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Charles Schallhorn

Charles Schallhorn

Personality, Part III

Slide Duration:

Table of Contents

I. Introduction
What is Psychology?

16m 30s

Intro
0:00
Psychology: Questions and a Demonstration
0:17
Demonstration of Memory
1:45
Directions, Continued
2:21
Here Are the Words
2:28
After the Words
2:54
That Was Called a Distracter Activity
3:23
Recall
4:05
Do You Remember the Word Aardvark?
4:06
Do You Remember the Word Sleep?
4:38
In a Typical Class
4:42
30-90% Will Recall Sleep
4:43
Why?
4:52
First Vocabulary Term
5:27
Schema: A Mental (Cognitive) Map, Filter or Representation of an Idea-Made Up of Associations and Connections
5:28
Need them to Learn
5:50
Work of Jean Piaget
5:57
Schema: A Visual Representation
6:08
The Brain
11:21
Looks for Patterns and Tries to Simplify the World
11:22
Tries to Make Meanings Where They May be None
11:29
Many Kinds of Schemas
11:42
Simon and Garfunkel - The Boxer -A Man Hears What He Wants to Hear and Disregards the Rest
12:20
Psychology
13:04
Will Give New Schemas
13:05
New Ways of Looking at Own and Other's Behaviors
13:12
Give Some Context and Understanding to Why People Do What They Do
13:24
This Course is an Introduction
13:41
Some Topics Will Be Doctoral Dissertations
13:43
Topic Will Be Tip of Iceberg
13:53
Interdisciplinary Field of Study
14:33
Overlaps with Biology, Brain Science, Chemistry, Sociology, Economics……
14:42
Has Own Vocabulary
14:51
Common Words Will Take on New Meanings
15:04
Many New Words
15:10
Roots of Words Help Out
15:12
Review
15:29
What is Psychology?
15:30
Why Did You Probably Recall the Word Sleep When We Did the Demonstration Earlier?
15:39
What is a Schema and What Kinds of Schemas Can People Have?
15:47
Take a Look at Your Own Schemas-What Kind do you Have?
15:51
Psychology Connects to Many Different Fields-Which Connections Have Jumped Out At You so Far?
15:59
History and Approaches

23m 18s

Intro
0:00
History and Approaches (2-4%)
0:14
Psychology Has Evolved Since Its Inception As a Discipline in 1879
0:31
Identify the Major Historical Figures in Psychology
0:54
What is Psychology?
1:08
Psychology
1:09
Definition: The Scientific Study of Behavior and Mental Processes
1:24
Greek Letter Psi (Psychology Abbreviation)
2:05
What is Psychology Now?
2:21
Psychology Connects With Many Other Subjects
2:22
List of Included Topics
2:31
Where Did Psychology Come From?
3:57
Psychology - Long Past, Short History
3:58
Lots of Thinkers and Philosophies Over Time
4:03
Greeks
4:18
Religious Traditions
4:24
Enlightenment Thinkers
4:25
Disclaimer -- Oversimplification and Cherry-Picking of Their Ideas
4:27
Theories of Human Nature
5:00
The Ancient Greeks
5:51
Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, Hippocrates, Galen
5:52
Philosophy (The Love of Wisdom)
5:56
Socrates
6:03
Early Greek Philosopher
6:04
One Thing Only I know, And That is I Know Nothing.
6:05
Wisdom Begins When One Learns to Doubt
6:16
There is No Real Philosophy Until the Mind Begins to Examine Itself
6:36
Know Thyself
6:41
Developed Socratic Method Questioning Style
6:50
Included Demand for Accurate Definitions, Clear Thinking, and Exact Analysis
7:25
Plato
7:39
Knowledge is Innate
7:40
Information From Sense is Impermanent and Illusory
7:55
The Allegory of the Cave
8:17
Aristotle-The Rule of Reason
9:52
Three Part Division of Soul - Appetite, Reason, Temper
9:58
Controlling Body's Passions
10:06
Chariot Must Reign in Animal Appetites in Order for Soul to Gain True Happiness
10:29
Knowledge is NOT Preexisting
10:45
Mind is a Blank Slate
10:55
Body and Soul Cannot Be Separate
11:14
The Ancient Greeks
11:26
Greek Philosophers - Moved Away From Gods and Toward Biology and Brain
11:27
Religious Traditions
12:25
Context and Information Only
12:26
Gave Cultures of People Theory of Human Nature
12:30
Vedic and Hindu Traditions
12:57
Buddhist Traditions
13:03
Early Hebrews and Jewish Tradition
13:04
Chinese and East Asian Cultures
13:06
Mind and Body
13:15
Connected: Hebrews, Augustine, Aquinas, Aristotle
13:18
Distinct: Socrates, Plato, Descartes
13:32
Psychology's Roots -- Prescientific Psychology
13:56
Rene Descartes, Frances Bacon, John Locke, and Empiricism
13:57
Rene Descartes
14:06
French Philosopher and Writer
14:23
Mathematician
14:27
Dualism
14:36
Mind and Body Separate Entities But Interact
14:41
Deterministic and Mechanistic View of Human Nature
14:52
Rationality and Freedom Located in Soul
14:56
Cogito, Ergo Sum I Think, Therefore I am
15:15
Awareness of Self Indicated Proof For Existence of Self
15:31
Frances Bacon
15:45
English Philosopher
15:46
Mind and Failings
15:49
Mind Seeks Patterns
15:54
Beginning of Systematic Empirical Research
16:20
Developed the Experiment to Gain Knowledge
16:27
Believed That Learning Could Only be Advanced Through Observation of Facts, Experimentation, and Comparisons
16:39
John Locke
17:17
British Political Philosopher
17:18
Life, Liberty, and Property Are Natural Rights
17:24
Tabula Rasa
17:46
Environmental Determinism
17:55
Empiricism
18:51
Locke Added to Bacon's Ideas
18:52
Empiricism Was Born
18:56
Knowledge Originates from Sensory Experiences
19:01
Science Should Rely on Observation and Experimentation
19:08
What is the Evidence for the Claim?
19:14
Counters Intuition, Priori Knowledge and Revelation
19:45
Pseudosciences
20:39
Pseudoscientific Physiological Views During Rise of Scientific Psychology
20:40
Phrenology
20:51
Physiognomy
21:37
Somatyping
21:49
Review Questions
22:16
Distinguish Among the Various Philosophical Views That Came Before Psychology.
22:19
How Did Both Philosophy and Science Contribute to the Beginning of Psychology?
22:27
How Did Empiricism Move Psychology from the Dark Ages of Superstition Into the Modern Day World of Science?
22:40
AP Psychology Exam

22m 47s

Intro
0:00
The AP Psychology Exam
0:12
I. History and Approaches, 2-4%
0:54
II. Research Methods, 8-10%
0:59
III. Biological Bases of Behavior, 8-10%
1:11
IV. Sensation and Perception, 6-8%
1:40
V. States of Consciousness, 2-4%
1:51
VI. Learning, 7-9%
2:01
VII. Cognition, 8-10%
2:13
VIII. Motivation and Emotion, 6-8%
2:19
IX. Development Psychology, 7-9%
2:34
X. Personality, 5-7%
2:44
XI. Testing and Individual Differences, 5-7%
2:56
XII. Abnormal Behavior, 7-9%
3:08
XIII. Treatment of Abnormal Behavior, 5-7%
3:26
XIV. Social Psychology, 8-10%
3:40
Multiple Choice Questions
4:27
100 Multiple Choice Questions
4:30
70 Minutes
4:38
2/3 Overall Grade
4:56
A-E Answers
5:08
Names, Charts, Graphs, Drawings Are All Possible
5:21
No 1/4 Point Adjustment
5:54
Definition Questions
6:37
Conceptual and Application Questions
6:45
FRQs
7:20
Two Required Free Response (Essay) Questions
7:32
50 Minutes
7:36
1/3 of Overall Grade
7:39
Content Can Be Any Topic/Term in Psychology
8:03
Points Given for Correct Responses Not Taken Away for Incorrect Material
10:05
Points Only Removed if One Part of Answer Contradicts Another Part
10:20
Readers Looking for Ways to Give Points
10:47
FRQs and the Rubric
12:08
Questions--Created for Various Forms of the Exam
12:14
Rubrics Created When Question and Table Leaders go to Scoring Site
13:39
Teachers/Professors Go To Scoring Site
14:08
Practice with Samples
14:15
Scored in Packs of 25
14:24
FRQ Recommendations
16:03
Read Through Both Questions Before Doing Anything Else
16:04
Think Through the Answer Before Starting to Write
16:10
Write an Outline or Notes in the Test Question Booklet
16:15
Don't be Afraid to Cross Something Out
16:35
Write in Sentences -- Do Not Outline or Bullet Your Answer
16:52
Be as Complete as Possible, But Keep to the Point
17:06
Watch the Time
17:13
Structure Answer Following Structure of Question
17:42
Make it as Easy as Possible to Give You Points
17:53
Finally
19:04
Purchase or Rent Textbook for Course
19:05
Check out YouTube Links
19:39
Use Short Quizzes in Text
20:28
Purchase Review Books
20:37
If Flashcards Help -- Buy Barron's Set
20:57
Practice Explaining Information With a Friend
21:04
Learn the Material First Time Around
21:18
Spend at Least an Hour Per Day Reviewing the Month Prior to Exam
21:38
Early History

20m 55s

Intro
0:00
Scientific Psychology: The History Begins
0:12
Early Psychological Science
0:14
Structuralism
0:16
Functionalism
0:21
Gestalt Psychology
0:23
Psychoanalysis
0:25
Behaviorism
0:26
Structuralism (1875-1930's)
0:40
Wilhelm Wundt: The First Psychologist (1832-1920)
0:45
Edward Titchener: The First US Psychologist
1:24
Led First Real School or Group of Psychologists
1:31
Was Impressed with the Sciences Breaking Down Complex Things into Simple Things
1:35
Primary Problem Was Lack of Reliability and Validity
1:52
Structuralism Main Ideas
2:01
Early Approach to Psychology, Tried to Identify Structure of Conscious Mind
2:03
Subjective Unit for Structuralists Was Elementary Elements of Consciousness
2:26
Sub-Units of Consciousness Through Method of Introspection
2:51
Trained Observer to Reflect On and Analyze Mental Experiences
3:39
Functionalists
4:08
No Leader of Group/More Like a School of Though
4:10
Wanted to Study Consciousness
4:18
How Does Consciousness Work?
4:25
What Adaptive Purpose Does it Serve?
4:38
How Do Our Mental and Behavioral Processes Enable us to Adapt, Survive, and Be Successful?
4:52
Much More Into Understanding Application to Real Life Over Theoretical Understandings
5:16
Functionalists - William James
5:33
Established New Science of Psychology in America
5:44
Religion and Psychology
5:54
First Psychology Teacher in US
6:10
Principles of Psychology - First Text on Subject
6:12
Independently Came Up With the James-Lange Theory of Emotion
6:24
Mary Whiton Caulkins
6:59
Functionalist Student of William James
7:05
Was President of APA
7:07
First Woman to Serve in That Office
7:10
Earned PhD at Harvard Under William James, Was Refused Degree by Harvard Corporation
7:18
Harvard Continues to Refuse to Grant Degree Posthumously
7:20
Focus Was On The Self
7:46
Margaret Floy Washburn
8:31
Student of Titchner
8:34
First Woman to Earn Doctoral Degree in American Psychology (1894)
8:38
Second Woman to Serve as APA President 1921
8:46
Wrote The Animal Mind
8:51
Gestalt Psychology
9:08
Max Wertheimer (1880-1943)
9:12
The Whole is Greater Than The Sum of its Parts
9:15
Early Approach to Psychology, Studied How Mind Actively Organizes Stimuli into Meaningful Wholes
10:14
More Details on Gestalt in Sensation and Perception Unit
10:31
Psychoanalysis
10:34
Sigmund Freud
10:36
First Wave of Modern Psychology
10:37
Physician by Trade, Experience With Hysteria
10:42
Later Work and Theories Focused on Case Studies and Conjecture, Not Experimentation
10:56
Structure of the Mind - Id/Ego/Superego
11:06
Existence of Unconscious/Subconscious
11:12
Always a Reason for All Behavior
11:30
Psychosexual Stages of Development
12:02
Personality by Age 5
12:15
More Detail in Personality Unit
12:26
Behavioral Psychology
12:33
Edward Thorndike, John B. Watson, B.F. Skinner
12:34
Reaction to Freudian Views, Second Wave of Psychology
13:09
Focus Only on Observable Behavior
13:22
Most Scientific View to Date
13:38
Animal Research - Learning and Conditioning
13:40
More Detail in Learning Unit
13:53
Edward Thorndike
13:57
Learning Theory of Connectionism
13:59
Cats and Escaping Puzzle Boxes
14:05
Animals Connected Behaviors to Outcomes - Early Behaviorism
14:16
Law of Effect
14:23
Father of Modern Educational Psych
14:27
Ivan Pavlov
15:07
Not a Behaviorist, But Discovered Behavioral Principles
15:11
Russian Physiologist
15:14
Studied Digestion and Salivation in Dogs Which Lead to Classical Conditioning
15:15
Unconditioned Stimulus and Response
15:25
Pavlov's Dog
15:31
John B. Watson
15:42
Early Behaviorist
15:43
Classical Conditioning
15:44
Fear and Little Albert
15:46
Left Psych and Went Into Advertising, Pioneered Adding Sex Appeal in Ads
15:54
B. F. Skinner
16:07
Primary Behaviorist
16:09
Thoughts/Feelings Not Important - Only Behavior
16:11
Operant Conditioning - Built on Work of Thorndike
16:15
Reinforcement and Punishment
16:20
Operant Conditioning Box
16:23
Much Science to Back Up Views
16:26
Dorothea Dix
16:33
Social Activist
16:34
Nursed Both Sides During US Civil War
16:38
Government Should Play Role in Social Welfare
16:45
Created First Mental Asylums
16:57
Charles Darwin
17:13
English Naturalist
17:15
Origin of the Species
17:18
Evolution
17:21
Natural Selection
17:24
Influenced Functionalism
17:38
Influenced Current Evolutionary Perspective
17:41
Traits Are Somehow Adaptive
17:46
G. Stanley Hall
18:10
First APA President
18:14
Childhood Psych and Evolutionary Psych
18:16
Studied Racial and Gender Differences
18:20
Religion and Psychology
18:22
The Storm and Stress of Adolescence
18:27
Eugenics Fan
18:41
Mentored Many Major Psychologists
19:46
Review
19:53
When and How Did Modern Psychological Science Begin?
19:55
How Did Psychology Continue to Develop From the 1920s Through Today?
20:01
Distinguish Between the Key Early Fields, Structuralism, Functionalism, Gestalt and Behaviorism.
20:05
Name the Key Contributions of the Early Contributors to the Field of Psychology
20:17
Perspectives & Approaches

38m 16s

Intro
0:00
Unit Objectives from College Board
0:12
Key Questions
0:52
Perspectives/Approaches
1:29
Perspectives
1:30
Perspectives Example
1:41
Psychology's Biggest Question
2:47
Nature vs. Nurture
2:49
Biological Determinism (Biology as Destiny)
2:56
Environmental Determinism (Blank Slate)
3:01
Nature vs. Nurture Example
3:11
How Do We View the World?
3:46
Maslow Quote
3:52
Schemas and Lenses Determine your Perspective
4:12
Modern Psychological Perspectives
4:40
Biological Perspective
5:01
Behaviors, Thoughts, and Emotions
5:03
Genetics
6:04
Brain Chemicals
6:10
Serotonin
6:11
Adrenaline
6:21
Hormones
6:31
Evolutionary Perspective
6:50
Descendent Idea of Darwin's Natural Selection
6:56
Traits are Adaptive Outcomes of Natural Selection
7:35
Big Question: How has Evolution Shaped the Mind and Behavior?
7:57
Related to Sociobiology
8:02
Psychodynamic Perspective
8:32
Humans are Born with Instincts
8:38
Unconscious and Subconscious: Hidden Motivations
9:09
Childhood Experiences Determine Adult Personality
9:39
Backward Looking
10:02
Ideas Not Testable and Not Falsifiable
10:21
Cognitive Perspective
11:16
Cognition is Humans Seeking, Evaluating, and Transmitting Information
11:24
Big Question: How do People Acquire, Store, Process, and Use Information?
11:35
Reality is Different for Each Person
13:21
Humanistic Perspective
15:07
Response to Psychoanalysis and Behaviorism
15:16
Rooted in Existential Thought
15:40
People are Built to Grow
16:04
Positive Orientation Toward Behavior
16:11
Phenomenology: Individual Perception of Reality
16:21
Self-Concept and Self-Image
16:40
How People Meet Needs for Love, Acceptive, and Self-Fulfillment
16:55
Behavioral Perspective
18:04
Human Behavior Learned through Interacting with Environment
18:11
We Learn Observable Responses
18:57
We Learn to Predict, Obtain, and Avoid
19:23
Humans are Passive Organisms who are Reactive, not Proactive
19:33
Consequences to External Stimuli
19:57
We Learn through Conditioning
22:06
Modeling and Imitation
22:11
Positive Reinforcement
22:18
Sociocultural Perspective
22:32
Behavior and Thinking Vary Across Cultures
22:36
Gender Roles are Key Aspects of Human Identity
23:35
Humans are Strongly Influenced by Contexts
24:18
Culture Comparisons
24:30
Collectivist Culture: Identity with Group
24:40
Emotional Dependence and Conformity
24:53
Personal Goals Match Group Goals
25:03
Trust Placed in Group Decisions
25:16
Individualist Culture: Identity is Personal
25:28
Personal Goals Don't Match Group Goals
16:03
Emotional Independence
26:25
Trust Placed in Individual Decisions
26:40
Biopsychosocial Perspective
26:55
Cross-Disciplinary and Eclectic
27:32
Combines Biological, Psychological, and Cultural Perspectives
27:48
Links Body and Environment
27:57
So What Does This All Mean?
29:28
Behavior through Multiple Lenses
29:41
The Big Picture Example: Using All Perspectives
31:06
What and Why the Behavior Is
32:15
Explaining Alcoholism
32:25
Example: Using All Perspectives
32:26
Review Questions
36:08
How do the Various Perspectives View Behavior?
36:10
What are the Key Lenses each One Uses to Examine Behavior?
36:17
Which Perspectives Uses these Ideas to Study Behavior?
36:44
Subfields in Psychology

20m 16s

Intro
0:00
Psychology Has Many Facets
0:09
Basic Research Aims to Increase Scientific Knowledge Base -- Pure Science
0:18
Ex: How Do Hormones Affect Each Other in Reaction to Eating and Sleeping?
0:37
Applied Research Aims to Solve Practical Problems
0:49
Ex: Why Has Motivation Decreased Among Public School Teachers?
0:55
Ex: Military Research on How to Increase Soldier Effectiveness by Reducing Need for Sleep
1:08
Psychology Has Many Facets
1:37
Biggest Group in Psychology is the American Psychological Association
1:46
APA Website Reflects the Many Fields within the APA Itself
1:47
Reflects on the History of Psychology
1:53
Reflects on Diversity of Psychological Offerings
1:57
Divisions of the APA
2:11
Psychometrics
4:10
Scientific Study of the Measurement of Human Abilities, Attitudes, and Traits
4:18
Uses Psychological Tests
4:36
Often Used in Special Education
4:45
Developmental
5:09
Study of Physical, Cognitive, and Social Changes Through Life
5:13
Divides Lifespan Into Seven Phases
5:16
Educational
5:36
Studies How Psychological Processes Affect and Enhance Teaching and Learning
5:38
Personality
6:32
Studies the Individual Characteristic Patterns of Thinking, Feeling, and Acting -- Looks at the Whole Human Individual
6:35
Most Philosophical of all Subfields -- How Did We Get That Way? Why Are We This Way?
6:53
Examines patterns of Emotions, Motivation, Temperament, Learning, Growth, and Development
6:57
Seeks to Understand What Personality Is, How it Develops, and How Stable it is Over Time
7:14
Social Psychology
7:37
Studies How We Think About, Influence, and Relate to Each Other
7:41
Incredibly Diverse Subfield
7:45
Examples of Social Psychologists Zimbardo, Asch, Lewin, and Milgram
7:50
Most Infamous Field in Psychology Due to Zimbardo's Research (Stanford Prison Experiment) and Milgram's Study of Obedience to Authority
8:20
Also Studies Concepts of Love and Attraction, and Helping Behaviors
9:08
Industrial/Organizational (I/O) Psychology
9:26
Application of Psychological Concepts and Methods to Optimize Human Behavior in the Workplace
9:33
Studies Workplace Satisfaction
9:43
Studies Incentives and Motivation
9:47
Ex: Consultant Character in the Movie Office Space
10:02
Human Factors
10:22
Study of How People and Machines Interact With Each Other Resulting in the Design of Machines and Environments
10:27
How to Design Products and Tools to Make Them Easier and Safer to Use
10:53
Products Designed With Users in Mind
11:01
Strives to Make Technology Adapt to Humans, Not Other Way Around
11:08
Ex: Design of Cars, Phones, Video Game Controllers, Websites, etc.
11:17
Can be Applied to Many Far Reaching Disciplines Like Medicine, Design, Architecture, and Engineering
12:22
Counseling Psychology
12:32
Assists People With Problems In Living (Related to School, Work, Marriage, etc.) and in Achieving Greater Sense of Well-Being
12:40
Subfield Most People Think of When They Think of the Word Psychology
12:59
Therapy -- Problems and Growth
13:08
Requires at Least a Master's Degree to Practice Counseling Psychology
13:21
Many Counselors Can Be Found in Schools as Academic Advisors and Crisis Counselors
13:25
In Some Aspects, Quite Similar to Social Work
13:55
Clinical Psychology
14:12
Studies, Assesses, and Treats People With Psychological Disorders
14:18
Deals With More Serious Disorders (Ex: Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder)
14:32
Found Working in Private Practices, Hospitals, and Universities
14:43
Requires a Ph.D. to Enter Field
14:50
Psychiatry
17:06
Branch of Medicine Dealing With Psychological Disorders, Practiced by Physicians Who Often Provide Medical Treatment as Well as Psychological Therapy
17:09
Requires an MD License
17:19
Able to Prescribe Drugs
17:36
Review
17:59
Which Kind of Psychology Deals With…
18:06
II. Research Methods
The Science of Psychology

49m 16s

Intro
0:00
Is Psychology a Science?
0:14
Some Conclude No, Psychology is Not a Science
0:17
Some Say It's a Soft Science
0:23
Methodology is the Same As Hard Sciences
0:35
Subjects Are More Complex
0:40
Empiricism: The Goals
1:29
To Measure and Describe Behaviors
1:39
To Gather Empirical Evidence: Information Gained From Direct Observation and Measurement
1:44
To Gather Data: Observed Facts
1:56
What Is Science?
2:03
Exploring What Is True
2:23
Systematic Observation and Experimentation For Answering Scientific Questions
3:04
Precise Definitions
3:11
Testing Hypotheses
3:14
Replication of Results
3:22
Objectivity as a Goal -- Reduction of Bias
3:33
Critical Thinking
3:42
The Ability and Willingness To Assess Claims and Make Objective Judgments On the Basis of Well-Supported Reasons and Evidence, Rather Than Emotion or Anecdote
3:50
Analyzing, Evaluating, and Synthesizing Information
4:47
Imperative For Use in All Science (And, Well, Life, Really)
5:42
Critical Thinking: Key Principles
5:48
Few Truths Transcend the Need for Empirical Testing
5:52
Evidence Varies in Quality
5:56
Authority or Claimed Expertise Does Not Automatically Make an Idea True
6:14
Guidelines
7:08
Goals of Psychology
9:59
Description of Behaviors: Naming and Classifying Various Observable, Measurable Behaviors
10:18
Understanding: The Causes of Behavior(s) And Being Able to State the Cause(s)
11:13
Prediction: Predicting Behavior Accurately
11:26
Control: Altering Conditions That Influence Behaviors in Predictable Ways
11:46
The Scientific Method
14:14
Six Basic Elements
14:16
Steps in Scientific Method
14:50
Flowchart Example
14:52
Another Way to Examine Process
16:07
Flowchart Example
16:09
Some Terms
18:23
Hypothesis: A Statement That Attempts to Predict or to Account For a Set of Phenomena; Scientific Hypotheses Specify Relationships Among Events or Variables and are Empirically Tested
18:25
Hypothesis Testing: Scientifically Testing Predicted Outcome of an Experiment or an Educated Guess About the Relationship Between Variables
18:42
Operational Definition: Defines a Scientific Concept By Stating Specific Actions or Procedures Used To Measure the Process, Behavior, or Phenomenon
19:02
Theory
23:20
NOT the Popular Idea of What a Theory is, I Have a Theory About Why…
23:28
A System of Ideas That Interrelates Facts and Concepts, Summarizes Existing Data, and Predicts Future Observations
23:43
Naturalistic Observation
25:02
Observing a Person or an Animal in the Environment in Which It Lives
25:08
Advantages
25:20
Disadvantages
26:25
Anthropomorphic Fallacy
27:39
A Fallacy is an Error in Thinking
27:43
Anthro Refers to Humans
27:50
Morphic is Related to Change
27:54
Attributing Human Thoughts, Feelings, or Motives to Animals, Especially as a Way of Explaining Their Behavior (e.g. Mohini, My Cat, is Acting Like That Because She is Feeling Depressed Today.)
28:01
Laboratory Observation
29:14
Creates a Scenario Where Controlled Conditions Are Available and a Situation is Set Up and Behaviors Are Observed
29:17
Advantages:
30:27
Disadvantages:
31:54
Case Study/Case History
32:31
Examination of One Individual in Great Detail -- Utilizing Interviews, Psych-Tests, and More
32:36
Advantages
36:49
Disadvantages
37:45
Psychological Tests
38:08
Using a Reliable, Valid, and Typically Paper/Pencil Test to Measure Some Aspect of Personality, Aptitude, Skill, Achievement, or Dysfunction. Must Be Standardized, Normed, Reliable and Valid
38:12
Advantages
38:39
Disadvantages
38:45
e.g. Myers-Briggs, Rorschach Ink Blot, TAT, MMPI, WISC/WAIS-IQ, SAT, etc.
38:58
Surveys
39:32
Method of Asking Questions About Attitudes, Experiences, Preferences, and Behaviors That Can Accumulate Large Data Sets. Need Representative Samples (Sample Population)
39:35
Advantages
39:47
Disadvantages
41:28
e.g. U.S. Census is World's Largest Survey
43:11
Courtesy Bias
43:59
Problem in Research; A Tendency to Give Polite or Socially Desirable Answers
44:08
Review Questions
44:55
How Is Psychology Scientific?
45:00
How are Hypotheses More Than Just Educated Guesses?
45:14
Which Method…
45:42
How Can We Reduce Bias In Surveys?
46:34
How Critical a Thinker Are You? Are You Willing to Practice?
46:46
Review Questions
47:58
What is a Scientific Theory?
48:00
What is a Scientific Hypothesis?
48:09
Why Are Operational Definitions Important?
48:18
Give One Advantage and One Disadvantage For Each of the Following Methods
48:25
Research Methods: Correlation

12m 38s

Intro
0:00
Correlation Overview
0:14
Correlations
0:32
Helps Identify Relationships Worth Knowing About
0:33
Helps Make Predictions
0:38
If Correlation Exists Then the Two Variables are Related
0:46
Correlation Does NOT Equal Causation
0:55
A Third or Extraneous Variable Can Create the Appearance of a Correlation Between Two Unrelated Variables
1:10
Correlation Only Indicates the Strength of Relationship Between Two Variables.
1:15
Correlation
1:24
Indicates Positive or Negative Relationship Between Variables.
1:26
Positive Correlation: Presence of One Variable Predicts the Presence of Another
1:33
Negative Correlation: Presence of One Variable Predicts the Absence of Another
1:42
Characteristics of Correlation
2:01
Describes Strength of Relationship
2:02
Measured by Formula; Result Always Between -1 and +1
2:09
Statistically Impossible For Value to be Greater Than +1 or Less Than -1.
2:27
Regardless of Being Positive or Negative The Stronger Correlation Value is the One Furthest From Zero
2:51
Look for Association or Relationship Between Two Variables to Determine Correlation
3:28
Formula
4:19
Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficient
4:23
Sign (+/-) Indicates Nature of Relationship, Number Determines Its Strength
4:32
Causation
4:57
Remember Correlation Does Not Equal Causation
4:59
An Existing Strong Relationship Doesn't Mean One Creates the Other
5:02
Example: The Relationship Between Crime and Unemployment
5:09
Third or Extraneous Variable May Cause the Appearance of a Strong Correlation
5:20
Terms
5:36
Scatterplot and Scattergram Mean the Same Thing
5:41
Drawn Demonstration of What a Scatterplot Looks Like
5:46
Characteristics of Scatterplot Showing Perfect Positive or Negative Correlation
6:12
Terms
6:44
Positive Correlation: Increases in One Measure (X) Matched by Increases in Another (Y)
6:46
Example: Relationship Between Smoking Cigarettes and Contracting Lung Cancer
6:53
Zero correlation: No Relationship Exists Between Two Variables
6:59
Example: Correlation Between Hair Color and IQ Score
7:13
Terms
7:23
Negative (Inverse) Correlation: As Values of One Measure Increase (X), Values of Another (Y) Decrease.
7:24
Example: The More Alcohol You Drink, the Lower Your Score on a Coordination Test Will Be
7:32
Scatterplots for correlations
7:43
Strong Positive Correlation Scatterplot Will Have Points Running Upwards Closely Along a 45 Degree Angle Line
7:47
Strong Negative Correlation Will Have Points Running Downwards Closely Along a 45 Degree Angle Line.
7:55
Examples of Scatterplots Showing Weak Positive Correlation, Zero Correlation, Moderate Negative Correlation and Weak Negative Correlation
7:59
Google Search for Positive Correlation
8:41
Examples of images of charts showing different degrees of positive correlation
8:43
Google Search for Negative Correlation
8:53
Examples of Charts Showing Different Degrees of Negative Correlation
8:54
Google Search for Zero Correlation
9:08
Examples of Charts Showing Zero Correlation Between Two Variables
9:09
Examples (Use the Thumb Method)
9:22
Which Examples Demonstrate Positive, Negative, and Zero Correlation?
9:23
Review Questions
11:15
What Kinds of Correlations Are Likely With The Relationships Below?
11:17
The Experimental Process & Ethical Guidelines

36m 20s

Intro
0:00
Objectives
0:15
Describe how Research Design Drives the Reasonable Conclusions That Can Be Drawn (e.g. Experiments are Useful for Determining Cause And Effect; The Use of Experimental Controls Reduces Alternate Explanations
0:19
Identify Independent, Dependent, Confounding, and Control Variables In Experimental Designs
0:36
Distinguish Between Random Assignments of Participants to Conditions in Experiments and Random Selection of Participants, Primarily in Correlational Studies and Surveys
0:44
Objectives, Cont.
0:57
Predict the Validity of Behavioral Explanations Based on the Quality of Research Design (e.g., Confounding Variables Limit Confidence in Research Conclusions).
1:00
Discuss the Value of Reliance on Operational Definitions and Measurement in Behavioral Research
1:10
The Experiment: Searching for Causes
1:23
Experimental Variables
1:45
Experimental and Control Conditions
1:48
Experimenter Effects
1:50
Advantages and Limitations of Experiments
1:52
An Experiment
1:55
A Controlled Test of a Hypothesis in Which the Researcher Manipulates One Variable to Discover Its Effect on Another.
1:59
To Identify Cause-And-Effect Relationships, We Conduct Experiments
2:43
Disadvantages
3:10
Some Vocabulary
3:34
Hypothesis: A Statement That Attempts to Predict an Outcome Within the Confines of the Experiment -- How the Manipulation of the Independent Variable Changes the Dependent Variable. To Make It Easier, Put it In a Conditional Format, If, Then
3:38
Independent Variable: A Variable That an Experimenter Manipulates.
4:18
Dependent Variable: A Variable That an Experimenter Predicts Will Be Affected By Manipulations of the Independent Variable
4:24
Unwanted Variables -- Extraneous Variables: Conditions That a Researcher Wants To Prevent From Affecting The Outcomes of the Experiment (e.g., Number of Hours Slept Before the Experiment)
4:34
More Concepts
5:15
Random Selection -- Choosing Subjects for the Experiment Without Bias -- Often Using a Random Number Table or Other Randomizing Procedure
5:18
Random Assignment -- Choosing Which Group, The Experimental or Control Group Each Subject Goes To
6:37
Randomness is a Procedure That Creates the Attempt to Limit Bias and Create Representativeness
7:42
A Graphic Overview
8:31
Chart
8:34
If One Eats Peanuts, One Will Recall Better
12:06
Chart
12:08
Practice -- Caffeine and Memory
14:16
Chart
14:18
Practice -- Sleep and Reaction Time
17:29
Chart
17:31
Potential Biases
21:05
Experimenter Effects -- This is When The Experimenter Unconsciously Pushes Subject into a Particular Response
21:08
Changes in Behavior Caused by the Unintended Influence of the Experimenter
21:14
Self-Fulfilling Prophecy: A Prediction That Leads People to Act in Ways to Make the Prediction Come True
21:19
Single Blind Experiment: Only the Subjects Have No Idea Whether They Get Real Treatment or Placebo
21:56
Double Blind Experiment: The Subjects AND The Experimenters Have No Idea Whether the Subjects Get Real Treatment or Placebo
22:18
Evaluating Results in an Experiment
22:54
Statistically Significant: Results Gained Would Occur Very Rarely by Chance Alone, Usually Less Than Five Experiments Out of 100
22:59
Meta-Analysis: Study of Results of Other Studies
23:52
Placebo Effect
25:15
Changes in Behavior That Result From Belief That One Has Ingested a Drug
26:11
Ethics/Ethical Responsibility
28:28
No Coercion -- Participation Must Be Voluntary
28:39
Doctrine of Informed Consent -- Must Be Volunteer and Know Enough to Intelligently Decide About Participating
28:45
Anonymity or Confidentiality of Participants
29:29
Respecting Dignity and Welfare of Human Subjects
29:43
Protection From Physical or Emotional Risk -- Temporary Discomfort OK, But Not Long-Term Harm
29:48
Ability to Withdraw at Any Time
30:20
Deception of Subjects Can Be OK
30:28
Debriefing -- Done After Experiment -- Explains True Purpose of Study and If Any Deceptions
30:35
Experimenting on Animals
30:43
Humans are Similar to Other Animals in Many Ways
30:47
Two Extreme Options -- Do No Testing or Test in Any Way We Want, Without Constraint
31:17
Researchers Must (APA 2002) Ensure the Comfort, Health, and Humane Treatment of Animals and of Minimizing Infection, Illness, and Pain of Animal Subjects.
31:28
Must Have a Clear Scientific Purpose
31:49
Must Answer a Specific, Important Scientific Question
31:51
Animals Chosen Must be Best Suited for the Question
31:55
Animals Must Be Acquired Legally (Accredited Companies or Trapped Humanely, if Wild)
32:00
Practice Questions
32:06
To Understand In-Depth a Particular Individual or Family By Using Many Different Tools
32:13
To Watch a Person or People and Describe What They Do -- Often Involves Keeping Counts of Particular Behaviors
32:29
To Examine the Strength of Relationship Between Two or More Variables
32:50
Using Controlled Methods, Create a Situation Where the Researcher Can Measure Cause and Effect by Applying the Independent Variable With the Experimental Group and Comparing Results With a Control Group.
33:01
Practice Questions
33:31
To Find Out a Lot of People's Views, Attitudes, Experiences or Feelings About Some Aspect of Their Lives
33:35
To Use a Manipulated Situation to See What People Will Do in That Situation
34:08
Professor Xavier is Interested in Understanding the Relationship Between Self-Esteem and Social Anxiety
34:26
Dr. Jones Wishes to Investigate the Effects of a New Training Program on Employees' Job Performances
34:43
Professor Smith Wishes to Study the Effects of Food Deprivation on Learning in Rats
35:25
Dr. Watusi is Interested in Studying Peer Influence Among High School Students. He Decides to go to Several Local High Schools and Observe Students Over the Course of Several Weeks.
35:41
Research Methods: Statistics

37m 16s

Intro
0:00
Objectives
0:22
Distinguish the Purposes of Descriptive Statistics and Inferential Statistics
0:26
Apply Basic Descriptive Statistical Concepts, Including Interpreting and Constructing Graphs, and Calculating Simple Descriptive Statistics (e.g. Measures of Central Tendency, Standard Deviation)
0:34
Types of Statistics
0:50
Descriptive Statistics: Summarize Numbers So They Become More Meaningful and Easier to Communicate To Other People
0:52
Inferential Statistics: Used For Making Decisions, For Generalizing From Small Samples, and For Drawing Conclusions
1:09
Number Scales -- Nominal
1:30
No Quantitative Properties
1:48
For Comparison Only -- Grouping Participants
1:51
E.g. a Likert Scale (e.g. On a Scale From 1-5) on Strongly Agree, Agree, Neutral, Disagree, Strongly Disagree Scale
1:55
Number Scales
2:34
Ordinal Scales
2:36
Determining Ranking
2:39
E.g. Seeds in NCAA Basketball Tournament
2:45
The Differences Between Seeds Has No Information Beyond the Ranking
2:48
Differences Between Rankings Not Equal -- Difference Between #1 and #4 Is Not The Same As Between #5 and #8
2:54
#1 Seed is NOT 4 Times Better Than #4 Seed
2:56
Number Scales -- Interval
3:14
Lots of Data and Can Add/Subtract
3:19
Classic e.g. is Temperature
3:25
SAT or ACT Scores
3:28
IQ Scores, Myers-Briggs, and Others Operate Under the Assumption of an Interval Scale
3:37
Do NOT Have a True Zero Point
3:47
Number Scale -- Ratio
3:55
Contain the Most Amount of Quantitative Information
4:02
Have a True Zero Point
4:00
E.g. Speed, Time, Weight, Distance
4:23
Can Meaningfully Describe Something as Twice as Fast or Four Times as Long
4:33
Graphical Representations
4:55
Presenting Numbers Pictorially (Usually in a Graph) So They Are Easier to Visualize
4:58
Frequency Distribution: Table That Divides an Entire Range of Scores Into a Series of Equal Classes and Then Records The Number of Scores That Fall Into Each Class
5:43
Histogram: Graph of a Frequency Distribution; Scores Are Represented By Vertical Bars
6:51
Frequency Polygon: Graph of a Frequency Distribution Where The Number of Scores In Each Class Is Represented By Points on a Line
6:56
Frequency Distribution
7:16
Graphic
7:18
Frequency Histogram
7:59
Graphic
8:01
Frequency Polygon
8:41
Graphic
8:43
Descriptive Statistics
9:17
Describing Data
9:22
Measures of Central Tendency
9:37
Mean
9:41
Mean (Arithmetic Average)
9:45
Mean: Add All the Scores For Each Group and Then Divide By the Total Number of Scores; One Type of Average
9:51
Median
11:57
Median (Middle Score)
11:59
Median: Arrange Scores From Highest to Lowest and Then Select The Score That Falls in The Middle; Half the Values Fall Above the Median, And Half Fall Below It
12:05
Mode
13:18
Mode (Occurs the Most)
13:20
Mode: Identifies the Most Frequently Occurring Score in a Group
13:26
A Number That Describes a Typical Score Around Which the Other Scores Fall
13:36
Measures of Variability
13:50
Variability -- How Spread Out or Compressed a Set of Scores Are -- Level of Dispersion
13:51
Range -- Of a Set of Data, The Range is the Difference Between the High and Low Values
14:01
Standard Deviation -- Represented by the Symbol σ
14:23
Measures of Variability
14:56
Normal Curve (Bell Shaped)
14:58
How Do We Visualize the Variability With a Normal Curve?
15:03
Deviations and Percentages -- Need to Become Familiar With Them
15:10
Z-Score: Indicates How Many Standard Deviations Above or Below The Mean a Score Is
15:16
Normal Curve: Bell Shaped Curve, With a Large Number of Scores in the Middle, and Very Few Extremely High and Low Scores
16:03
Normal and Skewed Curves
16:13
Examples of Negatively Skewed, Normal, and Positively Skewed Curves
16:24
Standard Deviation
17:50
Graphic of Bell Curve Displaying How To Measure Standard Deviations
17:53
Normal Curve
20:45
Graphic Showing Different Measurements of Ranges That Can Be Used With a Normal Curve
20:48
IQ Scores and S.D.
22:36
Always Assume That the Mean/Median/Mode is 100 for an IQ Score -- and That It's a Normal Curve
22:41
So if x̅ (the mean) is 100, the S.D. is 15, What is John's IQ if he is 2 S.D.s Above The Mean?
22:53
Lots of Questions Like This on the AP Exam
24:48
Examples of Standard Deviation Problems
24:56
What if the Mean is Not 100?
24:59
E.g. Mean is 85 and the S.D. is 6
25:02
E.g. Mean is 45 and the S.D. is 3
26:18
Inferential Statistics
28:38
Purpose is to Determine Whether or Not Findings Can Be Applied to the Larger Population From Which the Sample Was Selected
28:45
Infer versus Imply (Joey on Friends)
29:03
Why Might There Be Differences Between Two Groups in an Experiment?
30:12
Inferential Statistics
30:30
Population: Entire Set of Subjects, Objects, or Events of Interest (All Married Students in the United States)
30:34
Samples: Smaller Cross Section of a Population
30:59
Inferential Statistics
31:51
Sample Must Be Representative
31:54
Members of Sample Must Be Chosen Randomly
32:05
Statistical Significance: Degree to Which an Event (Results of an Experiment, Results of a Drug Trial) is Unlikely to Have Occurred By Chance Alone
32:33
Many Statistical Tests to Measure Magnitude of Difference --> T-Tests, Chi Square, and ANOVAs
32:46
AP Psych--- Need Only to Know -- P-Value
33:01
P-Value
33:13
The Smaller the P-Value, The More Significant the Results
33:15
In Science, a P-Value of .05 is Cutoff for Statistical Significance
33:19
A P-Value of .05 Means That a Five Percent Chance Exists That the Results Occurred By Chance
33:31
A P-Value of .01 Means That a One Percent Chance Exists That the Results Occurred By Chance
33:49
Most Psychological Research Will Be at the .05 Level
34:06
Review Questions
34:12
What is the Best Way to Choose Subjects?
34:16
Distinguish Between Descriptive and Inferential Stats
34:28
Distinguish Among Mean, Median and Mode
35:07
What is the Purpose of the Standard Deviation
36:12
How Does Random Selection Increase the Importance of the Results of a Study?
36:37
III. Biological Bases
Biological Bases of Behavior

23m 37s

Intro
0:00
Biological Bases of Behavior (8 - 10%)
0:23
Physiological Techniques (e.g. Imaging, Surgical)
0:44
Neuroanatomy
0:46
Functional Organization of Nervous System
0:50
Neural Transmission
0:52
Endocrine System
0:54
Genetics
0:58
Evolutionary Psychology
0:59
We Examine the Relationship Between Physiological Processes and Behavior -- Including the Influence of Neural Function, the Nervous System and the Brain, and Genetic Contributions to Behavior
1:09
Physiological Techniques
1:19
Ways to Approach the Brain
1:21
Brain Scans
1:25
Surgery
1:34
EEG -- Electroencephalogram
1:42
An Amplified Recording of the Waves of Electrical Activity That Sweep Across the Brain's Surface. These Waves are Measured by Electrodes Placed on the Scalp.
1:46
EEG -- Electroencephalogram
2:17
Picture of Person Wearing Recording Cap Used During EEG
2:19
EEG in Sleep
2:52
Image of Brain Waves Recorded With EEG During Sleep
3:05
MRI -- Magnetic Resonance Imaging
3:25
A Technique That Uses Magnetic Fields and Radio Waves to Produce Computer-Generated Images of Soft Tissue. MRI Scans Show Brain Anatomy
3:33
MRI -- Soft Tissue
4:05
Picture of Brain Through an MRI
4:06
MRI
4:43
Picture of Brain Through an MRI
4:44
fMRI (Functional MRI)
5:20
A Technique for Revealing Blood Flow and, Therefore, Brain Activity by Comparing Successive MRI Scans. fMRI Scans Show Brain Function
5:30
fMRI (Functional MRI)
5:43
Images of Brain Using fMRI
5:45
PET (Positron Emission Tomography)
6:22
A Visual Display of Brain Activity That Detects Where a Radioactive Form of Glucose Goes While the Brain Performs a Given Task.
6:29
CT (Computerized Tomography)
7:48
A Series of X-Ray Photographs Taken From Different Angles and Combined by Computer Into a Composite Representation of a Slice Through the Body.
7:54
Also Called CAT Scan
7:50
CT Scan
8:07
Images of Brain Using CT Scan
8:09
Physical Techniques
8:39
Surgery and Other Invasive Techniques
8:48
Case Studies
8:53
Lesion
8:59
Tissue Destruction; A Brain Lesion is a Naturally or Experimentally Caused Destruction of Brain Tissue
9:01
Lobotomy
10:59
Also Known as Prefrontal Lobotomy
11:02
Removing/Disconnecting the Front of the Frontal Lobe of the Brain -- Used Primarily on Schizophrenics in the 1930s - 1950s
11:06
More Detail in the Treatments of Mental Disorders Unit
12:56
Hemispherectomy
12:57
Used for Patients who Have Rasmussen's Syndrome, a Type of Epilepsy That Is Not Treatable With Medication
13:03
Best Used on Children -- More Plasticity
14:26
Made Famous by Jodi Miller in a Documentary About Her Condition
13:14
Case Study
15:27
Phineas Gage
15:31
Gage Representations
17:08
Diagrams of How Rail Impaled Gage's Head
17:09
Gage Photo
17:48
Photo of Phineas Gage After Accident
17:49
The Endocrine System and Behavior
18:11
Nervous System -- Via Brain/Spinal Cord and Nerves
18:23
Endocrine System -- Via Bloodstream and Hormones
18:30
The Brain and the Endocrine System
18:34
Hypothalamus Signals Pituitary Gland
18:47
Pituitary Signals Various Glands Via Bloodstream With Hormones
18:51
Endocrine System Slower to Operate than NS and has Longer Lasting Effects
18:58
Major Glands and Hormones
19:13
Diagram of Various Glands and the Hormones They Create and Secrete
19:15
Endocrine Alimentary System
20:35
Diagram of Various Organs and the Hormones They Create and Secrete
20:39
Reproductive
21:31
Diagram of Female Reproductive System
21:32
Review
22:01
Which Brain Technique:
22:05
Hormones -- Locations and Functions
22:51
Biological Bases of Behavior: Neuroanatomy & Organization of the Nervous System

56m 59s

Intro
0:00
The Brain
0:29
Weight = 1300 - 1400 grams (about 3 - 3.5 pounds)
0:32
Pudding
0:50
500 Billion Neurons
1:05
Each Neuron May be Connected (Through a Synapse) to up to 10,000 Other Neurons
1:08
Has Plasticity
1:24
It's The Weirdest Thing in the Universe
2:22
The Nervous Systems
3:06
Graphic Showing How Various Nervous Systems in the Body Work With Each Other
3:08
The Nervous System
7:44
Graphic of Overall Nervous System
7:46
Brain Parts: What You Need to Know
8:38
Hindbrain (Top of the Spinal Cord; Life Support)
8:49
Thalamus
9:53
Midbrain -- Numerous Brain Parts Connecting the Hindbrain and the Forebrain -- Includes Vision and Movement
9:57
Forebrain
10:24
Brain Parts: What You Need to Know
11:12
Getting to the Brain
11:14
Hair, Skin, Fatty Tissue, Muscle, and Connective Tissue
11:16
Skull
11:41
CSF (Cerebral Spinal Fluid)
11:51
Meninges (Three Protective Layers)
12:18
Dura Mater, Pia Mater, Arachnoid
12:22
Sulcus/Sulci and Gyrus/Gyri -- Grooves and Peaks
13:15
Neurogenesis -- Formation of New Neurons
14:45
Plasticity -- Ability of Brain's Functions to Reorganize
14:57
Brain Parts: Cerebrum/Cerebral Cortex
15:09
Diagram of Different Parts of the Human Brain
15:10
Three Ways to View Brains -- Cross Sections
18:55
Diagrams of the Sagittal View, the Horizontal View, and the Coronal View
18:58
Brain Parts: Cerebrum/Cerebral Cortex
19:35
Brain Parts
19:38
Aphasia
22:55
All Functions for AP Psych-Will Be Oversimplified
23:52
The Brain
24:07
Diagram of The Parts of the Brain and What Their Primary Purpose Is
24:10
Medulla, Pons, and Cerebellum
25:32
Medulla -- Breathing and Heart Rate
25:40
Pons -- Named After Latin Word for Bridge
25:50
Cerebellum -- Little Brain
26:18
Limbic System
27:06
Diagram of the Limbic System
27:08
Limbic System
30:17
Thalamus -- All Senses Except Smell
30:20
Hypothalamus -- Hunger, Thirst, Body Temp., and Sexual Arousal
30:23
Amygdala -- Fear and Aggression, Emotions - (4 Fs) - Fighting, Fleeing, Food and Mating
30:30
Hippocampus -- Memory
30:45
Basal Ganglia -- Habits
30:49
One View of the Brain
30:56
Diagram of the Human Brain
30:58
Sensory Homunculus
32:09
Picture of Sculpture Showing How Much Brain Power and Space in The Brain is Devoted to the Function of the Parts of the Body
32:37
Sensory Homunculus
33:53
Diagram of Functions of the Somatosensory Strip and Motor Strip of the Brain
33:55
Broca's and Wernicke's Area
34:32
Diagram of The Parts of the Brain and What Their Primary Purpose Is
34:37
Paul Broca
36:14
Worked With Patients Who Had Aphasia (Inability to Speak)
36:17
Discovered Brain Region That Bears His Name -- Lesions Created Aphasia
36:25
First Anatomical Proof of Localization of Brain Function
36:30
Carl Wernicke
36:48
Followed Broca's Research
36:50
Receptive Aphasia in the Posterior, Superior Temporal Gyrus of the Left Hemisphere
36:54
Wernicke Aphasia = Inability to Understand Speech
37:05
Brain Regions Review
37:24
Graphic of Side View of Brain, Review of Its Different Areas
37:27
One View of the Brain
38:54
Diagram of Brain
38:57
Review of Brain Functions
40:03
Visual Processing
40:06
Memory
40:13
Thought Process
40:15
Dealing With Sensory Information
40:21
Balance and Fine Motor Coordination
40:31
Emotional Responses, Esp. Fear
40:35
Breathing and Heart Rate
40:40
Sensory Relay Station
40:46
Sense of Smell
40:54
Connects the Two Hemispheres
40:58
Location of Motor Cortex
41:05
Attention
41:10
Hunger/Thirst
41:21
Physiological Arousal
41:30
Body Senses
41:48
Speaking
41:56
Comprehending Language
42:00
Impairment of Language
42:03
The Divided Brain
42:12
Brain Lateralization
42:19
Hemispheric Specialization
42:21
Vogel and Bogen, Sperry
42:30
Roger Sperry
42:42
Neural Specificity and Regeneration Studies -- i.e. Neurons had Specific Functions
42:45
1981 Nobel Prize -- Split-Brain Research With Hubel and Wiesel
42:59
Severing Corpus Callosum -- Hemispheres Can Not Communicate
43:46
Gazzaniga Was Student
43:52
Split Brain
43:59
A Condition Resulting From Surgery That Isolates the Brain's Two Hemispheres by Cutting the Fibers (Mainly of the Corpus Callosum) Connecting Them
44:03
Michael Gazzaniga
44:17
Cognitive Neuroscience
44:19
Work in Split-Brain Research in Humans
44:24
Higher Brain Functioning and Lateralization of Brain Functioning -- How Each Side of Brain Has Primary Functions -- e.g. Left Side of Brain Handles Most Language Processing
44:27
Work is Cited in Intro Texts In Divided Brain Sections
44:53
Alien Hand Syndrome In Split-Brain Patients
45:00
Visual Pathways
46:27
Graphic of How Brain and Eyes Work Together to See
46:29
Split-Brain Outcomes
49:27
Graphic Depicting Split-Brain Test
49:30
Brain Lateralization
50:12
Diagram of Left and Right Brain Aptitudes
50:27
Hemispheric Dominance
51:54
Left Side
51:58
Words
51:59
Letters
51:59
Language/Sounds
52:00
Verbal Memory
52:01
Speech, Grammar, Writing, Arithmetic
52:04
Logic
52:06
Explaining Events
52:07
Right Side
52:51
Faces
52:56
Emotional Cognition
52:58
General Patterns
53:08
Non-Language Sounds
53:11
Music
53:14
Emotional Tone of Speech
53:17
Geometry
54:13
Sense of Direction
54:16
Judgment of Distance
54:17
Mental Rotation of Objects
54:18
Review
54:37
Which Brain Parts Will Likely Deal With the Following Functions?
54:49
Neurons, Neurotransmitters, and Neural Communication

40m 38s

Intro
0:00
Objectives
0:16
Identify Basic Processes and Systems in the Biological Bases of Behavior, Including Parts of the Neuron and the Process of Transmission of a Signal Between Neurons
0:18
Discuss the Influence of Drugs on Neurotransmitters (e.g. Reuptake Mechanisms, Antagonists, and Agonists)
0:26
Neuron Parts
0:39
Dendrite
0:44
Cell Body
0:48
Axon
0:56
Myelin Sheath (Myelin)
1:04
Axon Branches = Terminal Branches
1:25
Terminal Buttons (End Buttons, Axon Terminal, Terminal Branches of Axon, Synaptic Knobs)
1:30
Vesicles = Synaptic Vesicles
1:52
Synapse = Synaptic Gap
1:56
Neural Impulse
1:59
Glial Cells: 10-50 x More Glial Cells Than Neurons; Housekeeping, Nutrition, and Support
2:10
Structure of a Typical Neuron
2:34
Diagram of Neuron and its Parts
2:35
Neuron Anatomy Quick Quiz
3:41
Label the Parts of the Neuron
3:43
Neural Conduction
4:43
Voltage
4:50
Resting Potential
4:55
Action Potential
5:03
Threshold
5:10
Refractory Period
5:25
All-or-None Response (Principle)
5:36
Depolarization
6:24
Repolarization
6:34
Firing of a Neuron
6:54
Firing of a Neuron
6:57
Technique to Recall Chemicals
9:13
Salty Banana -- What is This?
9:26
Salt is Na+. Bananas Have a Lot of Potassium K+
9:32
Electrical Nature of Neurons
10:37
Graph Showing Voltage Measurement of a Firing Neuron and at Rest
10:38
Neural Speed
11:58
Speed of a Neuron Impulse
12:02
Neural Speed
13:57
Class Demonstration
13:59
Three Conditions
14:16
The Neuron
16:32
Detailed Diagram of Parts of Neuron
16:36
Neuron and Synapse
18:17
Graphic of Neuron Transmission
18:18
Neural Reuptake (Recycling)
19:46
Graphic of Neuron Recycling Neurotransmitters Between Receptors
19:54
Neural Communication
21:42
Picture of How Neurons Communicate With Each Other
21:46
Nerves and Neurons
22:40
Nerves: Large Bundles of Axons
22:43
Myelin: Fatty Layer That Coats Some Axons
22:49
Neurotransmitters
23:43
Dopamine (DA)
23:53
Serotonin (5-HT)
23:54
Acetylcholine (ACh)
23:55
Epinephrine (NE)
23:57
Norepinephrine
23:58
GABA
23:59
Caution -- These Descriptions Are Oversimplified -- Reality is Much More Complex (As Will Be Your Biological Psych-Course at University)
24:05
Neurotransmitters
24:32
Acetylcholine: Activates Muscles
24:34
Dopamine: Muscle Control
24:45
Serotonin: Mood and Appetite Control
25:19
Dopamine
25:32
Pleasure Centers of Brain -- Nucleus Accumbens
25:34
Parkinson's -- Loss of Dopamine Generating Neurons
25:50
Schizophrenia -- Elevated Levels of Dopamine in Mesolimbic Pathway
26:11
Low Levels Assoc. With Addiction
26:29
Dopaminergic
26:34
Recent Research Show That It's Not the Actual Release Associated With Pleasure, But the Anticipation of Reward
26:53
Serotonin
27:28
Inhibitory Neurotransmitter
27:33
Connected to Mood and Emotion, Appetite and Sleep
27:40
Low Levels Associated With Depression, Anger-Control, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Suicide
27:48
Plays a Role in Perception (Think Raves, E, and Molly)
28:32
Dopamine and Serotonin Pathways
29:53
Picture of Brain and Dopaminerges System and Serotonerges System
29:55
Acetylcholine (ACh)
30:56
First Neurotransmitter Discovered
31:01
Both in Peripheral and Central NS
31:05
Primary Function is in Somatic Nervous System
31:09
Activates Muscles
31:13
Associated With Movement
31:25
Loss Associated With Alzheimer's
31:28
Epinephrine
31:34
Associated With Energy and Emergency Systems in the Endocrine System (Sympathetic NS)
31:41
Connected to Forming Memories
31:57
Related to Traumatic or Incidents With Really Strong Emotions
32:00
Norepinephrine
32:32
Part of Sympathetic Nervous System Response to Danger -- Fight or Flight Response
32:35
Increases Blood Pressure and Heart Rate, Releases Glucose Stores
32:42
Connected to Amygdala Function
32:50
GABA
33:06
Gamma Amino Butyric Acid
33:11
An Inhibitory Neurotransmitter -- Slows Things Down
33:16
Associated with Anxiety -- Too Little Associated With Anxiety Disorders
33:23
Glutamate
33:47
At This Point, Not on AP Exam as a Neurotransmitter
33:50
Plays Key Role in Long-Term Potentiation
33:55
Important for Learning and Memory
34:08
Other Neurotransmitters
34:19
Others Definitely Exist
34:24
Will Be Part of a BioPsych-Course
34:25
Do Not Worry About Them for AP Psych
34:28
Neural Regulators
34:35
Neuropeptides: Regulate Activity of Other Neurons
34:40
Neural Regulators
35:37
Agonist (Chemicals That Mimic the Actions of a Neurotransmitter)
35:39
Antagonist (Chemicals That Oppose the Action of a Neurotransmitter)
35:58
Excitatory Neurotransmitters: Chemicals Released From the Terminal Buttons of a Neuron That Excite the Next Neuron Into Firing
36:27
Inhibitory Neurotransmitters: Chemicals Released From the Terminal Buttons of a Neuron That Inhibit (Prevent) the Next Neuron Into Firing
36:36
Review
37:24
Neural Parts -- Direction of Signal
37:30
Action Potential
38:15
Neurotransmitters
38:40
Behavioral Genetics, Evolutionary Psychology, & Behavior

36m 10s

Intro
0:00
Behavioral Genetics
0:11
Objective: Discuss Psychology's Abiding Interest in How Heredity, Environment, and Evolution Work Together to Shape Behavior
0:16
What Influences do our Genetics Have on Our Behavior, Both as an Individual, as Well as in Groups?
0:24
Nature Versus Nurture
0:34
Nature Refers to Heredity, a Person's Biological Makeup
0:38
Nurture Refers to the Environment, a Person's Life Experiences, Family and Education
0:45
Heredity
0:58
Developmental Psychology: The Study of Progressive Changes in Behavior and Abilities
1:01
Heredity (Nature): Transmission of Physical and Psychological Characteristics From Parents to Their Children Through Genes
1:15
DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid): Molecular Structure Shaped Like a Double Helix That Contains Coded Genetic Information
1:25
Genome: The Entirety of an Organism's Hereditary Information (Includes Info Coded in DNA or RNA)
1:49
Genes
2:17
Genes: Specific Areas on a Strand of DNA That Carry Hereditary Information
2:23
Genetic Makeup
2:46
DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid) is the Means by Which Heredity Characteristics Pass From One Generation to the Next
2:49
Fraternal Twins are Dizygotic Twins That Develop From the Union of Two Separate Sperms and Eggs
3:06
Identical Twins are Monozygotic Twins That Develop From the Union of the Same Egg and Sperm That Have Split and Have Exactly the Same Genotype (May Have the Same Genes, But Not Necessarily the Same Number of Copies of Those Genes)
3:28
Genetic Building Blocks
4:13
The Human Body Contains 100 Trillion Cells
4:16
There is a Nucleus Inside Each Human Cell (Except Red Blood Cells)
4:27
Each Nucleus Contains 46 Chromosomes, Arranged in 23 Pairs
4:34
One Chromosome of Every Pair is From Each Parent
4:49
The Chromosomes are Filled With Tightly Coiled Strands of DNA.
4:53
Genes are Segments of DNA That Contain Instructions to Make Proteins -- The Building Blocks of Life
4:59
Chromosomes
5:08
Picture of What is Inside a Chromosome
5:10
DNA
5:47
Linked Molecules (Organic Bases) Make Up the Rungs on DNA's Twisted Molecular Ladder. The Order of These Molecules Serves as a Code for Genetic Information
5:49
The Code Provides a Genetic Blueprint That is Unique for Each Individual (Except Identical Twins). The Drawing Shows Only a Small Section of a DNA Strand. An Entire Strand of DNA is Composed of Billions of Smaller Molecules
6:04
The Nucleus of Each Cell in the Body Contains Chromosomes Made up of Tightly Wound Coils of DNA.
6:25
Don't be Misled By the Drawing: Chromosomes are Microscopic in Size, and the Chemical Molecules That Make Up DNA are Even Smaller
6:41
Gene Patterns: Eye Color
7:01
Dominant and Recessive Traits
7:09
Gene Patterns for Children of Brown-Eyed Parents, Where Each Parent has One Brown-Eye Gene and One Blue-Eye Gene
7:12
Because the Brown Eye Gene is Dominant, One out of Every Four Children Will Be Blue-Eyed
7:22
There is a Significant Chance That Two Brown-Eyed Parents Will Have a Blue-Eyed Child
7:29
Dominant Recessive
7:43
Graphic Depicting All the Eye Color Combinations a Brown-Eyed Mother and Brown-Eyed Father Could Have
7:44
Temperament and Environment
9:53
Temperament: The Physical Core of Personality; Includes Sensitivity, Irritability, Distractibility, and Typical Mood
9:56
Easy Children: 40% Relaxed and Agreeable
10:09
Difficult Children: 10% Moody, Intense, Easily Angered
10:26
Slow-to-Warm-Up Children: 15% Restrained, Unexpressive, Shy
10:38
Remaining Children: Do Not Fit Into Any Specific Category
10:55
Environment
11:09
Environment (Nurture): All External Conditions That Affect a Person, Especially the Effects of Learning; the World Around a Person.
11:14
Sensitive Periods: A Period of Increased Sensitivity to Environmental Influences; Also a Time When Certain Events Must Occur for Normal Development to Take Place
11:27
Prenatal Issues
13:10
Congenital Problem: A Problem or Defect That Occurs During Prenatal Development; Birth Defect
13:14
Genetic Disorder: Problem Caused by Inherited Characteristics From Parents; e.g. Cystic Fibrosis, Neurofibromatosis
13:23
Website Link to Information on Genetic Disorders
13:56
Twin and Adoption Studies
14:14
Some Research Conclusions
14:19
Shared Genes Can Also Mean a Shared Experience -- Most, Not All, Identical Twins Share Placentas
14:25
A Person Whose Identical Twin Has Alzheimer's Has a 60% Chance of Getting It; Fraternal Twin, Only 30%.
14:44
On Extraversion and Neuroticism (Emotional Stability), Identical Twins are More Alike Than Fraternal Twins
14:58
Divorce -- If Fraternal Twin Divorced, Your Odds Increase 1.6 Times; If Identical Twin Divorced, Odds Go Up 5.5 Times
15:24
The Jim Twins
16:03
Separated at Birth -- Reconnected After 38 Years
16:09
Both Named Jim (Lewis and Springer)
16:13
Both Liked Woodworking, Driving their Chevy Cars, Watching Stock-Car Races, and Drinking Miller Lite.
16:19
Both Had Nearly Identical Voices
16:28
Personalities, Intelligence, Heart Rates and Brain Waves -- Nearly Identical
16:35
It Would Seem Genes Had a Profound Impact on Personality -- But the Question Remains to This Day -- Just How Much?
16:40
But This is Anecdote, What About Real Data?
16:52
Big Conclusion
17:00
The Environment Shared By A Family's Children Has Virtually No Identifiable Impact on Personalities of Children
17:04
But Why? Geneticists Are Working on It.
17:12
But What About Family Life?
17:47
So, The Question For You -- Would You Be the Same Person if You Had Been Raised in a Different Family or Culture?
17:56
Heritability
18:32
The Proportion of Variation Among Members of a Group That We Can Attribute to Genes
18:40
So This Compares, Within Populations, Genotypes (Genetic Makeup) and Phenotypes (The Outward, Physical Manifestation of the Organism) on Specific Traits
19:14
This Difference Involves Mathematics and Analysis That is Far Beyond This Course -- Take AP Bio or Genetics for Mendelian Genetics
19:34
Heritability
20:00
It is Not Behaviors That Are Inherited, But Genetic Predispositions That May Lead to the Behavior
20:03
Heritable Differences Between Individuals Does Not Imply Heritable Group Differences
21:23
Genes and Interaction
21:43
Interaction: The Interplay When the Effect of One Factor (Such as Environment) Depends on Another Factor (Such as Heredity)
21:47
Genes and Environment Work Together (Like Two Hands Clapping). Genes Code for Proteins But Also Respond to Environments
21:55
Example: Happy Baby Draws in More Adults Who Respond to the Happiness With Warmth of Their Own -- This Can Become a Cycle, With the Happy Baby Becoming More Outgoing and Socially Confident
22:39
This Kind of Interaction Can Be Applied to Virtually Any Trait, Especially Anxiety and Depression
23:17
Natural Selection and Adaptation
24:20
Only the Strong Survive is a Myth -- It's the Ones With the Most Adaptive Traits For Their Environment
24:25
Evolutionary Psychology: The Study of the Evolution of Behavior and the Mind, Using Principles of Natural Selection
24:42
Natural Selection: The Principle That, Among the Range of Inherited Trait Variations, Those That Lead to Increased Reproduction and Survival Will Most Likely Be Passed on to Succeeding Generations
24:55
Mutation: The Random Error in Gene Replication That Leads to Change
25:35
Evolutionary Psychology
25:50
Evolutionary Success Helps Explain Similarities Among People
25:54
However, We Have Some Outdated Tendencies -- Some Genetic Traits That Were Previously Helpful May Harm Us Today
26:42
Evolutionary Psychology, Continued
28:07
Examines Psychological Traits Such as Memory, Perception and Language Using Modern Evolutionary Perspective
28:10
Which Human Psychological Traits Are Evolved Adaptations -- That is, The Products of Natural or Sexual Selection?
28:18
Examples Could Include an Ability to Infer Emotions of Others, Discern Kin From Non-Kin, Identify and Prefer Healthier Mates, and Cooperate With Others
28:27
Sexual Adaptations
29:47
Both Men and Women Looking For Signs of a Healthy Potential Mate
29:50
Criticisms of Evolutionary Psychology
31:47
Looks at Modern Traits and Looks Backward to Propose an Explanation (Similar Criticism of Freud)
31:50
What About the Social Implications? What Does it Mean for Our Desire to Reduce Prejudice and Discrimination? What About Our Moral Responsibilities?
32:13
What About Cultural Differences That Seem to Work Against Evolutionary Explanations?
33:19
David Myers
33:50
One Quote of His I've Been Using for Years: Everything Psychological is Simultaneously Biological.
33:57
Review
34:39
What Are Genes and How Do Behavior Geneticists Explain Our Individual Differences?
34:43
What Is Heritability, and How Does it Relate to Individuals and Groups?
34:50
How Do Evolutionary Psychologists Use Natural Selection to Explain Behavior Tendencies?
35:02
How Might an Evolutionary Psychologist Explain Gender Differences in Sexuality and Mating Preferences?
35:09
IV. Senses and Perception
Thresholds & Signal Detection Theory

54m 3s

Intro
0:00
Sensation and Perception (6-8%)
0:09
Everything That Organisms Know About the World is First Encountered When Stimuli in the Environment Activate Sensory Organs, Initiating Awareness of the External World.
0:26
Perception Involves the Interpretation of the Sensory Outputs as a Cognitive Process
0:36
Discuss Basic Principles of Sensory Transduction, Including Absolute Threshold, Difference Threshold, Signal Detection and Sensory Adaptation.
0:42
Discuss How Experience and Culture can Influence Perceptual Processes (e.g. Perceptual Set, Context Effects)
0:53
General Properties of Sensory Systems
1:16
Data Reduction System: Any System That Selects, Analyzes, and Condenses Information
1:20
Perceptual Features: Basic Stimulus Patterns
1:57
Sensory Coding: Converting Important Features of the World Into Neural Messages Understood by the Brain
2:02
Sensation and Perception
2:12
Sensation: Information Arriving From Sense Organs (Eye, Ear, Etc.)
2:15
Perception: Mental Process of Organizing Sensations Into Meaningful Patterns
2:32
Terms
2:58
Psychophysics
3:02
Sensory Transduction
3:04
Absolute Threshold
3:05
Difference Threshold
3:06
Signal Detection
3:08
Sensory Adaptation
3:09
Bottom-Up Processing
3:10
Top-Down Processing
3:11
Weber's Law
3:13
Psychophysics
3:22
The Study of the Relationships Between the Physical Characteristics of Stimuli, Such as Their Intensity, and Our Psychological Experience of Them
3:24
Ernst Weber
4:24
A Founder of Modern Experimental Psych
4:30
Influenced Psychophysics
4:34
Studied Weight Perception and How There was a Proportional Relationship Between Increase of Magnitude of Weight and Ability to Make the Discrimination Between the Weights(Fechner Later Called it Weber's Law)
4:36
Weber-Fechner Law -- Ratio of Intensity to Have a Just Noticeable Difference (JND)
5:51
Studied Absolute Thresholds -- Our Awareness of Faint Stimuli
6:13
Gustav Fechner
6:29
Influenced Modern Experimental Psych
6:31
Founder of Psychophysics
6:34
Studied Absolute Thresholds -- Our Awareness of Faint Stimuli
6:36
Illustrated the Non-Linear Relationship Between Psychological Sensation and Physical Intensity of a Stimulus
6:43
Weber-Fechner Law -- Ratio of Intensity to Have a Just Noticeable Difference
7:19
Sensory Transduction
7:32
Conversion of One Form of Energy Into Another. In Sensation, The Transforming of Stimulus Energies, Such as Sights, Sounds, and Smells Into Neural Impulses Our Brains Can Interpret.
7:40
Absolute Threshold
8:22
The Minimum Stimulation Necessary to Detect a Particular Stimulus 50% of the Time
8:26
Exploited by Students Who May Use the Mosquito Ringtone to Evade Phone Use in Class
8:44
Vision -- Candle Flame Seen at 30 Miles on a Clear Dark Night
9:20
Hearing -- Tick of a Watch Under Quiet Conditions at 20 Feet (The Buzz of the Fluorescent Lights in a Quiet Room)
9:51
Taste -- One Teaspoon Sugar in 2 Gallons of Water
10:28
Smell -- One Drop Perfume Diffused Into a Three-Room Apartment
10:42
Touch -- A Bee's Wing Falling On Your Cheek from One Centimeter Above.
10:57
Difference Threshold
11:11
The Minimum Difference Between Two Stimuli Required for Detection. We Experience the Difference Threshold as a Just Noticeable Difference (JND).
11:14
The Detectable Difference Increases With the Magnitude -- is Done in a Constant Proportion
11:32
E.g. You Will Notice is One Ounce is Added to a 10 Ounce Weight, But Not if One Ounce is Added to a 100-Ounce Weight
11:38
Volume on the Television
12:11
Weber's Law
12:40
The Principle That, to be Perceived as Different, Stimuli Must Differ by a Constant Percentage (Rather Than a Constant Amount)
12:43
The Amount of Change Needed to Produce a Constant JND is a Constant Proportion of the Original Stimulus Intensity
12:56
Signal Detection
13:21
A Theory Predicting How and When We Detect the Presence of a Faint Stimulus (Signal) Amid Background Stimulation (Noise).
13:27
Assumes There is no Absolute Threshold and that Detection Depends Partly on a Person's Experience, Expectations, Motivation, and Alertness
13:38
Separating the Music From the Noise or the Signal From the Noise
13:53
Important Info Versus Background and Irrelevant
14:04
Sensory Adaptation
15:47
AKA Neural Adaptation
15:54
Neural or Sensory Receptors Change/Reduce Their Sensitivity to a Continuous, Unchanging Stimuli
16:04
This Occurs in the Brain at an Unconscious Level
16:11
E.g. The Smell of Your Own Car or Home
16:22
E.g. Adapting to Hot or Cold Water After a Brief Time in It.
17:12
E.g. The Eyes Adjusting to a Darker Room -- Rods and Cones Will Fire Differently to Adjust (Cones Take About 10 Minutes, the Rods 30 Minutes to Fully Adapt)
17:39
Why Certain Foods Do Not Taste the Same on the 20th Bite as They Did on the First
18:24
In Economics, This is Diminishing Marginal Utility
19:05
NOT The Same as Habituation (We Will Go Over That Later)
19:31
Top-Down Processing
19:42
Information Processing Guided by Higher-Level Mental Processes, as When We Construct Perceptions Drawing on Our Experience and Expectations
19:45
People Look at the Big Picture, the Whole, Try to Find Patterns to Make Meaning and Then Examine the Details (We Use Background Knowledge to Fill Gaps)
20:03
The Stroop Effect Was One Experiment That Dealt With This
20:18
Deductive Reasoning
21:54
Even Though the Second Letter in Each Word is Ambiguous, T-D Processing Allows for Context to Clarify For Us
22:03
Bottom-Up Processing (AKA Feature Analysis)
22:47
Analysis That Begins With the Sensory Receptors And Works Up to the Brain's Integration of Sensory Information
22:55
Works From the Details and Moves Out to the Whole Picture
23:06
Inductive Reasoning -- Going From the Examples First and Working One's Way Out to the General Propositions -- Uses Probabilities Based Upon Specific Observations
23:17
Based Upon Current Knowledge, So Potentially Biased (e.g. Confirmation Bias, Availability Heuristic, Illusory Correlation)
23:39
e.g. Since 100% of Bio Life Forms Depend on Liquid Water to Exist, if We Were to Discover a New Bio Form, It Will Probably Depend on Liquid Water to Exist
24:46
Man With Prosopagnosia
25:20
Sensation Chart Overview
27:06
Chart Looks at Sense, Stimulus, Sense Organ, Receptor, and Sensation
27:08
David Hubel and Torsten Wiesel
29:42
Nobel Prize with Wiesel and Sperry
29:49
Microelectrode in Cat Brain -- When Would Neurons Fire When Cat Presented With Simple Lines
30:05
Worked on Visual System Neurons and Processing Certain Neurons Responded Only to Certain Lines -- Simple Cells
30:36
Other Cells Detected Motion -- Complex Cells
30:52
Cats and Restricting Visual System
31:22
Showed How the Visual System Built an Image From Simple Stimuli by Combining Them Into More Complex Formats
31:25
Big Idea Here is Feature Detectors -- Certain Brain Cells Pick Up Certain Kinds of Visual Stimulation -- Vertical Lines, Curves. Motion, Etc.
31:01
Perceptual Set
31:51
A Mental Disposition to Perceive One Thing and Not Another
32:03
This Goes Back to the Simon and Garfunkel Song
32:12
We See What We Want to See
32:25
E.g. Friendliness Is Mistaken for Flirting if We Find The Other Person Attractive
32:34
Perceptual Set
34:29
Is This a Cloud or a Flying Saucer?
34:32
Perceptual Set -- Culture and Context Effects
35:34
Magic -- Creates Certain Expectations and Uses Movements to Distract the Eye
35:38
I am 6'3 -- When I'm Standing Next to 4th Graders, I Appear to be Huge. If at an NBA Game, I Look Pretty Small
36:13
Our Moods and Circumstances Can Create Some Top-Down Processing Errors -- Have You Ever Been in a Bad Mood and Thought Someone Slammed You But They Really Said Something Else?
37:08
Walter Cronkite Was Sailing Into a Port and Thought the Crowd was Saying Hello Walter Repeatedly. The Reality Was Low Water
37:33
Cultures -- Not All Cultures Perceive the Same Stimuli Equally -- Shaping Stereotypes, Directing Our Attention, and Telling Us What Is Important to Notice
38:04
Perceptual Set -- Culture and Context Effects
38:53
James Burke, an Historian, Had a Great Segment in The Day The Universe Changed -- We All See Our Own Witches -- We Change our Perceptions to Make it Fit the Reality of What We Think It Should Be
38:58
Rural Africans in One Study Live in an Environment Without Right Angles -- They Were Less Likely to Fall For the Muller-Lyer Illusion
40:47
Basic Illusions -- Muller-Lyer
41:12
Which of These Three Lines is Longer? (They are All The Same Length)
41:14
Basic Illusions -- Poggendorf
42:22
Is There One Straight Line or Two Line Segments on Each Side?
42:27
Basic Illusions -- Ponzo
43:19
Which Line Appears Longer? The one In Between Tracks or the One Lying Across It?
43:23
Basic Illusions -- Hermann Grid
44:06
The Appearance of White and Black Dots Moving Between Each Gray Line's Intersection
44:10
Attention
45:04
Selective Attention -- The Focusing of Conscious Awareness on a Particular Stimulus
45:10
Inattentional Blindness -- Failing to See Visible Objects When Our Attention is Directed Elsewhere
46:56
Change Blindness -- Failing to Notice Changes in the Environment
47:50
Perceptual Defense and Subliminal Perception
49:26
Subliminal Perception: Perception of a Stimulus Below the Threshold for Conscious Recognition
49:32
Review
51:26
What's the Difference Between Sensation and Perception?
51:29
What Process Does the Brain Have of Converting Wave Signals into Electrical Signals?
51:42
Science of Physical Properties and Human Perceptions is Called…?
52:08
Describe Absolute Threshold, Difference Threshold, and Weber's Law
52:27
Describe the Impact of Hubel and Weisel
52:58
How Do Perceptual Sets Alter Our Views as Compared to Reality?
53:15
Do We Really Share the Same Reality? Explain.
53:36
Visual Processes

52m 22s

Intro
0:00
Objectives
0:17
Describe Sensory Processes (e.g. Hearing, Vision, Touch, Taste, Smell, Vestibular, Kinesthesis, Pain), Including the Specific Nature of Energy Transduction, Relevant Anatomical Structures, and Specialized Pathways in the Brain for Each of the Senses
0:20
What Can We See?
0:40
Do You All See Those Two Large Black Circles?
0:48
Our Vision is Actually Upside Down, Blurry, and Riddled With Black Splotches
1:50
Our Brain Cleans it Up
2:07
Vision
2:12
What Can We Really See?
2:14
Do We Really See Each Other?
2:16
Light Comes to Us in Waves as Part of the Electromagnetic Spectrum (Vision, Hearing, and Touch -- The Energy Senses)
3:22
Wavelength (Distance From One Wave Peak to the Next)
3:38
Hue (The Color We Experience -- Blue, Green, Red)
4:03
Intensity (The Amount of Energy in the Wave -- Measured by Amplitude or Height)
5:10
Vision
5:24
Graphic of Measurement in Nanometers of Different Kinds of Light and Sound Waves
5:34
Wavelengths
10:58
Drawing Depicting Short Wavelengths (High Frequency and Bluish Colors) and Long Wavelengths (Low Frequency and Reddish Colors)
11:01
Wavelengths
11:20
Picture Showing Bright Colors Have a Greater Amplitude than More Dull Colors
11:22
Parts of the Eye
11:46
Lens: Structure in the Eye That Focuses Light Rays -- When it Does This = Accommodation
11:57
Photoreceptors: Light-Sensitive Cells in the Eye -- The Rods and Cones
12:18
Retina: Light-Sensitive Layer of Cells in the Back of the Eye
13:08
Easily Damaged from Excessive Exposure to Light (Staring at a Solar Eclipse)
13:16
Cornea: Transparent Membrane Covering the Front of the Eye; Bends Light Rays Inward
13:45
Eye Anatomy
14:45
Graphic Showing Location of Parts of the Eye
14:48
Anatomy of the Eye
17:47
Another View of the Parts of the Eye
17:50
The Retina and Photoreceptors
18:52
Picture of Photoreceptors
18:54
The Eye and Transduction
19:51
Light Waves Enter Through the Cornea (Outer Covering of the Eye)
19:55
Retina
20:15
Blind Spot
20:39
The Eye, Continued
21:07
Back of the Retina (The Light-Sensitive Inner Surface of the Eye, Containing the Receptor Rods and Cones Plus Layers of Neurons That Begin the Processing of Visual Information.)
21:09
Rods/Cones Transduce the Information Into Electrical Signals
21:19
Signals Go Through:
21:27
Steps of Light -- Cornea, Pupil, Lens, Retina Rods/Cones, Bipolar Cells, Ganglion Cells (Amacrine cells, Horizontal, and Muller cells)
21:37
The Eye and Transduction
22:05
Graphic Showing Path Light Takes Through the Eye to be Seen
22:07
Light Control
22:56
Visual Acuity: Sharpness of Visual Perception
22:59
Fovea: Area at the Center of the Retina Containing Only Cones -- When Focused Here, See Only Color
24:04
Peripheral Vision: Vision at Edges of Visual Field; Side Vision
24:14
Tunnel Vision: Loss of Peripheral Vision
27:15
Visual Information Processing
28:02
Feature Detectors: Nerve Cells in the Brain That Respond to Specific Features of the Stimulus, Such as Shape, Angle, or Movement.
28:08
Different Locations in the Brain Have Specialized Functions, e.g. Color, Form, Edge, Motion, Depth, Etc.
28:25
Saccade: Reflexive Movement of Eyes From Side to Side so that the Neurons Will Continue Firing and so Fill In Information Due to Blind Spot
30:04
Visual Acuity -- Snellen Test
31:55
Snellen Test is Another Name for an Eye Chart
31:59
Trichromatic Theory
33:46
The Trichromatic, or Young-Helmboltz, Theory
33:53
Color Vision Theory That Hypothesizes We Have Three Cone Types in the Retina: Red, Green, Blue
34:49
Most Researchers Conclude That This Theory Along With the Trichromatic Can Explain Color Vision -- Individually, Each is Lacking
36:11
Trichromatic Theory
36:28
The Trichromatic, or Young-Helmboltz, Theory
36:40
Color Vision Theory That Hypothesizes We Have Three Cone Types in the Retina: Red, Green, Blue
37:02
Trichromatic Theory
37:59
We See a Specific Color by Comparing Responses From 3 Kinds of Cones, Each Most Sensitive to a Short, Medium, or Long Wavelength of Light
38:02
Fewer Short Wavelength Cones (Blue) So We See Red, Yellow, and Green Colors Better
38:53
When All 3 Cones Are Equally Active, We See White or Gray
39:04
Incomplete Theory, e.g., Can't Explain Negative Color Afterimage
39:20
Opponent Process Theory
39:28
Color Vision Theory Based on Three Systems: Red or Green, Blue or Yellow, Black or White
39:32
Optical Illusion
41:11
Demonstration of Opponent Process Theory With Picture of Green, Black, and Yellow American Flag
41:13
Continuation of Illusion
42:13
Optical Illusion Continued: Staring at Black Dot on Picture on Last Slide Will Produce a Red, White, and Blue Flag on This Slide
42:17
Negative Afterimage
42:26
Why Did You See an American Flag When You Looked at the White Screen?
42:36
Color Vision Deficiency
43:14
Inability to Perceive Color Differences
43:23
Color Blindness
44:09
Inability to Perceive Colors; Lack Cones or Has Malfunctioning Cones
44:12
Color Weakness: Inability to Distinguish Some Colors
44:23
Ishihara Test
44:38
Test for Color Blindness and Color Weakness
44:41
Color Blindness
45:20
Pictures of Different Apples Viewed By A Trichromatic Color Viewer and One Who is Colorblind
45:22
Wiki Color Test
45:54
Demonstration of Test
45:57
Dark Adaptation
46:20
Increased Retinal Sensitivity to Light After Entering the Dark, Similar to Going From Daylight Into a Dark Movie Theater
46:27
Rhodopsin: Light-Sensitive Pigment in the Rods; Involved with Night Vision
46:40
Night Blindness: Blindness Under Low-Light Conditions; Hazardous for Driving at Night
47:01
Dark Adaptation
47:36
Graph Showing Length of Time it Takes Cones and Rods to Acclimate to the Dark
47:38
Review
49:22
What is the Order of Eye Parts That a Light Wave Travels Through Before it Gets to the Optic Nerve?
49:25
Describe What Transduction Is
50:01
Compare and Contrast (or Differentiate) the Two Theories of Color -- Trichromatic and Opponent-Process Theory
50:12
What Makes Someone Colorblind? What Do They See as Compared to Others?
50:29
What is the Electromagnetic Spectrum? Why Can We See Only Part of It?
51:05
Hearing

29m 57s

Intro
0:00
Hearing, Taste, Smell, Touch, Body Senses
0:18
Describe Sensory Processes, Including the Specific Nature of Energy Transduction, Relevant Anatomical Structures, and Specialized Pathways in the Brain for Each of the Senses
0:22
The Senses
0:40
Vision
0:46
Audition/Auditory
0:49
Olfaction/Olfactory
1:05
Gustation/Gustatory
1:11
Somesthetic/Skin Senses
1:17
Vestibular/Balance
1:30
Kinesthesis/Kinesthetic
1:34
Pain/Ouchies
1:45
Hearing
1:52
Audition: The Sense or Act of Hearing
1:55
Sound Waves: Rhythmic Movement of Air Molecules
2:01
Frequency: The Number of Complete Wavelengths That Pass a Point in a Given Time (i.e. Per Second, Measured in Megahertz)
2:41
Pitch: Higher or Lower Tone of a Sound: a Tone's Experienced Highness or Lowness; Depends on Frequency
2:54
Loudness: Sound Intensity
3:37
Hearing: Parts of the Ear
4:01
Pinna: External Part of the Ear
4:13
Auditory Canal
4:24
Tympanic Membrane: Eardrum
4:34
Auditory Ossicles: Three Small Bones That Vibrate; Link Eardrum With Cochlea
5:00
These Bones Concentrate the Vibrations of the Cardrum on the Cochlea's Oval Window
5:50
Transduction Occurs in the Cochlea (In the Cilia of the Basilar Membrane) Where the Signals are Sent to the Auditory Nerve
5:59
Ear Anatomy
6:26
Diagram of the Ear and Its Parts
6:29
Hearing: The Inner Ear
7:44
Oval Window
7:46
Cochlea: Snail Shaped Organ That Makes Up Inner Ear
7:53
Hair Cells (aka Cilia or Stereocilia): Receptor Cells Within Cochlea That Transduce Vibrations Into Nerve Impulses
7:58
Basilar Membrane: Inner Surface of Cochlea That Contains the Hair Cells -- Pressure of Fluid Moves the Fibers, Creating the Transduction to the Auditory Nerve
8:13
Semicircular Canals
8:49
Vestibular Sacs
8:50
Auditory Nerve
8:55
Auditory Cortex
9:05
Theories of Sound/Hearing
9:10
How Do We Hear Certain Pitches or Tones
9:14
Place Theory Says That Hair Cells in the Cochlea Respond to Different Frequencies of Sound Based Upon Where They Are in the Cochlea
9:19
Pitch Theory Indicates That Some Hair Cells Sense the Upper Range and Some Hair Cells Respond to the Lower Range.
10:00
Lower Tones are Sensed By the Rate at Which The Cells Fire. We Sense Pitch Because the Hair Cells Fire at Different Rates (Frequencies) in the Cochlea
10:08
Auditory Frequencies of Humans
10:29
Audible Range of Frequencies is Usually 20-20,000 Hz.
10:43
This Means 20 to 20K Vibrations Per Second
11:05
One Hertz is One Vibration Per Second
11:11
Ultrasound (Higher Frequency) -- We Cannot Perceive -- Beyond Our Upper Limit (e.g. Dog Whistle and Bats With Echolocation)
11:22
Infrasound (Lower Frequency) -- We Can Not Perceive
14:44
Diagram of Hearing Continuum -- What Humans Can and Can Not Hear
14:50
How Do We Detect Higher and Lower Sounds?
17:02
Frequency Theory: As Pitch Rises, Nerve Impulses of a Corresponding Frequency Travel Up the Auditory Nerve That Matches the Frequency of the Tone
17:12
This Enables Us To Perceive Pitch
17:22
Place Theory: Higher and Lower Tones Excite Specific Areas of the Cochlea -- See Previous Graphic
17:26
Examples: Singing and Pitch -- The Film Pitch Perfect Singing A Capella
17:35
Randy Jackson -- You're Pitchy, Dawg -- Pitch Not Identical to Frequency -- Pitch is Subjective
18:14
Decibels and Hearing
20:00
140 -- Rock Concert/Fireworks/Jet Takeoff
22:41
120 -- Dance Clubs, Chainsaw
21:53
110 -- Personal Stereo
21:48
100 -- Exercise Class, Video Arcade
21:39
90 -- Lawnmower, Most Motorcycles, Crying Child
21:16
80 -- Traffic Around Town, Old Style Phone Ring
20:50
60 -- Normal Conversation
20:38
40 -- Refrigerator, Quiet Living Room, Library
20:11
Conduction Deafness
24:23
Poor Transfer of Sounds From Tympanic Membrane to Inner Ear
24:29
Nerve Deafness
25:19
Caused by Damage to Hair Cells or Auditory Nerve
25:22
Hearing Aids Useless in These Cases, Since Auditory Messages Cannot Reach the Brain
25:33
Cochlear Implant: Electronic Device That Stimulates Auditory Nerves
25:39
Picture of Cochlear Implant Being Worn
25:41
Preventable Hearing Problems
26:17
Stimulation Deafness: Damage Caused by Exposing Hair Cells to Excessively Loud Sounds
26:21
e.g. Use of Earbuds, Sound is Too Loud
26:27
Natural Aging: Mosquito Ringtone
26:47
Review
28:23
What Are The Parts of the Ear?
28:26
In What Order Do the Sound Waves Go (In Terms of Ear Parts)?
28:28
How is Sound Measured?
29:14
At What Point is Sound Potentially Dangerous?
29:22
Describe the Different Kinds of Hearing Loss -- Conduction and Nerve Deafness
29:36
The Other Senses

38m 51s

Intro
0:00
Smell
0:13
Olfaction: Sense of Smell -- A Chemo Sense
0:24
Receptors are Located in a Mucous Membrane in the Upper Nasal Cavity (as Many as 100x Kinds of Receptors May Exist)
0:39
Olfactory Nerve Fibers Respond to Gaseous Molecules -- Approx. 5 Million in Each Nasal Cavity
1:05
Nerve Fibers From the Olf. Bulb Connect to the Brain at the Amygdala, Then to Hippocampus (Connected to Emotions and Memory)
1:33
Pheromones: Airborne Chemical Signal
2:53
Lock and Key Theory: Odors are Related to Shapes of Chemicals and Molecules
3:21
Anosmia: Defective Sense of Smell for a Single Odor
4:14
Olfactory System
4:41
Picture of What the Olfactory System Looks Like
4:42
Olfactory System
5:26
Animals and Scent Marking, e.g. Cats and Dogs
5:29
Cats Have Special Glands in Their Faces --> Rubbing
6:01
Women Tend to be Able to Smell More Accurately Than Men at All Ages
8:14
Ability to Smell Peaks From About 30-50
8:26
Decline After 50
8:30
Think Old Ladies and Perfume
8:35
Smells Tend to be Very Evocative of Memories -- Even of Ones Long Past -- From Learned Associations
9:18
Malls and Stores -- Will Pump in Certain Smells to Lure You In
10:20
Gustation and Taste Buds
11:08
Taste-Receptor Cells on Tongue Absorb Chemicals From Food We Eat
11:20
Papillae are the Cells on the Tongue -- The More Packed Together The Papillae Are, the More Chemicals Are Absorbed, The More Intense the Taste
11:31
Sense of Taste
12:11
Taste Works With Smell to Work
14:11
As We Age, Sense Gets Weaker
14:15
Taste and Survival Functions
14:31
Sweet -- A Source of Energy
14:35
Salty -- We Need Sodium for Our Basic Physiology
14:54
Sour -- Potentially Toxic Acid
15:06
Bitter -- Potential Poison
15:14
Umami -- Proteins for Growth and Tissue Repair
15:30
Dr. Linda Bartushock -- Research on Super-Tasters
15:45
The Tongue
17:08
Diagram of Tongue and Its Types of Papillae
17:09
Sensory Interaction
17:28
If You Close Your Eyes and Close Your Nose, Have Someone You Trust Feed You Various Foods
17:36
McGurk Effect
18:42
Somethetic Senses
19:31
Skin Senses (Touch): Light Touch, Pressure, Pain, Cold, Warmth
19:34
The Skin
19:41
Diagram of Layers of the Parts of the Skin
19:43
Vestibular System
20:47
Vestibular: Balance, Gravity, and Acceleration of the Head
20:52
Kinesthetic: Detect Body Position and Movement (Where is the Body in Space -- Gymnasts, Divers, Dancers, etc.) Procioreceptors
21:01
Otolith Organs: Sensitive to Movement, Acceleration, and Gravity
21:47
Semicircular Canals: Fluid-Filled Tubes in Ears That are Sensory Organs for Balance
22:10
Crista: Float That Detects Movement in Semicircular Canals
23:10
Ampulla: A Wider Part of the Canal
23:15
Vestibular System and Motion Sickness
23:25
Motion Sickness is Directly Related to Vestibular System
23:32
Sensory Conflict Theory: Motion Sickness Results From a Mismatch Between Information From Vision, Vestibular System, and Kinesthesis
23:36
Medications, Relaxation, and Lying Down Might Help
24:17
Pain
24:28
Visceral Pain: Pain Originating in Internal Organs
24:38
Referred Pain: Pain Felt on Surface of Body, Away from Origin Point
24:50
Somatic Pain: Sharp, Bright, Fast; Comes From Skin, Joints, Muscles, Tendons
24:55
Phantom Limb: Missing Limb Feels Like It is Present, Like Always Before Amputation or Accident (V.S. Ramachandran's Work Phantoms in the Brain)
25:14
Types of Pain
26:51
Warning System: Pain Carried by Large Nerve Fibers; Sharp, Bright, Fast Pain That Tells You Body Damage May Be Occurring (e.g. Knife Cut)
26:57
Reminding System: Small Nerve Fibers: Slower, Nagging, Aching, Widespread; Gets Worse if Stimulus is Repeated; Reminds System That Body has Been Injured
27:29
Gate-Control Theory of Pain
28:16
Sensory (Afferent) Receptors That Respond to Damaging Tissue (or Other Noxious Stimuli) Are Pain Receptors or Nociceptors
28:21
The More the Neurons Fire, The More Intense the Pain
28:38
Theory That Pain Messages From Different Nerve Fibers Pass Through the Same Neural Gate in the Spinal Cord
28:42
If Gate is Closed by One Pain Message, Other Messages May Not be Able to Pass Through
28:50
Substance P is a Neuropeptide (regulatory) Neurotransmitter -- Along With Other NTs Can Increase Neural Inflammation
29:38
Adaptation, Attention, and Sensory Gating
30:22
Sensory Adaptation: When Sensory Receptors Respond Less to Unchanging Stimuli
30:28
Perceptual Adaptation (Sensory Habituation): One's Perceptions of Senses Depends Upon How Focused We Are on Them
32:03
Adaptation, Attention, and Sensory Gating
32:44
Selective Attention: Voluntarily Focusing on a Specific Sensory Input
32:46
Sensory Gating: Facilitating or Blocking Sensory Messages in the Spinal Cord
34:17
Controlling Pain
34:32
Fear, or High Levels of Anxiety, Almost Always Increase Pain
34:35
If You Can Regulate a Painful Stimulus, You Have Control Over It
34:46
Distraction Can Also Significantly Reduce Pain
35:07
The Interpretation You Give A Stimulus Also Affects Pain
35:22
Beta-endorphins -- Natural Pain Chemical Similar to Morphine (Endogenous Opioid Peptides)
35:55
e.g. Runner's High
36:34
Review
37:33
How Do We Taste and Smell? What Parts of the Head and Brain are Involved?
37:36
What Does the Term Chemoreceptors Mean?
37:53
What are the Senses That We Have? Go Beyond the Main Five
38:00
Describe Different Kinds of Pain
38:26
What is Sensory Adaptation? Give at Least Two Examples
38:30
Perception, Part 1

23m 59s

Intro
0:00
Objectives
0:57
Describe General Principles of Organizing and Integrating Sensation to Promote Stable Awareness of the External World (e.g., Gestalt Principles, Depth Perception).
1:01
Discuss How Experience and Culture Can Influence Perceptual Processes (e.g., Perceptual Set, Context Effects).
1:15
Gestalt
1:25
Cognitive Viewpoint
1:35
German Word Meaning Pattern or Whole
1:37
Gestalt Psychologists Emphasized Our Tendency to Integrate Pieces of Information Into Meaningful Wholes
1:53
Form Perception: Figure and Ground
4:54
Two Pictures: Two Profiles or One Vase?
5:15
Form Perception: Figure and Ground
6:39
Two Pictures: Profile of Old Woman or Young Girl With Head Turned Away?
6:43
Form Perception
8:18
Grouping (Proximity)
8:32
Diagram: Six Rows or Three Sets of Two Columns?
8:37
Form Perception
9:25
Grouping (Similarity)
9:27
Form Perception
9:54
Grouping (Continuity)
10:00
Form Perception
10:37
Grouping (Connectedness)
10:42
Form Perception
11:09
Grouping (Closure)
11:12
Depth Perception
12:36
The Ability to See Objects in Three Dimensions Although The Images That Strike the Retina are Two Dimensional; Allows Us To Judge Distance
12:58
How and When Do We Perceive That?
13:10
Visual Cliff
13:13
A Demonstration That Shows Babies of a Certain Age Do Not Possess Depth Perception
13:26
Ability Develops With Age and Needs of Species
14:39
Developed by Gibson and Walk
14:56
Depth Perception
15:10
Binocular Cues
15:14
Depth Perception: Monocular Cues
17:32
Relative Height
17:52
Relative Size
17:53
Interposition
17:54
Linear Perspective
15:55
Relative Motion
15:56
Light and Shadow
15:57
Depth Perception: Monocular Cues
17:59
Relative Height
18:03
Depth Perception: Monocular Cues
18:38
Relative Size -- In Two-Dimensional Drawings or Paintings You Assume Smaller Things Are Further Away Since They Are Likely Similar Size
18:41
Depth Perception: Monocular Cues
19:47
Interposition -- If One Object Blocks Our View of Another Object, We Assume That It Is Closer
20:01
Depth Perception: Monocular Cues
20:32
Linear Perspective -- When Parallel Lines Seem to Converge In the Distance, The More They Converge, the Greater the Distance
20:56
Depth Perception: Monocular Cues
21:24
Linear Perspective -- Example Two (Train Tracks)
21:27
Depth Perception: Monocular Cues
21:55
Relative Motion: As We Move, Objects That Are Actually Stable May Appear To Move -- e.g. While Riding in a Car, You May Fix Your Eyes on a House -- The Objects Beyond that Point May Appear to Move With You -- Objects in Front of That Object Appear to Move Backward
21:59
Increase Distance From the Fixation Point Increases Perceived Speed
22:37
Review
22:52
Describe at Least Three Gestalt Principles That Impact Our Perceptions
22:55
Describe at Least Three Monocular Cues That Allow People to See Depth
23:01
Describe The Primary Binocular Cue
23:07
Perception, Part 2

28m 7s

Intro
0:00
Motion Perception
0:12
Stroboscopic Movement -- In the Case of Motion Pictures -- 24 fps -- a Series of Still Photos Creating The Illusion of Movement
0:18
Phi Phenomenon -- An Illusion of Movement Created When Two or More Adjacent Lights Blink On and Off in Quick Succession (Think a Movie Marquee or Lights on the Vegas Strip)
2:17
Perceptual Constancy
3:04
Perceiving Objects as Unchanging (Having Consistent Shapes, Sizes, Lightness, and Color) Even as Illumination and Retinal Images Change
3:11
Color Constancy
3:33
Perceiving Familiar Objects as Having Consistent Color, Even if Changing Illumination Alters the Wavelengths Reflected by the Object
3:46
(Picture of Balloon, Part of Which is in Direct Light and Appears to Be a Different Color)
3:57
Shape Constancy
4:35
Although Our Viewing Angle May Change or the Object May Rotate, We Still See the Object as Staying the Same Shape
4:39
e.g. When We See a Door -- Closed, Partially Open, Mostly Open -- From the Same Angle
4:50
The Ames Room and Forced Perspective
5:37
Diagram Showing Example of Ames Room and Forced Perspective
5:47
Illusions
7:47
Mega Site
8:07
Animated Necker Cube
8:23
Dogfeathers
9:20
Table Illusion
9:32
Spiral Illusion
10:01
Hollow Face Illusion
11:10
Impossible Figure: Blivet
12:11
Where Does the Middle Prong Start? (Top-Down Processing)
12:18
Top-Down Processing and Illusions
13:40
So Why Do We See These Illusions?
13:44
Most of the Examples of Illusions We've Seen are From Top-Down Processing
13:48
Examples -- Figure Ground (Vase-Face), Old Woman-Young Woman, Ambiguous Figures, Seeing Patterns Where There is Randomness
13:52
Seeing Impossible Figures -- Our Brain Sees 2-D But Interprets the Visual as 3-D
14:33
Vertical v Horizontal Stripes Making a Person Look Thinner or Thicker
15:22
The Moon Raching Through the Clouds as We Are Driving
16:25
Extrasensory Perception (ESP)
16:52
The Highly Controversial Claim That Perception Can Occur Apart From Sensory Input; Includes Telepathy, Clairvoyance, and Precognition
17:06
Parapsychology
17:49
Ultimately -- What is the Evidence?
18:02
James Randi (The Amazing Randi and JREF $1M)
18:18
Skeptical Inquirer (Michael Schermer)
19:54
Review
21:33
Take One Constancy and Illustrate How It Alters What We View Things That May Appear to be Something They Are Not
21:38
Connect the Ideas of Perception and Schema and How They Interact
22:03
V. States of Consciousness
States of Consciousness

48m 7s

Intro
0:00
States of Consciousness (2-4%)
0:12
Sleep and Dreaming
0:32
Hypnosis
0:33
Psychoactive Drug Effects
0:35
Overview and Objectives
0:38
Understanding Consciousness and What it Encompasses is Critical to an Appreciation of What is Meant by a Given State of Consciousness
0:40
Objectives
0:58
Objectives, Continued
1:16
Describe Historic and Contemporary Uses of Hypnosis (e.g. Pain Control, Psychotherapy).
1:18
Explain Hypnotic Phenomena (e.g., Suggestibility, Dissociation).
1:23
Identify the Major Figures in Consciousness Research (e.g. William James, Sigmund Freud, Ernest Hilgard).
1:26
States of Consciousness
1:39
What is Consciousness?
1:41
States of Consciousness
2:50
Philosophical Discussion on the Nature of Consciousness
2:52
Levels of Consciousness
4:03
Conscious Level
4:07
All the Sensations, Perceptions, Memories and Feelings You Are Aware of at Any Instant
4:12
Nonconscious Level
4:42
Preconscious Level
5:26
Subconscious Level
5:45
Unconscious
6:22
Consciousness
6:36
Chart Describing the Various States of Consciousness, Which Can Occur Spontaneously, Be Physiologically Induced, or Psychologically Induced
6:38
Biological Rhythms -- Circadian Rhythms
8:20
Circadian Rhythms
8:36
Biological Rhythms -- Infradian Rhythms
10:35
Rhythm With a Period Longer Than a Circadian Rhythm With a Frequency Less Than One Cycle in 28 Days
10:40
Biological Rhythms -- Ultradian Rhythms
11:50
Recurrent Periods or Cycles Repeated Throughout a Circadian Rhythm Multiple Times Per Day
11:54
Sleep and Dreams
12:42
Characteristics of Sleep
12:53
Measuring Sleep Changes
15:29
Electroencephalograph (EEG): Brain-Wave Machine Amplifies and Records Electrical Activity in the Brain
15:31
Beta Waves: Small Fast Waves Associated With Alertness and Awakeness
15:45
Alpha Waves: Large, Slow Waves Associated With Relaxation and Falling Asleep
15:53
Stages of Sleep
16:24
Awake -- Alpha (Getting Relaxed)
16:26
Stage Zero
16:32
Stage One
26:33
Stages of Sleep
18:00
Stage Two
18:02
Stage Three
18:17
Stage Four
18:50
REM (Rapid Eye Movement) Sleep
19:09
Active Sleep: REM (Rapid Eye Movement)
19:16
Non-REM or NREM Sleep
21:56
Occurs During Stages One, Two, Three, and Four; No Rapid Eye Movement Occurs
22:00
90 Percent of Sleep Here is Dream-Free
22:05
Seems to Help Us Recover From Daily Fatigue
22:08
Sleep Stages
22:19
Graphic of Hypnogram, Which Measures a Sleeping Person's Brain Waves
22:21
REM
23:17
Good Band
23:21
Rapid Eye Movement
23:23
Occurs at Second Descent
23:24
Function is Somewhat Mysterious
23:27
REM Sleep Function vs. NREM Sleep Function
23:51
Why We Sleep
24:01
Sleep Theories
24:04
Sleep Over Time
24:25
Infants -- 16 Hours of Sleep Per Day, Half REM
24:27
Five to 13 Year-Olds -- 10 Hours Sleep Per Day, 2+ Hours REM
24:36
Twenty Year-Olds -- 7.5 Hours Sleep Per Day, 2 Hours REM
24:42
Fifty+ -- Typically Six Hours Per Day, Less Than 2 Hours REM
24:49
We Need Less Sleep as We Get Older
24:58
Sleep Issues
25:25
Variations in Sleeping Patterns
25:27
Cultural Influences
25:37
Sleep Debt -- Effects of Sleep Loss -- Need an Alarm to Wake Up; Struggle to Get Out of Bed, Feeling Tired and Irritable, Difficulty Concentrating and Remembering, Slow Thinking and Problem Solving, Sleepy When Not Moving (Lectures, TV, Riding in Cars), etc.
26:38
Sleepwalking (Somnambulism): Occurs in NREM Sleep During Stages 3 and 4.
28:00
Sleeptalking: Speaking While Asleep; Occurs in NREM Sleep
28:33
Shift Work and Sleep Deprivation
28:42
What Is Sleep Debt and What Symptoms Does it Have?
29:46
How Does Shift Work Disrupt People's Sleep Habits?
29:59
What Are Good Sleep Habits?
30:05
Restaurants and How to Get Rid of an Employee
30:23
Theories of Dreaming
31:48
Dreaming -- The Experience of Envisioned Images, Sounds, and Other Sensations During Sleep
31:58
Sigmund Freud/Psychodynamic Theory
32:13
Activation-Synthesis Theory
33:59
Problem Solving/Information Processing Theory
35:03
Physiological Function Theory
35:24
Sleep Disorders
36:09
Insomnia -- Temporary and Chronic
36:15
Narcolepsy -- May Include Cataplexy
36:29
Sleep Apnea
37:11
Parasomnias
39:22
Hypnosis (Framz Mesmer)
40:38
An Altered State of Consciousness In Which a Person is Highly Suggestible
41:00
What Hypnosis Can Do:
41:30
Theories of Hypnosis
43:11
Social Influence Theory (Role Theory)
43:14
Theories of Hypnosis
44:15
Divided Consciousness Theory (Dissociation Theory)
44:17
Review
46:28
Distinguish Among Circadian, Infradian and Ultradian Rhythms.
46:31
Give an Example of Each of the Above
46:38
Describe the Difference Between REM and NREM Sleep
46:41
What are Two Common Sleep Disorders and Their Likely Causes?
46:47
Compare the Different Theories of Dreaming -- Which Makes the Most Sense from a Scientific Point of View?
46:55
What are the Best and Worst Uses For Hypnosis?
47:08
Is Hypnosis Widely Accepted Among Psychologists?
47:29
States of Consciousness: Drugs

36m 21s

Intro
0:00
Objectives
0:11
Identify the Major Psychoactive Drug Categories (e.g. Depressants, Stimulants) and Classify Specific Drugs, Including Their Psychological and Physiological Effects
0:12
Discuss Drug Dependence, Addiction, Tolerance, and Withdrawal
0:25
Drugs
0:32
Psychoactive Drugs
0:33
Physical Dependence/Addiction
1:21
Psychological Dependence -- Drugs That Reduce Stress Become and Increasingly Important Part of a User's Life, Often as a Way to Relieve Negative Emotions (Sometimes Called Self-Medication)
3:09
Misconceptions About Addiction
3:54
Addiction -- Compulsive Drug Craving and Use, Despite Adverse Consequences
3:55
Myths
5:05
How Drugs Affect the Brain
6:58
Psychoactive Drugs Affect Synapses and Neurotransmitters in Three Ways
6:59
Tolerance: The Brain Will Produce Less of a Specific Neurotransmitter if it is Being Artificially Supplied by a Psychoactive Drug
7:31
Categories of Drugs
8:06
Depressants
8:10
Hallucinogens
8:20
Stimulants
8:31
Depressants
9:20
Alcohol, Barbiturates, Opiates
9:22
Drugs That Reduce Neural Activity and Slow Body Functioning
9:26
Includes Alcohol and Sedatives
9:39
All Depressants Can Cause Dependence, Tolerance, Withdrawal, and Psychological Addiction
12:19
Sedatives
13:10
Drugs That Reduce Anxiety or Induce Sleep
13:11
Also Called Tranquilizers or Hypnotics
13:20
Include Barbiturates (Drugs That Depress the Activity of the Central Nervous System, Reducing Anxiety but Impairing Memory and Judgment e.g. Phenobarbital or Seconal) and Benzodiazepines (Anti-Anxiety Drugs)
13:29
Opiates
14:39
Drugs That Depress Neural Activity, Temporarily Lessen Pain and Anxiety
14:40
Include: Opium, Morphine, Codeine, and Heroin
14:54
Strong Sedative and Pain-Relieving Drugs
15:31
Work By Preventing Pain Neurons From Firing or Releasing Pain-Signaling Neurotransmitters Into the Synapse, and Increasing Endorphin Levels
15:35
Over Time, the Brain Eventually Stops Producing Its Own Endorphins (Endogenous Opioid Peptides)
15:48
All Opiates Can Cause Dependence, Tolerance, Withdrawal, and Psychological Addiction
17:44
Stimulants
18:02
Drugs That Excite Neural Activity and Speed Up Body Functions
18:03
Include: Caffeine, Nicotine, Amphetamines, and Cocaine
18:18
Provides User With a Sense of Increased Energy, Mental Alertness and Forced Wakefulness
18:52
Blocks Neurological Receptor Sites That, If Activated, Sedate the Central Nervous System
19:08
All Stimulants Can Cause Dependence, Tolerance, Withdrawal, and Psychological Addiction
19:30
Methamphetamines = Super Stimulant
19:55
Stimulants -- Cocaine
20:50
Sniffed/Snorted, Injected or Smoked -- Gets Into Bloodstream Quickly
20:51
Euphoria Created Depletes Brain's Supply of Dopamine, Serotonin, and Norepinephrine
21:00
Crack is More Potent Version -- Briefer, More Intense High, a Craving for More
21:40
Cocaine is a Reuptake Inhibitor -- This Means it Blocks Neurotransmitters Already in the Synapse
21:52
Once Cocaine Level Drops, There is a Crash
22:33
Stimulants -- MDMA
22:42
Ecstasy, Molly -- Methylenedioxymethamphetamine
22:43
First Used in Northern California in Therapists' Offices
23:06
Releases Stored Serotonin & Blocks Reabsorption (Reuptake Inhibitor) -- Creates Longer Effect
24:00
3-4 Hour Impact
24:16
Lower Inhibitions, Increases Pleasant Feelings, and Greater Acceptance of Others Increased Light and Tactile Sensitivity
24:23
Dehydrating Effect (Made Worse by Dancing), Overheating, Increased Blood Pressure, and Even Death
25:37
Suppresses Immune System, Impairs Memory, and Disrupts Sleep (Part of Serotonin Connection)
26:18
Long-term Usage Reduces Serotonin's Creation and a Depressed Mood
26:34
Hallucinogens
27:00
LSD (Lysergic Acid Diethylamide), PCP, Marijuana (THC)
27:01
Drugs That Distort Perceptions and Evoke Sensory Images in the Absence of Sensory Input
27:09
Include: LSD and Ecstasy (MDMA)
27:40
Sometimes Called Psychedelics
27:53
LSD Effects Vary From Person to Person
27:56
Many Have a Near Death Type of Experience -- Related to Oxygen Deprivation
28:00
Can Cause Physiological Dependence/Tolerance in Some People, But Not Everyone. Can Cause Psychological Dependence
28:07
Marijuana
29:41
Leaves, Stems, Resin, and Flowers From the Hemp Plant That, When Smoked, Lower Inhibitions and Produce Feelings of Relaxation and Mild Euphoria
29:42
THC (Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol) is the Active Ingredient
30:10
Disrupts Memory; Lung Damage From Smoke
30:17
Can Cause Physiological Dependence/Tolerance in Some People, But Not Everyone. Can Cause Psychological Dependence
30:31
Why Do People Use Drugs?
31:36
Biological Influences
31:37
Psychological Influences
32:22
Socio-Cultural Influences
33:31
Review
34:35
What Are the Major Categories of Psychoactive Drugs?
34:36
What Are the Effects of the General Categories of Drugs?
34:47
If One Looks for Energy, One Will Likely Take…
34:55
If One Looks to Calm Down…
35:06
If One Wants to Alter Their Perceptions…
35:12
Which Drug is a Mood Enhancer as Well as a CNS Depressant?
35:21
Which One is Similar to Endogenous Opioid Peptides?
35:31
Distinguish Between Addiction and Dependence
35:51
VI. Learning
Learning: Intro & Classical Conditioning

33m 26s

Intro
0:00
Learning (7-9%)
0:19
Classical Conditioning
0:38
Operant Conditioning
0:40
Cognitive Processes
0:42
Biological Factors
0:44
Social Learning
0:46
This Section of the Course Introduces Students to the Differences Between Learned and Unlearned Behavior. The Primary Focus is Exploration of Different Kinds of Learning, Including Classical Conditioning, Operant Conditioning, and Observational Learning. The Biological Bases of Behavior Illustrate Predispositions for Learning.
2:17
Objectives
1:15
Distinguish General Differences Between Principles of Classical Conditioning, Operant Conditioning, and Observational Learning (e.g. Contingencies).
1:24
Describe Basic Classical Conditioning Phenomena, Such as Acquisition, Extinction, Spontaneous Recovery, Generalization, Discrimination, and Higher Order Learning.
1:28
Predict the Effects of Operant Conditioning (e.g. Positive Reinforcement, Negative Reinforcement, Punishment, Schedules of Reinforcement).
2:29
Predict How Practice, Schedules of Reinforcement, and Motivation Will Influence Quality of Learning.
2:38
Objectives, Continued
2:45
Describe the Essential Characteristics of Insight Learning, Latent Learning, and Social Learning
2:48
Apply Learning Principles to Explain Emotional Learning, Taste Aversion, Superstitious Behavior, and Learned Helplessness
2:53
Suggest How Behavior Modification, Biofeedback, Coping Strategies, and Self-Control Can Be Used to Address Behavioral Problems
3:06
Identify Key Contributors in the Psychology of Learning (e.g. Albert Bandura, John Garcia, Ivan Pavlov, Robert Rescale, B.F. Skinner, Edward Thorndike, Edward Dolman, John B. Watson)
3:20
Learning = Conditioning
3:43
Relatively Permanent Change in Behavior
4:02
As a Result of Experience
4:07
Does NOT Include Instincts, Reflexes, and Maturation
4:11
In This Unit, We Will Examine Learning By Association by Consequence and By Observation
4:36
Lots of Terms and Relationships to Each Other
4:41
Learning is Inferred From a Change in Behavior/Performance
4:59
Learning Results in an Inferred Change in Memory
5:09
Learning
5:22
This Means That Behavior Changes That are Temporary or Due to Things Like Drugs, Alcohol, etc. are NOT Learned
5:29
Classical Conditioning
5:46
One Type of Learning
6:19
Learning That Takes Place When an Originally Neutral Stimulus Comes to Produce a Conditioned Response Because of its Association With an Unconditioned Stimulus.
6:23
History: Discovered by Russian Psychologist, Ivan Pavlov.
7:56
Studied Dogs and Salivation
8:01
Pavlov and Contiguity
8:34
Temporal Association Between Two Events That Occur Closely Together in Time.
8:58
The More Closely in Time Two Events Occurred, the More Likely They Were to Become Associated; as Time Passes, Association Becomes Less Likely
9:28
Terms
10:22
Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS or US) -- Any Stimulus That Creates an Autonomic/Automatic/Reflexive Response in an Organism
10:27
Unconditioned Response (UCR or UR) -- Response That Occurs Due to Autonomic or Reflective Stimulus
10:52
Conditioned Stimulus (CS) -- Anything That Can Be Perceived
11:10
Conditioned Response (CR) -- Anything That Can Be a UCR/UR Can Become a CR. For AP Psych, the UR is ALWAYS the Same as the CR
11:26
Diagram of Classical Conditioning
11:56
Unlearned S-R (Relationship) + (Association Formed/Pairing Made) --> Learned S-R
12:05
Pavlov and the Dogs
13:28
Same Diagram Using Examples from Pavlov's Research -- Food --> Salivation + Bell rung with food eventually becomes Bell Rung --> Salivation
13:35
Watson, Ramer, and Little Albert
16:20
Baby Albert -- 8 Months Old
16:38
Use of Metal Bar on Metal Bar
17:16
Paired Loud Noise With Rat, Rabbit, and More
17:36
Questions:
18:26
Watson and Little Albert
20:24
Unlearned S-R (Relationship) + (Association Formed/Pairing Made)
20:33
Loud Sound --> Fear then Rat+ Loud Sound eventually becomes Rat --> Fear
20:38
Stimulus Generalization
21:50
Little Albert Generalized His Fear of Rats Into Fear of Anything With White Fur, Including a Santa Claus Mask, a Rabbit, etc.,
22:45
Restaurants, The Flu, and Nausea
23:23
Flu (UCS) --> Nausea/Vomiting (UCR) then Jack in the Box + With Flu Eventually Becomes Jack in the Box --> Nausea
23:40
Food, Blood Sugar, Hunger, and Time
24:52
Needing Food/Having Low Blood Sugar (UCS) --> Hunger (UCR) then Time on Clock or In Class Right Before Lunch --> Associate Class With Hunger Eventually Becomes Time on Clock --> Hunger
25:05
Classic Puff of Air and Tone Example
27:46
Puff of Air (UCS) --> Blink (UCR) then Tone + Puff of Air Eventually Becomes Tone --> Blink
27:57
Trauma (Bomb), Context, and Fear
29:11
Bomb Explosion (UCS) --> Fear (UCR) then Art Museum + Bomb Explosion Eventually Becomes Art Museum --> Fear
31:19
Review
32:23
What is Learning? How is it Different From Taking a Psychoactive Substance?
32:26
Describe the Relationship Among the US, the UR, the CS and the CR
32:41
What Can Be a Conditioned Stimulus?
32:50
What Can Be an Unconditioned Stimulus?
32:58
Come Up With Your Own Examples of Classical Conditioning in Your Life -- Label the Parts
33:03
Classical Conditioning, Part II

21m 57s

Intro
0:00
Some More Examples
0:08
Romance, Kissing, Arousal, and Onions
0:20
Kissing(UCS) --> Arousal (UCR) then Kissing + Onions (CS) --> Eventually Becomes Onions --> Arousal
0:33
Beer Ads Example
1:42
Beer Ads Often Feature Attractive Young Women Wearing Bikinis. The Goal is to Get Men to Buy the Beer. What are the Parts of the CC Diagram With This Example?
1:45
Beer Ads
2:02
Attractive Women (UCS) --> Arousal (UCR) then Attractive Women + Beer (CS) --> Eventually Becomes Beer --> Arousal
2:08
Crime Example
2:52
When a Professor Was in College, He Was Robbed at Gun Point by a Young Man Who Gave Him the Choice (Your Money or Your Life) It was an Unexpected and Frightening Experience
2:55
This Event Occurred At Just About Dusk and for a Long Time Thereafter, He Often Experienced Moments of Dread in the Late Afternoons Particularly When He Was Just Walking Around the City
3:05
Even Though He Was Quite Safe, The Lengthening Shadows of the Day Were So Strongly Associated With the Dear He Experienced in the Robbery, That He Could Not But Help Feel the Emotion All Over
3:16
Label the Crime Experience
4:15
Threat (UCS) --> Fear (UCR) then Dusk + Robbery Became Dusk (CS) --> Fear (CR)
4:17
Alcoholism
4:56
Another Way to Treat Alcoholics is to Have Them Take a Drug Called Antabuse (Disulfiram). If They Ingest Any Alcohol at All, They Will Have Serious Vomiting Issues. The Desire is to Pair the Vomiting With the Alcoholic Drink.
4:58
Can You Label the Diagram?
5:19
Antabuse Example
6:19
Antabuse (UCS) --> Vomiting (UCR) then Alcohol + Antabuse (CS) Eventually Becomes Alcohol --> Vomiting (CR) (But WITHOUT Use of Antabuse)
6:22
Photos
7:12
Anna Learns to Blink When She Sees Her Father Hold The Camera to His Eye
7:31
Anna With the Camera and Flash
9:55
Flash (UCS) --> Blink (UCR) then Flash + Camera Eventually Becomes Camera (CS) --> Blink (CR)
10:03
Stimulus Generalization and Discrimination
10:21
Stimulus Generalization
10:24
Applies Learning to Similar Things to What Was Associated
10:27
Stimulus Discrimination
10:58
Does NOT Apply Learning to Similar Things To What Was Associated -- Responds Only to the Original Association
11:00
Glaucoma Test
11:36
Opticians and the Puff Machines -- How My Chin Made Me Cry
11:58
Air Puff (UCS) --> Eyes Watering (UCR) then Air Puff + Chin Cup Eventually Becomes Chin Cup --> Eyes Watering
13:02
Extinction and Spontaneous Recovery
13:33
Extinction
13:37
A Procedure That Leads to the Gradual Weakening And Eventual Disappearance of the CR.
13:40
Involves Repeatedly Presenting the CS Without Pairing it With the UCS.
13:50
Spontaneous Recovery
15:09
Occurs When a Previously Extinguished CR Reappears After a Period of No Training
15:12
Will Often Result From Non-Recognized Factors Not Previously Identified
15:24
The (John) Garcia Effect
15:51
This is the Conditioned Taste Aversion That is Rapidly Achieved by a Single Pairing of an Illness Such as Nausea With Eating a Specific Food
16:36
Originally Discovered While Working With Rats and Studying Radiation Effects -- Initial Exposure to Food Followed by Toxic Reaction (Even if Several Hours Later) Made Rats Averse to Food
17:18
Conditioned Animals to Avoid Foods Paired With a Previously Aversive Taste
17:35
Conditioning Applied to Tastes But Not to Sights and Sounds
17:44
Process Not Traditional CS --> UCS --> CR/UCR Process Since CS Occurred Long Afterward, Not Immediately
17:53
Taste Aversion in Chemotherapy Patients is Very Common
18:07
Higher Order (Second Order) Conditioning
18:40
Starts Off With Traditional Unlearned Stimulus-Response Relationship, With First Association Pairing Made But Then a Second Association is Introduced
18:47
Ex: Training Involving a Tone Then Adding Light as Second Association
19:02
Review
20:15
Describe the Relationship Among the US, the UR, the CS and the CR
20:18
What Can Be a Conditioned Stimulus?
20:30
What Can Be an Unconditioned Response?
20:50
What Can Be an Unconditioned Stimulus?
21:08
Come Up With Your Own Examples of Classical Conditioning in Your Life -- Label the Parts
21:18
Operant Conditioning, Part I

31m 1s

Intro
0:00
Operant Conditioning
0:11
Predict the Effects of Operant Conditioning (e.g. Positive Reinforcement, Negative Reinforcement, Punishment, Schedules of Reinforcement).
0:16
Predict How Practice, Schedules of Reinforcement, And Motivation Will Influence Quality of Learning.
0:28
Thorndike and the Law of Effect
1:07
Responses That Produce a Satisfying Effect in a Particular Situation Become More Likely to Occur Again in That Situation, and Responses That Produce a Discomforting Effect Become Less Likely to Occur Again In That Situation
1:20
In Other Words, When Better Things Happen After We Do Something, We Are More Likely to Do It Again
1:36
Connectionism -- Organisms Connect Behaviors to What Occurs After -- Early Form of Behaviorism
1:46
Thorndike is Father of Modern Educational Psychology
1:56
Thorndike's Puzzle Box
2:35
Picture of Puzzle Box and Graph Illustrating The More Trials a Subject Went Through, The Less Time it Took to Solve Puzzle.
2:40
Cats, Puzzle Box, and Law of Effect
3:27
First Trial in Puzzle Box -- More Likely to Scratch at Bars, Yeowl, Dig at Door, etc. Before Pushing Release Lever
3:29
After Many Trials in Box, Cat is More Likely to Push Release Lever First to Escape Box.
3:56
B.F. Skinner
4:17
Founder of Modern Behavioral Perspective
4:20
Operant Conditioning -- An Organism Operates in Its Environment, Exhibiting Behaviors That are Inborn or Learned
4:32
Environmental Determinism
5:17
Invented the Operant Conditioning Box -- Sometimes Called a Skinner Box -- He Hated That Term
5:28
Trained Rats, Birds, and People
5:40
So Much Research in This Area -- One of the Most Scientifically Validated Theories/Approaches
5:55
Operant Conditioning
6:09
A Type of Learning in Which Behavior is Strengthened if Followed by a Reinforcer or Diminished if Followed by a Punisher
6:11
What We Are Trying to do is Learn How We Can Modify an Organism's Behavior Using the Most Effective Means Possible. We Use Reinforcement and Punishment. Each Organism Interprets This Differently.
6:27
Key Distinction in Terms -- in OC, The Organism EMITS Behavior. In CC, The Behavior is ELICITED (Drawn Out of the Organism)
7:02
Skinner's Experiments
7:28
Operant Conditioning Chamber (aka Skinner Box)
7:30
Diagram of Box and Its Parts, and Rat Inside Box
7:38
Terms and Ideas
11:05
These Are Labels That Are Put on After Behavior Is Seen
11:11
Kinds of Reinforcement & Punishment
12:53
Positive and Negative Reinforcement/ Positive and Negative Punishment
13:01
Positive Reinforcement
15:46
Positive Reinforcement -- Adding a Pleasant Stimulus to Increase a Behavior
15:47
e.g. Getting a Hug
15:57
e.g. Receiving a Paycheck
16:38
e.g. Getting a Great Job! From Coach or Teacher
16:48
There was this Goose -- Tale of Reinforcement
17:16
Negative Reinforcement
20:05
Negative Reinforcement -- Removing an Unpleasant/Aversive Stimulus to Increase a Behavior
20:08
e.g. The Buzzing Stops When You Fasten Seat Belt
20:16
e.g. You Put on Sunscreen Before Getting in the Sun at the Beach
21:22
Punishment
21:38
Positive Punishment -- Adding an Unpleasant/Aversive Stimulus to Reduce a Behavior
21:43
Punishment
23:26
Negative Punishment -- Removing a Pleasant Stimulus to Reduce a Behavior
23:30
All Consequences
25:11
Most Effective When Immediately Follows a Response AND is Applied Consistently
25:17
Review
28:19
What is Operant Conditioning and How Does It Differ From Classical Conditioning?
28:22
Describe the Law of Effect
28:35
Describe the Difference Between Reinforcement and Punishment
28:42
How is Positive Punishment Related to Negative Reinforcement?
28:49
Examine Your Own Life and Find an Example of Operant Conditioning in Which You Were Conditioned and Another Example in Which You Conditioned Someone Else
30:01
Operant Conditioning, Part II

31m 22s

Intro
0:00
Kinds of Reinforcement & Punishment
0:11
Chart Looking at Positive/Negative (Adding or Removing Stimulus And Reinforcement vs. Punishment
0:16
Escape Conditioning
1:12
Escape Conditioning Occurs When the Animal Learns to Perform an Operant to Terminate an Ongoing, Aversive Stimulus. It is a Get Me Out of Here or Shut This Off Reaction, Aimed at Escape From Pain or Annoyance. The Behavior That Produces Escape is Negatively Reinforced (Reinforced by the Elimination of the Unpleasant Stimulus).
1:15
Avoidance Conditioning
2:52
When an Organism Learns to Avoid Unpleasant or Punishing Stimuli by Learning the Appropriate Anticipatory Response to Protect it From Further Stimuli (Learns a Cue Before the Stimuli -- Follows Escape Conditioning)
2:56
Occurs Quickly and is Very Durable.
3:18
e.g. If You Sounded a Tone Before You Electrified the Platform. After One or Two Trials, the Rat Would Respond to the Tone by Jumping Into the Water. It Would Not Wait for the Shock.
3:53
This is a Form of Stimulus Control, Because it Puts Behavior Under Control of a Stimulus, in This Case, the Warning Tone.
4:08
Avoidance Behaviors are Incredibly Persistent. This is True When There is No Longer Anything to Avoid.
4:15
Schedules of Reinforcement
5:17
Continuous Reinforcement: Every Instance of a Behavior Occurs is Reinforced
5:33
Partial (Intermittent) Reinforcement -- Reinforcing a Response Only Part of the Time; Results in Slower Acquisition of a Response But Much Greater Resistance to Extinction Than Does Continuous Reinforcement
5:44
Ratio Schedules: Reinforcement is Based on the Number of Behaviors Required
6:34
Interval Schedules: Reinforcement is Based on the Passage of Time
6:39
Variable -- Uncertain Number of Times/Behaviors
6:44
Fixed -- Certain Number of Times/Behaviors
6:49
Immediate v. Delayed Reinforcers -- Like Pavlov and Contiguity, the Longer the Delay, the Less, the Connection.
6:54
Schedules of Reinforcement
7:13
Fixed Ratio and Variable Ratio vs. Fixed Interval and Variable Interval
7:17
Fixed Interval Examples
11:11
Doing My Job and Receiving my Paycheck Monthly (Last Day of the Month)
11:18
The Daily Mail -- I Receive My Mail at Roughly the Same Time Each Day
11:35
A Course Where There are Exams Every Three Weeks (Studying Right Before the Exam and Then Stopping Until the Next Round)
11:49
Variable Interval Examples
12:22
Unpredictable -- Reinforcement Occurs After a Random Amount of Time
12:26
Checking Your Phone For Text Messages -- You Do Not Know When You Will be Rewarded With a Message, But Continue to Check Until You Do.
12:34
A Parent Attending to the Cries of a Child. Parents Will Not Typically Attend to the Child Each Time It Cries, But Will Leave He or She to Fuss For a Period Before Attending
13:06
Fixed Ratio Examples
13:43
Giving a Child Candy EVERY Time She Picks Up Her Toys
13:46
Getting Paid After Each Car Gets Sold
13:59
Student May Be Given a Prize After Reading Ten Books
14:24
Factory Workers Getting Paid by the Piece (e.g. $10 for Each Widget Made)
14:35
Getting a Free Sandwich Upon Purchase of 10 Sandwiches
14:54
Variable Ratio Examples
15:11
The Classic of Winning the Jackpot on the Slot Machine After Changing a Number of Times Playing It.
15:23
Playing Poker -- I Do Not Win Every Time, But Must Play in Order to Have a Chance
17:11
Buying Lottery Tickets and Winning Occasionally
17:22
Going Fly Fishing
18:03
Playing The Lottery
18:41
Shaping
19:38
Shaping is a Technique Using Positive Reinforcements in Order to Create a More Complex Behavior
19:43
Television Examples
23:45
The Office
23:52
The Big Bang Theory
25:23
Now That You Know These Ideas, You Will Begin to See Them Everywhere -- This is Called Selective Perception -- It's Due to a Recent Change in Your Schema
26:01
Operant and Classical Conditioning on TV
26:52
Cesar Milan -- Dogs
26:56
Jackson Galaxy -- Cats
26:58
Both are Animal Behaviorists
26:59
Watch One or Two Episodes Each -- They Modify the Owner's Behavior as Much as the Animal
27:06
Review
27:51
Which Schedule of Reinforcement is Most Effective in Training Someone/Thing to Do a Behavior?
27:54
Which is Most Difficult to Extinguish?
28:17
Examine Your Own Life and Find an Example of Operant Conditioning in Which You Were Conditioned and Another Example in Which You Conditioned Someone Else -- Now Connect Reinforcement Schedules -- Where Are Some of These in Your Life?
28:23
Cognitive Aspect of Learning

34m 1s

Intro
0:00
Objectives
0:12
Describe the Essential Characteristics of Insight Learning, Latent Learning, and Social Learning.
0:18
Apply Learning Principles to Explain Emotional Learning, Taste Aversion, Superstitious Behavior, and Learned Helplessness.
0:23
Suggest How Behavior Modification, Biofeedback, Coping Strategies, and Self-Control Can Be Used to Address Behavioral Problems.
0:31
Identify Key Contributors in the Psychology of Learning (e.g. Albert Bandura, John Garcia, Ivan Pavlov, Robert Rescorla, B.F. Skinner, Edward Thorndike, Edward Tolman, John B. Watson).
0:42
Observational Learning
0:52
Monkey See, Monkey Do
1:03
Children See, Children Do
1:05
Ever Watch a Child View a TY Show With Violent Characters and Then See His/Her Behavior Change?
1:41
Albert Bandura -- Bobo Doll Learning
3:02
Observational Learning
3:57
Model and Imitation
3:53
In Sociology, Anticipatory Socialization
5:35
Mirror Neurons -- Frontal Lobe Neurons That Fire When Performing Certain Actions or When Observing Another Doing So. The Brain's Mirroring of Another's Action May Enable Imitation and Empathy
7:05
Observational Learning
8:04
Prosocial Effects
8:07
Antisocial Effects
8:28
Bandura, Continued
9:55
Social Cognitive Theory -- Learn by Imitating Actions of Others, Vicarious Learning
9:58
Self-Efficacy Theory (Sense of Control)
10:32
Reciprocal Determinism -- The Individual And Environment Influence and Change Each Other
11:20
Pavlov's Ideas Extended
13:06
Robert Rescorla
13:10
Skinner's Ideas Extended
14:17
Cognition and Operant Conditioning
14:21
Latent Learning -- Learning That Becomes Apparent When There is an Incentive to Show It -- Can Seemingly Lay Dormant
14:25
Skinner's Ideas Extended
17:15
Biological
17:18
Applications of Skinner's Ideas
18:26
Operant Conditioning
18:30
Comparing Classical/Operant Conditioning
21:59
Differences in Their Basic Ideas, Responses, and Acquisition
22:04
Comparing Classical/Operant Conditioning
22:50
Differences in How Conditioning Becomes Extinct, and in Spontaneous Recovery
22:54
Comparing Classical/Operant Conditioning
23:52
Differences in Generalization and Discrimination
23:57
Additional Concepts in Learning
25:11
Habituation -- Gradual Process Where the Organism Decreases a Response to Stimulus That is Repeated Over Time
25:14
Learned Helplessness -- Martin Seligman, Puppies, and Humans -- Condition of a Human or Animal That Has Learned to Behave Helplessness, Failing to Respond Even Though There are Opportunities For It to Help Itself by Avoiding Unpleasant Circumstances or by Gaining Positive Rewards
26:00
Superstitious Behavior
29:47
Biofeedback
29:26
Review
32:43
What is a Model and What Is Imitation in Social Learning Theory?
32:45
What Is Reciprocal Determinism and How Can It Create Certain Outcomes for Individuals Who Isolate Themselves?
32:57
Describe the Bobo Doll Study and Why it was so Important for Understanding Social Learning Theory
33:08
Compare and Contrast CC and OC in Terms of Acquisition, Reinforcement, Generalization, Discrimination, and Extinction
33:15
VII. Cognition
Cognition Memory

51m 3s

Intro
0:00
Cognition (8-10%)
0:08
Memory
0:21
Language
0:22
Thinking
0:23
Problem Solving and Creativity
0:24
In This Unit, You Will Learn How Humans Convert Sensory Input Into Kinds of Information. We Examine How Human Learn, Remember, and Retrieve Information. This part of the Course Also Addresses Problem Solving, Language, and Creativity.
0:27
Objectives
0:50
Compare and Contrast Various Cognitive Processes
0:54
Describe and Differentiate Psychological and Physiological Systems of Memory (e.g., Short-Term Memory, Procedural Memory)
1:14
Outline the Principles That Underlie Effective Encoding, Storage, and Construction of Memories
1:20
Describe Strategies For Memory Improvement
1:25
Objectives, Continued
1:41
Synthesize How Biological, Cognitive, and Cultural Factors Converge to Facilitate Acquisition, Development, and Use of Language
1:43
Identify Problem-Solving Strategies as Well as Factors That Influence Their Effectiveness
1:55
List the Characteristics of Creative Thought and Creative Thinkers
1:57
Identify Key Contributors in Cognitive Psychology (e.g. Noam Chomsky, Hermann Ebbinghaus, Wolfgang Kohler, Elizabeth Loftus, George A. Miller).
2:00
Memory Demo #1
2:13
Memorizing a 20 Digit Number
2:18
Without Writing it Down
2:47
Listen Carefully
3:03
Debriefing and Explanation
3:19
Memory Demo #2
3:54
Recalling the Presidents of the US
3:59
Debriefing and Explanation
4:19
Memory Demo #3
6:24
Make a List of the US States in Any Order
6:27
Debriefing and Explanation
6:55
Memory: Some Key Terms
8:57
Memory: Active System That Stores, Organizes, Alters, and Recovers (Retrieves) Information
9:00
Encoding: Converting Information Into a Useable Form
9:10
Rehearsal: The Conscious Repetition of Information, Either to Maintain it in Consciousness or to Encode It For Storage
9:16
Storage: Holding This Information in Memory
9:25
Retrieval: Taking Memories Out of Storage
9:29
Schema: The Mental Map or Filter That One Uses to Connect New Information to Old, Established Information -- Can Make Learning New Things Much Easier
9:33
Sensory Memory
9:47
Storing an Exact Copy of Incoming Information For a Few Seconds (Either What is Seen or Heard); The First Stage of Memory
9:52
Icon: A Fleeting Mental Image or Visual Representation
10:01
Echo: After a Sound is Heard, a Brief Continuation of the Activity in the Auditory System
10:25
Short-Term Memory (STM)
10:51
Storing Small Amounts of Information Briefly
10:56
Very Sensitive to Interruption or Interference
12:25
Long-Term Memory (LTM)
13:41
Storing Information Relatively Permanently
13:47
Stored on Basis of Meaning and Importance
13:51
Atkinson-Shiffrin Memory Model -- Modified
14:27
Diagram
14:31
Processing
16:24
Parallel: The Processing of Many Aspects of a Problem Simultaneously; The Brain's Natural Mode of Information Processing for Many Functions. Contrasts With the Step-by-Step (Serial) Processing of Most Computers and of Conscious Problem-Solving
16:30
Automatic -- Unconscious Encoding of Incidental Information, Such as Space, Time, and Frequency, and of Well-Learned Information, Such as Word Meanings
16:56
Effortful -- Encoding that Requires Attention and Conscious Effort
18:26
Short-Term Memory Concepts
19:47
Digit Span: Test of Attention and Short-Term Memory; String of Numbers is Recalled Forward or Backward
19:51
Magic Number 7 (Plus or Minus 2): STM is Limited to Holding Seven (Plus or Minus 2) Information Bits at Once
20:13
More STM Concepts
20:57
Recoding: Reorganizing or Modifying Information to Assist Storage in STM
21:01
Maintenance Rehearsal
22:25
Repeating Information Silently to Prolong Its Presence in STM
22:28
Elaborative Rehearsal
24:34
Links New Information With Existing Memories and Knowledge in LTM
24:37
Long-Term Memory Concepts
26:37
Constructive Processing: Updating Long-Term Memories on Basis of Logic, Reasoning, or New Information
26:41
Pseudo-Memories: False Memories That a Person Believes are True or Accurate
26:55
Types of Long-Term Memories
28:00
Procedural (Skilled): Long-term Memories of Conditioned Responses and Learned Skills, e.g. Driving
28:05
Declarative (Fact): LTM Factual Information -- Also Called Explicit Memory
28:40
Types of Memory
30:06
Chart Showing Hierarchies of Memory
30:08
Measuring Memory
31:06
Tip-of-the-Tongue (TOT) State: Feeling That a Memory is Available But Not Quite Retrievable
31:10
Feeling of Knowing: Feeling That Allows People to Predict Beforehand Whether They'll Be Able to Remember Something
31:46
Serial Position Effect
32:02
Chart
32:23
Measuring Memory
33:16
Recognition Memory: Previously Learned Material is Correctly Identified
33:20
Distractors: False Items Included With Correct Item
34:12
False Positive: False Sense of Recognition
34:26
Recall: Direct Retrieval of Facts or Information
34:47
Measuring Memory Continued
35:46
Relearning: Learning Again Something That Was Previously Learned
35:50
Used to Measure Memory of Prior Learning
36:13
Savings Score: Amount of Time Saved When Relearning Information
36:48
Memory Features
37:01
Recalled Better With Use of Mnemonics
37:05
Spaced Practice Better Than Massed Practice
37:09
Measuring Memory -- Concluded
37:38
Explicit Memory: Past Experiences That Are Consciously Brought to Mind
37:40
Implicit Memory: A Memory Not Known to Exist; Memory That is Unconsciously Retrieved
37:46
Priming: When Cues Are Used to Activate Hidden Memories
39:07
Internal Images: Mental Pictures Used in Memory and Thinking
39:26
Eidetic Memory
39:56
Occurs When a Person (Usually a Child) Has Visual Images Clear Enough to be Scanned or Retained for at Least 30 Seconds
40:00
Usually Projected Onto a Plain Surface, Like a Blank Piece of Paper
40:09
Usually Disappears During Adolescence and is Rare by Adulthood
40:16
Sheldon From TBBT Claims to Have This
40:20
Forgetting
41:01
Ebbinghaus Research
41:10
Nonsense Syllables: Meaningless Three-Letter Words (Fej, Quf) That Test Learning and Forgetting
41:14
Encoding Failure: When a Memory Was Never Formed in the First Place
41:41
Memory Traces: Physical Changes in Nerve Cells or Brain Activity That Occur When Memories are Stored
42:04
Memory Decay: When Memory Traces Become Weaker; Fading to Weakening of Memories
42:45
Disuse: Theory That Memory Traces Weaken When Memories Are Not Used or Retrieved
42:58
More Forgetting Theories
43:16
Memory Cue: Any Stimulus Associated With a Memory; Usually Enhances Retrieval of a Memory
43:19
State Dependent/Mood Dependent
44:33
When Memory Retrieval is Influenced by Body State; If Your Body State is the Same at the Time of Learning AND The Time of Retrieval, Retrievals Will Be Improved
44:38
Interference
45:30
Tendency for New Memories to Impair Retrieval of Older Memories, and the Reverse
45:36
Retroactive Interference: Tendency for New Memories to Interfere With Retrieval of Old Memories
45:46
Proactive Interference: Prior Learning Inhibits (Interferes With) Recall of Later Learning
47:21
Two Ways
48:06
Review
49:17
How Do Psychologists Describe The Human Memory System?
49:20
What Information Do We Encode Automatically?
49:25
What Information Do We Encode Effortfully, and How Does the Distribution of Practice Influence Retention?
49:28
What Effortful Processing Methods Aid in Forming Memories?
49:42
What is Sensory Memory?
49:49
What are the Duration and Capacity of Short-Term and Long-Term Memory?
49:52
How Does the Brain Store Our Memories?
50:21
How Do We Get Information Out of Memory?
50:25
How Do External Contects and Internal Emotions Influence Memory Retrieval?
50:32
Why Do We Forget?
50:40
Memory, Part II

27m 44s

Intro
0:00
Transfer of Training
0:08
Positive Transfer: Mastery of One Task Aids Learning or Performing Another
0:12
Negative Transfer: Mastery of One Task Conflicts With Learning or Performing Another
0:20
e.g. Volleyball and Softball Training Helps One Another
0:26
Repression and Suppression
1:03
Repression: Unconsciously Pushing Painful, Embarrassing, or Threatening Memories Out of Awareness/Consciousness
1:09
Suppression: Consciously Putting Something Painful or Threatening Out of Mind Or Trying to Keep It From Entering Awareness
1:33
Flashbulb Memories
2:00
Memories Created During Times of Personal Tragedy, Accident, or Other Emotionally Significant Events
2:04
Includes Both Positive and Negative Events
3:19
Not Always Accurate
3:25
Great Confidence is Placed in Them Even Though They May Be Inaccurate
3:29
Memory Formation
3:40
Retrograde Amnesia: Forgetting Events That Occurred Before an Injury or Trauma
3:45
Anterograde Amnesia: Forgetting Events That Follow an Injury or Trauma (e.g. 50 First Dates or Memento)
3:54
Consolidation: Forming a Long-Term Memory
4:30
Electroconvulsive Shock (ECS)
4:47
Mild Electrical Shock Passed Through the Brain Produces a Convulsion, Destroys Any Memory That is Being Formed; One Way to Prevent Consolidation
4:52
Memory Structures
5:23
Hippocampus: Brain Structure Associated With Emotion and Transfer of Information Passing From Short-Term Memory Into Long-Term Memory
5:27
Long-Term Potentiation (LTP): An Increase in a Synapse's Firing Potential After Brief, Rapid Stimulation. Believed to be a Neural Basis for Learning and Memory
8:29
Ways to Improve Memory
9:01
Practice, Practice, Practice
9:07
Remember the First Time You Played Rock Band or Some Other Video Game? Were You Immediately an Expert?
9:24
Priming: The Activation, Often Unconsciously, of Particular Associations in Memory
10:26
Recitation: Summarizing Aloud While You Are Learning
10:50
Meaningful -- Make the Ideas You Are Studying Meaningful -- When Possible, Make Connections to Ideas You Already Know
11:43
Organization: Organizing Difficult Items Into Chunks; a Type of Reordering
11:58
Ways to Improve Memory, Continued
13:40
Study Repeatedly: Use Distributed/Spaced Practice-Take Advantage of Down Time -- Little Bits to Review Material
13:45
Minimize Interference -- Do Not Study Similar Subjects Back to Back
14:01
Sleep -- Get Enough
14:32
Overlearning: Studying is Continued Beyond Bare Mastery
14:51
Knowledge of Results: Feedback Allowing You to Check Your Progress -- Test Yourself
15:13
More Ways to Improve Memory
15:51
Spaced Practice: Alternating Short Study Sessions With Brief Rest Periods
15:55
Massed Practice: Studying for Long Periods Without Rest Periods
16:01
Lack of Sleep Decreases Retention; Sleep Aids Consolidation
16:10
Hunger Decreases Retention
16:18
Cognitive Interview: Technique Used to Improve Memories of Witnesses
16:36
Mnemonics: Memory Tricks
17:26
Any Kind of Memory System of Aid
17:34
Using Mnemonics to Recall an Order
18:37
Form a Chain or a Story: Remember Lists in Order, Forming an Exaggerated Association Connecting Item One to Two and So On
18:38
Take a Mental Walk: Mentally Walk Along a Familiar Path, Placing Objects or Ideas Along The Path
18:52
Form Acronyms -- My Very Eager Mother Just Served Us Nine (Pizzas) -- The Planets
19:44
SOHCAHTOA -- Trigonometry
20:28
Eyewitness Memory
21:17
Elizabeth Loftus -- Lots of Research Into the Consolidation of Memory and How Memories Are Easily Changed -- Includes Planting False Memories, Misinformation and Incorrect Attribution
21:21
Misinformation Effect: By Incorporating Misleading Information or Asking Leading Questions, An Investigator Can Change One's Memory of an Event
21:48
Source Amnesia: Attributing to the Wrong Source an Event We Have Experienced, Heard About, Read About, or Imagined. (Also Called Source Misattribution.) Source Amnesia, Along With the Misinformation Effect, is at the Heart of Many False Memories
22:32
Elizabeth Loftus, Continued
23:10
False Memories -- In Court, Gave Evidence of the Malleability of Memory and Showed How the Idea of Repressed Memories Are Likely Just Ideas Implanted During Therapy Sessions, Not Recollections of Actual Events
23:11
The Lost in the Mall Technique With Children -- Gave Children the Idea That They Had Had an Experience of Being Lost. 25% Indicated That They Later Thought That This Was a Real Occurrence in Their Lives, They Had a Memory For it
23:45
Later Variations Showed the 1/3 of Subjects Could Be Convinced That They Had Traumatizing Events That Had Occurred to Them
24:21
Eyewitness Memory
24:40
The Book, Picking Cotton
24:50
Wrongfully Accused Man, Ronald Cotton -- Convicted of Rape by Eyewitness Testimony
24:58
Eventually Overturned When Real Rapist Was Arrested On Another Charge
25:51
Link to Book
24:55
Link to The Innocence Project
26:16
Review
26:38
How Do Misinformation, Imagination, and Source Amnesia Influence Our Memory Construction?
26:40
How Real Seeming Are False Memories?
26:49
What Is The Controversy Related to Claims of Repressed and Recovered Memories?
26:52
How Can an Understanding of Memory Contribute to More Effective Studying Techniques?
27:24
Cognition

31m 56s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:07
Synthesize How Biological, Cognitive, and Cultural Factors Converge to Facilitate Acquisition, Development, and Use of Language.
0:10
Identify Problem-Solving Strategies as Well as Factors That Influence Their Effectiveness.
0:21
List the Characteristics of Creative Thought and Creative Thinkers
0:26
Cognition
0:30
Cognition: The Mental Activities Associated With Thinking, Knowing, Remembering, and Communicating
0:33
Ideas Behind Thinking
0:48
Solving Problems
2:42
Algorithms: a Methodical, Logical Rule or Procedure That Guarantees Solving a Particular Problem
2:49
Heuristics: Rules of Thumb or a Simple Thinking Strategy That Often Allows Us to Make Judgments and Solve Problems Efficiently
3:11
Insight: A Sudden and Often Novel Realization of the Solution to a Problem; It Contrasts With Strategy-Based Solutions
3:32
Friendship Algorithm
3:50
Sheldon (of BBT) made up a Friendship Algorithm, Which is Displayed Here
3:53
Problems in Problem Solving
5:33
Confirmation Bias: A Tendency to Search for Information That Supports Our Preconceptions and to Ignore or Distort Contradictory Evidence -- We Are Uncomfortable With Cognitive Dissonance
5:37
Fixation: The Inability to See a Problem From a Fresh Point of View -- This Relates to How We See/Define a Problem -- Can Lead to Others
6:58
More Problems: Representative Heuristic
8:55
Representative Heuristic: Judging the Likelihood of Things in Terms of How Well They Seem to Represent, or Match, Particular Prototypes; May Lead Us to Ignore Other Relevant Information.
9:04
More Problems: Representative Heuristic
10:59
e.g. A Person Might Judge a Young Person More Likely to Commit Suicide Because of a Prototype of the Depressed Adolescent -- The Reality is That Suicide Rates are Not Higher in Younger Populations
11:01
More Problems: Availability Heuristic
12:02
Availability Heuristic: Estimating the Likelihood of Events Based on Their Availability in Memory; If Instances Come Readily to Mind (Perhaps Because of Their Vividness), We Presume Such Events are Common
12:06
We May Fear Flying Because of 9/11 or Some Other Notable Event -- This Influences Our Thinking
13:35
More Impediments to Problem Solving
14:06
Overconfidence: The Tendency to Be More Confident Than Correct -- To Over-Estimate the Accuracy of Our Beliefs and Judgments
14:10
Belief Perseverance: Clinging to One's Initial Conceptions After The Basis On Which They Are Formed Has Been Discredited
14:31
Framing: The Way an Issue Is Posed or Presented; How an Issue is Framed Can Significantly Affect Decisions and Judgments
15:32
In Short
17:19
Humans Are Not the Rational Creatures We Often Presume Them to Be
17:22
They Are Often Irrational, But Predictably So
17:28
Other Biases We Often Exhibit (Will Visit These in Later Units):
18:02
Creativity
20:29
The Ability to Produce Novel and Valuable Ideas
20:32
Characteristics/Components of Creativity
21:03
Creativity
24:30
Wolfgang Kohler Documented the Aha Experience While Studying Chimps When They Were Trying to Obtain a Banana That Was Out of Reach
24:32
Convergent Thinking -- Limits Creativity
25:09
Divergent Thinking -- Increases Likelihood of Creativity
25:56
Intuition
27:13
An Effortless Immediate, Automatic Feeling or Thought, As Contrasted With Explicit, Conscious Reasoning
27:15
Review
29:52
How Can Shortcuts That The Mind Uses Inhibit Our Thinking Skills?
29:55
How Do Smart Thinkers Use Intuition?
30:01
What is Framing?
30:04
What Factors Assist Creativity?
30:11
What is the Difference Between Convergent and Divergent Thinking?
30:15
How is Intuition Different From Conscious Cognition?
30:22
Language

31m 2s

Intro
0:00
Objective
0:10
Synthesize How Biological, Cognitive, and Cultural Factors Converge to Facilitate Acquisition, Development, and Use of Language
0:13
Linguistics
0:26
Graphic Depicting the Various Types of Linguistic Study
0:29
Language
1:15
Our Spoken, Written, or Signed Words and the Ways We Combine Them to Communicate Meaning
1:17
Linguistics: The Scientific Study of Language -- Subcategories Include Phonology, Morphology, Syntax, Grammar, Semantics, Pragmatics, and More
1:51
Phoneme: The Smallest Distinctive Sound Unit
2:12
Phonemes
3:47
Practice Hearing the Sounds
3:49
What's the First Sound in the Word Cut? What's the Final Sound? What's the Medial Sound/Vowel Sound? Now, What's the First Sound in the Word Cute? The Final Sound? The Vowel Sound (Medial Sound)?
3:52
What's the First Sound in the Following Words?
4:34
Phonology -- Is It Any Wonder…English?
4:59
What is the Final Sound in the Following Words?
5:23
How Many Phonemes (Sounds) Are in These Words?
5:59
Very Little Weight is Given to This Idea in AP Psych
6:38
More Phonology
6:51
The Underlined Sounds in Each Pair of Words May Look the Same, But They Are Different. Can You Detect the Differences?
6:58
How are the Underlined Sounds Different in These Pairs?
8:22
Phonology -- The Last Bit
8:51
How Are These Pairs Different in Spoken English?
8:55
What Distinguishes the Underlined Words in These Sentences?
9:42
Morphemes
10:57
Morpheme: In a Language, the Smallest Unit That Carries Meaning; May Be a Word or Part of a Word (Such as a Prefix)
11:00
Language
11:19
Grammar: In a Language, a System of Rules That Enables Us to Communicate With and Understand Others
11:24
Syntax: The Rules for Combining Words Into Grammatically Sensible Sentences in a Given Language
12:24
Semantics
13:24
Semantics: The Set of Rules by Which we Derive Meaning From Morphemes, Words, and Sentences in a Given Language; Also the Study of Meaning
13:30
Ambiguity
13:40
Stress on a Word Changes Meaning
15:16
Language Development
16:02
Babbling: Beginning at About 4 Months, the Stage of Speech Development in Which the Infant Spontaneously Utters Various Sounds at First Unrelated to the Household Language
16:08
One-Word Stage: The Stage in Speech Development, From About Age 1 to 2, During Which a Child Speaks Mostly in Single Words
16:30
Sometimes Called the Holophrastic Stage Since the Meaning of an Entire Sentence Can Be Condensed Into One Word
16:51
Language Development
17:13
Two-Word Stage: Beginning About Age 2, the Stage in Speech Development During Which a Child Speaks Mostly Two Word Statements
17:15
Telegraphic Speech: Early Speech State in Which a Child Speaks Like a Telegram -- Go Car -- Using Mostly Nouns and Verbs
17:26
Ages 6-10
18:12
Children Can Master Syllable Stress Patterns to Distinguish Among Words
18:22
Children Have Learned 80% of the Language They Will Ever Need. Nearly All the Rest is Learning Complexity, Metaphors, Irony, Puns, Simile, Allegory, etc.
18:32
Language Development: Nativist Theory
19:34
Noam Chomsky, MIT Linguist
19:39
LAD or Language Acquisition Device
19:50
Inborn Ability (Biologically Created in the Brain) to Learn Whichever Language(s) One Grows Up With -- This Occurs Universally
19:58
Language Development: Behavioral
20:59
Skinner: Operant Learning
21:01
Language Development
21:39
Statistical Learning and Critical Periods
21:41
Linguistic Theories and Cognition
22:54
Linguistic Determinism: Whorf's Hypothesis That Language Determines the Way We Think
23:16
Linguistic Relativity: Variation of Whorf's Hypothesis That Assumes That Language and Thought Have Influences on Each Other -- The Language One Speaks Influences How One Thinks, and Vice Versa
23:21
Advantages to Being a Polyglot
27:02
Bilingual Advantage
27:11
Language Development: Interactionist
28:45
The Interactionist Perspective Consisting of Social-Interactionist
28:49
Children Learn Language in the Interactive and Communicative Context
28:56
Learning Language Forms Meaningful Moves of Communication
29:19
These Theories Focis Mainly on the Caregiver's Attitudes and Attentiveness to Their Children in Order to Promote Productive Language Habits
29:27
Review
29:52
What Are the Structural Components of a Language?
29:55
What are the Milestones in Language Development?
30:05
How Do We Learn Language?
30:11
What is the Relationship Between Language and Thinking?
30:18
VIII. Motivation and Emotion
Motivation, Part I

27m 1s

Intro
0:00
Motivation and Emotion (6-8%)
0:07
Biological Bases
0:21
Theories of Motivation
0:24
Hunger, Thirst, Sex, and Pain
0:25
Social Motives
0:28
Theories of Emotion
0:30
Stress
0:31
In This Part of the Course, We Will Explore Biological and Social Factors That Motivate Behavior and Biological and Cultural Factors That Influence Emotion
0:33
Objectives
0:42
Identify and Apply Basic Motivational Concepts to Understand the Behavior of Humans and Other Animals (e.g., Instincts, Incentives, Intrinsic Versus Extrinsic Motivation).
0:44
Discuss the Biological Underpinnings of Motivation, Including Needs, Drives, and Homeostasis.
0:51
Compare and Contrast Motivational Theories (e.g., Drive Reduction Theory, Arousal Theory, General Adaptation Theory), Including the Strengths and Weaknesses of Each.
0:57
Describe Classic Research Findings in Specific Motivation Systems (e.g. Eating, Sex, Social)
1:08
Objectives, Continued
1:16
Discuss Theories of Stress and the Effects of Stress on Psychological and Physical Well-Being.
1:18
Compare and Contrast Major Theories of Emotion (e.g. James-Lange, Cannon-Bard, Schachter Two-Factor Theory).
1:24
Describe How Cultural Influences Shape Emotional Expression, Including Variations in Body Language.
1:31
Identify Key Contributors in the Psychology of Motivation and Emotion (e.g. William James, Alfred Kinsey, Abraham Maslow, Stanley Schachter, Hans Selye).
1:39
A Couple of Videos
1:49
Motivational Speech Videos From YouTube
1:51
Overcoming Obstacles
2:05
No Arms, No Legs, No Worries
2:35
Defining Motivation and a Model
3:28
Dynamics of Behavior That Initiate, Sustain, Direct, and Terminate Actions
3:32
Model of How Motivated Activities Work
3:40
Instincts and Evolutionary Psychology
4:18
Instinct (Fixed Action Pattern): A Complex Behavior/Set of Behaviors Done in the Same Way by Every Member of the Species
4:22
Motives and Incentives
8:41
Motivation is a Psychological Feature That Arouses an Organism to Act Toward a Goal and Elicits, Controls, and Sustains Certain Goal-Directed Behaviors
8:46
Incentives -- Something That Motivates an Individual to Perform an Action -- Within Economics, Incentives are External Rewards to Draw Out Particular Desired Behaviors
9:26
Motives are Internal, Incentives are External
10:34
Drives and Incentives
11:23
Drive-Reduction Theory
11:27
Homeostasis-Steady State of Body Equilibrium; Balance
11:30
Need -- Biological Imperative
11:43
Drive -- Biological Action Affect Need
11:46
Drive Reduction -- Behavior to Reduce Drive
11:52
Need --> Drive --> Drive Reduction
11:58
We May Need Water, We Get Thirsty, We Quench Thirst by Doing Drive-Reducing Behaviors, Like Drinking Water or Another Drink
12:03
We May Have the Same Drives, But Reduce Them in Different Ways
12:43
Incentive Value
12:48
Goal's Appeal Beyond Its Ability to Fill a Need
12:52
High and Low Incentive Value Goals
13:07
Incentive: A Positive or Negative Environment Stimulus That Motivates Behavior
13:13
ex: High Incentive Value Goal -- Ice Cream
13:22
ex: Low-Incentive Value Goal -- Carrot
13:25
Would This Interest You?
14:10
Picture of Larvae or Worms
14:14
Types of Motives
15:53
Primary Motive: Innate (Inborn) Motives Based on Biological Needs That Must Be Met to Survive
15:56
Stimulus Motive: Needs For Stimulation and Information; Appear to be Innate, But Not Necessary for Survival
16:05
Secondary Motive: Based on Learned Needs, Drives, And Goals
16:58
Arousal Theory
17:09
People Will Do Certain Actions to Maintain Certain Optimal Levels of Physiological Arousal. If the Level is Too High, They Will Seek to Relax. If Level is too Low, They Will Seek Out Action or Something That Stimulates Them
17:18
Based Upon Individual and Situation -- Highly Variable
18:04
Being an Introvert or Extrovert May Change One's View of What is a Pleasant Arousal Level
18:15
Arousal Theory
19:58
Yerkes-Dodson Law of Arousal
20:07
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
20:31
Physiological --> Safety --> Love/Belonging --> Esteem --> Self-Actualization
20:58
Maslow Part 2
22:57
Chart of More Complex Hierarchy System
23:01
Review
24:00
What is the Difference Between a Motive and an Incentive?
24:05
Describe the Drive Reduction Model of Motivation
24:16
Is There a Difference Between Needs and Wants?
24:26
Motivation, Part II

16m 36s

Intro
0:00
Hunger
0:10
Hypoglycemia: Low Blood Sugar (Glucose and Insulin)
0:16
Hypothalamus: Brain Structure; Regulates Many Aspects of Motivation and Emotion, Including Hunger, Thirst, and Sexual Behavior
0:27
Feeding System: Area in the Lateral Hypothalamus (LH) That, When Stimulated, Initiates Eating
0:43
Satiety System: Area in the Ventromedial Hypothalamus (VMH) That Terminates Eating
0:56
Hormones
1:15
More on Eating Behavior
2:07
Neuropeptide Y (NPY): Substance in the Brain That Initiates Eating; Works on Paraventricular Nucleus in Hypothalamus
2:10
Glucagon-like Peptide 1 (GLP-1): Substance in Brain That Terminates Eating
2:33
Set Point: Proportion of Body Fat That is Maintained by Changes in Hunger and Eating; Point Where Weight Stays the Same When You Make No Effort to Gain or Lose Weight
2:51
Basal Metabolic Rate: The Body's Resting Rate of Energy Expenditure
3:29
External Eating Cues -- Signals and Situations That Are Linked With Food (Includes Environment, People and Emotions -- Think Classical Conditioning)
3:51
Hyperphagic Rat
4:42
Picture of Rat Who Eats More Due to VMH Removal
4:44
Taste Preferences: Biology and Culture
6:03
Taste Preferences
6:06
Eating Disorders
9:21
Anorexia Nervosa: An Eating Disorder in Which a Person (Usually an Adolescent Female) Diets and Becomes Significantly (15 Percent or More) Underweight, Yet, Still Feeling Fat, Continues to Starve
9:29
Bulimia Nervosa: An Eating Disorder Characterized by Episodes of Overeating, Usually High-Calorie Foods, Followed by Vomiting, Laxative Use, Fasting, or Excessive Exercise
10:02
Binge-Eating Disorder: Significant Binge-Eating Episodes, Followed by Distress, Disgust, or Guilt, But Without the Compensatory Purging, Fasting, or Excessive Exercise That Marks Bulimia Nervosa
10:33
Obesity and Weight Control
11:14
Historical Explanations for Obesity
11:18
Obesity (Some Text Authors Focus on This a Lot, Others Not So Much)
12:10
Review
14:52
What Psychological Factors Produce Hunger?
14:55
What Psychological and Cultural Factors Influence Hunger?
14:58
How Do Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa, and Binge Eating Disorder Demonstrate the Influence of Psychological Forces on Physiologically Motivated Behaviors?
15:04
Motivation, Part III

25m 52s

Intro
0:00
The Physiology of Sex
0:12
The Sexual Response Cycle -- as Described by Masters and Johnson
0:16
Pioneering Sex Researcher -- Alfred Kinsey of Indiana University -- Behavior in Men and Women
1:08
The Kinsey Report -- Heavily Criticized for Methods
1:24
Kinsey Scale (of Continuum From Hetero to Homosexuality)
1:51
Effects of Hormones
2:38
Development of Sexual Characteristics
2:44
Activate Sexual Behavior -- Levels Change
2:46
Social Constraints and Influences
3:19
External Stimuli
4:46
Imagined Stimuli
4:57
Adolescent Sexuality
6:03
Teenage Pregnancy -- While Rates are Decreasing, Why Does it Still Occur?
6:40
Adolescent Sexuality
10:20
Sexually Transmitted Diseases/Infections
10:23
Sadly, Many Who Focus on Abstinence Engage in Other Risky Behaviors, Negating the Impact
11:13
Sexual Orientation
12:32
An Enduring Sexual Attraction Toward Members of Either One's Own Sex (Homosexual Orientation) or the Other Sex (Heterosexual Orientation)
12:41
Sexual Orientation Statistics (LGBT)
13:38
Origins of Sexual Orientation
14:36
Origins of Sexual Orientation Studies
14:56
Same-Sex Attraction in Animals -- 1500 Species of Animals Engage in This Behavior, Most Often in Herding Animals
15:20
The Brain and Sexual Orientation
15:32
Genes and Sexual Orientation (Predisposition?)
15:49
Prenatal Hormones and Sexual Orientation
16:17
Bottom Line is That One's Sexual Orientation is Not Some Choice One Makes -- It Is Biologically Created
16:42
The Need to Belong
16:59
Aiding Survival
17:11
Wanting to Belong
17:22
Sustaining Relationships
17:39
The Pain of Ostracism
18:11
When Motives Conflict
18:37
Approach-Approach Conflict -- Choice of Two Desirable Options
18:43
Avoidance-Avoidance Conflict -- Choice of Two Undesirable Options
19:06
Approach-Avoidance Conflict -- One Event or Goal Has Both Attractive and Unattractive Features
19:20
Multiple Approach-Avoidance Conflict -- Choice Between Two or More Things, Each With Desirable and Undesirable Aspects
20:10
Sometimes This Set of Ideas Can Be Found in a Chapter on Stress
20:47
Summary
21:01
Theories of Motivation
21:04
Motivation of Hunger
21:40
Motivation of Sex
21:42
Social Motives -- Acquired by Growing Up in a Particular Society or Culture
21:44
Achievement Motivation (nAch)
22:22
Intrinsic/Extrinsic Motivation
23:31
Management Theory (Theory X and Theory Y) -- Related to Int./Ext -- Theory X -- Employees Only Motivated by Rewards and Threats of Punishment
24:01
Review
24:51
What Stages Mark The Human Sexual Response Cycle?
24:55
How Do Internal and External Stimuli Influence Sexual Motivation?
25:02
What Factors Influence Teen Sexuality, Teen Pregnancy, and Risk of Sexually Transmitted Infections?
25:19
What Has Research Taught Us About Sexual Orientation?
25:26
Emotions, Stress & Health

28m 8s

Intro
0:00
Objectives
0:11
Compare and Contrast Major Theories of Emotion (e.g. James-Lange, Cannon-Bard, Schachter Two-Factor Theory)
0:15
Describe How Cultural Influences Shape Emotional Expression, Including Variations in Body Language
0:27
Discuss Theories of Stress and the Effects of Stress on Psychological and Physical Well-Being,
0:35
Identify Key Contributors in the Psychology of Motivation and Emotion (e.g. William James, Alfred Kinsey, Abraham Maslow, Stanley Schachter, Hans Selye.)
0:42
Emotions
0:56
How Do We Experience Emotion?
0:59
Do We Feel the Emotion and Then Have a Bodily Response?
1:06
Do We Have a Bodily Response and Then Feel the Emotion?
1:03
Do They Happen Simultaneously?
1:11
Is There Something Else?
1:13
How Do We Express Emotion?
1:15
What is Our Conscious Experience of Emotion?
1:37
Emotions
1:48
State Characterized by Physiological Arousal and Changes in Facial Expressions, Gestures, Posture, and Subjective Feelings
1:51
Adaptive Behaviors: Aid Our Attempts to Survive and Adjust to Changing Conditions
2:37
Physiological Changes (in Emotions): Include Heart Rate, Blood Pressure, Perspiration, and Other Involuntary Responses
2:45
Emotional Expression: Outward Signs of What a Person is Feeling
3:17
Emotional Feelings: Private Emotional Experience
3:25
Primary Emotions and Mood
3:46
Plutchik Research (2003)
3:50
Eight Primary Emotions
3:53
Mood -- Low Intensity, Long-Lasting Emotional State
4:15
Emotions Wheel: Plutchik
4:39
Eight Emotions Can Be Intensified or Combined With Adjacent Moods to Create New Ones
4:44
Theories Of Emotions: So I Encounter A Bear
7:54
Picture of Bears and Description of how Instructor Felt When Meeting One
8:09
Common Sense Approach
8:22
Common Sense
8:23
I Tremble Because I Am Afraid
8:25
Stimulus --> Fear (Experience) --> Arousal
8:27
Stimulus --> Emotion --> Body Change
8:35
Cannon-Bard
8:55
The Bear Makes Me Tremble And Feel Afraid
8:59
Stimulus --> Subcortical Brain Activity --> Fear (Experience) + Physiological Arousal
9:04
Stimulus --> Brain --> Emotion + Body
9:14
James-Lange
9:23
I Feel Afraid Because I Tremble
9:29
Stimulus --> Arousal --> Fear (Experience)
9:32
Stimulus --> Body Change --> Emotion Of Fear
9:37
Singer-Schachter Two-Factor
9:44
I Label My Trembling As Fear Because I Appraise The Situation As Dangerous
9:49
Stimulus --> Arousal --> That Is One Scary Bear! I Am Afraid Of It! (Appraisal) --> Fear (Experience)
9:58
Stimulus --> Body --> Cognitive Response/Label --> Emotion
10:18
Facial Feedback Hypothesis
10:33
Sensations From Facial Expressions And Becoming Aware Of Them Is What Leads To Emotional Experience
10:38
Most Connected To The James-Lange Theory
10:44
How Some Tests Are Done -- Pencil Or Coffee Stirrer
10:51
When We Do This Test Or Make Different Faces -- Our Expressions Feed Into Our Feelings
12:32
Fake It Til You Make It
13:11
How You Walk -- Speed, Stride And More Can Send Signals About Our Emotions
14:23
Modern View Of Emotion
15:09
Emotional Appraisal: Evaluating Personal Meaning Of A Stimulus
15:12
Emotional Intelligence: Emotional Competence, Including Empathy, Self-Control, Self-Awareness, And Other Skills
15:40
Emotions In The Body
17:14
Autonomic Nervous System
17:18
Emotions And The Body
19:07
Physiological Similarities Among Emotions
19:11
Differences In Brain Activity
19:53
Lie Detectors
21:24
Polygraph: Device That Records Changes In Heart Rate, Blood Pressure, Respiration, And Galvanic Skin Response (G S R); Lie Detector
21:31
Polygraphs -- Why Are They Not Necessarily Accurate?
21:47
Questions Asked
23:07
Irrelevant Questions
23:09
Relevant Questions
23:16
Control Questions
23:23
Detecting Emotions
24:14
Nonverbal Cues
24:18
In Animals, The Baring Of Teeth Is A Threat Or Warning Display
26:52
Review
27:12
What Are The Components Of An Emotion?
27:15
What Is The Link Between Emotional Arousal And The Autonomic Nervous System?
27:20
Do Different Emotions Activate Different Physiological And Brain Pattern Responses?
27:25
To Experience Emotions, Must We Consciously Interpret And Label Them?
27:35
Can You Spot A Fake Smile? What Should You Look At To Find A Fake?
27:46
Emotions: Non-Verbal Communication

28m 28s

Intro
0:00
Three Types of Facial Expressions
0:12
Pleasantness-Unpleasantness
0:21
Attention-Rejection
0:27
Activation: Degree of Arousal a Person is Experiencing
0:37
Paul Ekman (Most Recently Famous For Being Connected to the Show Lie To Me, About a Psychologist Who Could Read People's NVC and Tell if They Were Lying
0:43
Microexpressions
1:11
Universal Emotions
2:47
Pictures Of Seven Emotions Whose Expressions Are Recognized Throughout The World
2:54
Nonverbal Communication (NVC)
5:35
Functions of NVC
5:41
Nonverbal Communication
9:52
Kinesics -- Study of Gestures and Movements During Communication
9:57
Nonverbal Communication
11:48
Proxemics -- Study of Space People Place Between Themselves and Others -- How the Space is Used -- Territory Markers
11:50
Nonverbal Communication, Continued
14:34
Paralanguage
14:41
Nonverbal Communication, Continued
19:26
Haptics -- The Study of Touching as NVC
19:30
Metacommunication
20:51
Nonverbal Communication, Continued
23:20
NVC is Not Universal -- Each Culture Has Its Own Display Rules
23:22
Review
24:23
How Do We Communicate Nonverbally?
24:26
Are Nonverbal Expressions of Emotion Universally Understood?
24:38
How Can Space Be Used to Communicate an Idea?
24:44
How Do Our Voices Send Messages That We May Not Be Aware Of?
25:50
Do Men and Women Communicate Differently?
27:37
Stress & Coping

47m 10s

Intro
0:00
Objectives
0:08
Discuss Theories of Stress and the Effects of Stress on Psychological and Physical Well-Being
0:11
Health Psychology
0:33
Uses Behavioral Principles to Prevent Illness and Promote Health
0:41
Behavioral Medicine: Applies Psychology to Manage Medical Problems e.g. Asthma and Diabetes
0:46
Lifestyles Diseases: Diseases Related to Health-Damaging Personal Habits
1:12
Behavior Risk Factors
1:31
Behaviors That Increase the Chance of Disease, Injury, or Premature Death.
1:33
Disease-Prone Personality: Personality Type Associated With Poor Health; Person Tends to be Chronically Depressed, Anxious, Hostile, and Frequently Ill.
2:28
Stress, Hormones, and the Brain
2:51
Stress Activates the Sympathetic Nervous System
2:55
Adrenaline and Noradrenaline (Epinephrine and Norepinephrine)
3:06
Cortisol -- Not as Quick to Act, But Arouses the Body
3:32
Amygdala Recognizes a Threat, Message to Hypothalamus…Adrenal Glands Release Cortisol -- Great For Survival Situations
3:58
BUT -- In the Long Term, Elevated Levels Can Suppress the Immune System, Increase Blood Pressure and Blood Sugar, Decrease Libido, Produce Acne, Contribute to Obesity (Especially Belly Fat) and More
4:48
Anxiety Issues
5:08
Ways to Promote Health and Prevention
5:24
Refusal Skills Training: Program That Teaches Young People How to Resist Pressures to Begin Smoking
5:29
Life Skills Training: Teaches Stress Reduction, Self-Protection, Decision Making, Self-Control, and Social Skills
5:53
Community Health Campaign: Community-wide Education Program That Provides Information About How to Decrease Risk Factors and Promote Health
6:06
Role Model: Person Who Serves as a Positive Example of Good and Desirable Behavior
6:50
Wellness: Positive State of Good Health and Well-Being; More Than the Absence of Disease
6:59
Major Health Promoting Behaviors
7:17
Nutrition: Eat a Balanced, Low-Fat Diet; Appropriate Caloric Intake, Maintain Healthy Body Weight
7:29
Exercise: At Least 30 Mins. Of Aerobics 3-5 Days/Week
7:39
Blood Pressure: Lower BP With Diet and Exercise -- See Physician if Need Meds
7:51
Alcohol and Drugs: No More Than Two Drinks Per Day; Abstain From Doing Drugs
8:11
Tobacco: Do Not Smoke or Use Smokeless Tobacco
8:33
Sleep and Relaxation: Avoid Sleep Deprivation; Give Time for Relaxation/Meditation Daily
8:36
Sex: Practice Safer Sex; Avoid Unplanned Pregnancy
9:18
Injury: Curb Dangerous Driving Habits, Use Seat Belts, Minimize Sun Exposure, Avoid Dangerous Activities
9:32
Stress: Learn Stress Management; Lower Hostility
9:48
Stress
10:02
Mental and Physical Condition That Occurs When a Person Must Adjust or Adapt to the Environment
10:26
Stress Reaction: Physical Reaction to Stress
10:55
Stressor
11:07
Appraisal
11:52
Primary Appraisal -- Is It Relevant? Is It Positive? Threatening?
12:00
Secondary Appraisal -- Are There Coping Resources Available? Do I Have a Course of Action I Can Take?
12:15
Stressor -- Is It Intense? Repeating? Unpredictable? Uncontrollable? Pressure?
12:27
A Perceived Lack of Control is Just as Threatening as an Actual Lack of Control
13:43
Stressful Life Events and Illnesses
14:14
Catastrophes
14:19
Significant Life Changes
14:21
Daily Hassles
14:30
My Students Usually Make Lists About Stressors and Various Symptoms of Stress
16:09
By the End of the Period, They are Usually Incredibly Stressed Just Thinking About Stress
18:10
Signs of Ongoing Stress
18:30
Emotional Signs: Anxiety, Apathy, Irritability, Mental Fatigue
18:33
Behavioral Signs: Avoidance of Responsibilities and Relationships, Extreme or Self-Destructive Behavior, Self-Neglect, Poor Judgment
18:43
Physical Signs: Excessive Worry About Illness, Frequent Illness, Overuse of Medicines
19:14
Stress Response System
19:52
Hans Seyle Connected Physiology and Endocrine System to Stress
19:54
General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)
20:04
Exhaustion Phase Can Be Where Burnout Occurs and a Person Gets Sick
20:31
Burnout
20:40
Job-Related Condition (Usually in Helping Professions) of Physical, Mental, and Emotional Exhaustion, Has Three Aspects
20:47
Emotional Exhaustion
21:11
Cynicism
21:23
Feeling of Lack of Accomplishment
21:32
Stressful Life Events and Illness
22:04
Coronary Heart Disease
22:08
Type A and Type B Personalities
22:15
Type A -- Friedman and Rosenman's Term For Competitive, Hard-Driving, Impatient, Verbally Aggressive, and Anger-Prone People
22:18
Type B -- Friedman and Rosenman's Term for Easygoing, Relaxed People
22:35
Psychophysiological Illnesses: Literally Mind-Body Illness; Any Stress-Related Physical Illness, Such as Hypertension and Some Headaches
23:07
Psychoneuroimmunology: The Study of How Psychological, Neural and Endocrine Processes Together Affect the Immune System and Resulting Health
25:24
Coping With Threats
25:51
Emotion-Focused Coping: Trying to Control One's Emotional Reactions to the Situation
25:54
Problem-Focused Coping: Managing or Remedying the Distressing Situation
26:25
Traumatic Stresses: Extreme Events That Cause Psychological Injury or Intense Emotional Pain
27:03
Frustration
27:36
Negative Emotional State That Occurs When One is Prevented From Reaching Desired Goals
28:02
External Frustration: Based on External Conditions That Impede Progress Toward a Goal
28:23
Personal Frustration: Caused by Personal Characteristics That Impede Progress Toward a Goal
28:32
Reactions to Frustration
28:48
Aggression: Any Response Made With the Intention of Harming a Person, Animal, or Object
28:52
Displaced Aggression: Redirecting Aggression to a Target Other Than the Source of One's Frustration
29:21
Scapegoating: Blaming a Person or Group for Conditions They Did Not Create; The Scapegoat is a Habitual Target of Displaced Aggression
29:32
Escape: May Mean Actually Leaving a Source of Frustration (Dropping Out of School) or Psychologically Escaping (Apathy)
29:44
Conflict: Stressful Condition That Occurs When a Person Must Choose Between Contradictory Needs, Desires, Motives, or Demands
30:43
Cognition and Stress
31:17
Later, in the Personality Unit, We Will Examine Defense Mechanisms, a Freudian Set of Ideas
31:20
Self-Defeating Fears and Attitudes
32:43
It Would Be Terrible to be Rejected, Abandoned or Alone. I Must Have Love and Approval Before I Can Feel Good About Myself.
32:52
If Someone Criticizes Me, It Means There's Something Wrong With Me.
33:05
I Must Always Please People and Live Up to Everyone's Expectations.
33:15
I Am Basically Defective and Inferior to Other People.
33:30
Self-Defeating Fears and Attitudes
33:53
Other People Are to Blame For My Problems.
33:54
The World Should Always Be the Way I Want it To Be.
34:03
Other People Should Always Meet My Expectations.
34:17
If I Worry or Feel Bad About a Situation, It Will Somehow Make Things Better. It's Not Really Safe to Feel Happy and Optimistic.
34:23
I'm Hopeless and Bound to Feel Depressed Forever Because the Problems in My Life Are Impossible to Solve.
34:44
I Must Always Try to Be Perfect. There Are Several Kinds of Perfectionism That Can Make You Unhappy.
35:07
Learned Helplessness (Seligman)
35:16
Acquired (Learned) Inability to Overcome Obstacles and Avoid Aversive Stimuli; Learned Passivity
35:28
Can Lead to or Contribute to Depression
36:00
Measuring Stress
36:55
Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS): Rates The Impact of Various Life Events on the Likelihood of Contracting Illness
36:59
Microstressors (Hassles): Minor But Frequent Stressors
37:30
Accultative Stress: Caused By Many Changes and Adaptations Required When a Person Moves to a Foreign Culture
37:56
Managing Stress
38:32
Use of Behavioral Strategies to Reduce Stress and Improve Coping Skills
38:38
Progressive Relaxation: Produces Deep Relaxation Throughout the Body By Tightening all Muscles in an Ares and then Relaxing Them
38:40
Guided Imagery: Visualizing Images That Are Calming, Relaxing, or Beneficial in Other Ways
39:44
Stress Inoculation: Using Positive Coping Statements Internally to Control Fear and Anxiety; Designed to Combat Negative Self-Statements.
39:58
Coping Statements: Reassuring, Self-Enhancing Statements Used to Stop Self-Critical Thinking
40:00
Find Positive Message Accounts on Social Media
41:31
Managing Stress
42:15
Reduce Your Vulnerabilities
42:17
Use Your Support System
42:28
Prepare Rather Than Worry
42:37
Breathe
42:43
Choose Instead of Reacting
42:47
Prioritize
42:57
Learn to Say No
43:02
Journal
43:14
Unplug
45:10
Laugh
45:26
Know Yourself
45:34
Review
45:54
What is Stress?
45:57
What Events Provoke Stress Responses?
46:03
Why Are Some of Us More Prone Than Others to Coronary Heart Disease?
46:06
How Does Our Thinking Promote Stress Reactions?
46:12
What Behaviors Help Us Reduce Stress Reactions?
46:16
IX. Developmental Psychology
Development, Part 1

34m 36s

Intro
0:00
Developmental Psychology (7-9%)
0:08
Life-Span Approach
0:21
Research Methods (e.g. Longitudinal, Cross-Sectional)
0:26
Heredity-Environment Issues
0:29
Developmental Theories
0:32
Dimensions of Development
0:37
Sex Roles and Gender Roles
0:42
Developmental Psychology Deals With the Behavior of Organisms From Conception to Death and Examines the Processes That Contribute to Behavioral Change Throughout the Life Span. The Major Areas of Emphasis in the Course are Prenatal Development, Motor Development, Socialization, Cognitive Development, Adolescence, and Adulthood
0:52
Developmental Psychology
1:20
Branch of Psychology That Studies Physical, Cognitive, and Social Change Throughout the Life Span (The Study of Progressive Changes in Behavior and Abilities)
1:22
Issues Within Developmental Psych
1:33
Nature vs. Nurture
1:39
Continuity and Stages
1:58
Stability and Change
2:12
Heredity
2:42
Heredity (Nature): Transmission of Physical and Psychological Characteristics From Parents to Their Children Through Genes
2:50
DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid): Molecular Structure, Shaped Like a Double Helix That Contains Coded Genetic Information
3:00
Genes: Specific Areas on a Strand of DNA That Carry Hereditary Information
3:10
Prenatal Development and the Newborn
3:31
Conception
3:34
Prenatal Development
4:25
Prenatal Issues
5:21
Placenta: An Organ That Connects the Developing Fetus to the Uterine Wall to Allow Nutrient Uptake. Waste Elimination, and Gas Exchange Via the Mother's Blood Supply
5:26
Teratogens: Agents, Such as Chemicals and Viruses, That Can Reach the Embryo or Fetus During Prenatal Development and Cause Harm
6:34
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Physical and Cognitive Abnormalities -- Low Birth Weight, Small Head, Body Defects, Facial Malformations
9:16
Minimizing Prenatal Risks
10:04
Maintain Good Nutrition During Pregnancy
10:07
Learn Relaxation and Stress Reduction Techniques to Ease Transition to Motherhood
10:16
Avoid Teratogens and Other Harmful Substances
10:32
Get Adequate Exercise During Pregnancy
10:38
Obtain General Education About Pregnancy and Childbirth
11:01
Teenage Females and Hip Bones -- Difficulty During Childbirth
11:14
Childbirth
11:52
Medicated Birth: Traditional in West; Mother is Assisted by Physician and Given Drugs For Pain (Recent Research Indicates Epidurals Can Be Quite Dangerous)
11:55
Prepared Childbirth: Parents Learn Specific Behavioral Techniques to Manage Pain and Facilitate Labor. Lamaze Methods is Most Famous
12:21
Traditional Childbirth in Remote Cultures (Attendants, Family, Solo, Midwife)
12:38
The Placenta -- What Should Be Done With It?
13:22
Potential Problems
14:10
Congenital Problem: A Problem or Defect That Occurs During Prenatal Development -- Exists at Birth and Sometimes Before Birth; Birth Defect
14:14
Genetic Disorder: Problem Caused by Inherited Characteristics From Parents; May Not be Visible at Birth (e.g. Cystic Fibrosis, Metabolic Disorders (Hypothyroidism), and Many Others
15:40
The Newborn (Neonate): Reflexes
16:23
Grasping: If an Object is Placed in the Infant's Palm, She'll Grasp It Automatically (All Reflexes Are Automatic Responses; i.e., They Come From Nature, Not Nurture)
16:39
Rooting: Lightly Touch the Infant's Cheek and He'll Turn Toward The Object and Attempt to Nurse; Helps Infant Find Nipple or Food
17:02
Sucking: Touch an Object or Nipple to the Infant's Mouth And She'll Make Rhythmic Sucking Movements
17:22
Moro: If a Baby's Position is Abruptly Changed or if He is Startled by a Loud Noise, He Will Make a Hugging Motion
18:30
Babinski: Firmly Touch Foot, Toes Fan Out
18:42
There Are Others, But These You Need to Know
18:55
The Newborn
19:13
Temperament: The Physical Core of Personality; Includes Sensitivity, Irritability, Distractibility, and Typical Mood
19:16
Emotional and Social Development
20:29
Basic Emotions: Anger, Fear, Joy; Appear to be Unlearned
20:33
Social Smile: Smiling Elicited by Social Stimuli; Not Exclusive to Seeing Parents
20:45
Self-Awareness: Awareness of Oneself as a Person; Can Be Tested by Having Infants Look in a Mirror and See if They Recognize Themselves
21:10
Social Referencing: Observing Other People To Get Information or Guidance
21:56
Maturation
23:25
Physical Growth and Development of the Body, Brain, and Nervous System -- Coded in Genes
23:29
Sets the Basic Course of Development; Experience Adjusts It
23:40
Increased Muscular Control Occurs in Patterns; Order of Maturation is Almost Universal
24:08
Readiness: When Maturation Has Advanced Enough to Allow Rapid Acquisition of a Particular Skill
25:01
Newborns and the Brain
25:56
In Womb, Brain Cells Were Formed at Almost 1/4 Million Per Minute
26:00
Newborns Have All the Brain Cells They Will Ever Possess
26:09
The Brain Begins to Network -- Lots of Neurons, But Few Connections -- Explosive Growth as an Infant -- Walking, Talking, Remembering
26:45
Deprivation and Enrichment
28:00
Deprivation: Lack of Normal Stimulation, Nutrition, Comfort, or Love
28:04
Enrichment: When an Environment is Deliberately Made More Complex and Intellectually Stimulating and Emotionally Supportive
32:09
Review
33:09
How Does Life Develop Before Birth?
33:12
What Are Some Birth Defects That Babies Can Be Born With?
33:15
What Are Some Newborn Abilities, and How Do Researchers Explore Infants' Mental Abilities?
33:18
What is Maturation And How Does it Differ From Development?
33:57
During Infancy and Childhood, How Do the Brain and Motor Skills Develop?
34:01
What Are Some Different Ways in Which We Develop?
34:06
Development, Part II

29m 30s

Intro
0:00
Attachment
0:08
Rapid, Relatively Permanent Type of Learning That Occurs During a Limited Time Period Early in Life
0:13
Conrad Lorenz (an Ethologist) Studied Natural Behavior Patterns of Animals
0:25
Hatched Baby Geese in an Incubator; When Geese Were Born, First Moving Object They Saw Was Lorenz
0:33
They Followed Him Around and Acted as Though He Were Their Mother
0:46
Attachment and Ainsworth
1:42
Attachment is the Strong Emotional Bond Young Children Form With Their Parents or Primary Caregivers
1:44
Ainsworth's Strange Situation
1:55
Secure and Insecure Attachment Styles
2:03
Emotional Attachment: Close Emotional Bond That Infants Form With Parents, Caregivers, or Others
2:10
Separation Anxiety: Crying and Signs of Fear When a Child is Left Alone or is With a Stranger; Generally Appears Around 8-12 Months
2:33
Separation Anxiety Disorder: Severe and Prolonged Distress Displayed by Children When Separated From Parents/Caregivers
3:13
The Strange Situation Experiment
3:36
The Strange Situation Experiment
3:38
Different Combinations Where Baby is in the Company of a Parent, Stranger, Both, or None
3:45
YouTube Has a Video of Experiment
4:29
Quality of Attachment
4:50
Secure: Stable and Positive Emotional Bond
5:00
Insecure -Avoidant: Anxious Emotional Bond; Tendency to Avoid Reunion With Parent or Caregiver
5:07
Insecure-Ambivalent: Anxious Emotional Bond; Desire to be With Parent or Caregiver and Some Resistance to Being Reunited With Mom
5:27
Disorganized/Disoriented: Show a Lack of Clear Attachment Behavior; May Seem Confused or Apprehensive in Presence of Caregiver
5:48
Harlow and Contact Comfort
6:06
Pleasant and Reassuring Feeling Babies Get From Touching Something Warm and Soft, Especially the Mother
6:23
Research With Rhesus Monkeys (Macaques) -- Maternal Separation/Deprivation
6:39
Social Isolation Experiments (Severe Disturbances)
6:52
Cloth and Wire Mother (With Food)
8:02
Importance of Care-Giving and Companionship in Social and Cognitive Development
9:06
Ethically, Could Not be Done Today -- May Have Influenced the Rise of the Animal Rights Movement
9:15
Physical Development
9:58
Motor Development: e.g. Walking
10:00
Maturation and Infant Memory
11:48
Optimal Caregiving
12:58
Proactive Maternal Influences: A Mother's Warm, Educational Interactions With Her Child
13:02
Goodness of Fit: (Chess & Thomas): Degree to Which Parents and Child Have Compatible Temeraments
13:30
Paternal Influences: Sum of All Effects a Father Has on His Child -- As American Society Changes, The More of a Role Males Are Seen as Having on the Development of Their Children
13:50
Parenting Styles (Baumrind)
14:52
Authoritarian: Enforce Rigid Rules and Demand Strict Obedience to Authority. Children Tend to Be Emotionally Stiff and Lacking in Curiosity
15:05
Overly Permissive: Give Little Guidance. Allow too Much Freedom, Or Don't Hold Children Accountable For Their Actions. Children Tend to be Dependent and Immature and Frequently Misbehave.
15:47
Authoritative: Provide Firm and Consistent Guidance Combined With Love and Affection. Children Tend to be Competent, Self-Controlled, Independent, and Assertive
16:30
Others Added Indulgent and Neglectful Styles
18:04
Studied Corporal Punishment --> Mild Spanking, Not With Authoritarian, Likely Not Harmful
19:00
Types of Child Discipline
20:14
Power Assertion: Using Physical Punishment or a Show of Force, e.g. Removing Toys or Privileges
20:16
Withdrawal of Love: Withholding Affection
20:37
Management Techniques: Combine Praise, Recognition, Approval, Rules, and Reasoning to Encourage Desirable Behavior
21:04
Have Effective Communication
22:49
Consequences
24:39
Natural Consequences: Effects That Naturally Follow a Particular Behavior; Intrinsic Effects
24:42
Logical Consequences: Rational and Reasonable Effects Defined by Parents
25:06
Review
25:42
How Does Life Develop Before Birth?
25:46
What Are Some Newborn Abilities, and How Do Researchers Explore Infants' Mental Abilities?
25:51
During Infancy and Childhood, How Do the Brain and Motor Skills Develop?
25:58
How Do Parent-Infant Attachment Bonds Form?
26:07
How Have Psychologists Studied Attachment Differences and What Have They Learned About the Effects of Temerament and Parenting?
26:13
Do Parental Neglect, Family Disruption, or Day Care Affect Children's Attachment?
26:33
How Do Children's Self-Concepts Develop, and How Are Children's Traits Related to Parenting Styles?
26:51
To What Extent is Our Development Shaped By Early Stimulation, By Parents, and By Peers?
28:46
Development, Part III

28m 31s

Intro
0:00
Cognition
0:10
Cognition: Is the Mental Activity of Knowing and the Process By Which Knowledge is Acquired And Problems Are Solved
0:13
Cognitive Development
0:41
Jean Piaget (1896-1980)
0:43
A Schema is an Organized Cluster of Knowledge You Use to Understand and Interpret Information
1:10
Assimilation is the Process of Absorbing New Information Into Existing Schemas
2:04
Accommodation is the Process of Changing Schemas in Order to Absorb New Information
3:50
Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development
4:22
Chart Describing Different Stages of Development According to Piaget
4:28
Sensorimotor Stage
9:37
Infants Develop the Ability to Coordinate Sensory Input With Motor Actions.
9:42
Object Permanence is the Realization That An Object Continues to Exist Even if You Can't See It Or Touch It.
10:04
Representational Thought is the Ability to Picture (or Represent) Something in Your Mind, Even When Not Physically Present.
10:31
Preoperational Stage
10:54
Children Think in Terms of Language and Begin to Engage in Make-Believe Play.
11:01
Egocentrism is the Tendency to View the World From Your Own Perspective Without Recognizing That Others May Have Different Viewpoints.
11:33
Conservation is the Understanding that Certain Physical Properties of an Object Remain Unchanged Despite Changes in its Appearance.
11:53
Animism -- e.g. The Sun is Following Us
15:25
Literal Thinking
13:52
Thinking Aloud
13:28
Concrete Operational Stage
15:48
Children Perform Mental Operations and Begin Logical Reasoning (Operations)
15:52
Working on Conservation Problem (Volume)
16:00
Children's Thinking and Use of Logic are Limited to Concrete Reality, Not Abstract or Hypothetical Concepts.
16:08
Classify, Organize, Categorize
16:20
Formal Operations Stage
17:52
Children Reason Abstractly and Make Predictions About Hypothetical Situations
17:58
Problem Solving Involves Systemic and Reflective Strategies.
18:03
Not everyone Gets to This Stage.
18:08
Refinements of Piaget's Theory
20:12
Children are More Cognitively Advanced and Adults are Less Cognitively Complex Than Piaget's Theory Suggests.
20:18
Theory of Mind: People's Ideas About Their Own and Others' Mental States (About Their Feelings, Perceptions, and Thoughts) That Allow You to Understand and Predict Their Behavior.
20:43
Social and Environmental Factors Have a Greater Influence on Cognitive Development Than Piaget Thought
20:57
Lev Vygotsky
21:32
Children's Cognitive Development is Heavily Influenced by Social and Cultural Factors
21:42
Children's Thinking Develops Through Dialogues With More Capable People
21:52
Importance of Social Interaction -- Community and Culture Plays a Central Role in the Process of Making Meaning and Cognitive Development
22:56
Social Factors are Big (Piaget Minimized Them)
23:23
Emphasis on Role of Language in Cognitive Development (Piaget Minimized This)
23:31
More Vygotsky
23:43
Zone of Proximal Development -- Range of Tasks a Child Cannot Master Alone Even Though They Are Close to Having the Necessary Mental Skills; They Need Guidance From a Skilled Partner in Order to Complete the Task
23:48
Scaffolding: Framework or Temporary Support. Adults Help Children Learn How to Think by Scaffolding, or Supporting, Their Attempts to Solve a Problem or to Discover Principles
25:03
Review
27:49
How Does Thinking Change During Childhood Into Adulthood for Piaget?
27:51
How Did Vygotsky Add to Piaget's Work?
28:02
What Aspect of Vygotsky Do You See In School?
28:07
Development, Part IV

28m 20s

Intro
0:00
Erikson: Psycho-Social Development
0:10
Eight Stages of Psychosocial Dilemmas
0:18
Student of Freud
0:23
Added Social Aspect to Freud's Ideas
0:28
Examined Entire Lifespan
0:32
Stage 1: Trust Vs. Mistrust (Birth-1)
0:40
Children Are Completely Dependent on Others
1:03
Trust: Established When Babies are Given Adequate Warmth, Touching, Love, and Physical Care
1:06
Mistrust: Caused by Inadequate or Unpredictable Care
1:14
Important Events: Feeding
1:41
Stage 2: Autonomy Vs. Shame and Doubt (1-3)
1:58
Autonomy: Doing Things for Themselves
2:05
Overprotective and Ridiculing Children May Cause Children to Doubt Abilities and Feel Shameful
2:15
Important Events: Toilet Training
2:52
Stage 3: Initiative Vs. Guilt (3-5)
3:01
Initiative: Parents Reinforce Via Giving Children Freedom
3:09
Guilt: May Occur if Parents Criticize, Prevent Play or Discourage a Child's Questions
3:34
Important Events: Exploration
4:00
Stage 4: Industry Vs. Inferiority (6-12)
4:36
Industry: Occurs When Child is Praised for Productive Activities
4:42
Inferiority: Occurs if Child's Efforts are Regarded as Messy or Inadequate
4:55
Important Events: School
5:10
Stage 5: Identity Vs. Role Confusion (Adolescence)
5:31
Identity: For Adolescents, Who am I?
5:43
Role Confusion: Occurs When Adolescents are Unsure of Where They are Going and Who They Are
6:34
Important Events: Social Relationships
6:42
Stage 6: Intimacy Vs. Isolation (Young Adulthood)
7:53
Intimacy: Ability to Care About Others and Share Experiences With Them
8:16
Isolation: Feeling Alone and Uncared for
8:38
Important Events: Relationships (Emotionally Intimate)
8:59
Stage 7: Generativity Vs. Stagnation (Middle Adulthood)
9:20
Generativity: Interest in Guiding the Next Generation
9:27
Stagnation: When One is Only Concerned With One's Own Needs and Comforts
10:17
Important Events: Work and Parenthood
10:48
Stage 8: Integrity Vs. Despair (Late Adulthood)
10:53
Integrity: Self-Respect; Developed When People Have Lived Richly and Responsibly
11:04
Despair: Occurs When Previous Life Events are Viewed With Regret
11:44
Important Events: Reflection on Life
12:05
Kohlberg and Moral Development
13:11
Took Stage Theories and Applied to Moral Development
13:12
Gave Children Scenarios and Asked for Reasoning on What was Right and Wrong
13:39
Heinz Dilemma Example
13:58
Reasoning Created Patterns-Worked into Three Levels (Each With Two Stages)
14:54
Assumed Humans are Communicative, Possessed Reason and a Desire to Understand World
15:28
Three Levels of Moral Development
16:09
Preconventional: Moral Thinking Based on Consequences of Actions or Choices
16:10
Conventional: Reasoning Based on a Desire to Please Others or to Follow Accepted Rules and Values
17:48
Postconventional: Follows Self-Accepted Moral Principles
18:24
Level 1 (Pre-Conventional)
19:17
1. Obedience and Punishment Orientation -- How Can I Avoid Punishment?
19:21
2. Self-Interest Orientation -- What's in it for Me?
19:35
Level 2 (Conventional)
20:04
3. Interpersonal Accord and Conformity (Good Boy/Good Girl Attitude)
20:09
4. Authority and Social-Order Maintaining Orientation
20:38
Level 3 (Post-Conventional)
21:36
5. Social Contract Orientation
21:37
6. Universal Ethics Principles (Morality of Individual Principles)
23:41
Criticisms of Kohlberg
24:50
Cross-Cultural, Most Are in the First 4 Stages
24:53
Post-Conventional Seem to Be European and North American Educated Middle Class Which Values Individualism
25:02
Collectivist Cultures' Morality Ignored/Viewed Negatively
25:28
Carol Gilligan Was a Colleague Who Focused on Ethical Reasoning and Ethical Relationships
25:45
Viewed Kohlberg's Work as Androcentric
25:56
Lacked Social Justice and Cultural Neutrality
26:36
Review
26:55
How did Piaget, Kohlberg, and Later Researchers Describe Adolescent Cognitive and Moral Development?
26:56
How Does Thinking Change During Childhood Into Adulthood for Piaget?
27:09
Erikson Talks About Psychosocial Development -- Describe The Crises of Each Stage and How Positive Growth Develops From Each
27:20
Kohlberg Examines Moral Development -- Describe How He Determined a Person Was at a Particular Stage
27:37
Why Does Gillian Criticize Kohlberg's Work? Give Examples
27:53
Development, Part V

43m 17s

Intro
0:00
North American Adults-Challenges
0:14
Gould's Developmental Challenges for Adults
0:15
Escape From Dominance (Ages 16-18)
0:18
Leaving the Family (Ages 18-22)
0:38
Building a Workable Life (Ages 22-28)
0:44
Crisis of Questions (Ages 29-34)
1:00
Crisis of Urgency (Ages 35-43)
1:16
Attaining Stability (Ages 53-50)
1:33
Mellowing (Ages 50 and Up)
1:49
Emerging Adulthood
2:37
For Some People In Modern Cultures, A Period From Late Teens to Mid-Twenties
2:38
Bridging the Gap Between Adolescent Dependence and Full Independence and Responsible Adulthood
2:45
Levinson's Challenges
5:24
Early Adulthood Transition (17-22)
5:25
Age 30 Transition (28-33)
5:36
Midlife Transition (40-45)
6:01
Age 50 Transition (50-55)
6:07
Late Adult Transition (60-65)
7:04
Female Middle Age Issues
7:15
Menopause
7:18
Empty Nest Syndrome
8:35
Male Middle-Age Issues
10:08
Climacteric
10:09
Andropause
10:37
Gerontology and Study of Aging
12:06
Gerontologists Study Aging and its Effects
12:07
Intellectual Abilities
12:20
Fluid Abilities: Abilities Requiring Speed or Rapid Learning
12:26
Crystallized Abilities: Learned (Accumulated) Knowledge and Skills
12:48
Physical Development
15:13
Our Bodies Undergo Changes in Time
15:15
Metabolism
15:25
Possible Weight Changes
15:51
Lower Maximum Heart Rate (220 - Age)
15:55
Lower Muscle Strength
17:01
Reduced Lung Capacity
17:12
This Means Adaptation, Not Elimination of Physical Activity
17:16
Gerontology and Study of Aging
17:44
Disengagement Theory: Assumes That it is Normal and Desirable for People to Withdraw from Society as They Age
17:45
Activity Theory: People who Remain Active will Adjust Better to Aging (Productive Aging)
18:00
Ageism: Discrimination or Prejudice Based on a Person's Age
18:34
Physical and Cognitive Changes
19:16
Two Theories of Aging
19:17
Genetic Preprogramming Theory
19:21
Wear-and-Tear Theory
19:53
Aging and the Brain
20:06
Dementia
20:07
Wisdom: Expert Knowledge and Judgment About Important Issues in Life
20:51
Research Methods in Developmental Psych
21:15
Cross-Sectional Study - People of Different Ages are Compared With One Another
21:16
Longitudinal Study
23:29
Sex Development
25:49
Sex and Gender are Often Confused
25:50
Sex: Physical Characteristics of Male and Female (Biological)
25:58
Primary Sex Characteristics -- Body Structures that Makes Sexual Reproduction Possible
26:09
Secondary Sex Characteristics -- Non-Reproductive Sexual Characteristics
26:26
Gender
26:41
Gender: Biologically and Socially Influenced Characteristics by Which People Define Male and Female
26:42
Gender is a Socially Defined Set of Expectations (Roles)
26:55
Gender Identity: Sense of Being Male or Female
30:01
Gender Typing: Acquisition of Traditional Masculine or Feminine Role
30:51
Roles
31:19
Roles: Set of Expectations (Norms) About a Social Position Defining Behaviors
31:20
Gender Roles are Related to How Men and Women Should Behave
31:32
Gender Roles Examples
31:36
Gender Roles
32:49
Larry/Laurie Study
32:50
Traditional Roles Versus More Flexible and Adaptive Roles
34:15
Social Learning Theory
34:43
Bem Gender Role Inventory
35:17
Bem Gender Schema Theory
37:17
Gender Schemas Develop Through an Individual's Observation of Societal Classifications
37:23
Males and Females Cognitively Process and Categorize New Information in Environment, Based on Maleness or Femaleness
37:41
Self-Authorship Displayed by Individual's Categorization of, and Conformity to, Elements That Belong to Definition of Masculinity or Femininity
38:24
Dying, Death and Bereavement
39:11
Elizabeth Kubler-Ross
39:12
Criticisms of Her Theory, Including Methodology and Accuracy of Stages
39:21
Context Purposes Only
39:27
Stages Not Universal and Not Always Followed in Order
39:40
Stages of Reactions to Dying
39:49
Denial and Isolation
39:50
Anger
40:10
Bargaining
40:20
Depression
40:30
Acceptance
40:38
Bereavement and Grief
41:22
Bereavement
41:23
Grief
41:34
Shock
41:38
Pangs of Grief
41:52
Resolution
41:59
Review
42:26
What is Emerging Adulthood?
42:28
What Physical Changes Occur During Middle and Late Adulthood?
42:36
How do Memory and Intelligence Change with Age?
42:43
What Themes and Influences Mark Our Social Journey from Early Adulthood to Death?
42:47
What Are Some Ways In Which Males and Females Tend to be Alike and to Differ?
42:54
How do Nature and Nurture Together Form Our Gender?
42:59
X. Personality
Personality, Part I

29m 6s

Intro
0:00
X. Personality (5-7%)
0:14
Personality Theories and Approaches
0:27
Assessment Techniques
0:32
Growth and Adjustment
0:35
In This Section of the Course…
0:39
Objectives
1:01
Compare and Contrast Major Theories and Approaches to Explaining Personality (Psychoanalytic, Humanist, Cognitive, Trait, Social Learning, and Behavioral)
1:02
Describe and Compare Research Methods (E.g., Case Studies and Surveys)
1:11
Identify Frequently Used Assessment Strategies (MMPI, TAT)
1:15
Speculate How Cultural Context Can Facilitate or Constrain Personality Development
1:32
Identify Key Contributors to Personality Theory (E.g., Aldler, Bandura, Costa, McCrae, Freud, Jung, Maslow, Rogers)
1:49
Who Are You?
2:17
Know Thyself
2:48
Be True to Yourself
3:41
Each Of Use Is Really Many of Us
3:49
He Who Knows Others is Wise; He Who Knows Himself is Enlightened
4:48
I Am Whatever You Say I Am
5:12
Personality Basics
5:29
Persona
5:30
Greek Theatre
5:35
Do We Find the Self or Create the Self?
6:02
Defining Some Terms
6:31
Personality
6:32
Character
7:02
Temperament
7:42
What Is Personality?
8:13
Everything You Are, Think, Feel and Do
8:15
An Abstract Construct
8:21
Manifest in Behavior
9:39
Based on Perceptions of Behavior
9:32
We All Have Implicit Theories of Personality -- Philosophical Assumptions
10:22
Freedom V. Determinism
10:32
Heredity V. Environment
11:11
Uniqueness V. Universality
11:22
Active V. Reactive
11:59
What is the Self?
12:40
What is the Self?
12:41
Can We Accurately See/Perceive Ourselves or Others?
12:51
Self-Awareness
12:58
Schema Issues
14:22
Self-Knowledge
14:42
Self-Esteem
15:11
Self-Serving Bias
15:37
Lake Wobegon Effect on Self
16:18
Culture and Self - Individualistic Cultures and Collectivists Ones
17:00
Personality: Methods of Research
18:45
Case Study
18:46
Survey
20:19
Projective Tests (e.g. TAT and Rorschach)
21:10
Personality Inventories (Myers-Briggs, MMPI, Factor Analysis Big 5)
24:47
Observation
26:08
Experimentation
27:20
Review
28:12
What is Personality?
28:13
How is it Different from Character or Temperament?
28:20
How is it Shown to Others?
28:23
How do Psychologists Measure Personality?
28:27
How Valid and Reliable are the Tools That are Used?
28:32
What are Personality Inventories, and What are Their Strengths and Weaknesses as Trait-Assessment Tools?
28:37
Personality, Part II

21m 39s

Intro
0:00
Overview on Personality Theories
0:09
Personality Theory: System of Concepts, Assumptions, Ideas, and Principles Proposed to Explain Personality
0:10
Six Perspectives
0:24
1. Trait
0:26
2. Psychodynamic
0:31
3. Behavioristic
0:35
4. Social Cognitive Theories
0:42
5. Humanistic Theories
0:54
Type Theories
1:02
Four Humors Theories
1:03
Hippocrates -- Blood, Phlegm, Black Bile, Yellow Bile
1:15
Sheldon's Somatyping -- Endomorphs, Mesomorphs, Ectomorphs
1:51
Gordon Allport and Traits
2:54
A Trait Is…
3:00
Common Traits
3:15
Individual Traits
3:21
Cardinal Traits
3:25
Central Traits
3:58
Secondary Traits
4:12
Raymond Cattell and Traits
4:51
Surface Traits
4:56
Source Traits
5:03
Cattell Created 16PF, Personality Test
5:19
Studied Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence
7:04
Created Culture Fair Intelligence Test
7:17
Paul Costa & Robert McCrae
7:33
Five Factor or Big 5 Personality Theory
7:35
Trait Theorists
7:43
Personality is Stable Past Age 30
7:45
Mnemonics - OCEAN or CANOE
8:03
Five Factors Contain All Other Personality Traits
8:31
NEO Personality Inventory
8:46
The Big Five Personality Factors
9:02
Openness to Experience, Conscientiousness, Extroversion, Agreeableness, Neuroticism
9:03
Emotional Stability (Neuroticism)
9:28
Extraversion
10:03
Openness
10:31
Agreeableness
11:12
Conscientiousness
11:35
Eysenck
12:05
Personality Based on Physiology and Genetics
12:06
Focus More on Temperament Than Personality
12:13
Eysenck Personality Questionnaire or EPQ
12:20
Eysenck's Theory of Personality
13:31
Eysenck's Theory of Personality Graphic Explanation
13:32
Traits, Situations, and Biology
16:57
Trait-Situation Interactions
16:58
Behavioral Genetics
17:57
Assessing the Trait Theories
19:23
Nearly All Agree That People Can Be Described by Traits
19:24
Disagreement as to Number of Traits That Make Up Human Personality
19:31
Traits Often Poor Predictors of Behavior
19:56
Situational Factors Often Run Counter to Traits
20:15
Do Not Address How or Why Individual Differences in Personality Develop or Emerge
20:21
Review
20:40
What are the Primary Viewpoints that are Used to Understand Personality?
20:41
Which Traits Seem to Provide the Most Useful Information About Personality Variation?
20:49
Can you Distinguish Among the Different Traits that Allport Theorized?
21:05
What is the Big 5 Factor Theory?
21:12
What Challenges/Criticisms are There of the Trait Theories?
21:15
Personality, Part III

38m 8s

Intro
0:00
The Psychodynamic Perspective
0:09
Sigmund Freud, Viennese Physician Thought Patients Problems Were More Emotional than Physical
0:10
Austria, Late 1800s, Sexually Repressed Era
0:36
Freud Began Work by Using Hypnosis
0:57
Medical Doctor, Treated Hysterics
1:14
Most Psychology Was Reaction to His Work
2:09
Freud had Many Followers
2:48
Freud Used Cocaine and Tobacco, Died From Oral Cancer
3:02
Work Still Influential and Controversial
3:59
Key Freudian Terms
4:14
Psyche
4:15
Libido
4:27
Eros
4:33
Thanatos
4:36
All is Vanity
5:04
Freud's Theory of Mind
6:01
Conscious Mind
6:05
Proconsciou Mind
6:16
Unconscious Mind
6:27
The Id, Ego, and Superego
7:47
Id
7:50
Ego
8:02
Superego
8:11
The Id
8:23
Innate Biological Instincts and Urges
8:24
Works Via Pleasure Principle
8:52
Immediate Gratification
9:05
The Superego
10:09
Judge or Censor for Thoughts and Actions of Ego
10:15
Two Parts: Conscious and Ego Ideal (Parental Self or Societal Self)
10:31
The Ego
11:34
Executive; Directs Id Energies
11:38
Partially Conscious and Partially Unconscious
11:51
Works Via Reality Principle
11:56
Best Balance is to Have the Ego Be More Dominant Than Other Two
13:22
The Mind as an Iceberg Metaphor
15:50
Dynamics of Personality and Anxieties
17:01
Ego is Always Caught in the Middle of Battles Between Superego's Desires for Moral Behavior and Id's Desires for Immediate Gratification
17:09
Neurotic Activity
17:22
Moral Anxiety
18:27
Levels of Awareness
19:49
Unconscious
19:50
Conscious
20:04
Preconscious
20:42
Psychosexual Personality Development
21:19
Develops in Stages
21:24
Majority of Personality Formed Before Age 6
21:59
Erogenous Zone
22:14
Fixation
22:35
Oral Stage
23:08
Ages 0-1
23:18
Oral Dependent Personality and Orally Fixated Personality
23:51
Anal Stage
25:41
Ages 1-3
25:43
Anal Retentive
26:53
Anal Expulsive
27:19
Phallic Stage
28:05
Ages 3-6
28:06
Can Lead to Oedipus Conflict (With Boys)
28:21
Electra Conflict (With Girls)
31:33
Resolution: Identification With Same-Sex Parent
31:50
Conclusions About Stages 1-3
32:13
Both Oedipus and Electra Conflicts are Widely Rejected Today by Most Psychologists
32:14
Latency and Genital Stages
32:33
Latency
32:36
Genital Stage
33:10
Review
35:26
What Was Freud's View of Personality and Its Development?
35:28
Describe the Major Issues at Each Stage of Psychosexual Development
35:36
What Are Fixations and How do They Develop?
35:53
Which of Freud's Ideas Did His Followers Accept or Reject?
35:57
How do Contemporary Psychologists View Freud and the Unconscious?
36:14
Personality, Part IV

34m 1s

Intro
0:00
Freudian Ego Defense Mechanisms
0:13
Habitual and Unconscious Mental Processes Designed to Reduce Anxiety
0:14
Defense Mechanisms
2:01
Denial
2:02
Repression
3:28
Reaction Formation
4:43
Displacement (Displaced Aggression)
5:23
More Defense Mechanisms
7:40
Projection
7:42
Rationalization
8:32
Fantasy
9:58
Identification
10:26
Regression
11:58
Sublimation
12:48
There Are Many More, Not All Are Agreed Upon
14:25
Neo-Freudians
14:45
Accepted Broad Aspects of Freud's Theory But Revised Parts of It
14:46
Alfred Adler -- Striving for Superiority, Compensation, Creative Self…
15:02
Karen Horney -- Basic Anxiety, Hostile World, Sense of Helplessness
17:13
Carl Jung -- Analytic Psychology, Persona, Personal Unconscious, Collective Unconscious, Archetypes
18:18
More Jung
23:52
Need of Individuation
23:53
Need for Balancing Opposites in Personality
24:30
The Shadow Self
24:35
Anima
25:13
Animus
25:18
Self Archetype
25:41
Mandala
26:30
The Mandala
26:43
Image
26:44
Impact of Psychoanalytics Theory
28:08
Psychoanalytics Approach Still Has Influence Within Psychology
28:09
Ideas With Impact:
28:28
Criticisms of Psychoanalytic Theory
29:51
Contradictory Evidence
29:53
Lack of Solid Scientific Foundation
29:55
Repression May Be a Myth
30:05
Modern Unconscious Mind
30:09
Review
32:18
What Was Freud's View of Personality and Its Development?
32:19
How Did Freud Think People Defended Themselves Against Anxiety?
32:27
Which of Freud's Ideas Did His Followers Accept or Reject?
32:42
What Are Projective Tests, and How Are They Used?
32:48
How Do Contemporary Psychologists View Freud and the Unconscious?
33:00
Personality, Part V

48m 51s

Intro
0:00
The Humanistic Perspective
0:12
Approach Focuses on Human Experience, Problems, Potentials, and Ideals
0:34
Human Nature
1:01
Free Choice
1:13
Subjective Experience Also Called Phenomenology
1:35
Abraham Maslow
2:34
The Self-Actualizing Person
2:52
Self-Actualization
3:20
Peak Experiences
3:37
Characteristics of Self-Actualizers
4:45
Efficient Perceptions of Reality
4:47
Comfortable Acceptance of Self, Others, and Nature
5:05
Spontaneity
5:24
Task Centering
5:30
Autonomy
5:42
Continued Freshness of Appreciation
5:55
Fellowship With Humanity
6:36
Profound Interpersonal Relationships
7:06
Comfort With Solitude
7:15
Non-Hostile Sense of Humor
7:19
Peak Experiences
7:48
Carl Rogers
8:45
Fully Functioning Person
8:49
Growth Promoting Climates Include Genuineness, Acceptance and Empathy
9:29
Unconditional Positive Regard
9:58
Self-Concept
10:25
Self
10:47
Self-Image
11:08
Incongruence
11:52
Ideal Self
12:35
Incongruence and Congruence
12:56
Incongruence and Congruence Venn Diagram
12:57
Carl Rogers
14:25
Incongruence Occurs When There is a Mismatch Between Any of the Three Entities
14:26
Self-Esteem Suffers When There is a Large Difference Between One's Ideals Self and Self-Image
14:43
Anxiety and Defensiveness are Common When The Self-Image Does Not Match the True Self
15:10
Conditions of Worth
15:38
Positive Self-Regard
17:08
Organismic Valuing
17:52
Criticisms
18:52
Not Scientific Enough
18:56
Too Filled With Values, Vague and Subjective
18:59
Terminology Based on Values, Not Scientifically Measurable Operational Definitions
19:05
Naïve
19:23
Self-Esteem Movement of the 80s -- Trophies for Participating Not Achieving
20:04
Positive Psychology Movement -- Beginning of 1990s
22:44
The Socio-Cognitive Perspective
23:50
The Social Behavior Approach
23:51
Built from Combining Social Learning Theory or Bandura and Cognitive Features
23:58
Views Behavior as Influenced by the Interaction Between People's Traits and Their Social Context
24:16
Reciprocal Determinism
24:54
Reciprocal Determinism: Social-Cognitive Belief That Personality Emerges From Cognitions, Actions, and Environment
24:55
Control
27:12
Personal Control
27:13
Self-Efficacy
28:23
Locus of Control
30:11
External Locus of Control
31:57
Internal Locus of Control
31:49
Individualistic and Collectivist Cultures
32:46
Individualistic
32:47
Collectivist Culture
34:33
In social situations…
37:14
High Context Vs. Low Context
37:35
Assessing the Social-Cognitive Perspective
38:49
Social-Cognitive Theories Can Help Understand Such Problems as Drug Abuse, Unemployment, Academic Underachievement, and Teen Pregnancy
38:50
However…
39:45
Less Able to Explain Behavior that is Spontaneous, Irrational, and Sparked by Unconscious Motives
40:06
Measuring Personality
40:18
Interview
40:23
Unstructured Interview
40:38
Structured Interview
40:54
Limitations to Interviews
41:14
More Ways to Assess Personality
42:22
Direct Observation
42:23
Other Types of Assessment (Behavioral Assessment, Situational Test)
42:33
Personality Questionnaire
45:10
Paper-And-Pencil Measure
45:13
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2)
45:19
Psychodynamic Methods
45:56
Assessing Unconscious Processes -- Projective Tests
45:59
Thematic Apperception Test
46:00
Rorschach Inkblot Test
46:26
Review
47:06
How do the Humanists View the Creation of Personality?
47:07
In the View of Social-Cognitive Psychologists, What Mutual Influences Shape an Individual's Personality?
47:17
What are the Causes of Consequences of Personal Control?
47:24
What Underlying Principle Guides Social-Cognitive Psychologists in their Assessment of People's Behavior and Beliefs?
47:37
What has the Social-Cognitive Perspective Contributed to the Study of Personality, and What Criticisms Has it Faced?
47:50
Does Research Support the Consistency of Personality Traits Over Time and Across Cultures?
47:57
In the View of Social-Cognitive Psychologists, What Mutual Influences Shape an Individual's Personality?
48:22
XI. Testing and Individual Differences
Testing and Individual Differences, Part I

44m 48s

Intro
0:00
Testing and Individual Differences (5-7%)
0:16
Standardization and Norms
0:32
Reliability and Validity
0:35
Types of Tests
0:37
Ethics and Standards in Testing
0:40
Explain How Psychologists Design Tests, Including Standardization Strategies and Other Techniques to Establish Reliability and Validity
0:43
Putting a Number on Everything
0:56
Americans Seem to Love Measuring Things and Giving Them Numbers
0:57
Caution in This Unit
2:23
Numbers We Use Can Be Misunderstood and Misused
2:43
What am I Not Measuring What I Measure This One Thing?
2:50
Does This Test Give Me All the Information I Need About The Group and/or Individual?
3:18
What is the Construct? Does it Reflect What it Needs to? What it Should Measure?
3:53
Terms
4:47
Norm
4:51
Standardization
5:36
Normal Curve
8:45
The Flynn Effect
9:24
Reliability
10:30
Validity
11:05
Validity
12:33
Validity: Ability of Test to Measure What it is Purported to Measure
12:35
Content Validity
12:42
Criterion Validity (Also Known As Predictive Validity)
13:17
Construct Validity
14:45
Reliability
15:56
Reliability: Reliable Test Should Give Same Score Each Time Same Person Takes It
15:57
Test-Retest
16:40
Split-Half
16:55
Types of Tests
17:16
Achievement Tests
17:18
Aptitude Tests
18:36
More Tests
20:48
Speed Tests
20:50
Power Tests
21:13
Individual Tests
21:45
Group Tests
22:05
More IQ Terms
22:47
Deviation IQ
22:53
IQ Scores Are Not Dependable Until Child Reaches Age 6
23:35
Terminal Decline
23:48
IQ Curve
24:10
IQ Curve Chart and Explanation
24:11
Are IQ Tests Culturally Biased?
26:15
Score Will Be Different With Less Experience With Culture in Which Test Was Developed
26:21
Supporters of IQ Tests Claim Tests Provide Accurate Measure of Success in School and Some Occupations
26:51
Reaction to Bias
27:45
Stereotype Threat -- Being At Risk of Confirming a Negative Stereotype About One's Group
27:48
Nature, Nurture and Intelligence
29:52
Heritability
29:55
Correlations of IQ and Genetics
30:15
Challenges
31:09
Identical Twins Often Treated Similarly if Together
31:11
If Apart, Often Put In Similar Environments
31:38
Some Argue for Genetic Causes -- However, Socioeconomic Issues and Test Bias Confound Issue
31:56
Programs Like Head Start Help Overcome Poverty Issue
32:17
Environmental Influences
33:32
Early Environmental Influences (Tutored Human Enrichment, Targeted Training)
33:33
Schooling and Intelligence (Project Head Start, Preschool)
33:53
Alfred Binet
34:32
French Psychologist
34:36
Created First Intelligence Test for Children
34:40
Goal To Create Tool to Identify Children Who Need Special Help
34:43
Louis Terman Took His Work and Translated into English -- Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test
35:26
Sir Francis Galton
35:42
Many Roles
35:45
Created Correlation and Regression Toward the mean
35:52
Intelligence Studies -- Founded Psychometrics
35:57
Coined Term Nature Versus Nurture
36:11
Eugenics
36:29
Charles Spearman
39:23
Statistics-Factor Analysis
39:26
Creator of Spearman's Rank Correlation Coefficient (-1 to +1)
39:30
Intelligence Theories
39:48
General Intelligence or G-Factor
40:06
Much of Intelligence Is Heritable
40:18
Lewis Terman
40:28
Stanford Psychologist
40:32
Translated Binet's Test
40:34
Studied Gifted Children in Genetic Studies of Genius
40:35
Longitudinal Study
40:40
Gifted Children
41:00
David Wechsler
42:15
Intelligence Testing
42:17
Opposed Stanford-Binet's Narrow Definition
42:20
Created WISC and WAIS
42:35
Flynn Effect Makes Decennial Updating Necessary
42:46
Review
43:07
When and Why Were Intelligence Tests Created?
43:08
What's the Difference Between Aptitude and Achievement Tests, and How Can We Develop and Evaluate Them?
43:18
How Stable Are Intelligence Scores Over the Life Span?
43:34
What Are the Traits of Those at the Low and High Intelligence Extremes?
43:51
What does Evidence Reveal About Heredity and Environmental Influences on Intelligence?
44:08
How Are the Contributors to Testing in America?
44:14
How does the Flynn Effect Change IQ Scores?
44:20
Testing and Individual Differences, Part II

25m

Intro
0:00
History
0:12
Sir Francis Galton
0:13
Binet and Others
0:41
Created Test of Verbal Abilities to Determine Mental Retardation and School Readiness in French School Children
0:42
Henry Goddard Translated Original Binet-Simon Test
1:14
Lewis Terman of Stanford Modified Test to Create Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales
1:25
What is Intelligence?
1:57
Different Definitions of Intelligence
2:08
Intelligence
3:07
Operational Definition
3:08
Sociology - Any Ability That Allows Individual to be Successful in One's Environment
3:25
Game Shows
4:41
Reality Shows
5:21
Some Terms
5:56
Aptitude
5:59
Special Aptitudes Test
6:08
Multiple Aptitude Test
6:18
General Intelligence Test
6:30
General intelligence (G-Factor)
6:37
Is Intelligence One or Many Abilities?
7:05
Spearman's General Intelligence
7:10
Raymond Cattell
7:14
Stanford-Binet
8:39
Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale, Fifth Edition (SB5)
8:40
Measures: Fluid Reasoning, Knowledge, Quantitative Reasoning, Visual-Spatial Processing, Working Memory
8:52
Determining IQ
9:29
Chronological Age
9:31
Mental Age
9:36
Intelligence Index Formula
9:47
IQ Curve
11:54
IQ Curve Graph
11:55
IQ Research
14:04
Men and Women Do Not Appear to Differ in Overall Intelligence
14:05
Strong Correlation Between IQ and School Grades
14:12
Wechsler Test
14:21
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Test, 3rd Edition (WAIS-III)
14:26
Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th Edition (WISC-IV)
14:41
Performance Intelligence: Nonverbal Intelligence
14:58
Verbal Intelligence: Language or Symbol-Oriented Intelligence
15:03
Howard Gardner
15:19
Theory of Multiple Intelligences (1980s)
15:22
Seen Often in Schools and Teacher Trainings
15:32
IQ is Too Limiting
15:36
Gardner's Eight Intelligences
15:48
Gardner's Eight Intelligences: Linguistics
15:58
Gardner's Eight Intelligences: Logical-Mathematical
16:21
Gardner's Eight Intelligences: Musical
16:48
Gardner's Eight Intelligences: Spatial
17:02
Gardner's Eight Intelligences: Bodily-Kinesthetic
17:18
Gardner's Eight Intelligences: Intrapersonal
18:12
Gardner's Eight Intelligences: Interpersonal
18:53
Gardner's Eight Intelligences: Naturalist
19:33
Sternberg
21:10
Robert Sternberg's
21:11
Prolific Psychologist
21:13
Intelligence - A More Cognitive Approach
21:35
Three Intelligences (aka Triarchic Theory) - Analytical, Creative, and Practical
21:40
Review
23:57
What is Intelligence?
23:58
How is IQ Calculated?
24:11
What Contributions Did Binet, Terman and Wechsler Give to the Study of Intelligence?
24:25
How Can We Use a Normal Curve to Understand IQ and Comparing People?
24:31
How do Gardner and Sternberg View Multiple Intelligences?
24:47
Testing & Individual Differences, Part III

30m 23s

Intro
0:00
Other Aspects of Intelligence
0:11
Reflective Intelligence
0:15
Metacognitive Skills
0:23
Speed of Processing
3:31
Inspection Time
4:56
Neural Intelligence
5:38
Experiential Intelligence
5:50
Emotional Intelligence
7:26
Daniel Goleman
7:29
EQ Roughly Connected to Gardner's Intrapersonal and Interpersonal Intelligences
7:32
Argues Need for Both IQ and EQ
7:44
Need to Understand Own and Other's Emotions to Gain Success
10:06
Wrote Social Intelligence
10:23
Giftedness and Range of IQ
10:55
Having a High IQ (>130) or Special Talents or Abilities
11:01
IQ Chart Levels -- Very Superior, Superior, Bright Normal, Average, Dull Normal, Borderline, Mentally Challenged
11:26
Intellectual Disability (Formerly MR)
15:01
Presence of Developmental Disability and an IQ Score Below 70
15:17
Categories
16:33
Organic Causes of Intellectual Disability
19:33
Related to Physical Disorders
19:37
Birth Injuries
19:49
Fetal Damage
19:56
Metabolic Disorders
20:03
Genetic Abnormalities
20:17
Phenylkenuria (PKU)
21:02
Genetic Disease in Which Child Lacks an Important Enzyme
21:07
More Organic Causes
22:30
Microcephaly
22:35
Hydrocephaly
23:03
Cretinism
23:34
Down Syndrome
23:55
Genetic Disorder Caused by Presence of Extra Chromosome
24:00
Fragile X Syndrome
26:41
Genetic Form of Disability Caused by Defect in X Chromosome
26:44
Heredity and Environment
27:38
Eugenics
27:41
Genetics Seems to Put Upper Limit on Intelligence and Environment Pushes, Allows, or Limits What Eventual Intelligence Will Become
28:34
Review
29:29
What is Emotional Intelligence, and How Can it Help or Hinder Someone Who Has High IQ?
29:30
Describe Some of the Different Aspects of Intelligence and Other Cognitive Skills?
29:39
Describe the Limitations on Intelligence That Appear in Mentally Challenged Individuals.
29:56
Describe Some of the Possible Reasons for Intellectual Disability.
30:02
XII. Abnormal Behavior
Abnormal Psychology, Part I

49m 59s

Intro
0:00
XII. Abnormal Behavior (7-9%)
0:18
Definitions of Abnormality
0:32
Theories of Psychopathology
0:34
Diagnosis of Psychopathology
0:36
Types of Disorders
0:43
In This Portion of the Course…
0:56
Defining Psychological Disorders
1:28
How Should We Define a Disorder?
1:31
How Can and Should We Understand Disorders?
1:50
How Should We Classify Psychological Disorders?
2:02
Duration of Symptoms
2:39
Intensity of Symptoms
2:49
**Warning** -- Psychology Student Syndrome
3:06
What is Normal?
6:29
Psychopathology
6:41
Subjective Discomfort
6:56
Statistical Abnormality
7:40
Social Nonconformity
9:12
Situational Context
9:39
Cultural Relativity
10:48
Definitions Can Vary By Context and Culture
13:44
Defining Psychological Disorders
13:53
Atypical Behavior
13:55
Violation of Cultural Norms
13:59
Maladaptive Behavior
14:02
Personal Distress
14:04
Maladaptive Behavior
14:06
Mental Disorders
15:11
Those With Mental Illness Lose Ability to Adequately Control Thoughts, Behaviors, or Feelings
15:21
Why Were People Behaving Strangely?
15:52
Fascinating History
15:55
Ancient Greeks
16:07
Under Influence of Magics or Sorcery
16:46
Possession
17:02
Influenced by God
17:08
Witchcraft
17:22
End of 17th Century, Seen as Physical Phenomenon
17:29
Pinel and the Medical Model
18:08
Philippe Pinel (1745-1826)
18:10
Created More Humane Psychological Approach for Care and Treatment of Psychiatric Patients
18:13
Advanced Categorizing of Mental Disorders
19:03
Father of Modern Psychiatry
19:20
Wrote of Dementia Praecox (Now Schizophrenia)
19:23
Medical Model Definition
19:38
Disorders: Biopsychosocial Approach
20:27
Interaction of Nature and Nurture
20:38
Influence of Culture on Disorders
20:43
Other Cultural Disorders/Maladies -- Amok, Koro, Locura...
21:21
Classifying Disorders
23:06
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) of the American Psychiatric Association
23:08
DSM V (June 2013)
23:26
International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10)
24:06
Criticisms of the DSM
24:27
The DSM Axes
28:43
Axis I
28:49
Axis II
28:59
Axis III, Axis IV, and Axis V
29:09
It Should be Noted That With the DSM-5, the Axis System has Been Eliminated
29:47
Axis I -- Clinical Syndrome
30:33
Disorders Usually First Diagnosed In Infancy, Childhood, and Adolescence
30:37
Delirium, Dementia, Amnesia, and Other Cognitive Disorders
30:56
Mental Disorders Due to General Medial Condition
31:06
Substance-Related Disorders
31:14
Schizophrenia and Other Psychotic Disorders
31:23
Mood Disorders
31:28
Anxiety Disorders
31:32
Somatoform Disorders
31:36
Factitious Disorders (Intentionally Faked)
31:39
Clinical Disorders, Continued
31:50
Dissociative Disorders
31:52
Eating Disorders
31:55
Sexual Disorders and Gender Identity Disorder
31:56
Sleep Disorders
32:00
Impulse-Control Disorders Not Classified Elsewhere
32:02
Adjustment Disorders
32:05
Other Conditions That May be a Focus of Clinical Attention
32:07
General Risk Factors for Mental Illness
33:05
Social Conditions
33:13
Family Factors
33:28
Psychological Factors
34:13
Biological Factors
34:35
Labeling Psychological Disorders
37:34
Rosenhan's Study
37:36
Power of Labels
40:24
Insanity Label
42:09
Stereotypes of the Mentally Ill
42:17
Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
44:07
Insanity
45:15
Definition of Insanity -- Legal Term
45:18
Levels of Disorders
48:09
DSM -- Category -- Disorders -- Symptoms
48:12
Review
49:13
How Should We Draw the Line Between Normality and Disorder?
49:14
What Perspectives Can Help Understand Psychological Disorders?
49:18
How and Why Do Clinicians Classify Psychological Disorders?
49:22
Why Do Some People Criticize the Use of Diagnostic Labels?
49:26
What is Insanity? Is it Psychological?
49:36
Abnormal Psychology, Part II

23m 26s

Intro
0:00
Levels of Disorders
0:10
DSM -- Category (Anxiety) -- Disorders -- Symptoms
0:12
Anxiety Disorders
0:31
Anxiety
0:37
Adjustment Disorders
0:44
Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)
1:20
Panic Disorder Without Agoraphobia
2:14
Panic Disorder With Agoraphobia
4:33
Agoraphobia (With Panic Disorder)
4:42
Agoraphobia (Without Panic Disorder)
6:36
Specific Phobias
6:52
Social Phobia
8:47
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
9:40
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder -- Obsessions
10:17
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder -- Compulsions
10:49
Stress Disorders
12:58
Acute Stress Disorders
13:32
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
14:02
Understanding Anxiety Disorders
17:11
The Learning/Behavioral Perspective -- Fear Conditioning/Observational Learning
17:14
The Biological Perspective -- Anxiety Genes
18:47
Anxiety Disorders, Continued
20:45
Famous Sufferers of Anxiety Disorders
20:46
Review
22:15
What Are Anxiety Disorders, and How Do They Differ From Ordinary Worries and Fears?
22:17
What Produces the Thoughts and Feelings that Mark Anxiety Disorders?
22:37
How Do Duration and Intensity of Symptoms Distinguish the Various Anxiety Disorders?
22:45
How is Panic Attack, the Symptom Different From Panic Disorder?
22:52
Abnormal Psychology, Part III

37m 10s

Intro
0:00
Levels of Disorders
0:09
DSM -- Category (Personality) -- Disorders -- Symptoms
0:11
Somatoform Disorders
0:39
Soma -- Comes from Greek Word Meaning Body
0:42
These are Disorders of the Body, With No Organic Cause for Symptoms
0:49
Origins of Disorders Appear to be Psychological
0:55
Hypochondriasis
1:22
Also Known as Hypochondria
1:25
Person is Preoccupied with Having Serious Illness or Disease
1:32
Somatization Disorder
3:08
Person Expresses Anxieties Through Numerous Physical Complaints
3:09
Pain Disorder
4:07
Pain That Has No Identifiable Organic Physical Cause
4:09
Conversion Disorder
4:57
Severe Emotional Conflicts Are Converted Into Physical Symptoms or Physical Disability
5:01
Dissociative Disorders
7:03
Dissociative Disorders Are Psychological Disorders in Which Conscious Awareness Becomes Separated From Previous Memories, Including One's Identity
7:08
Dissociative Amnesia
13:24
Dissociative Fugue
13:37
Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) -- Previously Multiple Personality Disorder
13:52
The Curious Case of Dissociative Disorders
17:07
Possible Causes
17:09
Understanding the Disorder
17:14
Personality Disorders
18:38
May Impair Lives of Those Who Suffer Them
18:53
Not Usually Considered Psychoses
19:03
Deep-Seated Maladaptive Patterns of Relating to Others
19:17
Personality Disorders Usually Fail to Produce High Levels of Guilt and Anxiety
19:37
Disturbed Person May Not Recognize He or She Has Disorder
19:50
Problem Behaviors Deeply Ingrained in Core Personality
19:58
Little Desire to Change Ways
20:29
Antisocial Personality Disorder
20:42
Person Who Lacks Conscience
20:49
Many Are Delinquents or Criminals (Not Usually Murderers Displayed on Television)
21:14
Create Good First Impression, Often Charming
21:35
Cheat Way Through Life
21:39
The Sociopath Next Door
22:04
Antisocial Personality Disorder
23:23
Possible Causes
23:27
Very Difficult to Effectively Treat -- Likely Manipulate Their Way Through Therapy
24:28
Types of Personality Disorders
24:54
Paranoid
25:03
Schizoid
25:15
Schizotypal
25:29
Antisocial
26:01
Borderline
26:08
Histrionic
29:48
Narcissistic
30:19
Avoidant
32:57
Dependent
33:16
Obsessive-Compulsive
34:17
Review
35:50
What Are Somatoform Disorders?
35:51
What Are Dissociative Disorders, and Why Are They Controversial?
36:01
What Characteristics are Typical of Personality Disorders?
36:07
What Stereotypes Do We Have About Antisocial Personality Disorder?
36:17
How Common are Dissociative Disorders?
36:28
Are Multiple Personalities and Schizophrenia the Same Thing?
36:30
Abnormal Psychology, Part IV

33m 45s

Intro
0:00
Understanding Mood Disorders
0:13
Many Behavioral and Cognitive Changes Accompany Depression
0:15
Depression is Widespread
0:32
Compared With Men, Women Are 2x Vulnerable to Major Depression
0:45
Most Major Depressive Episodes Self-Terminate
1:01
Stressful Events Related to Work, Marriage, and Close Relationships Often Precede Depression
1:08
With Each New Generation, Depression is Striking Earlier and Affecting More People
1:21
What Depression is NOT…
1:43
Mood (Affective) Disorders
2:37
Major Disturbances in Emotion
2:41
Depressive Disorders
2:59
Bipolar Disorders
3:14
Dysthymic Disorder
3:23
Cyclothymic Disorder
3:46
Major Mood Disorders
4:15
Lasting Extremes of Mood or Emotion and Sometimes With Psychotic Features
4:17
Major Depressive Disorder
5:09
Bipolar Disorders
6:15
Bipolar I Disorder
6:18
Bipolar II Disorder
7:01
Mood Disorders Spectrum
7:21
Mood Disorders Spectrum Graph Explanation
7:24
Maternity Blues
11:41
Mild Depression That Lasts One to Two Days After Childbirth
11:44
Postpartum Depression
12:04
Moderately Severe Depression that Begins Within Three Months Following Childbirth
12:05
Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD)
13:18
Depression Only Occurs During Fall and Winter
13:29
Suicide: Major Risk Factors
15:40
Drug or Alcohol Abuse
17:36
Prior Suicide Attempt
17:50
Depression or Other Mood Disorder
17:59
Availability of a Firearm
18:05
Severe Anxiety or Panic Attacks
18:55
Family History of Suicidal Behavior
19:01
Shame, Humiliation, Failure or Rejection
19:07
Characteristics of Suicidal Thoughts/Feelings
21:26
Escape
21:30
Unbearable Psychological Pain
21:35
Frustrated Psychological Needs
21:47
Constriction of Options
22:01
The Biological Perspective
22:17
Depression that Seems to be Produced From Inside the Body
22:18
Genetic Influences
22:34
The Depressed Brain
23:46
Biochemical Influences
23:49
Over and Under Activity in the Brain With Mania and Depressed States
24:42
The Socio-Cognitive Perspective
25:13
Negative Thoughts and Moods Interact
25:16
Cycle of Depression
26:51
Stressful Experience > Negative Explanatory Style > Depressed Mood > Cognitive and Behavioral Changes > Creates More Stressful Life Experiences
26:55
Famous Sufferers of Major Depression
28:13
Famous Sufferers of Bipolar Disorder
30:03
Review
31:48
What Are Mood Disorders, and What Forms Do They Take?
31:58
Distinguish Among Severe Depression and Dysthymia
32:06
What Causes Mood Disorder, and What Might Explain the Western World's Rising Incidence of Depression Among Youth and Young Adults?
32:16
Why is Depression Known as The Common Cold of Mental Illness?
33:12
Compare/Contrast the Approaches to Understanding Why Depression May Occur
33:16
Abnormal Psychology, Part V

28m 56s

Intro
0:00
Psychotic Disorders
0:08
Psychosis
0:14
Delusions
0:53
Hallucinations
1:11
More Common Psychotic Symptoms
3:11
Flat Affect
3:12
Disturbed Verbal Communication
3:34
Personality Disintegration
3:59
Other Psychotic Disorder
5:17
Organic Psychosis
5:18
Dementia
5:25
Alzheimer's Disease
5:55
Delusional Disorders
6:37
Marked By Presence of Deeply Held False Beliefs (Delusions)
6:41
Paranoid Psychosis
8:12
Schizophrenia: The Cancer of Mental Illness
9:19
Psychotic Disorder Characterized By Hallucinations, Delusions, Apathy, Thinking Abnormalities, and Split Between Thoughts and Emotions
9:28
Schizophrenia: Rule of Quarters
11:21
1/4 Severe Enough to Be Permanently Hospitalized
11:28
1/4 In and Out of Hospital With Treatment/Meds
11:44
1/4 Have Mild Enough Form of Disorder to Live As Close to a Normal Life as One Could
11:59
1/4 Who Receives Diagnosis Will Recover and Never Show Symptoms Again
12:09
Types of Schizophrenia
12:31
Paranoid
12:40
Undifferentiated
12:58
Catatonic
13:12
Disorganized
13:31
Residual (Asymptomatic)
13:47
Possible Factors in Schizophrenia
14:47
Psychological Trauma
14:49
Disturbed Family Environment
15:01
Deviant Communications Patterns
15:16
Biochemical Causes
15:30
Biochemical Abnormality
15:36
Dopamine
15:46
Dopamine Overactivity in Brain May Be Related to Schizophrenia
16:02
Glutamate
16:54
MRIs Show Brains of Schizophrenics Have Larger Ventricles
17:07
PET Scans -- Activity Level is Low in Frontal Lobes of Schizophrenics
17:51
Stress-Vulnerability Model
18:04
Combination of Environmental Stress and Inherited Susceptibility Cause Schizophrenic Disorders
18:07
Brain Abnormalities
20:41
Psychological Factors
21:42
Possible Warning Signs
21:44
Famous Sufferers of Psychotic Disorders
22:27
Rates of Disorders
23:41
Percentage of American Reporting Disorders
23:46
Generalized Anxiety -- 3.1%
23:52
Social Phobia -- 6.8%
24:11
Phobia of Specific Object -- 8.7%
24:18
Mood Disorder -- 9.5%
24:24
OCD -- 1%
24:37
Schizophrenia -- 1.1%
24:41
PTSD -- 3.5%
24:47
ADHD -- 4.1%
24:51
Any Mental Disorder -- 26.2%
24:57
Final Thoughts
25:37
Mental Illness and Stigma
25:39
Active Minds
26:48
Bring Change to Mind
26:57
Review
27:37
How Are Psychotic Disorders Distinguished From Most Other Disorders?
27:39
What Patterns of Thinking, Perceiving, Feeling, and Behaving Characterize Schizophrenia?
27:51
What Factors Are Theorized to be Possible Causes of Schizophrenia?
28:05
XIII. Treatment of Abnormal Behavior
Treatment of Abnormal Behavior, Part I

27m 13s

Intro
0:00
Treatment of Abnormal Behavior (5-7%)
0:16
Treatment Approaches
0:27
Modes of Therapy
1:12
Community and Preventive Approaches
1:17
This Section of the Course…
1:33
Challenge of Therapy
1:54
How Many Psychologists Does it Take to Change a Light Bulb?
1:56
What is Psychotherapy?
3:03
Any Psychological Technique Used to Facilitate Positive Changes in an Individual's Personality, Behavior, Adjustment
3:05
Who Offers Treatment?
3:36
Psychotherapy is…
3:40
Biomedical Therapy is…
4:05
Psychiatrists
4:19
Social Workers
4:24
Psychologists
4:33
The Team Approach
4:39
Eclectic Approach Therapy
5:06
Why Do People Seek Therapy?
5:41
Personal Growth
5:43
Couples Counseling
6:02
Crisis Intervention
6:16
Court Mandated
6:35
Obstacles To Seeking Help
7:32
The Client as Active Partner
7:36
Cultural Groups and Therapy
8:07
Cultural Training and Therapy
8:41
History of Treatment
9:31
Trepanning
9:34
Demonology -- Exorcism
10:49
Philippe Pinel
11:22
Dorothea Dix
11:39
Transorbital and Cranial Lobotomies
12:21
Dr. Walter Freeman and Dr. James W. Watts Image
13:09
Helping Behaviors
13:34
Behaviors that Help
13:37
Behaviors that Hinder
14:51
Characteristics of Good Therapists
16:02
Enthusiastic Learners
16:07
Draw on Their Experience With Similar Problems
16:20
Value Complexity and Ambiguity
16:36
Are Emotionally Open
16:44
Are Mentally Healthy and Mature
16:50
Nurture Their Own Well-Being
17:18
Realize That Their Own Emotional Health Affects Their Work
17:28
Have Strong Social Skills
17:36
Cultivate a Working Alliance
17:46
Expertly Use Social Skills in Therapy
18:01
Basic Counseling Skills
18:12
Active Listening
18:18
Clarify the Problem(s)
18:29
Focus on the Feelings
19:12
Avoid Giving Advice
19:28
Accept the Client's Frame of Reference
19:54
Reflect Thoughts and Feelings
20:15
Silence
20:18
Asking Open-Ended Questions
21:14
Maintain Confidentiality
21:20
Types of Psychotherapy
23:14
Individual
23:16
Group
24:11
Insight
25:10
Directive
25:30
Time-Limited
25:59
Review
26:26
How Have Therapies Changed from Pre-Scientific Times Until Now?
26:28
What are Personal Characteristics of Therapists that Contribute to Successful Therapy?
26:37
What Basic Counseling Skills are Needed to Become a Good Therapists?
26:42
Describe the Basic Kinds of Therapeutic Contexts.
26:48
Treatment of Abnormal Behavior, Part II

34m 38s

Intro
0:00
Types of Psychotherapy
0:14
Individual
0:16
Group
0:21
Insight
0:26
Directive
0:42
Time-Limited
0:47
The Psychological Therapies
1:01
Psychoanalysis and Behavioral Therapies This Segment
1:03
Psychoanalysis: Freud
1:14
Hysteria
1:15
Cause of Hysterias
1:57
Main Goal of Psychoanalysis
2:17
Talk Therapy Became Popularized in WWI
2:32
Techniques of Psychoanalysis
3:35
Free Association
3:38
Dream Analysis
4:42
Dreams Express Forbidden Desires and Unconscious Feelings
4:48
Manifest Content
4:56
Latent Content
5:14
Dream Symbols
6:05
More Freudian Concepts
6:39
Resistance
6:40
Transference
7:09
Modern Psychoanalysis
8:30
Brief Psychodynamic Therapy
8:31
Spontaneous Remission
9:21
Behavior Therapy
9:56
Use of Learning Principles to Make Constructive Changes in Behavior
10:00
Behavior Modification
10:36
Counterconditioning
12:10
Behavior Therapy Procedure
12:14
Aversive Conditioning -- Conditioned Aversion -- Aversion Therapy
12:39
Counterconditioning Techniques
15:08
Aversive Conditioning
15:11
Desensitization
15:23
Operant Conditioning
17:10
Desensitization Therapy
19:27
Mary Cover Jones
19:30
Mother of Behavior Therapy
19:49
Desensitization Therapy
19:58
Peter (3-Year-Old) and His Fear of Rabbits
20:35
Systematic Desensitization
20:47
Joseph Wolpe
20:48
Hierarchy
21:06
Reciprocal Inhibition
21:13
Vicarious Desensitization
21:24
Model
22:51
Virtual Reality Exposure
22:59
Sample Desensitization Hierarchy
23:26
Sample Desensitization Hierarchy Chart and Explanation
23:29
Operant Conditioning
25:21
Learning Based on Consequences of Making a Response
25:23
Positive Reinforcement
25:27
Nonreinforcement
25:37
Extinction
25:46
Punishment
25:54
More Operant Conditioning Techniques
26:10
Shaping
26:14
Stimulus Control
28:24
Time Out
29:05
Reinforcement and Token Economies
29:57
Token Economy
30:00
Tokens
30:34
Target Behaviors
32:17
Review
32:46
What are the Assumptions and Techniques of the Behavior Therapies?
32:48
What are the Goals and Techniques of the Psychodynamic Therapies?
33:14
Describe Counterconditioning.
33:59
Describe How Desensitization Therapy Works and How it Differs From Systematic Desensitization.
34:10
Treatment of Abnormal Behavior, Part III

31m 53s

Intro
0:00
Types of Psychotherapy
0:12
Individual
0:14
Group Insight
0:20
Insight
0:22
Directive
0:30
Time-Limited
0:37
Cognitive Therapies
0:55
Cognitive Therapies
0:56
Humanistic Therapy
2:15
Cognitive Therapy
2:24
Cognitive Behavior Therapy
2:26
Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT)
2:32
Insight Therapies
3:53
Focus more on:
3:57
Client-Centered Therapies
5:06
Humanistic Therapies
6:36
Client-Centered (Person-Centered) Therapy (Rogers)
6:40
Effective Therapist Must Have Four Basic Conditions
8:06
Four Basic Conditions: Unconditional Positive Regard
8:13
Four Basic Conditions: Empathy
8:43
Four Basic Conditions: Authenticity
9:49
Four Basic Conditions: Reflection
10:05
Existential Therapy
10:55
Existential Therapy Definition
10:58
Free Will
12:27
Logotherapy
13:01
Confrontation
15:44
Gestalt Therapy (Fritz Perls)
16:10
Focuses on Immediate Experience and Awareness to Help Clients
16:14
Cognitive Therapy
17:25
Aaron Beck -- Father of Cognitive Therapy
17:29
Cognitions
20:32
I've Lost My Job -> Depression
20:35
I've Lost My Job -> No Depression
20:52
The Beliefs, Cognitions, Thoughts We Have Contribute to Both Our Mental Health and Our Mental Illness
21:13
Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy
22:42
Formerly RET -- Albert Ellis Created This
22:43
Rational Emotive Therapy (RET)
22:56
Rough, Confrontational Style of Therapy
23:48
An Idea is Irrational If
24:33
It Distorts Reality
24:36
It Is Illogical
24:38
It Prevents You From Reaching Your Goals
24:45
It Leads to Unhealthy Emotions
24:56
It Leads to Self-Defeating Behavior
25:13
Irrational Ideas
27:02
Idea That it is Dire Necessity for Adult Human Being to be Loved or Approved By Virtually Every Significant Other Person in His Community
27:05
Idea That One Should Be Thoroughly Competent, Adequate, and Achieving in All Possible Respects If One is to Consider Oneself Worthwhile
27:17
Idea That Certain People are Bad, Wicked, or Villainous and That They Should Be Severely Blamed and Punished for Their Villainy
27:26
Idea That It is Awful and Catastrophic When Things Are Not The Way One Would Very Much Like Them to Be
27:36
Idea That Human Unhappiness is Externally Caused and People Have Little or No Ability to Control Their Sorrows and Disturbances
28:25
Idea That if Something is Or May Be Dangerous or Fearsome One Should Be Terribly Concerned About it and Should Keep Dwelling on the Possibility of Its Occurring
28:43
Idea That it is Easier to Avoid That to Face Certain Life Difficulties and Self-Responsibilities
29:58
Idea That One Should Become Quite Upset Over Other People's Problems and Disturbances
30:13
Review
30:59
What are the Primary Goals of Cognitive Therapies?
31:01
How Do Cognitive Therapists Change the Thoughts of Their Clients?
31:05
How Do Irrational Thoughts Change Our Lives For the Worse?
31:18
Describe The Various Community Mental Health Solutions.
31:30
How Does Ethnicity Fit Into the Therapy Scenario?
31:33
How Might People Find Some Relief From Depression?
31:36
What is the Rationale for Preventative Mental Health Programs?
31:40
Treatment of Abnormal Behavior, Part IV

35m 8s

Intro
0:00
Types of Psychotherapy
0:12
Individual
0:14
Group
0:17
Insight
0:21
Directive
0:24
Time-Limited
0:33
Psychodrama
0:41
Clients Act Out Personal Conflicts and Feelings With Others Who Play Supporting Roles
0:45
Role Playing
0:57
Role Reversal
2:03
Mirror Technique
2:52
Family Therapy
3:40
Family Therapy Definition
3:46
Group Awareness Training
6:48
Sensitivity Groups
6:51
Encounter Groups
7:25
Large-Group Awareness Training
7:49
Therapy Placebo Effect
8:33
Hospitalization
9:05
Mental Hospitalization
9:10
Partial Hospitalization
10:30
Deinstitutionalization
10:51
Half-Way Houses
11:55
Short-Term Group Living Facilities for Individuals Making the Transition From an Institution to Independent Living
11:57
Community Mental Health Centers
14:07
Offer Many Health Services
14:10
Paraprofessional
15:14
Self-Management
15:53
Covert Sensitization
15:57
Thought Stopping
16:35
Covert Reinforcement
16:50
Tension Release Method
17:02
Other Therapeutic Options
17:57
Peer Counselor
17:59
Self-Help Group
18:45
Ethnicity and Treatment
20:09
Collectivist Cultures Tend to Eschew Therapy
20:11
SES Tends to Reduce Therapeutic Opportunities
20:50
Helpful if Therapists is of Same Ethnicity as Patient
21:16
Therapists Underestimate Racial/Ethnic Issues and Often Do Not Bring Them Up
21:24
Early Termination Factors
23:14
Often Patients/Clients Leave Before Seeing Significant Progress
24:30
Approaches to Therapy Review
24:39
Approaches to Therapy Review Chart and Explanations
24:41
Life-Style Changes As Therapy
26:38
Integrated From Bio-Psych-Social Views
26:44
Steps to Improve One's Life
26:48
Prevention
28:10
Evaluating a Therapist
29:21
Therapist Makes Sexual Advances
29:30
Therapist Makes Repeated Verbal Threats or is Physically Aggressive
29:36
Therapist is Excessively Hostile, Controlling, Blaming, or Belittling
29:42
Therapist Talks Repeatedly About His/Her Own Problems
29:48
Therapist Encourages Prolonged Dependence On Him/Her
30:03
Therapist Demands Absolute Trust or Tells Client Not to Discuss Therapy With Anyone Else
30:20
Interpersonal Issues Between Client and Therapist -- Context I Give People About Therapeutic Relationships
30:32
Review
31:50
Describe the Various Community Mental Health Solutions.
31:51
How Does Ethnicity Fit Into the Therapy Scenario?
31:55
How Might People Find Some Relief From Depression?
32:01
What is the Rationale for Preventive Mental Health Programs?
33:13
Biomedical Treatment of Disorders

20m 22s

Intro
0:00
Biomedical Therapy
0:24
Drugs
0:26
Electroconvulsive Therapy
0:27
Magnetic Impulses
0:31
Psychosurgery
0:35
Psychiatrists
0:37
Drug Therapies
0:46
Psychopharmacology
0:48
Psychopharmacology/Pharmacotherapy
1:12
Three Major Classes -- Anxiolytics, Antidepressants, Antipsychotics
1:23
Factors to Consider With Drug Therapy
1:35
Anxiolytics
2:29
Produce Relaxation or Reduce Anxiety
2:31
CNS Depressants
2:34
Tranquilizers
2:43
Benzodiazepines
2:47
Examples
2:54
Antidepressant Medications for Anxiety
3:41
Many Medications Originally Approved for the Treatment of Depression Have Been Found to Relieve Symptoms of Anxiety
3:47
Antidepressants
4:30
Elevate Mood and Combat Depression
4:33
Stress, Depression, and Lack of Sleep Have Been Implicated in a Lack of Neurogenesis n the Hippocampus
4:37
Tricyclic Antidepressants (TCAs)
5:04
Among the First Antidepressants Used to Treat Depression
5:08
Primarily Affect Levels of Neurotransmitters, Norepinephrine and Serotonin
5:14
Although Drugs Are Effective in Treating Depression, They Have More Side Effects'
5:22
TCAs -- Examples
5:36
List of Tricyclic Antidepressants
5:41
Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs)
6:09
Most Effective in People With Depression Who Do Not Respond to Other Treatments
6:15
People Must Adhere to Strict Dietary Restrictions
6:26
Antidepressants Also Aren't Usually the First Drugs Used
6:47
MAOI Examples
6:56
List of MAOI Examples
7:01
Reuptake Inhibitors
7:16
Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs)
7:20
Prevent Reuptake of Chemical by Sending Neuron
7:26
Work by Altering the Amount Serotonin
8:25
SSRI Examples
8:58
List of Common SSRIs
9:01
Reuptake Inhibitors
9:46
Serotonin and Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors (SNRIs)
9:47
Newer Form of Antidepressant Medicine
10:05
Treat Depression by Increasing Availability of the Brain Chemicals Serotonin and Norepinephrine
10:08
SNRI Examples
10:39
List of SNRI Examples
10:41
Antipsychotics
10:58
AKA Neuroleptics
11:03
Tranquilize and Also Reduce Hallucinations and Delusions in Larger Dosages
11:06
Block Dopamine Pathways
11:12
Antipsychotic Examples
11:37
Haldol and Thorazine
11:38
There Are Many More Examples
11:49
Issues With Drug Therapies
11:58
Side Effects
11:59
Many For Each Medication
12:41
Close Regulation Required
13:14
Too Many Patients Do Not Follow the Regimen for Medications
13:54
Shock Therapy
14:21
Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)
14:24
Views on ECT
15:27
Psychosurgery
15:59
Any Surgical Alteration of Brain Designed to Bring Out Desired Behavioral or Emotional Changes
16:01
Prefrontal Lobotomy
16:09
Deep Lesioning
16:54
Deep Brain Stimulation
17:10
Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS)
17:25
Review
18:16
What are the Drug Therapies?
18:18
What Criticisms Have Been Leveled Against Drug Therapies?
18:22
How Effective is Electroconvulsive Therapy, and What Other Brain-Stimulation Options May Offer Relief From Severe Depression?
19:21
What is Psychosurgery? What are the Different Kinds?
19:49
XIV. Social Psychology
Social Psychology, Part I

52m 59s

Intro
0:00
Social Psychology (8-10%)
0:10
Group Dynamics
0:23
Attribution Processes
0:26
Interpersonal Perception
0:34
Conformity, Compliance, Obedience
0:40
Attitudes and Attitude Change
0:42
Organizational Behavior
0:48
Aggression/Antisocial Behavior
0:49
Cultural Influences
0:53
This Part of the Course Focuses on…
0:55
Overview
1:18
Social Psychology
1:19
Social Thinking
1:27
Social Influence
1:40
Social Relations
1:47
Deception
2:22
Avril Lavigne
3:29
Avril Lavigne: Complicated
3:44
Lyrics
3:48
Some Definitions in Social Psychology
6:02
Social Psychology
6:05
Culture
6:23
Social Role
7:08
Ascribed Role
8:24
Achieved Role
9:04
Role Conflict
9:45
Groups
11:17
Group Structure
11:19
Group Cohesiveness
12:17
Status
13:05
Norm
14:23
In-Group
14:53
Out-Group
15:00
Personal Space
15:27
Personal Space/Norms -- Edward T. Hall
15:33
Area Surrounding Body Defined as Private and Subject to Personal Control
15:49
Spatial Norms
16:07
Proxemics
16:14
Used for Communication of Intent, Territoriality, Attitude, Etc.
17:51
Intimate Distance
21:19
Most Private Space Immediately Surrounding Body; 18 Inches From Skin
21:24
Differs From Culture to Culture
21:50
Other Distance Zones
23:17
Personal Distance
23:19
Social Distance
23:27
Public Distance
23:36
Social Cognition
25:05
A Story About a Woman Who Crosses a River
25:30
Ranking the Responsibility
27:59
Outcomes That are Typical
28:58
Blaming
30:06
Just-World Hypothesis
30:39
Woman Who Crosses the River
34:30
Recognizing Oneself in the Woman's Situation or Seeing Her as Member of Outgroup
34:33
Defensive Attribution
34:41
Blaming the Victim
34:29
Just-World Hypothesis/Phenomenon
36:29
Attribution Theory
37:25
Attribution
37:29
Consistency
37:35
Distinctiveness
37:44
Attribution Square
38:03
Attribution Theory: How We Explain People's Behavior
38:09
Attribution Examples
41:44
Explanations of Sports Teams We Support and Their Success or Failure
41:47
Our Explanations of Why We Did Not Get Into College
42:33
Explanations of Why People of Our Own Gender or Ethnic Group Are Successful or Not
44:40
Parent's Explanations of Their Own Child's Trouble in Class Versus the Other Children's
44:57
Social Perception Terms
45:56
Actor: Person of Interest
45:59
Object
46:03
Setting
46:07
Situational Demands
46:14
Discounting
46:28
Consensus
46:43
Self-Handicapping
47:19
Arranging to Perform Under Conditions that Usually Impair Performance
47:24
Self-Sabotage
47:52
More Attribution Concepts
49:11
Fundamental Attribution Error
49:13
Actor-Observer Bias
50:20
Review
50:40
How Do We Tend to Explain Others' Behavior and Our Own?
50:42
How Predictable Are Our Explanations of People's Behavior?
51:05
Does What We Think Affect What We Do? Does What We Do Affect What We Think?
51:33
How is Our Behavior Affected By the Presence of Others or By Being Part of a Group?
51:55
How Does Distance Between People Impact Their Communication?
52:12
Social Psychology, Part II

43m 45s

Intro
0:00
Affiliation
0:11
Need to Affiliate
0:13
Social Comparison
0:38
Downward Comparison
1:45
Upward Comparison
2:00
Interpersonal Attraction
3:31
Social Attraction to Another Person
3:35
Physical Proximity
3:50
Physical Attractiveness
4:56
Similarity
5:43
Competence
6:36
Zimbardo Human Zoo Video Clip
6:43
Halo Effect
7:51
Homogamy
8:30
Self-Disclosure
10:12
Process of revealing Private Thoughts, Attitudes, Feelings and One's History to Others
10:14
Overdisclosure
10:39
Dinner Conversation Video Clip
10:50
Social Exchange Theory
11:26
Social Exchange Theory
11:31
Comparison Level
12:36
Relationship Needs to be Profitable Enough to Maintain It
12:45
Reciprocity: Return in Kind; Reciprocal Exchange
13:00
Love
14:16
Romantic Love
14:23
Liking
14:31
Mutual Absorption
14:47
Is Liking Someone Different Than Loving Someone?
15:21
M. Scott Peck
15:35
Assertiveness, Aggressiveness, and Passiveness
16:48
Assertiveness Training
17:08
Self-Assertion
17:13
Aggression
19:03
Broken Record Technique
19:33
Comparison of Three Approaches
20:31
Actor Vs. Receiver of Behavior
20:32
Non-Assertive Behavior
20:36
Aggressive Behavior
21:09
Assertive Behavior
21:33
Values, Norms, Roles and Sanctions
22:16
Diagram of Relationship
22:28
Roles and Role-Playing
28:03
Formal Roles
28:05
Informal Roles
28:39
Role-Playing and Attitudes
31:04
Halloween Season or Friends Who Are Actors
31:10
Phil Zimbardo, Craig Haney and Others -- Stanford Prison Study
32:02
1971 Stanford University
32:10
Random Assignment to Two Groups
32:16
6 Days Vs. Two Weeks
32:55
Escalation
33:03
Playing into the Expected Roles
34:31
Real Life -- Iraqi Prison Run By American Soldiers
35:50
Self-Fulfilling Prophecy and Roles
37:47
What Are Roles? -> Expectations
37:51
How Do Expectations Change Behavior For Both Better and Worse?
37:55
Review
42:00
Why Are We Attracted to Each Other?
42:01
Why Do We Befriend or Fall in Love With Some People but Not Others?
42:08
How Does Romantic Love Typically Change as Time Passes?
42:19
How Do Roles Impact Behavior?
42:48
What Was Zimbardo's Prison Experiment?
43:04
Social Psychology, Part III

36m 5s

Intro
0:00
Social Influence
0:11
Explains How Individuals Respond to Expectations of Others
0:13
Behavior is Contagious
0:21
Changes in Person's Behavior Induced By Other Person
1:10
Conformity
2:40
Solomon Asch's Experiment
2:54
You Must Select The Line That Most Closely Matches the Standard Line
3:01
Factors That Increase Conformity
5:39
One is Made to Feel Incompetent or Insecure
5:42
The Group Has At Least Three People
5:49
The Group is Unanimous
5:53
One Admires the Group's Status or Achievements
6:09
One Has Made No Prior Commitment to Any Response
6:54
One's Culture Strongly Encourages Respect for Social Standards
7:01
Group Factor in Conformity
7:26
Groupthink
7:29
Group Sanctions
10:06
More Reasons for Conformity
11:50
Normative Social Influence
11:52
Informational Social Influence
13:55
Power
15:11
Social Power
15:13
Reward Power
15:24
Coercive Power
15:36
Legitimate Power
15:56
Referent Power
16:19
Expert Power
16:53
Obedience (Stanley Milgram)
17:42
Conformity to Demands of Authority
17:52
Would You Shock a Man With a Known Heart Condition who is Screaming and Asking to be Released?
18:54
Milgram Experiment
19:29
Obedience Study Set Up
20:05
Milgram Results: Graphically
24:48
Milgram Results
25:49
Learner Screamed and Provided No Further Answers Once 3000 Volts Was Reached
25:51
65% Obeyed By Going All the Way to 450
25:57
Group Support Can Reduce Destructive Obedience
26:06
Variations Showed Obedience Highest When…
26:10
Real Life Situation - Louisville, KY, McDonald's Manager Obeyed Orders Over Phone
26:38
Implications of Milgram's Research
28:07
Everyday People Capable of Evil
28:10
Gradual Changes Allow People to Justify and Continue Increasingly Severe Behavior
28:31
Strong Social Situations Can Make People Conform to Untruths or Give In To Malice
28:46
Other Social Influence Ideas
29:25
Compliance
29:30
Foot-In-The-Door Effect
29:39
Door in the Face Technique
30:30
Low-Ball Technique
31:19
Passive Compliance
31:46
Social Facilitation
31:51
Even More Social Influence
32:18
Social Loafing
32:19
Deindividuation
32:44
Group Polarization
34:01
Review
34:35
What Do Experiments on Conformity and Compliance Reveal About the Power of Social influence?
34:37
How is Our Behavior Affected by the Presence of Others or by Being Part of a Group?
34:48
What Are Group Polarization and Groupthink?
34:56
How Do Cultural Norms Affect our Behavior?
35:11
How Much Power Do we Have as Individuals?
35:15
Can a Minority Sway a Majority?
35:18
Social Psychology, Part IV

53m 5s

Intro
0:00
Attitudes
0:10
Learned Tendency to Respond to People, Objects or Institutions
0:12
Belief Component
0:35
Emotional Component
0:56
Action Component
1:09
Is This Tripartite View Accurate?
1:18
Oversimplification Alert
2:13
Where Do We Get Our Attitudes?
2:50
We Learn Them Along With Classical and Operant Conditioning, Observational Learning
2:51
Mere Exposure Effect (Zajonc)
3:43
Cognitive Dissonance
5:55
Issue: Affirmative Action
6:09
For/Against -- Three Attitude Components
7:14
Where Do We Get Our Attitudes?
9:35
Direct Contact
9:37
Interaction with others
10:22
Child Rearing
11:04
Group Membership
11:52
Mass Media
14:31
Mean Worldview
15:33
Attitude Measurement and Change
16:10
Chance Conditioning
16:13
Social Distance Scale
16:31
Attitude Scale
19:25
Reference Group
19:57
Persuasion
20:51
Deliberate Attempt to Change Attitudes or Beliefs with Information and Arguments
21:10
Three Parts of Persuasion: Communicator -- Message -- Audience
21:22
Central Route to Persuasion
23:55
Peripheral Route to Persuasion
24:33
Cognitive Dissonance
26:59
Leon Festinger
27:09
Contradicting or Clashing Thoughts, Beliefs, Attitudes, or Perceptions Cause Discomfort
27:44
Justification
28:47
Original Research -- Boring Task, $2 or $20 to Like About How Enjoyable it Was
29:25
Dissonance Increases With…
32:04
To Reduce Dissonance…
32:38
Justification of Effort
35:11
Cognitive Dissonance
35:13
Justification of Effort
36:35
Related Examples of Cognitive Dissonance
41:51
Example 1
41:53
Example 2
42:06
Example 3 -- Confirmation Bias
42:49
Example 4
44:59
Brainwashing
45:44
Engineered or Force Attitude Change Requiring a Captive Audience
45:59
Generally Three Steps to Brainwash Someone -- Unfreezing, Change, Refreezing
46:09
Cults
47:50
Group That Professes Great Devotion to a Person or People and Follows That Person/People Almost Without Question
47:52
Ideal Cult Targets
49:08
Review
52:04
What Are Attitudes and How Do We Obtain Them?
52:05
Distinguish Between Central Route and Peripheral Route to Persuasion
52:13
What is Cognitive Dissonance?
52:25
What Factors Contribute to Cognitive Dissonance?
52:27
Describe an Example of Justification of Effort That You Have Experienced?
52:33
Social Psychology, Part V

50m 53s

Intro
0:00
Group Antagonism
0:23
Prejudice
0:33
Racism
0:47
Sexism
1:22
Ageism
1:31
More on Group Antagonism
1:55
Discrimination
1:57
Displaced Aggression
2:14
Personal Prejudice
2:48
Group Prejudice
3:50
Prejudiced Personality
4:23
Authoritarian Personality
4:26
Ethnocentrism
5:26
Dogmatism
7:39
Some Distinctions
8:52
Race as a Social Construct
8:55
Ethnicity
12:20
Nationality
14:36
Religion
15:15
Language
15:19
Social Roots of Prejudice
16:51
Social Inequalities
16:53
Ingroups and Outgroups
17:11
Ingroup
17:24
Outgroup
17:34
Ingroup Bias
19:22
Scapegoat Theory
20:13
Intergroup Conflict
22:16
Social Stereotypes
22:20
Symbolic Prejudice
23:18
Status Inequalities
26:34
Ways to Reduce Prejudice
30:13
Equal-Status Contact
30:15
Superordinate Goal
30:27
Mutual Interdependence
30:46
Jigsaw Classroom
31:07
Overcoming the Negative
32:57
Multiculturalism
32:59
Seek Individuating Information
33:43
Don't Believe Just-World Beliefs
34:09
Note Self-Fulfilling Prophecies
35:15
Different Does Not Mean Inferior
35:40
Understand Race is a Social Construction, Find Commonalities and Set a Positive Example
36:20
Social Learning Theory and Television
37:52
Social Learning Theory
37:56
Disinhibition
39:07
Television Seems to be Able to Cause Desensitization to Violence
39:39
Connection to Porn
40:33
Helping Behavior
42:42
Do we Help or Not?
42:44
Decision Points -- Noticing, Defining Emergency, Taking Responsibility, Diffusion of Responsibility, Course of Action
42:49
Bystander Apathy
45:39
Darley and Latane Study as Seen in Discovering Psychology Series
47:30
Review
49:01
What is Prejudice?
49:03
What are the Social and Emotional Roots of Prejudice?
49:10
What are the Cognitive Roots of Prejudice?
49:14
When are we Most and Least Likely to Help?
49:19
How do Social Traps and Mirror Image Perceptions Fuel Social Conflict?
49:22
How Can We Transform Feelings of Prejudice, Aggression, and Conflict into Attitudes That Promote Peace?
49:41
XV. AP Practice Exam
AP Practice Exam: Multiple Choice, Part I

49m 40s

Intro
0:00
Multiple Choice
0:21
Multiple Choice 1
6:43
Multiple Choice 2
7:32
Multiple Choice 3
8:31
Multiple Choice 4
9:25
Multiple Choice 5
10:08
Multiple Choice 6
10:37
Multiple Choice 7
11:00
Multiple Choice 8
12:40
Multiple Choice 9
13:24
Multiple Choice 10
14:42
Multiple Choice 11
16:05
Multiple Choice 12
17:05
Multiple Choice 13
17:48
Multiple Choice 14
18:59
Multiple Choice 15
20:33
Multiple Choice 16
21:57
Multiple Choice 17
22:35
Multiple Choice 18
24:26
Multiple Choice 19
25:12
Multiple Choice 20
26:03
Multiple Choice 21
26:36
Multiple Choice 22
27:38
Multiple Choice 25
28:13
Multiple Choice 26
28:47
Multiple Choice 27
29:31
Multiple Choice 28
29:54
Multiple Choice 29
30:31
Multiple Choice 30
31:07
Multiple Choice 31
32:24
Multiple Choice 32
34:45
Multiple Choice 33
35:13
Multiple Choice 34
36:11
Multiple Choice 35
37:18
Multiple Choice 36
38:20
Multiple Choice 37
39:06
Multiple Choice 38
39:48
Multiple Choice 39
41:00
Multiple Choice 40
41:19
Multiple Choice 41
42:03
Multiple Choice 42
43:01
Multiple Choice 43
43:31
Multiple Choice 44
44:18
Multiple Choice 45
44:55
Multiple Choice 46
45:28
Multiple Choice 47
46:04
Multiple Choice 48
46:49
Multiple Choice 49
47:40
Multiple Choice 50
48:22
AP Practice Exam: Multiple Choice, Part II

38m 2s

Intro
0:00
Multiple Choice
0:15
Multiple Choice 51
0:16
Multiple Choice 52
0:44
Multiple Choice 53
1:22
Multiple Choice 54
1:44
Multiple Choice 55
2:07
Multiple Choice 56
2:33
Multiple Choice 57
3:09
Multiple Choice 58
3:36
Multiple Choice 59
4:31
Multiple Choice 60
5:16
Multiple Choice 61
6:13
Multiple Choice 62
7:04
Multiple Choice 63
7:30
Multiple Choice 64
8:20
Multiple Choice 65
9:09
Multiple Choice 66
9:55
Multiple Choice 67
10:51
Multiple Choice 68
11:22
Multiple Choice 69
12:05
Multiple Choice 70
13:03
Multiple Choice 71
13:22
Multiple Choice 72
14:10
Multiple Choice 73
14:47
Multiple Choice 74
15:51
Multiple Choice 75
16:45
Multiple Choice 76
17:32
Multiple Choice 77
17:59
Multiple Choice 78
18:29
Multiple Choice 79
18:57
Multiple Choice 80
20:01
Multiple Choice 81
20:47
Multiple Choice 82
21:21
Multiple Choice 83
22:03
Multiple Choice 84
22:38
Multiple Choice 85
23:05
Multiple Choice 86
23:55
Multiple Choice 87
24:49
Multiple Choice 88
25:26
Multiple Choice 89
26:18
Multiple Choice 90
27:47
Multiple Choice 91
28:21
Multiple Choice 92
28:40
Multiple Choice 93
29:17
Multiple Choice 94
29:40
Multiple Choice 95
30:22
Multiple Choice 96
31:10
Multiple Choice 97
32:36
Multiple Choice 98
33:08
Multiple Choice 99
34:02
Multiple Choice 100
34:11
AP Practice Exam: Free Response

40m 6s

Intro
0:00
Free Response
0:13
Free Response Question 1
5:58
Free Response Question 2
18:33
Free Response Question 3
28:42
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Personality, Part III

  • Sigmund Freud created the controversial and influential view of personality called the Psychodynamic Theory of Personality’
  • We are born with life and death instincts that work at the conscious and unconscious levels of mind that influence everything we think and do
  • The Id, Ego and Superego are the three parts of the structure of the mind
  • Freud posited that people go through five stages of development that he called Psychosexual, where the life energy moves through different parts of the body-these stages are oral, anal, phallic, latent, and genital

Personality, Part III

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  1. Intro
    • The Psychodynamic Perspective
    • Key Freudian Terms
    • All is Vanity
      • Freud's Theory of Mind
      • The Id, Ego, and Superego
      • The Id
      • The Superego
      • The Ego
      • The Mind as an Iceberg Metaphor
        • Dynamics of Personality and Anxieties
        • Levels of Awareness
        • Psychosexual Personality Development
        • Oral Stage
        • Anal Stage
        • Phallic Stage
        • Conclusions About Stages 1-3
        • Latency and Genital Stages
        • Review
        • Intro 0:00
        • The Psychodynamic Perspective 0:09
          • Sigmund Freud, Viennese Physician Thought Patients Problems Were More Emotional than Physical
          • Austria, Late 1800s, Sexually Repressed Era
          • Freud Began Work by Using Hypnosis
          • Medical Doctor, Treated Hysterics
          • Most Psychology Was Reaction to His Work
          • Freud had Many Followers
          • Freud Used Cocaine and Tobacco, Died From Oral Cancer
          • Work Still Influential and Controversial
        • Key Freudian Terms 4:14
          • Psyche
          • Libido
          • Eros
          • Thanatos
        • All is Vanity 5:04
        • Freud's Theory of Mind 6:01
          • Conscious Mind
          • Proconsciou Mind
          • Unconscious Mind
        • The Id, Ego, and Superego 7:47
          • Id
          • Ego
          • Superego
        • The Id 8:23
          • Innate Biological Instincts and Urges
          • Works Via Pleasure Principle
          • Immediate Gratification
        • The Superego 10:09
          • Judge or Censor for Thoughts and Actions of Ego
          • Two Parts: Conscious and Ego Ideal (Parental Self or Societal Self)
        • The Ego 11:34
          • Executive; Directs Id Energies
          • Partially Conscious and Partially Unconscious
          • Works Via Reality Principle
          • Best Balance is to Have the Ego Be More Dominant Than Other Two
        • The Mind as an Iceberg Metaphor 15:50
        • Dynamics of Personality and Anxieties 17:01
          • Ego is Always Caught in the Middle of Battles Between Superego's Desires for Moral Behavior and Id's Desires for Immediate Gratification
          • Neurotic Activity
          • Moral Anxiety
        • Levels of Awareness 19:49
          • Unconscious
          • Conscious
          • Preconscious
        • Psychosexual Personality Development 21:19
          • Develops in Stages
          • Majority of Personality Formed Before Age 6
          • Erogenous Zone
          • Fixation
        • Oral Stage 23:08
          • Ages 0-1
          • Oral Dependent Personality and Orally Fixated Personality
        • Anal Stage 25:41
          • Ages 1-3
          • Anal Retentive
          • Anal Expulsive
        • Phallic Stage 28:05
          • Ages 3-6
          • Can Lead to Oedipus Conflict (With Boys)
          • Electra Conflict (With Girls)
          • Resolution: Identification With Same-Sex Parent
        • Conclusions About Stages 1-3 32:13
          • Both Oedipus and Electra Conflicts are Widely Rejected Today by Most Psychologists
        • Latency and Genital Stages 32:33
          • Latency
          • Genital Stage
        • Review 35:26
          • What Was Freud's View of Personality and Its Development?
          • Describe the Major Issues at Each Stage of Psychosexual Development
          • What Are Fixations and How do They Develop?
          • Which of Freud's Ideas Did His Followers Accept or Reject?
          • How do Contemporary Psychologists View Freud and the Unconscious?
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