a page
from Jakob Kobel's Rechenbiechlein of 1514.
a characteristic
page from Pietro Borghi's 1488 edition of Chi de arte matematiche
ha piacere published in Venice.
03 Filippo Calendri, De Arithmetica , published in Florence
in 1491/2
09 Apianus, Eyn Newe umnd wolgegrundte underweysung aller Kauffmanss
Rechnung in dreyen buchen ....Georgius
Apianus, Ingolstadt, 1527; the publication puts particular emphasis on
the explanation of mathematical propositions with diagrams and associated
imagery  here an early, perhaps the first, visual explanation of a Pascal
triangle.
Smith/Plimpton, "Two curious forms of multiplication", from
G. and G.Taglienti, Libro dabaco che insegna a fare ogni ragione
mercadantile..., Milan 1541. The panels were reproduced side
by side. To help in loading I have stacked them vertically.
Claude de Boissiere , L'Art de Arythmetique contenant toute Dimention,
tres singulier et commode, tant pour l'art militaire que autres calculations,
Annet Briere, Paris 1554.Systems of counting and calculation with clusters
of cubes.
a page from Johannes Thomas Freigius' general book on education with an
influential section on mathematics, Basel 1582,
the standard teachings of mathematical calculation with additions by a
student, c1580.
02 from Edward Hatton, The Merchant's Magazine , London
1695, and one of nine specimens of the author's calligraphic representation
of mercantile truths and techniques.
