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Testing and Individual Differences, Part I

  • Psychologists design tests and use standardization strategies to establish reliability and validity
  • A construct is a type of definition creation of a concept so that it can be measured and observed
  • A normal curve is a symmetrical, bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes. Most scores fall near the average, and fewer and fewer scores lie near the extremes
  • Reliability is the degree to which a test yields consistent results.
  • Validity is the degree to which a test measures what it is designed to measure.
  • Types of tests include aptitude, achievement, speed, power, individual, group, and IQ
  • IQ is one construct to define what intelligence is
  • Both inherited and cultural factors contribute to one’s intelligence
  • Alfred Binet created a test for children to predict success in school. Louis Terman translated the test that became the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test
  • Sir Francis Galton coined the term nature versus nurture and created the statistical ideas of correlation and regression toward the mean

Testing and Individual Differences, Part I

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  1. Intro
    • Testing and Individual Differences (5-7%)
    • Putting a Number on Everything
    • Terms
    • Validity
    • Reliability
    • Types of Tests
    • More Tests
    • More IQ Terms
    • IQ Curve
    • Are IQ Tests Culturally Biased?
    • Reaction to Bias
    • Nature, Nurture and Intelligence
    • Challenges
    • Environmental Influences
    • Alfred Binet
    • Sir Francis Galton
    • Charles Spearman
    • Lewis Terman
    • David Wechsler
    • Review
    • Intro 0:00
    • Testing and Individual Differences (5-7%) 0:16
      • Standardization and Norms
      • Reliability and Validity
      • Types of Tests
      • Ethics and Standards in Testing
      • Explain How Psychologists Design Tests, Including Standardization Strategies and Other Techniques to Establish Reliability and Validity
    • Putting a Number on Everything 0:56
      • Americans Seem to Love Measuring Things and Giving Them Numbers
      • Caution in This Unit
      • Numbers We Use Can Be Misunderstood and Misused
      • What am I Not Measuring What I Measure This One Thing?
      • Does This Test Give Me All the Information I Need About The Group and/or Individual?
      • What is the Construct? Does it Reflect What it Needs to? What it Should Measure?
    • Terms 4:47
      • Norm
      • Standardization
      • Normal Curve
      • The Flynn Effect
      • Reliability
      • Validity
    • Validity 12:33
      • Validity: Ability of Test to Measure What it is Purported to Measure
      • Content Validity
      • Criterion Validity (Also Known As Predictive Validity)
      • Construct Validity
    • Reliability 15:56
      • Reliability: Reliable Test Should Give Same Score Each Time Same Person Takes It
      • Test-Retest
      • Split-Half
    • Types of Tests 17:16
      • Achievement Tests
      • Aptitude Tests
    • More Tests 20:48
      • Speed Tests
      • Power Tests
      • Individual Tests
      • Group Tests
    • More IQ Terms 22:47
      • Deviation IQ
      • IQ Scores Are Not Dependable Until Child Reaches Age 6
      • Terminal Decline
    • IQ Curve 24:10
      • IQ Curve Chart and Explanation
    • Are IQ Tests Culturally Biased? 26:15
      • Score Will Be Different With Less Experience With Culture in Which Test Was Developed
      • Supporters of IQ Tests Claim Tests Provide Accurate Measure of Success in School and Some Occupations
    • Reaction to Bias 27:45
      • Stereotype Threat -- Being At Risk of Confirming a Negative Stereotype About One's Group
    • Nature, Nurture and Intelligence 29:52
      • Heritability
      • Correlations of IQ and Genetics
    • Challenges 31:09
      • Identical Twins Often Treated Similarly if Together
      • If Apart, Often Put In Similar Environments
      • Some Argue for Genetic Causes -- However, Socioeconomic Issues and Test Bias Confound Issue
      • Programs Like Head Start Help Overcome Poverty Issue
    • Environmental Influences 33:32
      • Early Environmental Influences (Tutored Human Enrichment, Targeted Training)
      • Schooling and Intelligence (Project Head Start, Preschool)
    • Alfred Binet 34:32
      • French Psychologist
      • Created First Intelligence Test for Children
      • Goal To Create Tool to Identify Children Who Need Special Help
      • Louis Terman Took His Work and Translated into English -- Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test
    • Sir Francis Galton 35:42
      • Many Roles
      • Created Correlation and Regression Toward the mean
      • Intelligence Studies -- Founded Psychometrics
      • Coined Term Nature Versus Nurture
      • Eugenics
    • Charles Spearman 39:23
      • Statistics-Factor Analysis
      • Creator of Spearman's Rank Correlation Coefficient (-1 to +1)
      • Intelligence Theories
      • General Intelligence or G-Factor
      • Much of Intelligence Is Heritable
    • Lewis Terman 40:28
      • Stanford Psychologist
      • Translated Binet's Test
      • Studied Gifted Children in Genetic Studies of Genius
      • Longitudinal Study
      • Gifted Children
    • David Wechsler 42:15
      • Intelligence Testing
      • Opposed Stanford-Binet's Narrow Definition
      • Created WISC and WAIS
      • Flynn Effect Makes Decennial Updating Necessary
    • Review 43:07
      • When and Why Were Intelligence Tests Created?
      • What's the Difference Between Aptitude and Achievement Tests, and How Can We Develop and Evaluate Them?
      • How Stable Are Intelligence Scores Over the Life Span?
      • What Are the Traits of Those at the Low and High Intelligence Extremes?
      • What does Evidence Reveal About Heredity and Environmental Influences on Intelligence?
      • How Are the Contributors to Testing in America?
      • How does the Flynn Effect Change IQ Scores?