social and Cognitive Development 9:06 
    Ethically, Could Not be Done Today -- May Have Influenced the Rise of the Animal Rights Movement 9:15 
   Physical Development 9:58 
    Motor Development: e.g. Walking 10:00 
    Maturation and Infant Memory 11:48 
   Optimal Caregiving 12:58 
    Proactive Maternal Influences: A Mother's Warm, Educational Interactions With Her Child 13:02 
    Goodness of Fit: (Chess & Thomas): Degree to Which Parents and Child Have Compatible Temeraments 13:30 
    Paternal Influences: Sum of All Effects a Father Has on His Child -- As American Society Changes, The More of a Role Males Are Seen as Having on the Development of Their Children 13:50 
   Parenting Styles (Baumrind) 14:52 
    Authoritarian: Enforce Rigid Rules and Demand Strict Obedience to Authority. Children Tend to Be Emotionally Stiff and Lacking in Curiosity 15:05 
    Overly Permissive: Give Little Guidance. Allow too Much Freedom, Or Don't Hold Children Accountable For Their Actions. Children Tend to be Dependent and Immature and Frequently Misbehave. 15:47 
    Authoritative: Provide Firm and Consistent Guidance Combined With Love and Affection. Children Tend to be Competent, Self-Controlled, Independent, and Assertive 16:30 
    Others Added Indulgent and Neglectful Styles 18:04 
    Studied Corporal Punishment --> Mild Spanking, Not With Authoritarian, Likely Not Harmful 19:00 
   Types of Child Discipline 20:14 
    Power Assertion: Using Physical Punishment or a Show of Force, e.g. Removing Toys or Privileges 20:16 
    Withdrawal of Love: Withholding Affection 20:37 
    Management Techniques: Combine Praise, Recognition, Approval, Rules, and Reasoning to Encourage Desirable Behavior 21:04 
    Have Effective Communication 22:49 
   Consequences 24:39 
    Natural Consequences: Effects That Naturally Follow a Particular Behavior; Intrinsic Effects 24:42 
    Logical Consequences: Rational and Reasonable Effects Defined by Parents 25:06 
   Review 25:42 
    How Does Life Develop Before Birth? 25:46 
    What Are Some Newborn Abilities, and How Do Researchers Explore Infants' Mental Abilities? 25:51 
    During Infancy and Childhood, How Do the Brain and Motor Skills Develop? 25:58 
    How Do Parent-Infant Attachment Bonds Form? 26:07 
    How Have Psychologists Studied Attachment Differences and What Have They Learned About the Effects of Temerament and Parenting? 26:13 
    Do Parental Neglect, Family Disruption, or Day Care Affect Children's Attachment? 26:33 
    How Do Children's Self-Concepts Develop, and How Are Children's Traits Related to Parenting Styles? 26:51 
    To What Extent is Our Development Shaped By Early Stimulation, By Parents, and By Peers? 28:46 
  Development, Part III 28:31
   Intro 0:00 
   Cognition 0:10 
    Cognition: Is the Mental Activity of Knowing and the Process By Which Knowledge is Acquired And Problems Are Solved 0:13 
   Cognitive Development 0:41 
    Jean Piaget (1896-1980) 0:43 
    A Schema is an Organized Cluster of Knowledge You Use to Understand and Interpret Information 1:10 
    Assimilation is the Process of Absorbing New Information Into Existing Schemas 2:04 
    Accommodation is the Process of Changing Schemas in Order to Absorb New Information 3:50 
   Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development 4:22 
    Chart Describing Different Stages of Development According to Piaget 4:28 
   Sensorimotor Stage 9:37 
    Infants Develop the Ability to Coordinate Sensory Input With Motor Actions. 9:42 
    Object Permanence is the Realization That An Object Continues to Exist Even if You Can't See It Or Touch It. 10:04 
    Representational Thought is the Ability to Picture (or Represent) Something in Your Mind, Even When Not Physically Present. 10:31 
   Preoperational Stage 10:54 
    Children Think in Terms of Language and Begin to Engage in Make-Believe Play. 11:01 
    Egocentrism is the Tendency to View the World From Your Own Perspective Without Recognizing That Others May Have Different Viewpoints. 11:33 
    Conservation is the Understanding that Certain Physical Properties of an Object Remain Unchanged Despite Changes in its Appearance. 11:53 
    Animism -- e.g. The Sun is Following Us 15:25 
    Literal Thinking 13:52 
    Thinking Aloud 13:28 
   Concrete Operational Stage 15:48 
    Children Perform Mental Operations and Begin Logical Reasoning (Operations) 15:52 
    Working on Conservation Problem (Volume) 16:00 
    Children's Thinking and Use of Logic are Limited to Concrete Reality, Not Abstract or Hypothetical Concepts. 16:08 
    Classify, Organize, Categorize 16:20 
   Formal Operations Stage 17:52 
    Children Reason Abstractly and Make Predictions About Hypothetical Situations 17:58 
    Problem Solving Involves Systemic and Reflective Strategies. 18:03 
    Not everyone Gets to This Stage. 18:08 
   Refinements of Piaget's Theory 20:12 
    Children are More Cognitively Advanced and Adults are Less Cognitively Complex Than Piaget's Theory Suggests. 20:18 
    Theory of Mind: People's Ideas About Their Own and Others' Mental States (About Their Feelings, Perceptions, and Thoughts) That Allow You to Understand and Predict Their Behavior. 20:43 
    Social and Environmental Factors Have a Greater Influence on Cognitive Development Than Piaget Thought 20:57 
   Lev Vygotsky 21:32 
    Children's Cognitive Development is Heavily Influenced by Social and Cultural Factors 21:42 
    Children's Thinking Develops Through Dialogues With More Capable People 21:52 
    Importance of Social Interaction -- Community and Culture Plays a Central Role in the Process of Making Meaning and Cognitive Development 22:56 
    Social Factors are Big (Piaget Minimized Them) 23:23 
    Emphasis on Role of Language in Cognitive Development (Piaget Minimized This) 23:31 
   More Vygotsky 23:43 
    Zone of Proximal Development -- Range of Tasks a Child Cannot Master Alone Even Though They Are Close to Having the Necessary Mental Skills; They Need Guidance From a Skilled Partner in Order to Complete the Task 23:48 
    Scaffolding: Framework or Temporary Support. Adults Help Children Learn How to Think by Scaffolding, or Supporting, Their Attempts to Solve a Problem or to Discover Principles 25:03 
   Review 27:49 
    How Does Thinking Change During Childhood Into Adulthood for Piaget? 27:51 
    How Did Vygotsky Add to Piaget's Work? 28:02 
    What Aspect of Vygotsky Do You See In School? 28:07 
  Development, Part IV 28:20
   Intro 0:00 
   Erikson: Psycho-Social Development 0:10 
    Eight Stages of Psychosocial Dilemmas 0:18 
    Student of Freud 0:23 
    Added Social Aspect to Freud's Ideas 0:28 
    Examined Entire Lifespan 0:32 
   Stage 1: Trust Vs. Mistrust (Birth-1) 0:40 
    Children Are Completely Dependent on Others 1:03 
    Trust: Established When Babies are Given Adequate Warmth, Touching, Love, and Physical Care 1:06 
    Mistrust: Caused by Inadequate or Unpredictable Care 1:14 
    Important Events: Feeding 1:41 
   Stage 2: Autonomy Vs. Shame and Doubt (1-3) 1:58 
    Autonomy: Doing Things for Themselves 2:05 
    Overprotective and Ridiculing Children May Cause Children to Doubt Abilities and Feel Shameful 2:15 
    Important Events: Toilet Training 2:52 
   Stage 3: Initiative Vs. Guilt (3-5) 3:01 
    Initiative: Parents Reinforce Via Giving Children Freedom 3:09 
    Guilt: May Occur if Parents Criticize, Prevent Play or Discourage a Child's Questions 3:34 
    Important Events: Exploration 4:00 
   Stage 4: Industry Vs. Inferiority (6-12) 4:36 
    Industry: Occurs When Child is Praised for Productive Activities 4:42 
    Inferiority: Occurs if Child's Efforts are Regarded as Messy or Inadequate 4:55 
    Important Events: School 5:10 
   Stage 5: Identity Vs. Role Confusion (Adolescence) 5:31 
    Identity: For Adolescents, Who am I? 5:43 
    Role Confusion: Occurs When Adolescents are Unsure of Where They are Going and Who They Are 6:34 
    Important Events: Social Relationships 6:42 
   Stage 6: Intimacy Vs. Isolation (Young Adulthood) 7:53 
    Intimacy: Ability to Care About Others and Share Experiences With Them 8:16 
    Isolation: Feeling Alone and Uncared for 8:38 
    Important Events: Relationships (Emotionally Intimate) 8:59 
   Stage 7: Generativity Vs. Stagnation (Middle Adulthood) 9:20 
    Generativity: Interest in Guiding the Next Generation 9:27 
    Stagnation: When One is Only Concerned With One's Own Needs and Comforts 10:17 
    Important Events: Work and Parenthood 10:48 
   Stage 8: Integrity Vs. Despair (Late Adulthood) 10:53 
    Integrity: Self-Respect; Developed When People Have Lived Richly and Responsibly 11:04 
    Despair: Occurs When Previous Life Events are Viewed With Regret 11:44 
    Important Events: Reflection on Life 12:05 
   Kohlberg and Moral Development 13:11 
    Took Stage Theories and Applied to Moral Development 13:12 
    Gave Children Scenarios and Asked for Reasoning on What was Right and Wrong 13:39 
    Heinz Dilemma Example 13:58 
    Reasoning Created Patterns-Worked into Three Levels (Each With Two Stages) 14:54 
    Assumed Humans are Communicative, Possessed Reason and a Desire to Understand World 15:28 
   Three Levels of Moral Development 16:09 
    Preconventional: Moral Thinking Based on Consequences of Actions or Choices 16:10 
    Conventional: Reasoning Based on a Desire to Please Others or to Follow Accepted Rules and Values 17:48 
    Postconventional: Follows Self-Accepted Moral Principles 18:24 
   Level 1 (Pre-Conventional) 19:17 
    1. Obedience and Punishment Orientation -- How Can I Avoid Punishment? 19:21 
    2. Self-Interest Orientation -- What's in it for Me? 19:35 
   Level 2 (Conventional) 20:04 
    3. Interpersonal Accord and Conformity (Good Boy/Good Girl Attitude) 20:09 
    4. Authority and Social-Order Maintaining Orientation 20:38 
   Level 3 (Post-Conventional) 21:36 
    5. Social Contract Orientation 21:37 
    6. Universal Ethics Principles (Morality of Individual Principles) 23:41 
   Criticisms of Kohlberg 24:50 
    Cross-Cultural, Most Are in the First 4 Stages 24:53 
    Post-Conventional Seem to Be European and North American Educated Middle Class Which Values Individualism 25:02 
    Collectivist Cultures' Morality Ignored/Viewed Negatively 25:28 
    Carol Gilligan Was a Colleague Who Focused on Ethical Reasoning and Ethical Relationships 25:45 
    Viewed Kohlberg's Work as Androcentric 25:56 
    Lacked Social Justice and Cultural Neutrality 26:36 
   Review 26:55 
    How did Piaget, Kohlberg, and Later Researchers Describe Adolescent Cognitive and Moral Development? 26:56 
    How Does Thinking Change During Childhood Into Adulthood for Piaget? 27:09 
    Erikson Talks About Psychosocial Development -- Describe The Crises of Each Stage and How Positive Growth Develops From Each 27:20 
    Kohlberg Examines Moral Development -- Describe How He Determined a Person Was at a Particular Stage 27:37 
    Why Does Gillian Criticize Kohlberg's Work? Give Examples 27:53 
  Development, Part V 43:17
   Intro 0:00 
   North American Adults-Challenges 0:14 
    Gould's Developmental Challenges for Adults 0:15 
    Escape From Dominance (Ages 16-18) 0:18 
    Leaving the Family (Ages 18-22) 0:38 
    Building a Workable Life (Ages 22-28) 0:44 
    Crisis of Questions (Ages 29-34) 1:00 
    Crisis of Urgency (Ages 35-43) 1:16 
    Attaining Stability (Ages 53-50) 1:33 
    Mellowing (Ages 50 and Up) 1:49 
   Emerging Adulthood 2:37 
    For Some People In Modern Cultures, A Period From Late Teens to Mid-Twenties 2:38 
    Bridging the Gap Between Adolescent Dependence and Full Independence and Responsible Adulthood 2:45 
   Levinson's Challenges 5:24 
    Early Adulthood Transition (17-22) 5:25 
    Age 30 Transition (28-33) 5:36 
    Midlife Transition (40-45) 6:01 
    Age 50 Transition (50-55) 6:07 
    Late Adult Transition (60-65) 7:04 
   Female Middle Age Issues 7:15 
    Menopause 7:18 
    Empty Nest Syndrome 8:35 
   Male Middle-Age Issues 10:08 
    Climacteric 10:09 
    Andropause 10:37 
   Gerontology and Study of Aging 12:06 
    Gerontologists Study Aging and its Effects 12:07 
    Intellectual Abilities 12:20 
    Fluid Abilities: Abilities Requiring Speed or Rapid Learning 12:26 
    Crystallized Abilities: Learned (Accumulated) Knowledge and Skills 12:48 
   Physical Development 15:13 
    Our Bodies Undergo Changes in Time 15:15 
    Metabolism 15:25 
    Possible Weight Changes 15:51 
    Lower Maximum Heart Rate (220 - Age) 15:55 
    Lower Muscle Strength 17:01 
    Reduced Lung Capacity 17:12 
    This Means Adaptation, Not Elimination of Physical Activity 17:16 
   Gerontology and Study of Aging 17:44 
    Disengagement Theory: Assumes That it is Normal and Desirable for People to Withdraw from Society as They Age 17:45 
    Activity Theory: People who Remain Active will Adjust Better to Aging (Productive Aging) 18:00 
    Ageism: Discrimination or Prejudice Based on a Person's Age 18:34 
   Physical and Cognitive Changes 19:16 
    Two Theories of Aging 19:17 
    Genetic Preprogramming Theory 19:21 
    Wear-and-Tear Theory 19:53 
    Aging and the Brain 20:06 
    Dementia 20:07 
    Wisdom: Expert Knowledge and Judgment About Important Issues in Life 20:51 
   Research Methods in Developmental Psych 21:15 
    Cross-Sectional Study - People of Different Ages are Compared With One Another 21:16 
    Longitudinal Study 23:29 
   Sex Development 25:49 
    Sex and Gender are Often Confused 25:50 
    Sex: Physical Characteristics of Male and Female (Biological) 25:58 
    Primary Sex Characteristics -- Body Structures that Makes Sexual Reproduction Possible 26:09 
    Secondary Sex Characteristics -- Non-Reproductive Sexual Characteristics 26:26 
   Gender 26:41 
    Gender: Biologically and Socially Influenced Characteristics by Which People Define Male and Female 26:42 
    Gender is a Socially Defined Set of Expectations (Roles) 26:55 
    Gender Identity: Sense of Being Male or Female 30:01 
    Gender Typing: Acquisition of Traditional Masculine or Feminine Role 30:51 
   Roles 31:19 
    Roles: Set of Expectations (Norms) About a Social Position Defining Behaviors 31:20 
    Gender Roles are Related to How Men and Women Should Behave 31:32 
    Gender Roles Examples 31:36 
   Gender Roles 32:49 
    Larry/Laurie Study 32:50 
    Traditional Roles Versus More Flexible and Adaptive Roles 34:15 
    Social Learning Theory 34:43 
    Bem Gender Role Inventory 35:17 
   Bem Gender Schema Theory 37:17 
    Gender Schemas Develop Through an Individual's Observation of Societal Classifications 37:23 
    Males and Females Cognitively Process and Categorize New Information in Environment, Based on Maleness or Femaleness 37:41 
    Self-Authorship Displayed by Individual's Categorization of, and Conformity to, Elements That Belong to Definition of Masculinity or Femininity 38:24 
   Dying, Death and Bereavement 39:11 
    Elizabeth Kubler-Ross 39:12 
    Criticisms of Her Theory, Including Methodology and Accuracy of Stages 39:21 
    Context Purposes Only 39:27 
    Stages Not Universal and Not Always Followed in Order 39:40 
   Stages of Reactions to Dying 39:49 
    Denial and Isolation 39:50 
    Anger 40:10 
    Bargaining 40:20 
    Depression 40:30 
    Acceptance 40:38 
   Bereavement and Grief 41:22 
    Bereavement 41:23 
    Grief 41:34 
    Shock 41:38 
    Pangs of Grief 41:52 
    Resolution 41:59 
   Review 42:26 
    What is Emerging Adulthood? 42:28 
    What Physical Changes Occur During Middle and Late Adulthood? 42:36 
    How do Memory and Intelligence Change with Age? 42:43 
    What Themes and Influences Mark Our Social Journey from Early Adulthood to Death? 42:47 
    What Are Some Ways In Which Males and Females Tend to be Alike and to Differ? 42:54 
    How do Nature and Nurture Together Form Our Gender? 42:59 

Section 10: Personality

  Personality, Part I 29:06
   Intro 0:00 
   X. Personality (5-7%) 0:14 
    Personality Theories and Approaches 0:27 
    Assessment Techniques 0:32 
    Growth and Adjustment 0:35 
    In This Section of the Course… 0:39 
   Objectives 1:01 
    Compare and Contrast Major Theories and Approaches to Explaining Personality (Psychoanalytic, Humanist, Cognitive, Trait, Social Learning, and Behavioral) 1:02 
    Describe and Compare Research Methods (E.g., Case Studies and Surveys) 1:11 
    Identify Frequently Used Assessment Strategies (MMPI, TAT) 1:15 
    Speculate How Cultural Context Can Facilitate or Constrain Personality Development 1:32 
    Identify Key Contributors to Personality Theory (E.g., Aldler, Bandura, Costa, McCrae, Freud, Jung, Maslow, Rogers) 1:49 
   Who Are You? 2:17 
    Know Thyself 2:48 
    Be True to Yourself 3:41 
    Each Of Use Is Really Many of Us 3:49 
    He Who Knows Others is Wise; He Who Knows Himself is Enlightened 4:48 
    I Am Whatever You Say I Am 5:12 
   Personality Basics 5:29 
    Persona 5:30 
    Greek Theatre 5:35 
    Do We Find the Self or Create the Self? 6:02 
   Defining Some Terms 6:31 
    Personality 6:32 
    Character 7:02 
    Temperament 7:42 
   What Is Personality? 8:13 
    Everything You Are, Think, Feel and Do 8:15 
    An Abstract Construct 8:21 
    Manifest in Behavior 9:39 
    Based on Perceptions of Behavior 9:32 
    We All Have Implicit Theories of Personality -- Philosophical Assumptions 10:22 
    Freedom V. Determinism 10:32 
    Heredity V. Environment 11:11 
    Uniqueness V. Universality 11:22 
    Active V. Reactive 11:59 
   What is the Self? 12:40 
    What is the Self? 12:41 
    Can We Accurately See/Perceive Ourselves or Others? 12:51 
    Self-Awareness 12:58 
    Schema Issues 14:22 
    Self-Knowledge 14:42 
    Self-Esteem 15:11 
    Self-Serving Bias 15:37 
    Lake Wobegon Effect on Self 16:18 
    Culture and Self - Individualistic Cultures and Collectivists Ones 17:00 
   Personality: Methods of Research 18:45 
    Case Study 18:46 
    Survey 20:19 
    Projective Tests (e.g. TAT and Rorschach) 21:10 
    Personality Inventories (Myers-Briggs, MMPI, Factor Analysis Big 5) 24:47 
    Observation 26:08 
    Experimentation 27:20 
   Review 28:12 
    What is Personality? 28:13 
    How is it Different from Character or Temperament? 28:20 
    How is it Shown to Others? 28:23 
    How do Psychologists Measure Personality? 28:27 
    How Valid and Reliable are the Tools That are Used? 28:32 
    What are Personality Inventories, and What are Their Strengths and Weaknesses as Trait-Assessment Tools? 28:37 
  Personality, Part II 21:39
   Intro 0:00 
   Overview on Personality Theories 0:09 
    Personality Theory: System of Concepts, Assumptions, Ideas, and Principles Proposed to Explain Personality 0:10 
    Six Perspectives 0:24 
    1. Trait 0:26 
    2. Psychodynamic 0:31 
    3. Behavioristic 0:35 
    4. Social Cognitive Theories 0:42 
    5. Humanistic Theories 0:54 
   Type Theories 1:02 
    Four Humors Theories 1:03 
    Hippocrates -- Blood, Phlegm, Black Bile, Yellow Bile 1:15 
    Sheldon's Somatyping -- Endomorphs, Mesomorphs, Ectomorphs 1:51 
   Gordon Allport and Traits 2:54 
    A Trait Is… 3:00 
    Common Traits 3:15 
    Individual Traits 3:21 
    Cardinal Traits 3:25 
    Central Traits 3:58 
    Secondary Traits 4:12 
   Raymond Cattell and Traits 4:51 
    Surface Traits 4:56 
    Source Traits 5:03 
    Cattell Created 16PF, Personality Test 5:19 
    Studied Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence 7:04 
    Created Culture Fair Intelligence Test 7:17 
   Paul Costa & Robert McCrae 7:33 
    Five Factor or Big 5 Personality Theory 7:35 
    Trait Theorists 7:43 
    Personality is Stable Past Age 30 7:45 
    Mnemonics - OCEAN or CANOE 8:03 
    Five Factors Contain All Other Personality Traits 8:31 
    NEO Personality Inventory 8:46 
   The Big Five Personality Factors 9:02 
    Openness to Experience, Conscientiousness, Extroversion, Agreeableness, Neuroticism 9:03 
    Emotional Stability (Neuroticism) 9:28 
    Extraversion 10:03 
    Openness 10:31 
    Agreeableness 11:12 
    Conscientiousness 11:35 
   Eysenck 12:05 
    Personality Based on Physiology and Genetics 12:06 
    Focus More on Temperament Than Personality 12:13 
    Eysenck Personality Questionnaire or EPQ 12:20 
   Eysenck's Theory of Personality 13:31 
    Eysenck's Theory of Personality Graphic Explanation 13:32 
   Traits, Situations, and Biology 16:57 
    Trait-Situation Interactions 16:58 
    Behavioral Genetics 17:57 
   Assessing the Trait Theories 19:23 
    Nearly All Agree That People Can Be Described by Traits 19:24 
    Disagreement as to Number of Traits That Make Up Human Personality 19:31 
    Traits Often Poor Predictors of Behavior 19:56 
    Situational Factors Often Run Counter to Traits 20:15 
    Do Not Address How or Why Individual Differences in Personality Develop or Emerge 20:21 
   Review 20:40 
    What are the Primary Viewpoints that are Used to Understand Personality?