Section 1: Review 

Naming Compounds 
41:24 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Periodic Table of Elements 
0:15  
 
Naming Compounds 
3:13  
 
 Definition and Examples of Ions 
3:14  
 
 Ionic (Symbol to Name): NaCl 
5:23  
 
 Ionic (Name to Symbol): Calcium Oxide 
7:58  
 
 Ionic  Polyatoms Anions: Examples 
12:45  
 
 Ionic  Polyatoms Anions (Symbol to Name): KClO 
14:50  
 
 Ionic  Polyatoms Anions (Name to Symbol): Potassium Phosphate 
15:49  
 
 Ionic Compounds Involving Transition Metals (Symbol to Name): Co₂(CO₃)₃ 
20:48  
 
 Ionic Compounds Involving Transition Metals (Name to Symbol): Palladium 2 Acetate 
22:44  
 
 Naming Covalent Compounds (Symbol to Name): CO 
26:21  
 
 Naming Covalent Compounds (Name to Symbol): Nitrogen Trifluoride 
27:34  
 
 Naming Covalent Compounds (Name to Symbol): Dichlorine Monoxide 
27:57  
 
 Naming Acids Introduction 
28:11  
 
 Naming Acids (Name to Symbol): Chlorous Acid 
35:08  
 
 % Composition by Mass Example 
37:38  

Stoichiometry 
37:19 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Stoichiometry 
0:25  
 
 Introduction to Stoichiometry 
0:26  
 
 Example 1 
5:03  
 
 Example 2 
10:17  
 
 Example 3 
15:09  
 
 Example 4 
24:02  
 
 Example 5: Questions 
28:11  
 
 Example 5: Part A  Limiting Reactant 
30:30  
 
 Example 5: Part B 
32:27  
 
 Example 5: Part C 
35:00  
Section 2: Aqueous Reactions & Stoichiometry 

Precipitation Reactions 
31:14 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Precipitation Reactions 
0:53  
 
 Dissociation of ionic Compounds 
0:54  
 
 Solubility Guidelines for ionic Compounds: Soluble Ionic Compounds 
8:15  
 
 Solubility Guidelines for ionic Compounds: Insoluble ionic Compounds 
12:56  
 
 Precipitation Reactions 
14:08  
 
 Example 1: Mixing a Solution of BaCl₂ & K₂SO₄ 
21:21  
 
 Example 2: Mixing a Solution of Mg(NO₃)₂ & KI 
26:10  

AcidBase Reactions 
43:21 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
AcidBase Reactions 
1:00  
 
 Introduction to Acid: Monoprotic Acid and Polyprotic Acid 
1:01  
 
 Introduction to Base 
8:28  
 
 Neutralization 
11:45  
 
 Example 1 
16:17  
 
 Example 2 
21:55  
 
 Molarity 
24:50  
 
 Example 3 
26:50  
 
 Example 4 
30:01  
 
 Example 4: Limiting Reactant 
37:51  
 
 Example 4: Reaction Part 
40:01  

Oxidation Reduction Reactions 
47:58 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Oxidation Reduction Reactions 
0:26  
 
 Oxidation and Reduction Overview 
0:27  
 
 How Can One Tell Whether OxidationReduction has Taken Place? 
7:13  
 
 Rules for Assigning Oxidation State: Number 1 
11:22  
 
 Rules for Assigning Oxidation State: Number 2 
12:46  
 
 Rules for Assigning Oxidation State: Number 3 
13:25  
 
 Rules for Assigning Oxidation State: Number 4 
14:50  
 
 Rules for Assigning Oxidation State: Number 5 
15:41  
 
 Rules for Assigning Oxidation State: Number 6 
17:00  
 
 Example 1: Determine the Oxidation State of Sulfur in the Following Compounds 
18:20  
 
Activity Series and Reduction Properties 
25:32  
 
 Activity Series and Reduction Properties 
25:33  
 
 Example 2: Write the Balance Molecular, Total Ionic, and Net Ionic Equations for Al + HCl 
31:37  
 
 Example 3 
34:25  
 
 Example 4 
37:55  

Stoichiometry Examples 
31:50 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Stoichiometry Example 1 
0:36  
 
 Example 1: Question and Answer 
0:37  
 
Stoichiometry Example 2 
6:57  
 
 Example 2: Questions 
6:58  
 
 Example 2: Part A Solution 
12:16  
 
 Example 2: Part B Solution 
13:05  
 
 Example 2: Part C Solution 
14:00  
 
 Example 2: Part D Solution 
14:38  
 
Stoichiometry Example 3 
17:56  
 
 Example 3: Questions 
17:57  
 
 Example 3: Part A Solution 
19:51  
 
 Example 3: Part B Solution 
21:43  
 
 Example 3: Part C Solution 
26:46  
Section 3: Gases 

Pressure, Gas Laws, & The Ideal Gas Equation 
49:40 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Pressure 
0:22  
 
 Pressure Overview 
0:23  
 
 Torricelli: Barometer 
4:35  
 
 Measuring Gas Pressure in a Container 
7:49  
 
 Boyle's Law 
12:40  
 
 Example 1 
16:56  
 
Gas Laws 
21:18  
 
 Gas Laws 
21:19  
 
 Avogadro's Law 
26:16  
 
 Example 2 
31:47  
 
Ideal Gas Equation 
38:20  
 
 Standard Temperature and Pressure (STP) 
38:21  
 
 Example 3 
40:43  

Partial Pressure, Mol Fraction, & Vapor Pressure 
32:00 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Gases 
0:27  
 
 Gases 
0:28  
 
 Mole Fractions 
5:52  
 
 Vapor Pressure 
8:22  
 
 Example 1 
13:25  
 
 Example 2 
22:45  

Kinetic Molecular Theory and Real Gases 
31:58 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Kinetic Molecular Theory and Real Gases 
0:45  
 
 Kinetic Molecular Theory 1 
0:46  
 
 Kinetic Molecular Theory 2 
4:23  
 
 Kinetic Molecular Theory 3 
5:42  
 
 Kinetic Molecular Theory 4 
6:27  
 
 Equations 
7:52  
 
 Effusion 
11:15  
 
 Diffusion 
13:30  
 
 Example 1 
19:54  
 
 Example 2 
23:23  
 
 Example 3 
26:45  

AP Practice for Gases 
25:34 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Example 1 
0:34  
 
 Example 1 
0:35  
 
Example 2 
6:15  
 
 Example 2: Part A 
6:16  
 
 Example 2: Part B 
8:46  
 
 Example 2: Part C 
10:30  
 
 Example 2: Part D 
11:15  
 
 Example 2: Part E 
12:20  
 
 Example 2: Part F 
13:22  
 
Example 3 
14:45  
 
 Example 3 
14:46  
 
Example 4 
18:16  
 
 Example 4 
18:17  
 
Example 5 
21:04  
 
 Example 5 
21:05  
Section 4: Thermochemistry 

Energy, Heat, and Work 
37:32 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Thermochemistry 
0:25  
 
 Temperature and Heat 
0:26  
 
 Work 
3:07  
 
 System, Surroundings, Exothermic Process, and Endothermic Process 
8:19  
 
 Work & Gas: Expansion and Compression 
16:30  
 
 Example 1 
24:41  
 
 Example 2 
27:47  
 
 Example 3 
31:58  

Enthalpy & Hess's Law 
32:34 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Thermochemistry 
1:43  
 
 Defining Enthalpy & Hess's Law 
1:44  
 
 Example 1 
6:48  
 
 State Function 
13:11  
 
 Example 2 
17:15  
 
 Example 3 
24:09  

Standard Enthalpies of Formation 
23:09 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Thermochemistry 
1:04  
 
 Standard Enthalpy of Formation: Definition & Equation 
1:05  
 
 ∆H of Formation 
10:00  
 
 Example 1 
11:22  
 
 Example 2 
19:00  

Calorimetry 
39:28 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Thermochemistry 
0:21  
 
 Heat Capacity 
0:22  
 
 Molar Heat Capacity 
4:44  
 
 Constant Pressure Calorimetry 
5:50  
 
 Example 1 
12:24  
 
 Constant Volume Calorimetry 
21:54  
 
 Example 2 
24:40  
 
 Example 3 
31:03  
Section 5: Kinetics 

Reaction Rates and Rate Laws 
36:24 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Kinetics 
2:18  
 
 Rate: 2 NO₂ (g) → 2NO (g) + O₂ (g) 
2:19  
 
 Reaction Rates Graph 
7:25  
 
 Time Interval & Average Rate 
13:13  
 
 Instantaneous Rate 
15:13  
 
 Rate of Reaction is Proportional to Some Power of the Reactant Concentrations 
23:49  
 
 Example 1 
27:19  

Method of Initial Rates 
30:48 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Kinetics 
0:33  
 
 Rate 
0:34  
 
 Idea 
2:24  
 
 Example 1: NH₄⁺ + NO₂⁻ → NO₂ (g) + 2 H₂O 
5:36  
 
 Example 2: BrO₃⁻ + 5 Br⁻ + 6 H⁺ → 3 Br₂ + 3 H₂O 
19:29  

Integrated Rate Law & Reaction HalfLife 
32:17 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Kinetics 
0:52  
 
 Integrated Rate Law 
0:53  
 
 Example 1 
6:26  
 
 Example 2 
15:19  
 
 Halflife of a Reaction 
20:40  
 
 Example 3: Part A 
25:41  
 
 Example 3: Part B 
28:01  

Second Order & ZeroOrder Rate Laws 
26:40 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Kinetics 
0:22  
 
 Second Order 
0:23  
 
 Example 1 
6:08  
 
 ZeroOrder 
16:36  
 
 Summary for the Kinetics Associated with the Reaction 
21:27  

Activation Energy & Arrhenius Equation 
40:59 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Kinetics 
0:53  
 
 Rate Constant 
0:54  
 
 Collision Model 
2:45  
 
 Activation Energy 
5:11  
 
 Arrhenius Proposed 
9:54  
 
 2 Requirements for a Successful Reaction 
15:39  
 
 Rate Constant 
17:53  
 
 Arrhenius Equation 
19:51  
 
 Example 1 
25:00  
 
 Activation Energy & the Values of K 
32:12  
 
 Example 2 
36:46  

AP Practice for Kinetics 
29:08 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Kinetics 
0:43  
 
 Example 1 
0:44  
 
 Example 2 
6:53  
 
 Example 3 
8:58  
 
 Example 4 
11:36  
 
 Example 5 
16:36  
 
 Example 6: Part A 
21:00  
 
 Example 6: Part B 
25:09  
Section 6: Equilibrium 

Equilibrium, Part 1 
46:00 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Equilibrium 
1:32  
 
 Introduction to Equilibrium 
1:33  
 
 Equilibrium Rules 
14:00  
 
 Example 1: Part A 
16:46  
 
 Example 1: Part B 
18:48  
 
 Example 1: Part C 
22:13  
 
 Example 1: Part D 
24:55  
 
 Example 2: Part A 
27:46  
 
 Example 2: Part B 
31:22  
 
 Example 2: Part C 
33:00  
 
 Reverse a Reaction 
36:04  
 
 Example 3 
37:24  

Equilibrium, Part 2 
40:53 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Equilibrium 
1:31  
 
 Equilibriums Involving Gases 
1:32  
 
 General Equation 
10:11  
 
 Example 1: Question 
11:55  
 
 Example 1: Answer 
13:43  
 
 Example 2: Question 
19:08  
 
 Example 2: Answer 
21:37  
 
 Example 3: Question 
33:40  
 
 Example 3: Answer 
35:24  

Equilibrium: Reaction Quotient 
45:53 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Equilibrium 
0:57  
 
 Reaction Quotient 
0:58  
 
 If Q > K 
5:37  
 
 If Q < K 
6:52  
 
 If Q = K 
7:45  
 
 Example 1: Part A 
8:24  
 
 Example 1: Part B 
13:11  
 
 Example 2: Question 
20:04  
 
 Example 2: Answer 
22:15  
 
 Example 3: Question 
30:54  
 
 Example 3: Answer 
32:52  
 
 Steps in Solving Equilibrium Problems 
42:40  

Equilibrium: Examples 
31:51 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Equilibrium 
1:09  
 
 Example 1: Question 
1:10  
 
 Example 1: Answer 
4:15  
 
 Example 2: Question 
13:04  
 
 Example 2: Answer 
15:20  
 
 Example 3: Question 
25:03  
 
 Example 3: Answer 
26:32  

Le Chatelier's principle & Equilibrium 
40:52 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Le Chatelier 
1:05  
 
 Le Chatelier Principle 
1:06  
 
 Concentration: Add 'x' 
5:25  
 
 Concentration: Subtract 'x' 
7:50  
 
 Example 1 
9:44  
 
 Change in Pressure 
12:53  
 
 Example 2 
20:40  
 
 Temperature: Exothermic and Endothermic 
24:33  
 
 Example 3 
29:55  
 
 Example 4 
35:30  
Section 7: Acids & Bases 

Acids and Bases 
50:11 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Acids and Bases 
1:14  
 
 BronstedLowry AcidBase Model 
1:28  
 
 Reaction of an Acid with Water 
4:36  
 
 Acid Dissociation 
10:51  
 
 Acid Strength 
13:48  
 
 Example 1 
21:22  
 
 Water as an Acid & a Base 
25:25  
 
 Example 2: Part A 
32:30  
 
 Example 2: Part B 
34:47  
 
 Example 3: Part A 
35:58  
 
 Example 3: Part B 
39:33  
 
 pH Scale 
41:12  
 
 Example 4 
43:56  

pH of Weak Acid Solutions 
43:52 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
pH of Weak Acid Solutions 
1:12  
 
 pH of Weak Acid Solutions 
1:13  
 
 Example 1 
6:26  
 
 Example 2 
14:25  
 
 Example 3 
24:23  
 
 Example 4 
30:38  

Percent Dissociation: Strong & Weak Bases 
43:04 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Bases 
0:33  
 
 Percent Dissociation: Strong & Weak Bases 
0:45  
 
 Example 1 
6:23  
 
 Strong Base Dissociation 
11:24  
 
 Example 2 
13:02  
 
 Weak Acid and General Reaction 
17:38  
 
 Example: NaOH → Na⁺ + OH⁻ 
20:30  
 
 Strong Base and Weak Base 
23:49  
 
 Example 4 
24:54  
 
 Example 5 
33:51  

Polyprotic Acids 
35:34 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Polyprotic Acids 
1:04  
 
 Acids Dissociation 
1:05  
 
 Example 1 
4:51  
 
 Example 2 
17:30  
 
 Example 3 
31:11  

Salts and Their AcidBase Properties 
41:14 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Salts and Their AcidBase Properties 
0:11  
 
 Salts and Their AcidBase Properties 
0:15  
 
 Example 1 
7:58  
 
 Example 2 
14:00  
 
 Metal Ion and Acidic Solution 
22:00  
 
 Example 3 
28:35  
 
 NH₄F → NH₄⁺ + F⁻ 
34:05  
 
 Example 4 
38:03  

Common Ion Effect & Buffers 
41:58 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Common Ion Effect & Buffers 
1:16  
 
 Covalent Oxides Produce Acidic Solutions in Water 
1:36  
 
 Ionic Oxides Produce Basic Solutions in Water 
4:15  
 
 Practice Example 1 
6:10  
 
 Practice Example 2 
9:00  
 
 Definition 
12:27  
 
 Example 1: Part A 
16:49  
 
 Example 1: Part B 
19:54  
 
 Buffer Solution 
25:10  
 
 Example of Some Buffers: HF and NaF 
30:02  
 
 Example of Some Buffers: Acetic Acid & Potassium Acetate 
31:34  
 
 Example of Some Buffers: CH₃NH₂ & CH₃NH₃Cl 
33:54  
 
 Example 2: Buffer Solution 
36:36  

Buffer 
32:24 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Buffers 
1:20  
 
 Buffer Solution 
1:21  
 
 Adding Base 
5:03  
 
 Adding Acid 
7:14  
 
 Example 1: Question 
9:48  
 
 Example 1: Recall 
12:08  
 
 Example 1: Major Species Upon Addition of NaOH 
16:10  
 
 Example 1: Equilibrium, ICE Chart, and Final Calculation 
24:33  
 
 Example 1: Comparison 
29:19  

Buffers, Part II 
40:06 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Buffers 
1:27  
 
 Example 1: Question 
1:32  
 
 Example 1: ICE Chart 
3:15  
 
 Example 1: Major Species Upon Addition of OH⁻, But Before Rxn 
7:23  
 
 Example 1: Equilibrium, ICE Chart, and Final Calculation 
12:51  
 
 Summary 
17:21  
 
 Another Look at Buffering & the HendersonHasselbalch equation 
19:00  
 
 Example 2 
27:08  
 
 Example 3 
32:01  

Buffers, Part III 
38:43 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Buffers 
0:25  
 
 Buffer Capacity Part 1 
0:26  
 
 Example 1 
4:10  
 
 Buffer Capacity Part 2 
19:29  
 
 Example 2 
25:12  
 
 Example 3 
32:02  

Titrations: Strong Acid and Strong Base 
42:42 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Titrations: Strong Acid and Strong Base 
1:11  
 
 Definition of Titration 
1:12  
 
 Sample Problem 
3:33  
 
 Definition of Titration Curve or pH Curve 
9:46  
 
Scenario 1: Strong Acid Strong Base Titration 
11:00  
 
 Question 
11:01  
 
 Part 1: No NaOH is Added 
14:00  
 
 Part 2: 10.0 mL of NaOH is Added 
15:50  
 
 Part 3: Another 10.0 mL of NaOH & 20.0 mL of NaOH are Added 
22:19  
 
 Part 4: 50.0 mL of NaOH is Added 
26:46  
 
 Part 5: 100.0 mL (Total) of NaOH is Added 
27:26  
 
 Part 6: 150.0 mL (Total) of NaOH is Added 
32:06  
 
 Part 7: 200.0 mL of NaOH is Added 
35:07  
 
 Titrations Curve for Strong Acid and Strong Base 
35:43  

Titrations: Weak Acid and Strong Base 
42:03 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Titrations: Weak Acid and Strong Base 
0:43  
 
 Question 
0:44  
 
 Part 1: No NaOH is Added 
1:54  
 
 Part 2: 10.0 mL of NaOH is Added 
5:17  
 
 Part 3: 25.0 mL of NaOH is Added 
14:01  
 
 Part 4: 40.0 mL of NaOH is Added 
21:55  
 
 Part 5: 50.0 mL (Total) of NaOH is Added 
22:25  
 
 Part 6: 60.0 mL (Total) of NaOH is Added 
31:36  
 
 Part 7: 75.0 mL (Total) of NaOH is Added 
35:44  
 
 Titration Curve 
36:09  

Titration Examples & AcidBase Indicators 
52:03 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Examples and Indicators 
0:25  
 
 Example 1: Question 
0:26  
 
 Example 1: Solution 
2:03  
 
 Example 2: Question 
12:33  
 
 Example 2: Solution 
14:52  
 
 Example 3: Question 
23:45  
 
 Example 3: Solution 
25:09  
 
 Acid/Base Indicator Overview 
34:45  
 
 Acid/Base Indicator Example 
37:40  
 
 Acid/Base Indicator General Result 
47:11  
 
 Choosing Acid/Base Indicator 
49:12  
Section 8: Solubility 

Solubility Equilibria 
36:25 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Solubility Equilibria 
0:48  
 
 Solubility Equilibria Overview 
0:49  
 
 Solubility Product Constant 
4:24  
 
 Definition of Solubility 
9:10  
 
 Definition of Solubility Product 
11:28  
 
 Example 1 
14:09  
 
 Example 2 
20:19  
 
 Example 3 
27:30  
 
 Relative Solubilities 
31:04  

Solubility Equilibria, Part II 
42:06 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Solubility Equilibria 
0:46  
 
 Common Ion Effect 
0:47  
 
 Example 1 
3:14  
 
 pH & Solubility 
13:00  
 
 Example of pH & Solubility 
15:25  
 
 Example 2 
23:06  
 
 Precipitation & Definition of the Ion Product 
26:48  
 
 If Q > Ksp 
29:31  
 
 If Q < Ksp 
30:27  
 
 Example 3 
32:58  

Solubility Equilibria, Part III 
43:09 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Solubility Equilibria 
0:55  
 
 Example 1: Question 
0:56  
 
 Example 1: Step 1  Check to See if Anything Precipitates 
2:52  
 
 Example 1: Step 2  Stoichiometry 
10:47  
 
 Example 1: Step 3  Equilibrium 
16:34  
 
 Example 2: Selective Precipitation (Question) 
21:02  
 
 Example 2: Solution 
23:41  
 
 Classical Qualitative Analysis 
29:44  
 
 Groups: 15 
38:44  
Section 9: Complex Ions 

Complex Ion Equilibria 
43:38 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Complex Ion Equilibria 
0:32  
 
 Complex Ion 
0:34  
 
 Ligan Examples 
1:51  
 
 Ligand Definition 
3:12  
 
 Coordination 
6:28  
 
 Example 1 
8:08  
 
 Example 2 
19:13  

Complex Ions & Solubility 
31:30 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Complex Ions and Solubility 
0:23  
 
 Recall: Classical Qualitative Analysis 
0:24  
 
 Example 1 
6:10  
 
 Example 2 
16:16  
 
 Dissolving a WaterInsoluble Ionic Compound: Method 1 
23:38  
 
 Dissolving a WaterInsoluble Ionic Compound: Method 2 
28:13  
Section 10: Chemical Thermodynamics 

Spontaneity, Entropy, & Free Energy, Part I 
56:28 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Spontaneity, Entropy, Free Energy 
2:25  
 
 Energy Overview 
2:26  
 
 Equation: ∆E = q + w 
4:30  
 
 State Function/ State Property 
8:35  
 
 Equation: w = P∆V 
12:00  
 
 Enthalpy: H = E + PV 
14:50  
 
 Enthalpy is a State Property 
17:33  
 
 Exothermic and Endothermic Reactions 
19:20  
 
 First Law of Thermodynamic 
22:28  
 
 Entropy 
25:48  
 
 Spontaneous Process 
33:53  
 
 Second Law of Thermodynamic 
36:51  
 
 More on Entropy 
42:23  
 
 Example 
43:55  

Spontaneity, Entropy, & Free Energy, Part II 
39:55 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Spontaneity, Entropy, Free Energy 
1:30  
 
 ∆S of Universe = ∆S of System + ∆S of Surrounding 
1:31  
 
 Convention 
3:32  
 
 Examining a System 
5:36  
 
 Thermodynamic Property: Sign of ∆S 
16:52  
 
 Thermodynamic Property: Magnitude of ∆S 
18:45  
 
 Deriving Equation: ∆S of Surrounding = ∆H / T 
20:25  
 
 Example 1 
25:51  
 
 Free Energy Equations 
29:22  

Spontaneity, Entropy, & Free Energy, Part III 
30:10 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Spontaneity, Entropy, Free Energy 
0:11  
 
 Example 1 
2:38  
 
 Key Concept of Example 1 
14:06  
 
 Example 2 
15:56  
 
 Units for ∆H, ∆G, and S 
20:56  
 
 ∆S of Surrounding & ∆S of System 
22:00  
 
 Reaction Example 
24:17  
 
 Example 3 
26:52  

Spontaneity, Entropy, & Free Energy, Part IV 
30:07 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Spontaneity, Entropy, Free Energy 
0:29  
 
 Standard Free Energy of Formation 
0:58  
 
 Example 1 
4:34  
 
 Reaction Under Nonstandard Conditions 
13:23  
 
 Example 2 
16:26  
 
 ∆G = Negative 
22:12  
 
 ∆G = 0 
24:38  
 
 Diagram Example of ∆G 
26:43  

Spontaneity, Entropy, & Free Energy, Part V 
44:56 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Spontaneity, Entropy, Free Energy 
0:56  
 
 Equations: ∆G of Reaction, ∆G°, and K 
0:57  
 
 Example 1: Question 
6:50  
 
 Example 1: Part A 
9:49  
 
 Example 1: Part B 
15:28  
 
 Example 2 
17:33  
 
 Example 3 
23:31  
 
 lnK = ( ∆H° ÷ R) ( 1 ÷ T) + ( ∆S° ÷ R) 
31:36  
 
 Maximum Work 
35:57  
Section 11: Electrochemistry 

OxidationReduction & Balancing 
39:23 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
OxidationReduction and Balancing 
2:06  
 
 Definition of Electrochemistry 
2:07  
 
 Oxidation and Reduction Review 
3:05  
 
 Example 1: Assigning Oxidation State 
10:15  
 
 Example 2: Is the Following a Redox Reaction? 
18:06  
 
 Example 3: Step 1  Write the Oxidation & Reduction Half Reactions 
22:46  
 
 Example 3: Step 2  Balance the Reaction 
26:44  
 
 Example 3: Step 3  Multiply 
30:11  
 
 Example 3: Step 4  Add 
32:07  
 
 Example 3: Step 5  Check 
33:29  

Galvanic Cells 
43:09 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Galvanic Cells 
0:39  
 
 Example 1: Balance the Following Under Basic Conditions 
0:40  
 
 Example 1: Steps to Balance Reaction Under Basic Conditions 
3:25  
 
 Example 1: Solution 
5:23  
 
 Example 2: Balance the Following Reaction 
13:56  
 
 Galvanic Cells 
18:15  
 
 Example 3: Galvanic Cells 
28:19  
 
 Example 4: Galvanic Cells 
35:12  

Cell Potential 
48:41 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Cell Potential 
2:08  
 
 Definition of Cell Potential 
2:17  
 
 Symbol and Unit 
5:50  
 
 Standard Reduction Potential 
10:16  
 
 Example Figure 1 
13:08  
 
 Example Figure 2 
19:00  
 
 All Reduction Potentials are Written as Reduction 
23:10  
 
 Cell Potential: Important Fact 1 
26:49  
 
 Cell Potential: Important Fact 2 
27:32  
 
 Cell Potential: Important Fact 3 
28:54  
 
 Cell Potential: Important Fact 4 
30:05  
 
 Example Problem 1 
32:29  
 
 Example Problem 2 
38:38  

Potential, Work, & Free Energy 
41:23 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Potential, Work, Free Energy 
0:42  
 
 Descriptions of Galvanic Cell 
0:43  
 
 Line Notation 
5:33  
 
 Example 1 
6:26  
 
 Example 2 
11:15  
 
 Example 3 
15:18  
 
 Equation: Volt 
22:20  
 
 Equations: Cell Potential, Work, and Charge 
28:30  
 
 Maximum Cell Potential is Related to the Free Energy of the Cell Reaction 
35:09  
 
 Example 4 
37:42  

Cell Potential & Concentration 
34:19 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Cell Potential & Concentration 
0:29  
 
 Example 1: Question 
0:30  
 
 Example 1: Nernst Equation 
4:43  
 
 Example 1: Solution 
7:01  
 
 Cell Potential & Concentration 
11:27  
 
 Example 2 
16:38  
 
 Manipulating the Nernst Equation 
25:15  
 
 Example 3 
28:43  

Electrolysis 
33:21 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Electrolysis 
3:16  
 
 Electrolysis: Part 1 
3:17  
 
 Electrolysis: Part 2 
5:25  
 
 Galvanic Cell Example 
7:13  
 
 Nickel Cadmium Battery 
12:18  
 
 Ampere 
16:00  
 
 Example 1 
20:47  
 
 Example 2 
25:47  
Section 12: Light 

Light 
44:45 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Light 
2:14  
 
 Introduction to Light 
2:15  
 
 Frequency, Speed, and Wavelength of Waves 
3:58  
 
 Units and Equations 
7:37  
 
 Electromagnetic Spectrum 
12:13  
 
 Example 1: Calculate the Frequency 
17:41  
 
 E = hν 
21:30  
 
 Example 2: Increment of Energy 
25:12  
 
 Photon Energy of Light 
28:56  
 
 Wave and Particle 
31:46  
 
 Example 3: Wavelength of an Electron 
34:46  
Section 13: Quantum Mechanics 

Quantum Mechanics & Electron Orbitals 
54:00 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Quantum Mechanics & Electron Orbitals 
0:51  
 
 Quantum Mechanics & Electron Orbitals Overview 
0:52  
 
 Electron Orbital and Energy Levels for the Hydrogen Atom 
8:47  
 
 Example 1 
13:41  
 
 Quantum Mechanics: Schrodinger Equation 
19:19  
 
 Quantum Numbers Overview 
31:10  
 
 Principal Quantum Numbers 
33:28  
 
 Angular Momentum Numbers 
34:55  
 
 Magnetic Quantum Numbers 
36:35  
 
 Spin Quantum Numbers 
37:46  
 
 Primary Level, Sublevels, and SubSubLevels 
39:42  
 
 Example 
42:17  
 
 Orbital & Quantum Numbers 
49:32  

Electron Configurations & Diagrams 
34:04 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Electron Configurations & Diagrams 
1:08  
 
 Electronic Structure of Ground State Atom 
1:09  
 
 Order of Electron Filling 
3:50  
 
 Electron Configurations & Diagrams: H 
8:41  
 
 Electron Configurations & Diagrams: He 
9:12  
 
 Electron Configurations & Diagrams: Li 
9:47  
 
 Electron Configurations & Diagrams: Be 
11:17  
 
 Electron Configurations & Diagrams: B 
12:05  
 
 Electron Configurations & Diagrams: C 
13:03  
 
 Electron Configurations & Diagrams: N 
14:55  
 
 Electron Configurations & Diagrams: O 
15:24  
 
 Electron Configurations & Diagrams: F 
16:25  
 
 Electron Configurations & Diagrams: Ne 
17:00  
 
 Electron Configurations & Diagrams: S 
18:08  
 
 Electron Configurations & Diagrams: Fe 
20:08  
 
 Introduction to Valence Electrons 
23:04  
 
 Valence Electrons of Oxygen 
23:44  
 
 Valence Electrons of Iron 
24:02  
 
 Valence Electrons of Arsenic 
24:30  
 
 Valence Electrons: Exceptions 
25:36  
 
 The Periodic Table 
27:52  
Section 14: Intermolecular Forces 

Vapor Pressure & Changes of State 
52:43 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Vapor Pressure and Changes of State 
2:26  
 
 Intermolecular Forces Overview 
2:27  
 
 Hydrogen Bonding 
5:23  
 
 Heat of Vaporization 
9:58  
 
 Vapor Pressure: Definition and Example 
11:04  
 
 Vapor Pressures is Mostly a Function of Intermolecular Forces 
17:41  
 
 Vapor Pressure Increases with Temperature 
20:52  
 
 Vapor Pressure vs. Temperature: Graph and Equation 
22:55  
 
 ClausiusClapeyron Equation 
31:55  
 
 Example 1 
32:13  
 
 Heating Curve 
35:40  
 
 Heat of Fusion 
41:31  
 
 Example 2 
43:45  

Phase Diagrams & Solutions 
31:17 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Phase Diagrams and Solutions 
0:22  
 
 Definition of a Phase Diagram 
0:50  
 
 Phase Diagram Part 1: H₂O 
1:54  
 
 Phase Diagram Part 2: CO₂ 
9:59  
 
 Solutions: Solute & Solvent 
16:12  
 
 Ways of Discussing Solution Composition: Mass Percent or Weight Percent 
18:46  
 
 Ways of Discussing Solution Composition: Molarity 
20:07  
 
 Ways of Discussing Solution Composition: Mole Fraction 
20:48  
 
 Ways of Discussing Solution Composition: Molality 
21:41  
 
 Example 1: Question 
22:06  
 
 Example 1: Mass Percent 
24:32  
 
 Example 1: Molarity 
25:53  
 
 Example 1: Mole Fraction 
28:09  
 
 Example 1: Molality 
29:36  

Vapor Pressure of Solutions 
37:23 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Vapor Pressure of Solutions 
2:07  
 
 Vapor Pressure & Raoult's Law 
2:08  
 
 Example 1 
5:21  
 
 When Ionic Compounds Dissolve 
10:51  
 
 Example 2 
12:38  
 
 NonIdeal Solutions 
17:42  
 
 Negative Deviation 
24:23  
 
 Positive Deviation 
29:19  
 
 Example 3 
31:40  

Colligatives Properties 
34:11 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Colligative Properties 
1:07  
 
 Boiling Point Elevation 
1:08  
 
 Example 1: Question 
5:19  
 
 Example 1: Solution 
6:52  
 
 Freezing Point Depression 
12:01  
 
 Example 2: Question 
14:46  
 
 Example 2: Solution 
16:34  
 
 Osmotic Pressure 
20:20  
 
 Example 3: Question 
28:00  
 
 Example 3: Solution 
30:16  
Section 15: Bonding 

Bonding & Lewis Structure 
48:39 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Bonding & Lewis Structure 
2:23  
 
 Covalent Bond 
2:24  
 
 Single Bond, Double Bond, and Triple Bond 
4:11  
 
 Bond Length & Intermolecular Distance 
5:51  
 
 Definition of Electronegativity 
8:42  
 
 Bond Polarity 
11:48  
 
 Bond Energy 
20:04  
 
 Example 1 
24:31  
 
 Definition of Lewis Structure 
31:54  
 
 Steps in Forming a Lewis Structure 
33:26  
 
 Lewis Structure Example: H₂ 
36:53  
 
 Lewis Structure Example: CH₄ 
37:33  
 
 Lewis Structure Example: NO⁺ 
38:43  
 
 Lewis Structure Example: PCl₅ 
41:12  
 
 Lewis Structure Example: ICl₄⁻ 
43:05  
 
 Lewis Structure Example: BeCl₂ 
45:07  

Resonance & Formal Charge 
36:59 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Resonance and Formal Charge 
0:09  
 
 Resonance Structures of NO₃⁻ 
0:25  
 
 Resonance Structures of NO₂⁻ 
12:28  
 
 Resonance Structures of HCO₂⁻ 
16:28  
 
 Formal Charge 
19:40  
 
 Formal Charge Example: SO₄²⁻ 
21:32  
 
 Formal Charge Example: CO₂ 
31:33  
 
 Formal Charge Example: HCN 
32:44  
 
 Formal Charge Example: CN⁻ 
33:34  
 
 Formal Charge Example: 0₃ 
34:43  

Shapes of Molecules 
41:21 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Shapes of Molecules 
0:35  
 
 VSEPR 
0:36  
 
 Steps in Determining Shapes of Molecules 
6:18  
 
 Linear 
11:38  
 
 Trigonal Planar 
11:55  
 
 Tetrahedral 
12:45  
 
 Trigonal Bipyramidal 
13:23  
 
 Octahedral 
14:29  
 
 Table: Shapes of Molecules 
15:40  
 
 Example: CO₂ 
21:11  
 
 Example: NO₃⁻ 
24:01  
 
 Example: H₂O 
27:00  
 
 Example: NH₃ 
29:48  
 
 Example: PCl₃⁻ 
32:18  
 
 Example: IF₄⁺ 
34:38  
 
 Example: KrF₄ 
37:57  

Hybrid Orbitals 
40:17 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Hybrid Orbitals 
0:13  
 
 Introduction to Hybrid Orbitals 
0:14  
 
 Electron Orbitals for CH₄ 
5:02  
 
 sp³ Hybridization 
10:52  
 
 Example: sp³ Hybridization 
12:06  
 
 sp² Hybridization 
14:21  
 
 Example: sp² Hybridization 
16:11  
 
 σ Bond 
19:10  
 
 π Bond 
20:07  
 
 sp Hybridization & Example 
22:00  
 
 dsp³ Hybridization & Example 
27:36  
 
 d²sp³ Hybridization & Example 
30:36  
 
 Example: Predict the Hybridization and Describe the Molecular Geometry of CO 
32:31  
 
 Example: Predict the Hybridization and Describe the Molecular Geometry of BF₄⁻ 
35:17  
 
 Example: Predict the Hybridization and Describe the Molecular Geometry of XeF₂ 
37:09  
Section 16: AP Practice Exam 

AP Practice Exam: Multiple Choice, Part I 
52:34 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Multiple Choice 
1:21  
 
 Multiple Choice 1 
1:22  
 
 Multiple Choice 2 
2:23  
 
 Multiple Choice 3 
3:38  
 
 Multiple Choice 4 
4:34  
 
 Multiple Choice 5 
5:16  
 
 Multiple Choice 6 
5:41  
 
 Multiple Choice 7 
6:20  
 
 Multiple Choice 8 
7:03  
 
 Multiple Choice 9 
7:31  
 
 Multiple Choice 10 
9:03  
 
 Multiple Choice 11 
11:52  
 
 Multiple Choice 12 
13:16  
 
 Multiple Choice 13 
13:56  
 
 Multiple Choice 14 
14:52  
 
 Multiple Choice 15 
15:43  
 
 Multiple Choice 16 
16:20  
 
 Multiple Choice 17 
16:55  
 
 Multiple Choice 18 
17:22  
 
 Multiple Choice 19 
18:59  
 
 Multiple Choice 20 
20:24  
 
 Multiple Choice 21 
22:20  
 
 Multiple Choice 22 
23:29  
 
 Multiple Choice 23 
24:30  
 
 Multiple Choice 24 
25:24  
 
 Multiple Choice 25 
26:21  
 
 Multiple Choice 26 
29:06  
 
 Multiple Choice 27 
30:42  
 
 Multiple Choice 28 
33:28  
 
 Multiple Choice 29 
34:38  
 
 Multiple Choice 30 
35:37  
 
 Multiple Choice 31 
37:31  
 
 Multiple Choice 32 
38:28  
 
 Multiple Choice 33 
39:50  
 
 Multiple Choice 34 
42:57  
 
 Multiple Choice 35 
44:18  
 
 Multiple Choice 36 
45:52  
 
 Multiple Choice 37 
48:02  
 
 Multiple Choice 38 
49:25  
 
 Multiple Choice 39 
49:43  
 
 Multiple Choice 40 
50:16  
 
 Multiple Choice 41 
50:49  

AP Practice Exam: Multiple Choice, Part II 
32:15 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Multiple Choice 
0:12  
 
 Multiple Choice 42 
0:13  
 
 Multiple Choice 43 
0:33  
 
 Multiple Choice 44 
1:16  
 
 Multiple Choice 45 
2:36  
 
 Multiple Choice 46 
5:22  
 
 Multiple Choice 47 
6:35  
 
 Multiple Choice 48 
8:02  
 
 Multiple Choice 49 
10:05  
 
 Multiple Choice 50 
10:26  
 
 Multiple Choice 51 
11:07  
 
 Multiple Choice 52 
12:01  
 
 Multiple Choice 53 
12:55  
 
 Multiple Choice 54 
16:12  
 
 Multiple Choice 55 
18:11  
 
 Multiple Choice 56 
19:45  
 
 Multiple Choice 57 
20:15  
 
 Multiple Choice 58 
23:28  
 
 Multiple Choice 59 
24:27  
 
 Multiple Choice 60 
26:45  
 
 Multiple Choice 61 
29:15  

AP Practice Exam: Multiple Choice, Part III 
32:50 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Multiple Choice 
0:16  
 
 Multiple Choice 62 
0:17  
 
 Multiple Choice 63 
1:57  
 
 Multiple Choice 64 
6:16  
 
 Multiple Choice 65 
8:05  
 
 Multiple Choice 66 
9:18  
 
 Multiple Choice 67 
10:38  
 
 Multiple Choice 68 
12:51  
 
 Multiple Choice 69 
14:32  
 
 Multiple Choice 70 
17:35  
 
 Multiple Choice 71 
22:44  
 
 Multiple Choice 72 
24:27  
 
 Multiple Choice 73 
27:46  
 
 Multiple Choice 74 
29:39  
 
 Multiple Choice 75 
30:23  

AP Practice Exam: Free response Part I 
47:22 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Free Response 
0:15  
 
 Free Response 1: Part A 
0:16  
 
 Free Response 1: Part B 
4:15  
 
 Free Response 1: Part C 
5:47  
 
 Free Response 1: Part D 
9:20  
 
 Free Response 1: Part E. i 
10:58  
 
 Free Response 1: Part E. ii 
16:45  
 
 Free Response 1: Part E. iii 
26:03  
 
 Free Response 2: Part A. i 
31:01  
 
 Free Response 2: Part A. ii 
33:38  
 
 Free Response 2: Part A. iii 
35:20  
 
 Free Response 2: Part B. i 
37:38  
 
 Free Response 2: Part B. ii 
39:30  
 
 Free Response 2: Part B. iii 
44:44  

AP Practice Exam: Free Response Part II 
43:05 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Free Response 
0:12  
 
 Free Response 3: Part A 
0:13  
 
 Free Response 3: Part B 
6:25  
 
 Free Response 3: Part C. i 
11:33  
 
 Free Response 3: Part C. ii 
12:02  
 
 Free Response 3: Part D 
14:30  
 
 Free Response 4: Part A 
21:03  
 
 Free Response 4: Part B 
22:59  
 
 Free Response 4: Part C 
24:33  
 
 Free Response 4: Part D 
27:22  
 
 Free Response 4: Part E 
28:43  
 
 Free Response 4: Part F 
29:35  
 
 Free Response 4: Part G 
30:15  
 
 Free Response 4: Part H 
30:48  
 
 Free Response 5: Diagram 
32:00  
 
 Free Response 5: Part A 
34:14  
 
 Free Response 5: Part B 
36:07  
 
 Free Response 5: Part C 
37:45  
 
 Free Response 5: Part D 
39:00  
 
 Free Response 5: Part E 
40:26  

AP Practice Exam: Free Response Part III 
28:36 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Free Response 
0:43  
 
 Free Response 6: Part A. i 
0:44  
 
 Free Response 6: Part A. ii 
3:08  
 
 Free Response 6: Part A. iii 
5:02  
 
 Free Response 6: Part B. i 
7:11  
 
 Free Response 6: Part B. ii 
9:40  
 
 Free Response 7: Part A 
11:14  
 
 Free Response 7: Part B 
13:45  
 
 Free Response 7: Part C 
15:43  
 
 Free Response 7: Part D 
16:54  
 
 Free Response 8: Part A. i 
19:15  
 
 Free Response 8: Part A. ii 
21:16  
 
 Free Response 8: Part B. i 
23:51  
 
 Free Response 8: Part B. ii 
25:07  