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Development, Part IV

  • Erik Erikson, protégé of Freud theorized that people go through eight stages of psychosocial development during their lifetimes
  • Erikson indicated that each stage or crisis could be successfully resolved; if not, that would make succeeding stages more challenging
  • Lawrence Kohlberg created a theory of moral development, proposing that people could go through three levels (six stages) of moral development
  • Kohlberg stressed that the conclusion was not as important as the reasoning process in making a moral decision
  • Carol Gilligan was one of several critics of Kohlberg’s theory, with her primary issue being one of gender—his did not study women, and Gilligan’s focus was on ethical reasoning and ethical relationships

Development, Part IV

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  1. Intro
    • Erikson: Psycho-Social Development
    • Stage 1: Trust Vs. Mistrust (Birth-1)
    • Stage 2: Autonomy Vs. Shame and Doubt (1-3)
    • Stage 3: Initiative Vs. Guilt (3-5)
    • Stage 4: Industry Vs. Inferiority (6-12)
    • Stage 5: Identity Vs. Role Confusion (Adolescence)
    • Stage 6: Intimacy Vs. Isolation (Young Adulthood)
    • Stage 7: Generativity Vs. Stagnation (Middle Adulthood)
    • Stage 8: Integrity Vs. Despair (Late Adulthood)
    • Kohlberg and Moral Development
    • Three Levels of Moral Development
    • Level 1 (Pre-Conventional)
    • Level 2 (Conventional)
    • Level 3 (Post-Conventional)
    • Criticisms of Kohlberg
    • Review
    • Intro 0:00
    • Erikson: Psycho-Social Development 0:10
      • Eight Stages of Psychosocial Dilemmas
      • Student of Freud
      • Added Social Aspect to Freud's Ideas
      • Examined Entire Lifespan
    • Stage 1: Trust Vs. Mistrust (Birth-1) 0:40
      • Children Are Completely Dependent on Others
      • Trust: Established When Babies are Given Adequate Warmth, Touching, Love, and Physical Care
      • Mistrust: Caused by Inadequate or Unpredictable Care
      • Important Events: Feeding
    • Stage 2: Autonomy Vs. Shame and Doubt (1-3) 1:58
      • Autonomy: Doing Things for Themselves
      • Overprotective and Ridiculing Children May Cause Children to Doubt Abilities and Feel Shameful
      • Important Events: Toilet Training
    • Stage 3: Initiative Vs. Guilt (3-5) 3:01
      • Initiative: Parents Reinforce Via Giving Children Freedom
      • Guilt: May Occur if Parents Criticize, Prevent Play or Discourage a Child's Questions
      • Important Events: Exploration
    • Stage 4: Industry Vs. Inferiority (6-12) 4:36
      • Industry: Occurs When Child is Praised for Productive Activities
      • Inferiority: Occurs if Child's Efforts are Regarded as Messy or Inadequate
      • Important Events: School
    • Stage 5: Identity Vs. Role Confusion (Adolescence) 5:31
      • Identity: For Adolescents, Who am I?
      • Role Confusion: Occurs When Adolescents are Unsure of Where They are Going and Who They Are
      • Important Events: Social Relationships
    • Stage 6: Intimacy Vs. Isolation (Young Adulthood) 7:53
      • Intimacy: Ability to Care About Others and Share Experiences With Them
      • Isolation: Feeling Alone and Uncared for
      • Important Events: Relationships (Emotionally Intimate)
    • Stage 7: Generativity Vs. Stagnation (Middle Adulthood) 9:20
      • Generativity: Interest in Guiding the Next Generation
      • Stagnation: When One is Only Concerned With One's Own Needs and Comforts
      • Important Events: Work and Parenthood
    • Stage 8: Integrity Vs. Despair (Late Adulthood) 10:53
      • Integrity: Self-Respect; Developed When People Have Lived Richly and Responsibly
      • Despair: Occurs When Previous Life Events are Viewed With Regret
      • Important Events: Reflection on Life
    • Kohlberg and Moral Development 13:11
      • Took Stage Theories and Applied to Moral Development
      • Gave Children Scenarios and Asked for Reasoning on What was Right and Wrong
      • Heinz Dilemma Example
      • Reasoning Created Patterns-Worked into Three Levels (Each With Two Stages)
      • Assumed Humans are Communicative, Possessed Reason and a Desire to Understand World
    • Three Levels of Moral Development 16:09
      • Preconventional: Moral Thinking Based on Consequences of Actions or Choices
      • Conventional: Reasoning Based on a Desire to Please Others or to Follow Accepted Rules and Values
      • Postconventional: Follows Self-Accepted Moral Principles
    • Level 1 (Pre-Conventional) 19:17
      • 1. Obedience and Punishment Orientation -- How Can I Avoid Punishment?
      • 2. Self-Interest Orientation -- What's in it for Me?
    • Level 2 (Conventional) 20:04
      • 3. Interpersonal Accord and Conformity (Good Boy/Good Girl Attitude)
      • 4. Authority and Social-Order Maintaining Orientation
    • Level 3 (Post-Conventional) 21:36
      • 5. Social Contract Orientation
      • 6. Universal Ethics Principles (Morality of Individual Principles)
    • Criticisms of Kohlberg 24:50
      • Cross-Cultural, Most Are in the First 4 Stages
      • Post-Conventional Seem to Be European and North American Educated Middle Class Which Values Individualism
      • Collectivist Cultures' Morality Ignored/Viewed Negatively
      • Carol Gilligan Was a Colleague Who Focused on Ethical Reasoning and Ethical Relationships
      • Viewed Kohlberg's Work as Androcentric
      • Lacked Social Justice and Cultural Neutrality
    • Review 26:55
      • How did Piaget, Kohlberg, and Later Researchers Describe Adolescent Cognitive and Moral Development?
      • How Does Thinking Change During Childhood Into Adulthood for Piaget?
      • Erikson Talks About Psychosocial Development -- Describe The Crises of Each Stage and How Positive Growth Develops From Each
      • Kohlberg Examines Moral Development -- Describe How He Determined a Person Was at a Particular Stage
      • Why Does Gillian Criticize Kohlberg's Work? Give Examples