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For more information, please see full course syllabus of AP Psychology
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Lecture Comments (2)

1 answer

Last reply by: Professor Charles Schallhorn
Mon Nov 10, 2014 4:41 PM

Post by Angela Patrick on November 9, 2013

Towards the end of the video you were describing needs vs. wants and I am wondering whether or not money could be considered a need in our society.

I feel like a need should be something that is not man-made but without money we realistically could not obtain viable shelter and food

Motivation, Part I

  • Motivation as the dynamics of a behavior that initiate, sustain, direct, and terminate actions
  • One model has needs, drives, responses, and goals
  • Instinct (fixed action pattern): a complex behavior/set of behaviors done in the same way by every member of the species
  • Motivation is a psychological feature that arouses an organism to act toward a goal and elicits, controls, and sustains certain goal-directed behaviors
  • Incentives—something that motivates an individual to perform an action—within economics, incentives are external rewards to draw out particular desired behaviors
  • Motives are internal, incentives are external
  • Drive reduction theory states that an equilibrium in the body must be maintained, so if a need arise, a drive is created, and a reduction of the drive is acted upon
  • Links:

Motivation, Part I

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  1. Intro
    • Motivation and Emotion (6-8%)
    • Objectives
    • Objectives, Continued
    • A Couple of Videos
    • Defining Motivation and a Model
    • Instincts and Evolutionary Psychology
    • Motives and Incentives
    • Drives and Incentives
    • Incentive Value
    • High and Low Incentive Value Goals
    • Would This Interest You?
    • Types of Motives
    • Arousal Theory
    • Arousal Theory
    • Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
    • Maslow Part 2
    • Review
    • Intro 0:00
    • Motivation and Emotion (6-8%) 0:07
      • Biological Bases
      • Theories of Motivation
      • Hunger, Thirst, Sex, and Pain
      • Social Motives
      • Theories of Emotion
      • Stress
      • In This Part of the Course, We Will Explore Biological and Social Factors That Motivate Behavior and Biological and Cultural Factors That Influence Emotion
    • Objectives 0:42
      • Identify and Apply Basic Motivational Concepts to Understand the Behavior of Humans and Other Animals (e.g., Instincts, Incentives, Intrinsic Versus Extrinsic Motivation).
      • Discuss the Biological Underpinnings of Motivation, Including Needs, Drives, and Homeostasis.
      • Compare and Contrast Motivational Theories (e.g., Drive Reduction Theory, Arousal Theory, General Adaptation Theory), Including the Strengths and Weaknesses of Each.
      • Describe Classic Research Findings in Specific Motivation Systems (e.g. Eating, Sex, Social)
    • Objectives, Continued 1:16
      • Discuss Theories of Stress and the Effects of Stress on Psychological and Physical Well-Being.
      • Compare and Contrast Major Theories of Emotion (e.g. James-Lange, Cannon-Bard, Schachter Two-Factor Theory).
      • Describe How Cultural Influences Shape Emotional Expression, Including Variations in Body Language.
      • Identify Key Contributors in the Psychology of Motivation and Emotion (e.g. William James, Alfred Kinsey, Abraham Maslow, Stanley Schachter, Hans Selye).
    • A Couple of Videos 1:49
      • Motivational Speech Videos From YouTube
      • Overcoming Obstacles
      • No Arms, No Legs, No Worries
    • Defining Motivation and a Model 3:28
      • Dynamics of Behavior That Initiate, Sustain, Direct, and Terminate Actions
      • Model of How Motivated Activities Work
    • Instincts and Evolutionary Psychology 4:18
      • Instinct (Fixed Action Pattern): A Complex Behavior/Set of Behaviors Done in the Same Way by Every Member of the Species
    • Motives and Incentives 8:41
      • Motivation is a Psychological Feature That Arouses an Organism to Act Toward a Goal and Elicits, Controls, and Sustains Certain Goal-Directed Behaviors
      • Incentives -- Something That Motivates an Individual to Perform an Action -- Within Economics, Incentives are External Rewards to Draw Out Particular Desired Behaviors
      • Motives are Internal, Incentives are External
    • Drives and Incentives 11:23
      • Drive-Reduction Theory
      • Homeostasis-Steady State of Body Equilibrium; Balance
      • Need -- Biological Imperative
      • Drive -- Biological Action Affect Need
      • Drive Reduction -- Behavior to Reduce Drive
      • Need --> Drive --> Drive Reduction
      • We May Need Water, We Get Thirsty, We Quench Thirst by Doing Drive-Reducing Behaviors, Like Drinking Water or Another Drink
      • We May Have the Same Drives, But Reduce Them in Different Ways
    • Incentive Value 12:48
      • Goal's Appeal Beyond Its Ability to Fill a Need
    • High and Low Incentive Value Goals 13:07
      • Incentive: A Positive or Negative Environment Stimulus That Motivates Behavior
      • ex: High Incentive Value Goal -- Ice Cream
      • ex: Low-Incentive Value Goal -- Carrot
    • Would This Interest You? 14:10
      • Picture of Larvae or Worms
    • Types of Motives 15:53
      • Primary Motive: Innate (Inborn) Motives Based on Biological Needs That Must Be Met to Survive
      • Stimulus Motive: Needs For Stimulation and Information; Appear to be Innate, But Not Necessary for Survival
      • Secondary Motive: Based on Learned Needs, Drives, And Goals
    • Arousal Theory 17:09
      • People Will Do Certain Actions to Maintain Certain Optimal Levels of Physiological Arousal. If the Level is Too High, They Will Seek to Relax. If Level is too Low, They Will Seek Out Action or Something That Stimulates Them
      • Based Upon Individual and Situation -- Highly Variable
      • Being an Introvert or Extrovert May Change One's View of What is a Pleasant Arousal Level
    • Arousal Theory 19:58
      • Yerkes-Dodson Law of Arousal
    • Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs 20:31
      • Physiological --> Safety --> Love/Belonging --> Esteem --> Self-Actualization
    • Maslow Part 2 22:57
      • Chart of More Complex Hierarchy System
    • Review 24:00
      • What is the Difference Between a Motive and an Incentive?
      • Describe the Drive Reduction Model of Motivation
      • Is There a Difference Between Needs and Wants?