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For more information, please see full course syllabus of AP Psychology
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Development, Part II

Development, Part II

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  1. Intro
    • Attachment
    • Attachment and Ainsworth
    • The Strange Situation Experiment
    • Quality of Attachment
    • Harlow and Contact Comfort
    • Physical Development
    • Optimal Caregiving
    • Parenting Styles (Baumrind)
    • Types of Child Discipline
    • Consequences
    • Review
    • Intro 0:00
    • Attachment 0:08
      • Rapid, Relatively Permanent Type of Learning That Occurs During a Limited Time Period Early in Life
      • Conrad Lorenz (an Ethologist) Studied Natural Behavior Patterns of Animals
      • Hatched Baby Geese in an Incubator; When Geese Were Born, First Moving Object They Saw Was Lorenz
      • They Followed Him Around and Acted as Though He Were Their Mother
    • Attachment and Ainsworth 1:42
      • Attachment is the Strong Emotional Bond Young Children Form With Their Parents or Primary Caregivers
      • Ainsworth's Strange Situation
      • Secure and Insecure Attachment Styles
      • Emotional Attachment: Close Emotional Bond That Infants Form With Parents, Caregivers, or Others
      • Separation Anxiety: Crying and Signs of Fear When a Child is Left Alone or is With a Stranger; Generally Appears Around 8-12 Months
      • Separation Anxiety Disorder: Severe and Prolonged Distress Displayed by Children When Separated From Parents/Caregivers
    • The Strange Situation Experiment 3:36
      • The Strange Situation Experiment
      • Different Combinations Where Baby is in the Company of a Parent, Stranger, Both, or None
      • YouTube Has a Video of Experiment
    • Quality of Attachment 4:50
      • Secure: Stable and Positive Emotional Bond
      • Insecure -Avoidant: Anxious Emotional Bond; Tendency to Avoid Reunion With Parent or Caregiver
      • Insecure-Ambivalent: Anxious Emotional Bond; Desire to be With Parent or Caregiver and Some Resistance to Being Reunited With Mom
      • Disorganized/Disoriented: Show a Lack of Clear Attachment Behavior; May Seem Confused or Apprehensive in Presence of Caregiver
    • Harlow and Contact Comfort 6:06
      • Pleasant and Reassuring Feeling Babies Get From Touching Something Warm and Soft, Especially the Mother
      • Research With Rhesus Monkeys (Macaques) -- Maternal Separation/Deprivation
      • Social Isolation Experiments (Severe Disturbances)
      • Cloth and Wire Mother (With Food)
      • Importance of Care-Giving and Companionship in Social and Cognitive Development
      • Ethically, Could Not be Done Today -- May Have Influenced the Rise of the Animal Rights Movement
    • Physical Development 9:58
      • Motor Development: e.g. Walking
      • Maturation and Infant Memory
    • Optimal Caregiving 12:58
      • Proactive Maternal Influences: A Mother's Warm, Educational Interactions With Her Child
      • Goodness of Fit: (Chess & Thomas): Degree to Which Parents and Child Have Compatible Temeraments
      • Paternal Influences: Sum of All Effects a Father Has on His Child -- As American Society Changes, The More of a Role Males Are Seen as Having on the Development of Their Children
    • Parenting Styles (Baumrind) 14:52
      • Authoritarian: Enforce Rigid Rules and Demand Strict Obedience to Authority. Children Tend to Be Emotionally Stiff and Lacking in Curiosity
      • Overly Permissive: Give Little Guidance. Allow too Much Freedom, Or Don't Hold Children Accountable For Their Actions. Children Tend to be Dependent and Immature and Frequently Misbehave.
      • Authoritative: Provide Firm and Consistent Guidance Combined With Love and Affection. Children Tend to be Competent, Self-Controlled, Independent, and Assertive
      • Others Added Indulgent and Neglectful Styles
      • Studied Corporal Punishment --> Mild Spanking, Not With Authoritarian, Likely Not Harmful
    • Types of Child Discipline 20:14
      • Power Assertion: Using Physical Punishment or a Show of Force, e.g. Removing Toys or Privileges
      • Withdrawal of Love: Withholding Affection
      • Management Techniques: Combine Praise, Recognition, Approval, Rules, and Reasoning to Encourage Desirable Behavior
      • Have Effective Communication
    • Consequences 24:39
      • Natural Consequences: Effects That Naturally Follow a Particular Behavior; Intrinsic Effects
      • Logical Consequences: Rational and Reasonable Effects Defined by Parents
    • Review 25:42
      • How Does Life Develop Before Birth?
      • What Are Some Newborn Abilities, and How Do Researchers Explore Infants' Mental Abilities?
      • During Infancy and Childhood, How Do the Brain and Motor Skills Develop?
      • How Do Parent-Infant Attachment Bonds Form?
      • How Have Psychologists Studied Attachment Differences and What Have They Learned About the Effects of Temerament and Parenting?
      • Do Parental Neglect, Family Disruption, or Day Care Affect Children's Attachment?
      • How Do Children's Self-Concepts Develop, and How Are Children's Traits Related to Parenting Styles?
      • To What Extent is Our Development Shaped By Early Stimulation, By Parents, and By Peers?