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For more information, please see full course syllabus of AP Psychology
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Lecture Comments (2)

1 answer

Last reply by: Professor Charles Schallhorn
Mon Nov 10, 2014 2:01 PM

Post by Omar Arab on November 4, 2013

It a great lecture. could help me answering these questions?

What is the difference between reliability and validity of an intelligence test?
Savant syndrome lends support to which theory of intelligence?


  • Cognition: the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating
  • Prototype: a mental image or best example of a category. Matching new items to a prototype provides a quick and easy method for sorting items into categories (as when comparing feathered creatures to a prototypical bird, such as a robin)
  • Algorithms: a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem.
  • Heuristics: “rules of thumb” or a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier but also more error-prone than algorithms
  • Insight: a sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem; it contrasts with strategy-based solutions
  • Confirmation Bias: a tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence—we are uncomfortable with cognitive dissonance
  • Fixation: the inability to see a problem from a fresh point of view—this relates to how we see/define a problem—can lead to others
  • Representative Heuristic: judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes; may lead us to ignore other relevant information
  • Availability heuristic: estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; if instances come readily to mind (perhaps because of their vividness), we presume such events are common
  • Overconfidence: the tendency to be more confident that correct – to over-estimate the accuracy of our beliefs and judgments
  • Belief Perseverance: clinging to one’s initial conceptions after the basis on which they are formed has been discredited
  • Framing: the way an issue is posed or presented; how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgments
  • Creativity is the ability to produce novel and valuable ideas in all fields
  • Characteristics of creativity include expertise, imaginative thinking skills, an adventurous personality, intrinsic motivation, and a creative environment
  • While convergent thinking limits creativity, divergent thinking increases the likelihood
  • Intuition is an effortless, immediate, automatic feeling or thought—contrasted with explicit, conscious reasoning


Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  1. Intro
    • Overview
    • Cognition
    • Solving Problems
    • Friendship Algorithm
    • Problems in Problem Solving
    • More Problems: Representative Heuristic
    • More Problems: Representative Heuristic
    • More Problems: Availability Heuristic
    • More Impediments to Problem Solving
    • In Short
    • Creativity
    • Creativity
    • Intuition
    • Review
    • Intro 0:00
    • Overview 0:07
      • Synthesize How Biological, Cognitive, and Cultural Factors Converge to Facilitate Acquisition, Development, and Use of Language.
      • Identify Problem-Solving Strategies as Well as Factors That Influence Their Effectiveness.
      • List the Characteristics of Creative Thought and Creative Thinkers
    • Cognition 0:30
      • Cognition: The Mental Activities Associated With Thinking, Knowing, Remembering, and Communicating
      • Ideas Behind Thinking
    • Solving Problems 2:42
      • Algorithms: a Methodical, Logical Rule or Procedure That Guarantees Solving a Particular Problem
      • Heuristics: Rules of Thumb or a Simple Thinking Strategy That Often Allows Us to Make Judgments and Solve Problems Efficiently
      • Insight: A Sudden and Often Novel Realization of the Solution to a Problem; It Contrasts With Strategy-Based Solutions
    • Friendship Algorithm 3:50
      • Sheldon (of BBT) made up a Friendship Algorithm, Which is Displayed Here
    • Problems in Problem Solving 5:33
      • Confirmation Bias: A Tendency to Search for Information That Supports Our Preconceptions and to Ignore or Distort Contradictory Evidence -- We Are Uncomfortable With Cognitive Dissonance
      • Fixation: The Inability to See a Problem From a Fresh Point of View -- This Relates to How We See/Define a Problem -- Can Lead to Others
    • More Problems: Representative Heuristic 8:55
      • Representative Heuristic: Judging the Likelihood of Things in Terms of How Well They Seem to Represent, or Match, Particular Prototypes; May Lead Us to Ignore Other Relevant Information.
    • More Problems: Representative Heuristic 10:59
      • e.g. A Person Might Judge a Young Person More Likely to Commit Suicide Because of a Prototype of the Depressed Adolescent -- The Reality is That Suicide Rates are Not Higher in Younger Populations
    • More Problems: Availability Heuristic 12:02
      • Availability Heuristic: Estimating the Likelihood of Events Based on Their Availability in Memory; If Instances Come Readily to Mind (Perhaps Because of Their Vividness), We Presume Such Events are Common
      • We May Fear Flying Because of 9/11 or Some Other Notable Event -- This Influences Our Thinking
    • More Impediments to Problem Solving 14:06
      • Overconfidence: The Tendency to Be More Confident Than Correct -- To Over-Estimate the Accuracy of Our Beliefs and Judgments
      • Belief Perseverance: Clinging to One's Initial Conceptions After The Basis On Which They Are Formed Has Been Discredited
      • Framing: The Way an Issue Is Posed or Presented; How an Issue is Framed Can Significantly Affect Decisions and Judgments
    • In Short 17:19
      • Humans Are Not the Rational Creatures We Often Presume Them to Be
      • They Are Often Irrational, But Predictably So
      • Other Biases We Often Exhibit (Will Visit These in Later Units):
    • Creativity 20:29
      • The Ability to Produce Novel and Valuable Ideas
      • Characteristics/Components of Creativity
    • Creativity 24:30
      • Wolfgang Kohler Documented the Aha Experience While Studying Chimps When They Were Trying to Obtain a Banana That Was Out of Reach
      • Convergent Thinking -- Limits Creativity
      • Divergent Thinking -- Increases Likelihood of Creativity
    • Intuition 27:13
      • An Effortless Immediate, Automatic Feeling or Thought, As Contrasted With Explicit, Conscious Reasoning
    • Review 29:52
      • How Can Shortcuts That The Mind Uses Inhibit Our Thinking Skills?
      • How Do Smart Thinkers Use Intuition?
      • What is Framing?
      • What Factors Assist Creativity?
      • What is the Difference Between Convergent and Divergent Thinking?
      • How is Intuition Different From Conscious Cognition?