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Lecture Comments (2)

1 answer

Last reply by: Professor Charles Schallhorn
Mon Nov 10, 2014 1:54 PM

Post by Angela Patrick on October 20, 2013

Which type of learning (classical conditioning, operant conditioning, or observational) is best for humans?

In other words which do we react to more quickly and is more impactful?

Operant Conditioning, Part I

  • Thorndike’s Law of Effect was when responses that produce a satisfying effect in a particular situation become more likely to occur again in that situation, and responses that produce a discomforting effect become less likely to occur again in that situation
  • Operant conditioning predict the effects of operant conditioning (e.g., positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, punishment, schedules of reinforcement)
  • B.F. Skinner was the father of modern behaviorism, where an organism operates within its environment exhibiting behaviors that are inborn or learned
  • All other behaviors have consequences, neutral, reinforcing, or punishing—organisms repeat or reduce behaviors depending upon the consequences
  • Reinforcement and punishment can be both positive or negative, involving the addition or subtraction of pleasant or aversive consequences
  • The closer in time the consequence occurs, the more effective it is likely to be

Operant Conditioning, Part I

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  1. Intro
    • Operant Conditioning
    • Thorndike and the Law of Effect
    • Thorndike's Puzzle Box
    • Cats, Puzzle Box, and Law of Effect
    • B.F. Skinner
    • Operant Conditioning
    • Skinner's Experiments
    • Terms and Ideas
    • Kinds of Reinforcement & Punishment
    • Positive Reinforcement
    • Negative Reinforcement
    • Punishment
    • Punishment
    • All Consequences
    • Review
    • Intro 0:00
    • Operant Conditioning 0:11
      • Predict the Effects of Operant Conditioning (e.g. Positive Reinforcement, Negative Reinforcement, Punishment, Schedules of Reinforcement).
      • Predict How Practice, Schedules of Reinforcement, And Motivation Will Influence Quality of Learning.
    • Thorndike and the Law of Effect 1:07
      • Responses That Produce a Satisfying Effect in a Particular Situation Become More Likely to Occur Again in That Situation, and Responses That Produce a Discomforting Effect Become Less Likely to Occur Again In That Situation
      • In Other Words, When Better Things Happen After We Do Something, We Are More Likely to Do It Again
      • Connectionism -- Organisms Connect Behaviors to What Occurs After -- Early Form of Behaviorism
      • Thorndike is Father of Modern Educational Psychology
    • Thorndike's Puzzle Box 2:35
      • Picture of Puzzle Box and Graph Illustrating The More Trials a Subject Went Through, The Less Time it Took to Solve Puzzle.
    • Cats, Puzzle Box, and Law of Effect 3:27
      • First Trial in Puzzle Box -- More Likely to Scratch at Bars, Yeowl, Dig at Door, etc. Before Pushing Release Lever
      • After Many Trials in Box, Cat is More Likely to Push Release Lever First to Escape Box.
    • B.F. Skinner 4:17
      • Founder of Modern Behavioral Perspective
      • Operant Conditioning -- An Organism Operates in Its Environment, Exhibiting Behaviors That are Inborn or Learned
      • Environmental Determinism
      • Invented the Operant Conditioning Box -- Sometimes Called a Skinner Box -- He Hated That Term
      • Trained Rats, Birds, and People
      • So Much Research in This Area -- One of the Most Scientifically Validated Theories/Approaches
    • Operant Conditioning 6:09
      • A Type of Learning in Which Behavior is Strengthened if Followed by a Reinforcer or Diminished if Followed by a Punisher
      • What We Are Trying to do is Learn How We Can Modify an Organism's Behavior Using the Most Effective Means Possible. We Use Reinforcement and Punishment. Each Organism Interprets This Differently.
      • Key Distinction in Terms -- in OC, The Organism EMITS Behavior. In CC, The Behavior is ELICITED (Drawn Out of the Organism)
    • Skinner's Experiments 7:28
      • Operant Conditioning Chamber (aka Skinner Box)
      • Diagram of Box and Its Parts, and Rat Inside Box
    • Terms and Ideas 11:05
      • These Are Labels That Are Put on After Behavior Is Seen
    • Kinds of Reinforcement & Punishment 12:53
      • Positive and Negative Reinforcement/ Positive and Negative Punishment
    • Positive Reinforcement 15:46
      • Positive Reinforcement -- Adding a Pleasant Stimulus to Increase a Behavior
      • e.g. Getting a Hug
      • e.g. Receiving a Paycheck
      • e.g. Getting a Great Job! From Coach or Teacher
      • There was this Goose -- Tale of Reinforcement
    • Negative Reinforcement 20:05
      • Negative Reinforcement -- Removing an Unpleasant/Aversive Stimulus to Increase a Behavior
      • e.g. The Buzzing Stops When You Fasten Seat Belt
      • e.g. You Put on Sunscreen Before Getting in the Sun at the Beach
    • Punishment 21:38
      • Positive Punishment -- Adding an Unpleasant/Aversive Stimulus to Reduce a Behavior
    • Punishment 23:26
      • Negative Punishment -- Removing a Pleasant Stimulus to Reduce a Behavior
    • All Consequences 25:11
      • Most Effective When Immediately Follows a Response AND is Applied Consistently
    • Review 28:19
      • What is Operant Conditioning and How Does It Differ From Classical Conditioning?
      • Describe the Law of Effect
      • Describe the Difference Between Reinforcement and Punishment
      • How is Positive Punishment Related to Negative Reinforcement?
      • Examine Your Own Life and Find an Example of Operant Conditioning in Which You Were Conditioned and Another Example in Which You Conditioned Someone Else