Home » Physics » AP Physics B
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86:03

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• 35 Lessons (86hr : 03min)
• Audio: English

Dr. Radi Jishi’s AP Physics B course will help you do well in your AP course and prepare you to ace the exam. While this series is tailored to the AP test with plenty of free response type questions at the end of each lecture, college students studying physics will also benefit from the courses’ detailed explanations. Dr. Jishi also makes sure students fully understand the mathematics involved with a review of trigonometry and vectors. Topics include everything from Newton’s Laws and Conservation of Energy to Thermodynamics, Waves, and Optics. Dr. Jishi earned his Ph.D from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, published over 60+ papers in peer-reviewed journals, and has been teaching for over 20 years.

## Section 1: Mechanics

Introduction to Physics (Basic Math) 1:17:37
Intro 0:00
What is Physics? 1:35
Physicists and Philosophers 1:57
Differences Between 2:48
Experimental Observations 3:20
Laws (Mathematical) 3:48
Modification of Laws/Experiments 4:24
Example: Newton's Laws of Mechanics 5:38
Example: Einstein's Relativity 6:18
Units 8:50
Various Units 9:37
SI Units 10:02
Length (meter) 10:18
Mass (kilogram) 10:35
Time (second) 10:51
MKS Units (meter kilogram second) 11:04
Definition of Second 11:55
Definition of Meter 14:06
Definition of Kilogram 15:21
Multiplying/Dividing Units 19:10
Trigonometry Overview 21:24
Sine and Cosine 21:31
Pythagorean Theorem 23:44
Tangent 24:15
Sine and Cosine of Angles 24:35
Similar Triangles 25:54
Right Triangle (Opposite, Adjacent, Hypotenuse) 28:16
Other Angles (30-60-90) 29:16
Law of Cosines 31:38
Proof of Law of Cosines 33:03
Law of Sines 37:03
Proof of Law of Sines 38:03
Scalars and Vectors 41:00
Scalar: Magnitude 41:22
Vector: Magnitude and Direction 41:52
Examples 42:31
Extra Example 1: Unit Conversion 2:47
Extra Example 2: Law of Cosines 12:52
Extra Example 3: Dimensional Analysis 11:43
Intro 0:00
Graphical Method 0:10
Magnitude and Direction of Two Vectors 0:40
Analytical Method or Algebraic Method 8:45
Parallelogram Rule 11:42
Law of Cosines 14:22
Law of Sines 18:32
Components of a Vector 21:35
Example: Vector Components 23:30
Introducing Third Dimension 31:14
Right Handed System 33:06
Specifying a Vector 34:44
Example: Calculate the Components of Vector 36:33
Vector Addition by Means of Components 41:23
Equality of Vectors 47:11
Dot Product 48:39
Extra Example 1: Vector Addition 9:57
Extra Example 2: Angle Between Vectors 4:10
Extra Example 3: Vector Addition 4:51
Motion in One Dimension 1:19:35
Intro 0:00
Position, Distance, and Displacement 0:12
Position of the Object 0:30
Distance Traveled by The Object 5:34
Displacement of The Object 9:05
Average Speed Over a Certain Time Interval 14:46
Example Of an Object 15:15
Example: Calculating Average Speed 20:19
Average Velocity Over a Time Interval 22:22
Example Calculating Average Velocity of an Object 22:45
Instantaneous Velocity 30:45
Average Acceleration Over a Time Interval 40:50
Example: Average Acceleration of an Object 42:01
Instantaneous Acceleration 47:17
Example: Acceleration of Time 'T' 47:33
Example with Realistic Equation 49:52
Motion With Constant Acceleration: Kinematics Equation 53:39
Example: Motion of an Object with Constant Acceleration 53:55
Extra Example 1: Uniformly Accelerated Motion 6:14
Extra Example 2: Catching up with a Car 8:33
Extra Example 3: Velocity and Acceleration 6:41
Kinematics Equation Of Calculus 59:00
Intro 0:00
The Derivative 0:12
Idea of a Derivative 0:27
Derivative of a function X= df/dx 6:55
Example: F(x)=Constant 'c' 7:22
Example: F(x)= X 9:37
Example: F(x)= AX 11:29
Example: F(x)= X squared 12:30
Example: F(x)= X cubed 15:23
Example: F(x) =SinX 16:24
Example: F(x) =CosX 16:30
Product of Functions 16:56
Example: F(x) = X (squared) Sin X 17:15
Quotient Rule 23:03
Example: F(x)=uV-vU/V2 23:48
Kinematics of Equation 25:10
First Kinematic Equation : V=Vo+aT 31:13
Extra Example 1: Particle on X-Axis 8:49
Extra Example 2: Graphical Analysis 10:16
Freely Falling Objects 1:28:59
Intro 0:00
Acceleration Due to Gravity 0:11
Dropping an Object at Certain Height 0:25
Signs : V , A , D 7:07
Example: Shooting an Object Upwards 7:34
Example: Ground To Ground 12:13
Velocity at Maximum Height 14:30
Time From Ground to Ground 23:10
Shortcut: Calculate Time Spent in Air 24:07
Example: Object Short Downwards 30:19
Object Short Downwards From a Height H 30:30
Example: Bouncing Ball 41:00
Ball Released From Certain Height 41:22
Time Until Stationary 43:10
Coefficient of Restitution 46:40
Example: Bouncing Ball. Continued 53:02
Extra Example 1: Object Shot Off Cliff 13:30
Extra Example 2: Object Released Off Roof 7:13
Extra Example 3: Rubber Ball (Coefficient of Restitution) 13:50
Motion in Two Dimensions, Part 1 1:08:38
Intro 0:00
Position, Displacement, Velocity, Acceleration 0:10
Position of an Object in X-Y Plane 0:19
Displacement of an Object 2:48
Average Velocity 4:30
Instantaneous Velocity at Time T 5:22
Acceleration of Object 8:49
Projectile Motion 9:57
Object Shooting at Angle 10:15
Object Falling Vertically 14:48
Velocity of an Object 18:17
Displacement of an Object 19:20
Initial Velocity Remains Constant 21:24
Deriving Equation of a Parabola 25:23
Example: Shooting a Soccer Ball 25:25
Time Ball Spent in Air (Ignoring Air Resistance) 27:48
Range of Projectile 34:49
Maximum Height Reached by the Projectile 36:25
Example: Shooting an Object Horizontally 40:38
Time Taken for Shooting 42:34
Range 46:01
Velocity Hitting Ground 46:30
Extra Example 1: Projectile Shot with an Angle 12:37
Extra Example 2: What Angle 6:55
Motion in Two Dimensions, Part 2: Circular Dimension 1:01:54
Intro 0:00
Uniform Circular Motion 0:15
Object Moving in a Circle at Constant Speed 0:26
Calculation Acceleration 3:30
Change in Velocity 3:45
Magnitude of Acceleration 14:21
Centripetal Acceleration 18:15
Example: Earth Rotating Around The Sun 18:42
Center of the Earth 20:45
Distance Traveled in Making One Revolution 21:34
Acceleration of the Revolution 23:37
Tangential Acceleration and Radial Acceleration 25:35
If Magnitude and Direction Change During Travel 26:22
Tangential Acceleration 27:45
Example: Car on a Curved Road 29:50
Finding Total Acceleration at Time T if Car is at Rest 31:13
Extra Example 1: Centripetal Acceleration on Earth 8:11
Extra Example 2: Pendulum Acceleration 7:12
Extra Example 3: Radius of Curvature 9:08
Newton's Laws of Motion 1:29:51
Intro 0:00
Force 0:21
Contact Force (Push or Pull) 1:02
Field Forces 1:49
Gravity 2:06
Electromagnetic Force 2:43
Strong Force 4:12
Weak Force 5:17
Contact Force as Electromagnetic Force 6:08
Focus on Contact Force and Gravitational Force 6:50
Newton's First Law 7:37
Statement of First Law of Motion 7:50
Uniform Motion (Velocity is Constant) 9:38
Inertia 10:39
Newton's Second Law 11:19
Force as a Vector 11:35
Statement of Second Law of Motion 12:02
Force (Formula) 12:22
Example: 1 Force 13:04
Newton (Unit of Force) 13:31
Example: 2 Forces 14:09
Newton's Third Law 19:38
Action and Reaction Law 19:46
Statement of Third Law of Motion 19:58
Example: 2 Objects 20:15
Example: Objects in Contact 21:54
Example: Person on Earth 22:54
Gravitational Force and the Weight of an Object 24:01
Force of Attraction Formula 24:42
Point Mass and Spherical Objects 26:56
Example: Gravity on Earth 28:37
Example: 1 kg on Earth 35:31
Friction 37:09
Normal Force 37:14
Example: Small Force 40:01
Force of Static Friction 43:09
Maximum Force of Static Friction 46:03
Values of Coefficient of Static Friction 47:37
Coefficient of Kinetic Friction 47:53
Force of Kinetic Friction 48:27
Example: Horizontal Force 49:36
Example: Angled Force 52:36
Extra Example 1: Wire Tension 10:37
Extra Example 2: Car Friction 11:43
Extra Example 3: Big Block and Small Block 9:17
Applications of Newton's Laws, Part 1: Inclines 1:24:35
Intro 0:00
Acceleration on a Frictionless Incline 0:35
Force Action on the Object(mg) 1:31
Net Force Acting on the Object 2:20
Acceleration Perpendicular to Incline 8:45
Incline is Horizontal Surface 11:30
Example: Object on an Inclined Surface 13:40
Rough Inclines and Static Friction 20:23
Box Sitting on a Rough Incline 20:49
Maximum Values of Static Friction 25:20
Coefficient of Static Friction 27:53
Acceleration on a Rough Incline 29:00
Kinetic Friction on Rough Incline 29:15
Object Moving up the Incline 33:20
Net force on the Object 36:36
Example: Time to Reach the Bottom of an Incline 41:50
Displacement is 5m Down the Incline 45:26
Velocity of the Object Down the Incline 47:49
Extra Example 1: Bottom of Incline 12:23
Extra Example 2: Incline with Initial Velocity 15:31
Extra Example 3: Moving Down an Incline 8:09
Applications of Newton's Laws, Part 2: Strings and Pulleys 1:10:03
Intro 0:00
Atwood's Machine 0:19
Object Attached to a String 0:39
Tension on a String 2:15
Two Objects Attached to a String 2:23
Pulley Fixed to the Ceiling, With Mass M1 , M2 4:53
Applying Newton's 2nd Law to Calculate Acceleration on M1, M2 9:21
One Object on a Horizontal Surface: Frictionless Case 17:36
Connecting Two Unknowns, Tension and Acceleration 20:27
One Object on a Horizontal Surface: Friction Case 23:57
Two Objects Attached to a String with a Pulley 24:14
Applying Newton's 2nd Law 26:04
Tension of an Object Pulls to the Right 27:31
One of the Object is Incline : Frictionless Case 32:59
Sum of Two Forces on Mass M2 34:39
If M1g is Larger Than M2g 36:29
One of the Object is Incline : Friction Case 40:29
Coefficient of Kinetic Friction 41:18
Net Force Acting on M2 45:12
Extra Example 1: Two Masses on Two Strings 5:28
Extra Example 2: Three Objects on Rough Surface 7:11
Extra Example 3: Acceleration of a Block 8:52
Accelerating Frames 1:13:28
Intro 0:00
What Does a Scale Measure 0:11
Example: Elevator on a Scale 0:22
Normal Force 4:57
Apparent Weight in an Elevator 7:42
Example: Elevator Starts Moving Upwards 9:05
Net Force (Newton's Second Law) 11:34
Apparent Weight 14:36
Pendulum in an Accelerating Train 15:58
Example: Object Hanging on the Ceiling of a Train 16:15
Angle In terms of Increased Acceleration 22:04
Mass and Spring in an Accelerating Truck 23:40
Example: Spring on a Stationary Truck 23:55
Surface of Truck is Frictionless 27:38
Spring is Stretched by distance 'X' 28:40
Cup of Coffee 29:55
Example: Moving Train and Stationary Objects inside Train 30:05
Train Moving With Acceleration 'A' 32:45
Force of Static Friction Acting on Cup 36:30
Extra Example 1: Train Slows with Pendulum 11:54
Extra Example 2: Person in Elevator Releases Object 13:06
Extra Example 3: Hanging Object in Elevator 10:26
Circular Motion, Part 1 1:01:15
Intro 0:00
Object Attached to a String Moving in a Horizontal Circle 0:09
Net Force on Object (Newton's Second Law) 1:51
Force on an Object 3:03
Tension of a String 4:40
Conical Pendulum 5:40
Example: Object Attached to a String in a Horizontal Circle 5:50
Weight of an Object Vertically Down 8:05
Velocity And Acceleration in Vertical Direction 11:20
Net Force on an Object 13:02
Car on a Horizontal Road 16:09
Net Force on Car (Net Vertical Force) 18:03
Maximum Speed of Car Without Skidding 26:05
Road Inclined at an Angle 'ø' 28:32
Force on Car 29:50
Extra Example 1: Object Attached to Rod with Two Strings 11:27
Extra Example 2: Car on Banked Road 9:29
Extra Example 3: Person Held Up in Spinning Cylinder 3:05
Circular Motion, Part 2 50:29
Intro 0:00
Normal Force by a Pilot Seat 0:14
Example : Pilot Rotating in a Circle 'r' and Speed 's' 0:33
Pilot at Vertical Position in a Circle of Radius 'R' 4:18
Net Force on Pilot Towards Center (At Bottom) 5:53
Net Force on Pilot Towards Center (At Top) 7:55
Object Attached to a String in Vertical Motion 10:46
Example: Object in a Circle Attached to String 10:59
Case 1: Object with speed 'v' and Object is at Bottom 11:30
Case 2: Object at Top in Vertical Motion 15:24
Object at Angle 'ø' (General Position) 17:48
2 Radial Forces (Inward & Outward) 20:32
Tension of String 23:44
Extra Example 1: Pail of Water in Vertical Circle 5:16
Extra Example 2: Roller Coaster Vertical Circle 3:57
Extra Example 3: Bead in Frictionless Loop 16:56
Work 1:27:50
Work Done by a Constant Force 0:09
Example: Force 'f' on Object Moved a Displacement 'd' in Same Direction 0:24
Force Applied on Object at Angle 'ø' and Displacement 'd' 2:00
Work Done 3:59
Force Perpendicular to Displacement (No Work) 5:40
Example: Lifting an Object from the Surface of Earth to Height 'h' 5:58
Total Work Done 7:39
Example: Object on an Inclined Surface 8:08
Example: Object on Truck 10:18
Work Done on a Box with No Friction 11:05
Work Done with Static Friction 14:38
Stretching or Compressing a Spring 14:50
Example: Stretching a Spring 15:20
Work Done in Stretching a Spring 15:51
Spring Stretched Amount 'A' 17:00
Spring Stretched Amount 'B' With Constant Velocity 17:59
Force at Starting 19:29
Force at End 19:51
Total Displacement 20:43
Average Force 21:20
Work Done 21:51
Compressing a Spring 23:32
Work Kinetic Energy Theorem 24:02
Object Mass 'M' on Frictionless Surface 24:32
Object Moved a Displacement 'd' With Acceleration 'a' 26:20
Work Done on an Object by Net Force (Kinetic Energy Theorem) 28:41
Example: Object at Height 30:39
Force on Object 32:25
Work Energy Theorem 34:14
Block Pulled on a Rough Horizontal Surface 35:14
Object on a Surface with Friction 35:26
Coefficient of Kinetic Friction 35:50
Work Done by Net Force = Change in K.E 38:09
Applying a Force on an Object at an Angle 'ø' and Displacement 'd' 39:40
Net Force 43:30
Work Done 44:03
Potential Energy of a System 44:39
Potential Energy of Two or More Objects 45:28
Example: Object of Mass 'm' at Height 'h' 46:15
Earth and Object in Position 46:56
Potential Energy, u=mgh 49:05
Absolute Value of Potential Energy 49:55
Example: Two Objects at Different Heights 50:47
Elastic Potential Energy in a Spring Block System 52:03
Example: Spring of Mass 'm' Stretching 52:30
Work Done Stretching a Spring 54:29
Power 55:24
Work Done by an Object 56:13
Rate of Doing Work 56:41
Extra Example 1: Work Done, Block on Horizontal Surface 12:41
Extra Example 2: Object and Compressed Spring 12:33
Extra Example 3: Person Running 4:47
Conservation of Energy, Part 1 1:24:49
Intro 0:00
Total Energy of an Isolated System 0:13
Example: Object in an Empty Space 2:22
Force Applied on an Object 3:25
Hot Object 't' in Vacuum 4:09
Hot Object Placed in Cold Water 5:32
Isolated System (Conservation of Energy) 7:15
Example: Earth and Object (Isolated System) 8:29
Energy May be Transformed from One Form to Another 13:05
Forms of Energy 13:30
Example: Earth Object System 14:17
Example: Object Falls from Height 'h' (Transform of Energy) 16:12
Example: Object Moving on a Rough Surface 17:54
Spring-Block System: Horizontal System 20:52
Example: System of Block & Spring 21:03
Conservation of Energy 26:49
Velocity of Object at Any Point 27:39
Example: Spring on a Surface Being Compressed 29:19
Speed of Pendulum 37:43
Example: Object Suspended from Ceiling with String 38:07
Swinging the Pendulum at Angle 'ø' From Rest 39:00
Cart on a Circular Track: Losing Contact 45:47
Example: Cart on Circular Track (Frictionless) 46:13
When Does the Cart Lose Contact 49:16
Setting Fn=0 When an Object Loses Contact 52:51
Velocity of an Object at Angle 'ø' (Conservation of Energy) 53:47
Extra Example 1: Mass on Track to Loop 10:29
Extra Example 2: Pendulum Released from Rest 7:33
Extra Example 3: Object Dropped onto Spring 8:15
Conservation of Energy, Part 2 1:02:52
Intro 0:00
Block Spring Collision 0:16
Spring Attached to Mass 0:31
Frictionless Surface 0:51
Object Collides with a Spring and Stops 1:51
Amount of Compression in a Spring 3:39
Surface with Friction 4:17
Object Collides with Spring (Object Stops at Collision) 4:51
Force of Friction 9:18
Object Sliding Down an Incline 10:58
Example: Object on Inclined Surface 11:15
Frictionless Case to Find Velocity of an Object 12:08
Object at Rough Inclined Surface(Friction Case) 14:52
Heat Produced 16:30
Object Arrives at Lesser Speed with Friction 21:11
Connected Object in Motion 22:35
Two Objects Connected Over a Pulley ,Spring Connected to One Object 22:47
Coefficient of Friction (Initial & Final Configuration at Rest) 25:27
Object of m1 at Height 'h' 27:40
If No Friction 29:51
Amount of Heat Produced In Presence of Friction 30:31
Extra Example 1: Objects and Springs 14:17
Extra Example 2: Mass against Horizontal Spring 12:09
Collisions, Part 1 1:31:19
Intro 0:00
Linear Momentum 0:10
Example: Object of Mass 'm' with Velocity 'v' 0:25
Example: Object Bounced on a Wall 1:08
Momentum of Object Hitting a Wall 2:20
Change in Momentum 4:10
Force is the Rate of Change of Momentum 4:30
Force=Mass*Acceleration (Newton's Second Law) 4:45
Impulse 10:24
Example: Baseball Hitting a Bat 10:40
Force Applied for a Certain Time 11:50
Magnitude Plot of Force vs Time 13:35
Time of Contact of Baseball = 2 milliseconds (Average Force by Bat) 17:42
Collision Between Two Particles 22:40
Two Objects Collide at Time T 23:00
Both Object Exerts Force on Each Other (Newton's Third Law) 24:28
Collision Time 25:42
Total Momentum Before Collision = Total momentums After Collision 32:52
Collision 33:58
Types of Collisions 34:13
Elastic Collision ( Mechanical Energy is Conserved) 34:38
Collision of Particles in Atoms 35:50
Collision Between Billiard Balls 36:54
Inelastic Collision (Rubber Ball) 39:40
Two Objects Collide and Stick (Completely Inelastic) 40:35
Completely Inelastic Collision 41:07
Example: Two Objects Colliding 41:23
Velocity After Collision 42:14
Heat Produced=Initial K.E-Final K.E 47:13
Ballistic Pendulum 47:37
Example: Determine the Speed of a Bullet 47:50
Mass Swings with Bulled Embedded 49:20
Kinetic Energy of Block with the Bullet 50:28
Extra Example 1: Ball Strikes a Wall 10:41
Extra Example 2: Clay Hits Block 8:35
Extra Example 3: Bullet Hits Block 11:37
Extra Example 4: Child Runs onto Sled 7:24
Collisions, Part 2 1:18:48
Intro 0:00
Elastic Collision: One Object Stationary 0:28
Example: Stationary Object and Moving Object 0:42
Conservation of Momentum 2:48
Mechanical Energy Conservation 3:43
Elastic Collision: Both Objects Moving 17:34
Example: Both Objects Moving Towards Each Other 17:48
Kinetic Energy Conservation 19:20
Collision With a Spring-Block System 29:17
Example: Object of Mass Moving with Velocity 29:30
Object Attached to Spring of Mass with Velocity 29:50
Two Objects Attached to a Spring 31:30
Compression of Spring after Collision 33:41
Before Collision: Total Energy (Conservation of Energy) 37:25
After Collision: Total Energy 38:49
Collision in Two Dimensions 42:29
Object Stationary and Other Object is Moving 42:46
Head on Collision (In 1 Dimension) 44:07
Momentum Before Collision 45:45
Momentum After Collision 46:06
If Collision is Elastic (Conservation of Kinetic Energy) Before Collision 50:29
Example 51:58
Objects Moving in Two Directions 52:33
Objects Collide and Stick Together (Inelastic Collision) 53:28
Conservation of Momentum 54:17
Momentum in X-Direction 54:27
Momentum in Y-Direction 56:15
Maximum Height after Collision 10:34
Extra Example 2: Two Objects Hitting a Spring 7:05
Extra Example 3: Mass Hits and Sticks 2:58
Rotation of a Rigid Body About a Fixed Axis 1:13:20
Intro 0:00
Particle in Circular Motion 0:11
Specify a Position of a Particle 0:55
Angular Displacement 8:50
Rotation of a Rigid Body 15:36
Example: Rotating Disc 16:17
Disk at 5 Revolution/Sec 17:24
Different Points on a Disk Have Different Speeds 21:56
Angular Velocity 23:03
Constant Angular Acceleration: Kinematics 31:11
Rotating Disc 31:42
Object Moving Along x-Axis (Linear Case) 33:05
If Alpha= Constant 35:15
Rotational Kinetic Energy 42:11
Rod in X-Y Plane, Fixed at Center 42:43
Kinetic Energy 46:45
Moment of Inertia 52:46
Moment of Inertia for Certain Shapes 54:06
Rod at Center 54:47
Ring 55:45
Disc 56:35
Cylinder 56:56
Sphere 57:20
Extra Example 1: Rotating Wheel 6:44
Extra Example 2: Two Spheres Attached to Rotating Rod 8:45
Static Equilibrium 1:38:57
Intro 0:00
Torque 0:09
Introduction to Torque 0:16
Rod in X-Y Direction 0:30
Particle in Equilibrium 18:15
Particle in Equilibrium, Net Force=0 18:30
Extended Object Like a Rod 19:13
Conditions of Equilibrium 26:34
Forces Acting on Object (Proof of Torque) 31:46
The Lever 35:38
Rod on Lever with Two Masses 35:51
Standing on a Supported Beam 40:53
Example : Wall and Beam Rope Connect Beam and Wall 41:00
Net Force 45:38
Net Torque 48:33
Finding 'ø' 52:50
Example: Finding Angle 'ø' Where Ladder Doesn't slip 53:44
Extra Example 1: Bear Retrieving Basket 19:42
Extra Example 2: Sliding Cabinet 20:09
Simple Harmonic Motion 1:33:39
Intro 0:00
(Six x)/x 0:09
(Sin x)/x Lim-->0 0:17
Definition of Sine 5:57
Example: Sin(5.73) 9:26
Derivative Sin(Ax+b) 12:14
f(x)=Sin(ax+b) 13:11
Sin(α+β) 14:56
Derivative Cos(Ax+b) 20:05
F(x)=Cos(Ax+b) 20:10
Harmonic Oscillation: Equation of Motion 26:00
Example: Object Attached to Spring 26:25
Object is Oscillating 27:04
Force Acting on Object F=m*a 31:21
Equation of Motion 34:41
Solution to The Equation of Motion 36:40
x(t) Function of time 38:50
x=Cos(ωt+ø) Taking Derivative 41:33
Period 50:37
Pull The Spring With Mass and Time 't' Released 50:54
Calculating Time Period =A cos(ωt - φ) 52:53
Energy of Harmonic Oscillator 55:59
Energy of The Oscillator 56:58
Pendulum 58:10
Mass Attached to String and Swing 58:20
Extra Example 1: Two Springs Attached to Wall 20:46
Extra Example 2: Simple Pendulum 5:29
Extra Example 3: Block and Spring Oscillation 8:21
Universal Gravitation 1:09:20
Intro(Universal Gravitation) 0:00
Newton's Law of Gravity 0:09
Two Particles of Mass m1,m2 1:22
Force of Attraction 3:02
Sphere and Small Particle of Mass 'm' 4:39
Two Spheres 5:35
Variation of g With Altitude 7:24
Consider Earth as an Object 7:33
Force Applied To Object 9:27
At or Near Surface of Earth 11:51
Satellites 15:39
Earth and Satellite 15:45
Geosynchronous Satellite 21:25
Gravitational Potential Energy 27:32
Object and Earth Potential Energy=mgh 24:45
P.E=0 When Objects are Infinitely Separated 30:32
Total Energy 38:28
If Object is Very Far From Earth, R=Infinity 40:25
Escape 42:33
Shoot an Object Which Should Not Come Back Down 43:06
Conservation of Energy 48:48
Object at Maximum Height (K.E=0) 45:22
Escape Velocity (Rmax = Infinity) 46:50
Extra Example 1: Density of Earth and Moon 7:09
Extra Example 2: Satellite Orbiting Earth 11:54
Fluids: Statics 1:41:00
Intro 0:00
Mass Density 0:23
Density of Mass Solid 0:33
Density of Liquid 1:06
Density of Gas 1:22
Density of Aluminum 2:03
Density of Water 2:34
Density of Air 2:45
Example: Room 3:11
Pressure 4:59
Pressure at Different Points in Liquid 5:09
Force on Face of Cube 6:40
Molecules Collide on Face of Cube 9:34
Newton's Third Law 10:20
Variation of Pressure With Depth 15:12
Atmospheric Pressure 16:08
Cylinder in a Fluid of Height H 19:40
Hydraulic Press 29:50
Fluid Cylinder 30:12
Hydraulics 35:56
Archimedes Principle 40:23
Object in a Fluid (Submerged) 40:55
Volume of a Cylinder 45:24
Mass of Displaced Fluid 45:48
Buoyant Force 47:30
Weighing a Crown 51:03
Crown Suspended on Scale in Air 51:24
Crown Weighed in Water 51:42
Density of Gold 57:20
Extra Example 1: Aluminum Ball in Water 11:59
Extra Example 2: Swimming Pool 10:11
Extra Example 3: Helium Balloon 10:24
Extra Example 4: Ball in Water 10:16
Fluids in Motion 1:08:43
Intro 0:00
Ideal Fluid Flow 0:15
Fluid is Incompressible (Density is Uniform) 2:50
Fluid Flow is Non-Viscous 3:49
Honey 4:10
Water 4:32
Fluid Flow (Rotational) 6:15
Equation of Continuity 9:05
Fluid Flowing in a Pipe 9:20
Fluid Entering Pipe 11:00
Fluid Leaving Pipe 15:26
Garden Hose 21:20
Filling a Bucket 22:30
Speed of Water 24:05
Bernoulli's Equation 28:45
Pipe Varying with Height and Cross Section 29:18
Net Work Done 35:37
Venturi Tube 43:31
Finding V1, V2 with Two Unknowns 46:20
Equation of Continuity 46:55
Extra Example 1: Water in a Pipe 6:56
Extra Example 2: Water Tank with Hole 8:51

## Section 2: Thermodynamics

Temperature 1:16:17
Intro 0:00
Celsius and Fahrenheit 0:20
Thermometer in Ice Water 1:03
Thermometer in Boiling Water 3:03
Celsius to Fahrenheit Conversion 10:30
Kelvin Temperature Scale 11:15
Constant Volume Gas Thermometer 11:57
Measuring Temperature of Liquid 12:25
Temperature Increase, Pressure Increase 14:56
Absolute Zero -273.15 Degree/Celsius 22:34
Thermometers 25:44
Thermometric Property 26:14
Constant Volume Gas Thermometer 27:53
Example: Electrical Resistance 29:05
Linear Thermal Expansion 31:40
Heated Metal Rod 31:58
Expansion of Holes 41:05
Sheet of Some Substance and Heat it 41:16
Sheet with Hole 42:04
As Temperature Increases, Hole Expands 46:42
Volume Thermal Expansion 47:02
Cube of Aluminum 47:14
Water Expands More than Glass 53:44
Behavior of Water Near 4c 54:33
Plotting the Density of Water 54:55
Extra Example 1: Volume of Diesel Fuel 6:54
Extra Example 2: Brass Pendulum 9:40
Heat 1:22:01
Intro 0:00
Heat and Internal Energy 0:09
Cup of Hot Tea, Object is Hot 0:50
Heat Flows From Hot Object to Cold Object 3:06
Internal Energy , Kinetic+Potential Energy of All Atoms 5:50
Specific Heat 9:01
Object of Substance 9:18
Temperature Change by Delta T 10:03
Mass of Water 17:29
Calorimeter 21:35
Calorimeter-Thermal Insulated Container 22:23
Latent Heat 30:23
Ice at 0 degrees 30:52
Heating the Ice 31:15
Water-Latent Heat of Fusion 33:50
Converting Ice from -20 to 0 Degree 38:35
Example: Ice Water 42:10
Water of Mass 0.2 Kg 42:23
Mass of Ice that is Melted 48:23
Transfer Of Heat 48:27
Convection Mass Moment 49:00
Conduction 53:14
Extra Example 1: Electric Heater with Water 5:40
Extra Example 2: Mass of Steam 7:11
Extra Example 3: Water in Pool 8:32
Kinetic Theory of Gases 1:14:37
Intro 0:00
Ideal Gas Law 0:08
Ideal Gas Definition 0:24
1 Mole of Gas 1:49
Gas in a Container, Pressure Increases with Temperature 6:22
Ideal Gas law 10:30
Boltzmann's Constant 12:49
Example 13:30
Conceptual Example 13:48
Shake and Open the Coke Bottle 14:36
Quantitative Example: Container with Gas 19:50
Heat the Gas to 127 Degrees 20:23
Kinetic Theory 24:06
Container in a Cube Shape 24:16
Molecules Traveling with Velocity v 26:01
Change in Momentum of Molecule Per Second 30:38
Newton's Third law 31:58
Example 45:40
5 Moles of Helium in Container 45:50
Finding Number of Atoms 47:23
Calculating Pressure 48:46
Distribution of Molecules 49:45
Root Mean Square 53:10
Extra Example 1: Helium Gas in Balloon 6:14
Extra Example 2: Oxygen Molecules 8:57
First Law of Thermodynamics 1:31:27
Intro 0:00
Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics 0:09
Two Objects in Contact 0:29
Thermometer in Thermal Equilibrium (Exchanged Energy) 5:20
First Law of Thermodynamics 6:06
Monatomic Ideal Gas 6:20
Internal Energy 9:59
Change in Internal Energy of System 18:35
Work Done on a Gas 22:29
Cylinder with Frictionless Piston 22:50
Displacement of Piston 25:11
Under Constant Pressure 27:37
Work Done by Gas 34:24
Example 35:29
Ideal gas, Monatomic Expands Isobarically 35:48
Isobaric: Process at Constant Atmospheric Pressure 37:33
Work Done By Gas 40:21
Example 2 47:19
Steam 47:30
Cylinder with Steam 49:20
Work Done By Gas 51:20
Change in Internal Energy of System 52:53
Extra Example 1: Gas Expanding Isobarically 10:26
Extra Example 2: Block of Aluminum 12:25
Extra Example 3: Gas in Piston 11:30
Thermal Process in an Ideal Gas 1:47:16
Intro 0:00
Isobaric and Isovolumetric Process 0:13
Isobaric Definition 0:24
PV Diagram 0:54
Isovolumetric Process 1:37
Total work done By gas 8:08
Isothermal Expansion 11:20
Isothermal Definition 11:42
Piston on a Container 12:57
Work Done by Gas 22:01
Example 22:09
5 Moles of Helium gas 22:20
Determining T 26:20
Molar Specific Heat 27:11
Heating a Substance 27:30
Ideal Monoatomics Gas 35:15
Temperature Change in Constant Volume 35:31
Temperature Change in Constant Pressure 39:10
IsoVolumetric Process V=0 48:57
Isobaric Process at P=0 49:15
Isothermal C=0 49:36
Extra Example 1: Gas in Cycle 14:06
Extra Example 2: Gas Compressed Isothermally 13:45
Extra Example 3: Two Compartments of Gas 18:22
Heat Engines and Second Law of Thermodynamics 1:03:37
Intro 0:00
Introduction 0:13
Statement of Conservation of Energy 0:44
Flow of Heat from Hot to Cold 3:31
Heat Engines: Kelvin-Plank Statement 4:36
Steam Engine 4:55
Efficiency of Engine 10:49
Kelvin Plank Statement of Second Law 13:25
Example 17:01
Heat Engine with Efficiency 25% 17:10
Work Done During 1 cycle 18:03
Power 20:15
Heat Pump: Clausius Statement 20:47
Refrigerator 26:35
Coefficient of Performance (COP) 27:48
Clausius Statement 34:03
Impossible Engine 35:15
Equivalence of Two Statements 36:51
Suppose Kelvin-Plank Statement is False 38:16
Clausius Statement is False 43:46
Extra Example 1: Heat Engine Cycle 6:02
Extra Example 2: Refrigerator 6:34
Carnot Engine 1:36:57
Intro 0:00
Reversible Process 0:55
All Real Processes are Irreversible 3:20
Ball Falls Onto Sand 3:49
Heat Flow from Hot to Cold 7:30
Container with Gas and Piston (Frictionless) 9:20
Carnot Engine 15:29
Cylinder With Piston 16:01
Isothermal Expansion 19:15
Insulate Base of Cylinder 19:39
Efficiency 32:40
Work Done by Gas 34:42
Carnot Principle 46:44
Heat Taken From Hot Reservoir 54:40
Example 56:53
Steam Engine with Two Temperatures 57:12
Work Done 59:21
Extra Example 1: Carnot Isothermal Expansion 5:22
Extra Example 2: Energy In Out as Heat 6:07
Extra Example 3: Gas through Cycle 24:32
Entropy and Second Law of Thermodynamics 53:32
Intro 0:00
One Way Process 0:40
Hot to Cold (Conserved Energy) 1:12
Gas in a Insulated Container 2:03
Entropy 9:05
Change in Entropy 16:13
System at Constant Temperature 16:35
Insulated Container 19:51
Work Done by Gas 26:40
Second Law of Thermodynamics: Entropy Statement 29:30
Irreversible Process 30:10
Gas Reservoir 33:02
Extra Example 1: Ice Melting 4:25
Extra Example 2: Partition with Two Gases 7:33
Extra Example 3: Radiation from Sun 5:45

## Section 3: Waves

Traveling Waves 1:21:27
Intro 0:00
What is a Wave? 0:19
Example: Rod and Swinging Balls 0:55
Huge Number of Atoms 2:35
Disturbance Propagates 5:51
Source of Disturbance 8:25
Wave Propagation 8:50
Mechanism of Medium 10:18
Disturbance Moves 12:19
Types of Waves 12:52
Transverse Wave 13:11
Longitudinal Wave 17:30
Sinusoidal Waves 26:47
Every Cycle has 1 Wavelength 35:15
Time for Each Cycle 36:32
Speed of Wave 37:10
Speed of Wave on Strings 42:24
Formula for Wave Speed 51:11
Example 51:25
String with Blade Generate Pulse 51:35
Reflection of Waves 55:18
String Fixed at End 55:37
Wave Inverted 58:31
Wave on a Frictionless Ring 58:52
Free End: No Inverted Reflection 60:18
Extra Example 1: Tension in Cord 3:50
Extra Example 2: Waves on String 7:17
Extra Example 3: Mass on Cord with Pulse 9:53
Sound 1:20:56
Intro 0:00
Longitudinal Sound Wave 0:12
Tube Filled With Gas and Piston at One End 1:07
Compression or Condensation 5:01
Moving the Piston Back 6:16
Rarefaction 7:06
Wavelength 11:57
Frequency 13:07
Diaphragm of a Large Speaker 13:20
Audible Wave Human Being 14:50
Frequency Less Than 20 Khz Infrasonic Wave 15:40
Larger Than 20 Khz Ultrasonic Wave 16:15
Pressure as a Sound Wave 18:30
Sound Wave Propagation in Tube 19:13
Speed of Sound 25:10
Speed of Sound in Gas 32:50
Speed of Sound at 0 Degrees 36:50
Speed of Sound in Liquid 41:48
Speed of Sound in Solid 46:00
Sound Intensity 46:29
Energy Produced/Sec 49:12
Decibels 51:10
Sound Level or Intensity Level 54:30
Threshold of Hearing 54:52
Extra Example 1: Eardrum 5:11
Extra Example 2: Sound Detector 7:50
Extra Example 3: Lightning and Thunder 7:33
Doppler Effect 1:33:51
Intro 0:00
Observer Moving, Source Stationary 0:10
Observer Intercepts the Wave Front 1:47
Number of Waves Intercepted 5:25
Wave Fronts Integrated 6:05
Towards the Source 11:15
Moving Away from Source 15:02
Example: Rain 19:42
Observer Stationary Source Moving 20:40
During Time 27:43
Wavelength Measured by Observed 28:38
General Case 33:27
Source and Observer Moving 33:40
Observer is Moving 33:50
Observer is Stationary 34:24
Supersonic Speed 43:30
Airplane 44:03
Extra Example 1: Oscillating Spring 18:25
Extra Example 2: Police Siren 11:05
Extra Example 3: Sonic Jet 6:14
Interference 1:18:44
Intro 0:00
Principle of Linear Superposition 0:10
Example: String Sending Two Pulses 1:26
Sum of Two Pulses 3:38
Interference 11:56
Two Speakers Driven By Same Frequency 12:29
Constructive Interference 22:09
Destructive Interference 33:06
Example 37:25
Two Speakers 37:42
Speed of Sound 38:25
Diffraction 43:53
Circular Aperture 49:59
Beats 52:15
Two Frequency 53:02
Time Separated by 1 sec 59:55
Extra Example 1: Two Speakers 11:38
Extra Example 2: Tube and Sound Detector 6:30
Standing Waves 1:34:34
Intro 0:00
Standing Wave on String 0:09
Propagation Waves 0:59
String with Both Ends Fixed 1:06
Sine Wave 5:43
Placing Two Nodes and Vibrating String 7:26
Fundamental Frequency 13:50
First Overtone 14:05
Example 20:49
Spring 21:08
Hanging a Weight with a Pulley 21:26
Air Columns 26:22
Pipe Open at Both Ends 27:13
Pipe Open at One End 36:55
Example 41:56
Container with Water 42:05
Tuning Fork 43:00
Resonance 44:07
Length of Pipe Producing Wavelength 51:51
Extra Example 1: String Sound Wave 10:50
Extra Example 2: Block with Wire is Plucked 14:47
Extra Example 3: Pipe Natural Frequencies 13:15

## Section 4: Electricity and Magnetism

Electric Force 56:18
Intro 0:00
Electric Charge 0:18
Matter Consists of Atom 1:01
Two Types of Particles: Protons & Neutrons 1:48
Object with Excess Electrons: Negatively Charged 7:58
Carbon Atom 8:30
Positively Charged Object 9:55
Electric Charge 10:07
Rubber Rod Rubs Against Fur (Negative Charge) 10:16
Glass Rod Rub Against Silk (Positive Charge) 11:48
Hanging Rubber Rod 12:44
Conductors and Insulators 16:00
Electrons Close to Nucleus 18:34
Conductors Have Mobile Charge 21:30
Insulators: No Moving Electrons 23:06
Copper Wire Connected to Excess Negative charge 23:22
Other End Connected to Excess Positive Charge 24:09
Charging a Metal Object 27:25
By Contact 28:05
Metal Sphere on an Insulating Stand 28:16
Charging by Induction 30:59
Negative Rubber Rod 31:26
Size of Atom 36:08
Extra Example 1: Three Metallic Objects 7:32
Extra Example 2: Rubber Rod and Two Metal Spheres 6:25
Coulomb's Law 1:27:18
Intro 0:00
Coulomb's Law 0:59
Two Point Charges by Distance R 1:11
Permittivity of Free Space 5:28
Charges on the Vertices of a Triangle 8:00
3 Charges on Vertices of Right Triangle 8:29
Charge of 4, -5 and -2 micro-Coulombs 10:00
Force Acting on Each Charge 10:58
Charges on a Line 21:29
2 Charges on X-Axis 22:40
Where Should Q should be Placed, Net Force =0 23:23
Two Small Spheres Attached to String 31:08
Equilibrium Net Force on Each Sphere = 0 33:38
Simple Harmonic Motion of Point Charge 37:40
Two Charges on Y-Axis 37:55
Charge is Attracted 39:52
Magnitude of Net Force on Q 42:23
Extra Example 1: Vertices of Triangle 9:39
Extra Example 2: Tension in String 11:46
Extra Example 3: Two Conducting Spheres 6:29
Extra Example 4: Force on Charge 9:21
Electric Field 1:37:24
Intro 0:00
Definition of Electric Field 0:11
Q1 Produces Electric Field 3:23
Charges on a Conductor 4:26
Field of a Point Charge 13:10
Charge Point Between Two Fields 13:20
Electric Field E=kq/r2 14:29
Direction of the Charge Field 15:10
Positive Charge, Field is Radially Out 15:45
Field of a Collection of a Point Charge 19:40
Two Charges Q1,Q2 19:56
Q1 Positive, Electric Field is Radially Out 20:32
Q2 is Negative, Electric Field is Radially Inward 20:46
4 Charges are Equal 23:54
Parallel Plate Capacitor 25:42
Two Plates ,Separated by a Distance 26:44
Fringe Effect 30:26
E=Constant Between the Parallel Plate Capacitor 30:40
Electric Field Lines 35:16
Pictorial Representation of Electric Field 35:30
Electric Lines are Tangent to the Vector 35:57
Lines Start at Positive Charge, End on Negative Charge 41:24
Parallel Line Proportional to Charge 45:51
Lines Never Cross 46:00
Conductors and Shielding 49:33
Static Equilibrium 51:09
No Net Moment of Charge 53:09
Electric Field is Perpendicular to the Surface of Conductor 55:40
Extra Example 1: Plastic Sphere Between Capacitor 8:46
Extra Example 2: Electron Between Capacitor 11:52
Extra Example 3: Zero Electric Field 10:44
Extra Example 4: Dimensional Analysis 6:01
Electric Potential 1:17:09
Intro 0:00
Electric Potential Difference 0:11
Example :Earth and Object 0:36
Work Done 2:01
Work Done Against Field 5:31
Difference in Potential, Between Points 9:08
Va=Vb+Ed 11:35
Potential Difference in a Constant Electric Field 18:03
Force Applied Along the Path 18:42
Work Done Along the Path 23:28
Potential Difference is Same 23:45
Point Charge 28:50
Electric Field of Point Charge is Radial 29:10
Force Applied is Perpendicular to Displacement 32:01
Independent of Path 41:08
Collection of Point Charge 43:56
Electric Potential at Charge Points 44:15
Equipotential Surface 46:33
Plane Perpendicular to Field 46:49
Force Perpendicular to Surface 47:37
Potential Energy: System of a Two Point Charges 54:17
Work Done in Moving the Charge to Infinity 55:53
Potential Energy: System of Point Charges 57:05
Extra Example 1: Electric Potential of Particle 10:28
Extra Example 2: Particle Fired at Other Particle 8:30
Capacitor 1:24:14
Intro 0:00
Capacitance 0:09
Consider Two Conductor s 0:25
Electric Field Passing from Positive to Negative 1:19
Potential Difference 3:31
Defining Capacitance 3:51
Parallel Plate Capacitance 8:30
Two Metallic Plates of Area 'a' and Distance 'd' 8:46
Potential Difference between Plates 13:12
Capacitance with a Dielectric 22:14
Applying Electric Field to a Capacitor 22:44
Dielectric 30:32
Example 34:56
Empty Capacitor 35:12
Connecting Capacitor to a Battery 35:26
Inserting Dielectric Between Plates 39:02
Energy of a Charged Capacitor 43:01
Work Done in Moving a Charge, Difference in Potential 47:48
Example 54:10
Parallel Plate Capacitor 54:22
Connect and Disconnect the Battery 55:27
Calculating Q=cv 55:50
Withdraw Mica Sheet 56:49
Word Done in Withdrawing the Mica 60:23
Extra Example 1: Parallel Plate Capacitor 8:41
Extra Example 2: Mica Dielectric 15:01
Combination of Capacitors 1:03:23
Intro 0:00
Parallel Combination 0:20
Two Capacitors in Parallel With a Battery 0:40
Electric Field is Outside 5:47
Point A is Directly Connected to Positive Terminal 7:57
Point B is Directly Connected to Negative Terminal 8:10
Voltage Across Capacitor 12:54
Energy Stored 14:52
Series Combination 17:58
Two Capacitors Connected End to End With a Battery 18:10
Equivalent Capacitor 25:20
A is Same Potential 26:59
C is Same Potential 27:06
Potential Difference Across First Capacitor (Va-Vb) 27:42
(Vb-Vc) is Potential Difference Across Second Capacitor 28:10
Energy Stored in C1,C2 29:53
Example 31:07
Two Capacitor in Series, 2 in Parallel, 3 in Parallel, 1 Capacitor Connected 31:28
Final Equivalent Circuit 37:31
Extra Example 1: Four Capacitors 16:50
Extra Example 2: Circuit with Switches 8:25
Electric Current 1:19:17
Intro 0:00
Definition 0:20
Consider a Wire ,Cylindrical 0:40
Cross Sectional Area 1:06
Crossing Charges Will be Counted 2:50
Amount of Charge Crosses Cross Sectional Area 3:29
Current I=q/t 4:18
Charges Flowing in Opposite Direction 5:58
Current Density 6:19
Applying Electric Field 11:50
Current in a Wire 15:24
Wire With a Cross Section Area 'A' 15:33
Current Flowing to Right 18:57
How Much Charge Crosses Area 'A' 19:15
Drift Velocity 20:02
Carriers in Cylinder 22:40
Ohm's Law 24:58
Va-Vb = Electric Field times Length of Wire 28:27
Ohm's Law 28:54
Consider a Copper Wire of 1m , Cross Sectional Area 1cm/sq 34:24
Temperature Effect 37:07
Heating a Wire 37:05
Temperature Co-Efficient of Resistivity 39:57
Battery EMF 43:00
Connecting a Resistance to Battery 44:30
Potential Difference at Terminal of Battery 45:15
Power 53:30
Battery Connected with a Resistance 53:47
Work Done on Charge 56:55
Energy Lost Per Second 60:35
Extra Example 1: Current 9:46
Extra Example 2: Water Heater 8:05
Circuits 1:34:08
Intro 0:00
Simple Rules 0:16
Resistance in Series 0:33
Current Passing Per Second is Equal 1:36
Potential Difference 3:10
Parallel Circuit, R1, R2 5:08
Battery, Current Starts From Positive Terminal to Negative Terminal 10:08
Series Combination of Resistances 13:06
R1, R2 Connected to Battery 13:35
Va-Vb=Ir1,Vb-Vc=Ir2 16:59
Three Resistance Connected in Series Req=r1+r2+r3 18:55
Parallel Combination of Resistance 19:28
R1 and R2 Combined Parallel 19:50
I=i1+i2 (Total Current) 24:26
Requ=I/E 24:51
A Simple Circuit 27:57
Intro 28:40
Current Splits 29:15
Total Resistance 31:52
Current I= 6/17.2 35:10
Another Simple Circuit 37:46
Battery has Small Internal Resistance 38:02
2 Ohms Internal Resistance, and Two Resistance in Parallel 38:24
Drawing Circuit 48:53
Finding Current 52:06
RC Circuit 55:17
Battery , Resistance and Capacitance Connected 55:30
Current is Function of Time 58:00
R, C are Time Constants 59:25
Extra Example 1: Resistor Current/Power 4:17
Extra Example 2: Find Current 6:03
Extra Example 3: Find Current 10:00
Extra Example 4: Find Current 13:49
Kirchhoff's Rules 1:42:02
Intro 0:00
First Kirchhoff Rule 0:19
Two Resistance Connected With a Battery 0:29
Many Resistance 1:40
Increase in Potential from A to B 4:46
Charge Flowing from Higher Potential to Lower Potential 5:13
Second Kirchhoff Rule 9:17
Current Entering 9:27
Total Current Arriving is Equal Current Leaving 13:20
Example 14:10
Battery 6 V, Resistance 20, 30 Ohms and Another Battery 4v 14:30
Current Entering I2+I3 21:18
Example 2 31:20
2 Loop circuit with 6v and 12 v and Resistance, Find Current in Each Resistance 32:29
Example 3 42:02
Battery and Resistance in Loops 42:23
Ammeters and Voltmeters 56:22
Measuring Current is Introducing an Ammeter 56:35
Connecting Voltmeter, High Resistance 57:31
Extra Example 1: Find Current 18:47
Extra Example 2: Find Current 13:35
Extra Example 3: Find Current 10:23
Magnetic Field 1:38:19
Intro 0:00
Magnets 0:13
Compass Will Always Point North 3:49
Moving a Compass Needle 5:50
Force on a Charged Particles 10:37
Electric Field and Charge Particle Q 10:48
Charge is Positive Force 11:11
Charge Particle is At Rest 13:38
Taking a Charged Particle and Moving to Right 16:15
Using Right Hand Rule 23:37
C= Magnitude of A, B 26:30
Magnitude of C 26:55
Motion of Particle in Uniform Magnetic Field 33:30
Magnetic Field has Same Direction 34:02
Direction of Force 38:40
Work Done By Force=0 41:40
Force is Perpendicular With Velocity 42:00
Bending an Electron Beam 48:09
Heating a Filament 48:29
Kinetic Energy of Battery 51:54
Introducing Magnetic Field 52:10
Velocity Selector 53:45
Selecting Particles of Specific Velocity 54:00
Parallel Plate Capacitor 54:30
Magnetic Force 56:20
Magnitude of Force 56:45
Extra Example 1: Vectors 19:24
Extra Example 2: Proton in Magnetic Field 8:33
Extra Example 3: Proton Circular Path 10:46
Force on a Current in a Magnetic Field 1:16:03
Intro 0:00
Effect of Magnetic Field on Current 0:44
Conduction Wire, Horse Shoe Magnet 0:55
Introducing a Battery to the Wire 3:10
Wire Bends Pushing Left 3:50
Wire Bends Toward Right 5:08
In Absence of Magnetic Field 5:34
Magnet and Wire Force Towards Upward 10:22
Force 11:55
Conductor Connected to Battery, Carrying Current to Right 12:52
Magnetic Field Oriented into Page 13:20
Force on 1 Change 20:00
Total Force on Wire 21:45
Vector of magnitude 25:40
Direction is Scalar 26:12
Force on Wire 31:00
Torque on a Current loop 35:38
Square of Rectangle of Wire in Loop 35:49
Passing Current 36:14
Force on 1 36:25
Force on 3 40:46
Force on 2 42:26
Force on 4 45:12
Example 49:33
Wire of Length 49:50
Magnetic Field, Force on Wire 52:37
Extra Example 1: Lifting a Wire 5:35
Extra Example 2: Rod on Two Rails 7:33
Extra Example 3: Rod on Two Rails with Friction 6:54
Magnetic Field Produced by Currents 1:16:19
Intro 0:00
Long Straight Wire 0:49
Long Wire Connect to Battery (Imaginary Plane) 1:07
Introducing a Compass 3:15
Amperes Law/Biot-Savart law 8:01
Wire With Current I 8:35
Magnetic Permeability of Free Space 11:41
Example 13:22
Wire With Current 5 Amps 13:35
Calculation Magnetic Field Produced By Wire 16:42
Magnetic Force Between Parallel Current Carrying Wire 21:34
Two Wires Carrying Current 21:45
Calculating Force of Attraction 23:27
Magnetic Field B Produced by First Wire 25:14
Force on Second Wire 28:33
Example 33:59
Wire on Ground 34:10
Another Wire 34:24
Magnetic Force on Wire 2 37:35
Coils 41:16
Circular Loop 42:25
Magnetic Field is Not Uniform 42:55
Magnetic Field at Center 43:11
Solenoid 46:20
Wire of length L in Coil with a Battery 47:11
Extra Example 1: Two Parallel Wires 9:14
Extra Example 2: Magnetic Field of Wires 13:50
Electromagnetic Induction 1:34:15
Intro 0:00
Induced EMF 0:51
Electro Motive Force 1:05
Hang a Wire Loop and Using a Magnet 3:02
Magnetic Field is Strong 7:07
Induced EMF is Not Related 9:20
Motional EMF 11:43
Conducting Metal 12:10
Rod Moves to Right 12:52
Force Exerted on Charge Carrier 15:20
Potential Difference 20:05
Example 25:57
Rod in Magnetic Field, Connected by Wires 27:10
Power Dissipated 32:18
In 1 Minute, Total Energy Consumption 34:53
Where Does the Energy Come From 37:50
Magnetic Waves with Conductive Bar 38:12
To Keep the Rod Moving With Constant Velocity 46:33
Work Done By External Agent in 1 Min 46:50
Relation to Magnetic Flux 51:03
Area Swept by Rod 54:44
Magnetic Flux 57:34
Magnetic Field is Constant 57:50
Area Perpendicular To field 58:02
Extra Example 1: Motional EMF of Rod 5:04
Extra Example 2: Motional EMF, Current, Power 8:05
Extra Example 3: Current in Resistor 20:08
Intro 0:00
Coil Connected to Battery With Switch 1:14
Closed Switch Ammeter Reads Current 3:45
Current in First Coil Drops to Zero 8:30
Change in Flux Generates Current 8:53
Induced EMF 9:13
Example 13:45
Coil Has N Turns 13:55
Connecting the Ends of Wire to Resistance 14:40
Total Flux 16:55
Motional EMF Revisited 25:04
Rod Moving in a Magnetic Field 25:24
Magnetic Force Pushes Electrons 28:01
Magnetic Field is Perpendicular to Area 31:50
Flux in Loop 32:15
Lenz's Law 40:03
Magnetic Field into Page 40:30
Current Induced by 'Increased Flux' 44:35
Current Induced to Oppose Change in Flux 49:28
Flux is Increasing, Opposing Created Magnetic Field In Opposite Direction 55:01
Extra Example 1: Loop of Wire in Magnetic Field 9:58
Extra Example 2: Coil in Square 10:45
Extra Example 3: Decreasing Magnetic Field 13:43

## Section 5: Optics

Reflection of Light 1:12:22
Intro 0:00
Nature of Light 0:22
Aristotle: Light Illuminated from Eye 0:58
Light Rays 15:50
Light Source Eliminates Stream Of Light 16:22
Wave Fronts and Crests 16:57
Reflection 18:50
Sending Light on Surface 19:01
Light Reflects Parallel Out 19:20
Specular Reflection 20:06
Surface is Not Smooth 20:16
Reflected in Different Direction 20:35
Law of Reflection 21:47
Light Ray Hits the Plane Mirror 22:08
Drawing Normal Perpendicular to Surface of Mirror 22:50
Angle of Incidence 23:15
Angle of Reflection 23:50
Path of Least Time 26:43
Fermat's Principle 30:14
Light Takes Path of Shortest Time 38:49
Formation of Image by Plane Mirror 40:11
Plane Mirror and a Source 40:20
Looking at first Reflection 42:30
S is the Real Object 48:05
Real and Virtual Object and Image 50:10
Optical Instrument 50:37
If Rays are Divergent Object is Real 51:42
Rays are Convergent, Virtual Object 52:54
Extra Example 1: Object Between Two Mirrors 10:08
Extra Example 2: Plane Mirror Polished Side Up 4:50
Spherical Mirror 1:30:39
Intro 0:00
Concave and Convex Mirror 0:17
Piece of Mirror From a Spherical Mirror 1:00
If Inner face is Polished, Concave Mirror 2:00
Principal Axis 3:41
Polished Outer Side, Convex Mirror 4:15
Focal Point 5:21
Consider a Concave Mirror 6:03
Sending a Ray of Parallel Light 6:18
Paraxial Rays 9:36
Ray Diagrams 19:10
Concave Mirror 19:25
Principal Axis 19:40
Rays Diverging Virtual Image 29:14
Image Formation in Concave Mirrors: Real Object 30:20
Real Object 30:51
Draw a Ray to Principal Axis 31:05
Put the Object beyond 'F' 38:13
Image Formation in Concave Mirrors: Virtual Object 46:44
Rays Leaving the Image: Diverging 48:00
Summary of Concave Mirror 56:17
Real Object real Image 56:52
Real Object Virtual Image 57:11
Virtual Object Real Image 57:24
Virtual Object Virtual Image 57:40
Extra Example 1: Concave Mirror Image Location 9:56
Extra Example 2: Concave Mirror Focal Length 9:36
Extra Example 3: Concave Mirror Image Location 10:41
Convex Mirror 1:06:47
Intro 0:00
Image Formation: Real Object 0:21
Drawing ray Parallel to Principal Axis 1:15
Virtual Object Producing real Image 17:41
Image Formation: Virtual Objects 18:21
Ray Going through C and Reflects Back 18:40
Real Object Virtual Image 26:20
Virtual Object: Real Image 26:30
Virtual Object: Virtual Image 27:00
Summary 35:30
Size of Image Over Size of Object 36:12
Magnification 41:47
Example: Convex Mirror 42:38
Extra Example 1: Convex Mirror 8:07
Extra Example 2: Convex or Concave 12:08
Refraction of Light, Part 1 1:30:58
Intro 0:00
Index of Refraction 0:31
Speed of Light 1:15
Speed of Light in Medium 3:02
Index of Refraction of Medium 3:33
Index of Refraction of Water 4:52
Index of Refraction of Glass 5:13
Snell's Law 8:09
Light is Incident from One Medium to Another 9:05
Light Bends Toward the Normal 10:49
Example: Air/Water 12:32
Light is Incident at Angle of 53 Degrees 13:09
Water is more Optically Dense Than Air 17:20
Apparent Depth 18:19
Container of Water 19:01
Penny at the Bottom 19:17
Light Ray is Perpendicular to the Surface 19:35
From Snell's Law 29:39
Derivation of Snell's Law 32:38
Idea of Wave Fronts 33:05
Second Derivation of Snell's Law 48:17
Same as Fermat's Principal 48:38
Air and Water 49:10
Extra Example 1: Light Hits Glass 7:09
Extra Example 2: Find Theta 14:42
Extra Example 3: Index of Refraction 9:56
Refraction of Light, Part 2 1:21:37
Intro 0:00
Prism and the Rainbow 0:13
Monochromatic Light Through Prism 1:09
Sending White Light Through Prism 7:08
Violet Bends More Than Red Light 8:12
Angle Between Incident Light and Red 13:25
Water Drops in the Atmosphere 14:10
Total Internal Reflection 18:13
Surface has Air and Water 18:30
Increase Angle 19:33
Light Traveling in a Larger Index and Meets Lower Index 29:30
Water and Air Angle of Refraction is 90 Degree 29:57
Optical Fibers 32:22
Long Coaxial Cable 32:40
Choose Angle for No Light Leakage 35:03
Thin Lenses 45:13
Two Pieces of Transparent Glass 45:58
Plano Convex 47:32
Bi-Concave 47:50
Plano Concave 48:05
Lens Maker Formula 51:59
Ray Diagrams 53:44
Ray Through the Center 53:06
Extra Example 1: Angle of Incidence 8:44
Extra Example 2: Block Underwater 15:30
Images Formed by Lenses 1:25:20
Intro 0:00
Converging Lenses: Real Objects 0:25
Ray Going Through Center 1:50
Converging Lens: Virtual Objects 18:30
Reverse Path 20:40
Virtual Object Real Image 22:47
Diverging Lens 24:59
Lens Summary 33:40
Object, Lens, Image 34:52
Object Distance to Lens 35:21
Image Distance to Lens 36:01
Focal Length 36:12
Magnification 37:21
Example: Converging Lens 38:07
Q=50 cm Real Image 41:52
Move Object 10 cm From the Lens 42:30
Diverging Lens 45:20
Extra Example 1: Converging Lens 9:57
Extra Example 2: Diverging Lens 10:33
Extra Example 3: Two Thing Converging Lenses 7:40
Extra Example 4: Diverging Lens Final Image 6:58
Interference of Light Waves 1:27:02
Intro 0:00
Condition for Interference 0:24
Two Light Sources S1, S2 0:49
Source are Incoherent 1:36
Uniform Intensity on Screen 6:10
Source Should be Coherent 6:31
Source with Single Wavelength 7:30
Two Slits with One Source 8:37
Young's Double Slit Experiment 13:33
Wave Front Looks Planer 14:15
Light Propagates Like Waves 17:58
Constructive and Destructive Interference 22:39
Two Slits Separated by 'd' 23:01
Consider a Point at Center of Screen 24:33
Path Difference 34:46
Constructive Interference 35:59
Destructive Interference 36:05
Example 43:52
Two Slits Separated 44:09
Screen is 2 ms Away 44:30
Second Order Maximum 45:06
First Maximum 48:48
Extra Example 1: Double Slit Wavelength 5:58
Extra Example 2: Two Radio Antennas 15:32
Extra Example 3: Double Slit Thickness 13:42
Thin Film Interference 1:04:58
Intro 0:00
Change of Phase Due to Reflection 0:37
Plane Mirror 1:28
Object Produces Virtual Image 1:48
Consider a Screen and Point 2:04
Path Difference 3:40
Constructive Interferences 5:09
Destructive Interference 5:26
Two Media N1, N2 15:25
N2>N1 Changes in Phase 180 Degrees 15:40
Thin Film Interference 18:50
Air and Film and Air Film of Thickness 19:12
Angle of Incident is Very Small 19:40
Two Waves are Destructive 22:14
Path Difference 22:30
If Delta=1, 2, 3 No Change in Phase 27:44
Destructive Interference 29:12
Constructive Interferences 32:45
Example: Soap Bubbles 33:34
Air, Soap, Air 33:55
Thickness Results in Constructive Interference 35:58
Example: Non-Reflective Coating For Solar Cells 38:05
Sending Light 41:50
Destructive Interference 44:08
Extra Example 1: Spaced Plates Separation 7:27
Extra Example 2: Oil Film 7:29
Extra Example 3: Dark Bands
Diffraction 1:18:22
Intro 0:00
Diffraction of Waves 0:18
Source of Sound Waves 0:31
Huygens' Principle 1:14
Diffraction of Light from Narrow Slit 10:57
Light From a Distant Source 11:48
Pick Any Point 13:55
Source of Wave Front 14:36
Waves Traveling Parallel to Each Other 15:27
Franhofer Diffraction 19:38
Drawing Perpendicular 20:12
First Maximum 23:12
Every Wave Has Interference and Diffraction 27:44
Width of Central Maximum 32:49
Width of Slit is 0.2 mm 33:13
Monochromatic Light 33:40
If Angle is << 1 36:39
If W= 2cms 41:15
Intensity of Diffraction Patterns 44:21
Plotting Intensity Versus Light 44:59
Resolution 45:35
Considering Two Source 45:55
Two Objects Resolved 46:41
Rayleigh Principle 47:44
Diffraction Grating 51:18
First Order Max 58:00
Intensity Shown in Figure 58:21
Extra Example 1: Slit Diffraction 5:50
Extra Example 2: Minima in Diffraction Pattern 6:47
Extra Example 3: Diffraction Grating 6:38

## Section 6: Modern Physics

Dual Nature of Light 1:19:02
Intro 0:00
Photoelectric Effect 0:13
Shine Light on Metal Surface 2:39
Another Metal Surface Both Enclosed and Connected to Battery 3:02
Connecting Ammeter to Read Current 3:50
Connecting a Variable Voltage 4:20
Negative Voltage Has Stopping Potential 10:20
Features of Photoelectric Effect 20:44
Dependence on Intensity 21:01
Energy Carried By Wave Proportional to Intensity 21:11
Kinetic Energy 23:21
Dependence of Photoemission on Time 23:40
Dependence on Frequency 26:54
Measuring Maximum Kinetic Energy 31:11
Einstein and the Photoelectric Effect 31:21
Stream of Quantum Particles 33:00
Dim Blue Light, Few Photons 36:42
Bright Red Light, Many Photons 37:31
Electron is Bound to Surface of Metal 39:33
Example 44:20
Incident Light 200 nm 45:20
Compton Scattering 50:22
Shooting X-Rays at Targets 50:45
Photons Colliding with Electrons 55:48
Compton Wavelength of Electron 56:05
Example 57:25
Lambda=0.1nm 57:30
Extra Example 1: Photoelectric Effect 9:31
Extra Example 2: Different Frequency Radiation 9:49
Matter Waves 1:30:10
Intro 0:00
De Broglie Wavelength 1:42
Photon of light E=hf 4:23
For particles Lambda=hp 12:20
Davisson and Germer, Electron Diffraction 14:06
Double Slit, Instead of Light Shooting Electrons 18:25
Detecting Electrons on Fluorescent Screen 18:55
Bright Fringes 21:37
Example 26:03
Electron Moves 26:18
Kinetic Energy of Electron 32:20
Wavelength of Baseball 33:59
Refraction Pattern 40:00
Uncertainty Principle 41:44
Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle 42:05
Sending an Electron Through a Hole 47:54
In Y Direction the Position is Uncertain 51:54
Example 57:00
Speed of Electron 57:09
Position of Electron 60:38
Extra Example 1: Kinetic Energy of Electrons 13:23
Extra Example 2: Uncertainty Principle 10:49
Extra Example 3: Wavelength of Electron and Photon 5:10
Hydrogen Atom 1:25:50
Intro 0:00
Nuclear Model 0:12
J.J. Thomson Discovered Electrons 1:40
Rutherford Experiment 2:52
Example: Solar System 13:39
Planetary Model 14:40
Centripetal Acceleration 16:48
Line Spectra 18:48
Low Pressure Gas Connecting to High Voltage 19:37
Group of Wavelength 21:06
Emission Spectra 21:28
Lyman 22:38
Balmer Series 22:52
Pascen Series 23:04
Bohr's Model 27:14
Electron in Circular Orbit 27:30
Stationary Orbits 28:34
Radiation is Emitted When Electron Makes Transition 29:37
For Each Orbit Mass, Speed, Radius 33:55
Quantized Energy of the Bohr Model 35:58
Electron in Circular Orbit 36:24
Total Energy 45:18
Line Spectra Intercepted 46:12
Energy of Orbit 46:30
Balmer Series 53:36
Paschen Series 53:56
Example 54:57
N=1 and N=2 55:01
Extra Example 1: Balmer Series for Hydrogen 9:39
Extra Example 2: Minimum n for Hydrogen 11:06
Extra Example 3: Energy to Transition Electron 5:30
Nuclear Physics 1:30:30
Intro 0:00
Nucleus 0:33
Positively Charged Particles 0:53
Z=Atomic Mass Number 2:08
Example of Carbon, 6 Protons and 6 Neutrons 5:34
Nucleus with 27 Protons 10:48
Binding Energy 18:56
Intro 19:10
Helium Nucleus 19:51
Binding Energy 24:28
Alpha Decay 29:08
Energy of Uranium 38:04
Beta Decay 43:03
Nuclei Emits Negative Particles 45:00
Beta Particles are Electrons 45:24
Gamma Decay 57:01
Gamma Ray is Photon of High Energy 57:13
Nucleus Emits a Photon 59:02
Extra Example 1: Radium Alpha Decay 9:34
Extra Example 2: Binding Energy of Iron 7:19
Extra Example 3: Missing Particle 13:35

Duration: 86 hours, 03 minutes

Number of Lessons: 35

#### Student Feedback

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By Scott YangJuly 31, 2019
I can hear a sound and give the frequency. I have good master tuning.
By Salman KhanSeptember 30, 2015
I was wondering how will I ever understand the derivation of the formulas. Thank you!
By Jamal TischlerAugust 18, 2015
It will move to the left relative to the truck. The acceleration a to the left is the fictional or inertial acceleration and that means that is relative to the truck. There are 2 diffrent accelerations a in opposite directions and they cancel, if we discuss relative to the ground.
By Catherine LinJanuary 28, 2015
Thank you very much for these videos. They are a great help!
By Jamal TischlerOctober 8, 2014
I apreciate you proved the formulas ! It helped me.

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