In this lesson, our instructor, Charles Schallhorn describes the different ways of learning, such as observational learning, and looks at researchers who took the ideas of Pavlov and Skinner and developed them further. He also examines concepts such as learned helplessness and habituation.
Observational learning follows the old adage, “monkey see, monkey do”
Albert Bandura’s research with children and a toy (Bobo doll) revealed much about the nature of modeling and imitation
Bandura also added “social cognitive theory” to behaviorism by adding the concepts of self-efficacy theory and reciprocal determinism
Robert Rescorla added to the work of Pavlov by showing how an animal can learn the predictability of an event (expectancy)
Skinner’s ideas elaborated with Tolman’s work on a cognitive map and latent learning
Tolman also examined insight learning, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation
Martin Seligman used puppies to create an understanding of learned helplessness
Cognitive Aspect of Learning
Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.
Describe the Essential Characteristics of Insight Learning, Latent Learning, and Social Learning.
Apply Learning Principles to Explain Emotional Learning, Taste Aversion, Superstitious Behavior, and Learned Helplessness.
Suggest How Behavior Modification, Biofeedback, Coping Strategies, and Self-Control Can Be Used to Address Behavioral Problems.
Identify Key Contributors in the Psychology of Learning (e.g. Albert Bandura, John Garcia, Ivan Pavlov, Robert Rescorla, B.F. Skinner, Edward Thorndike, Edward Tolman, John B. Watson).
Observational Learning 0:52
Monkey See, Monkey Do
Children See, Children Do
Ever Watch a Child View a TY Show With Violent Characters and Then See His/Her Behavior Change?
Albert Bandura -- Bobo Doll Learning
Model and Imitation
In Sociology, Anticipatory Socialization
Mirror Neurons -- Frontal Lobe Neurons That Fire When Performing Certain Actions or When Observing Another Doing So. The Brain's Mirroring of Another's Action May Enable Imitation and Empathy
Observational Learning 8:04
Bandura, Continued 9:55
Social Cognitive Theory -- Learn by Imitating Actions of Others, Vicarious Learning
Self-Efficacy Theory (Sense of Control)
Reciprocal Determinism -- The Individual And Environment Influence and Change Each Other
Pavlov's Ideas Extended 13:06
Skinner's Ideas Extended 14:17
Cognition and Operant Conditioning
Latent Learning -- Learning That Becomes Apparent When There is an Incentive to Show It -- Can Seemingly Lay Dormant
Skinner's Ideas Extended 17:15
Applications of Skinner's Ideas 18:26
Comparing Classical/Operant Conditioning 21:59
Differences in Their Basic Ideas, Responses, and Acquisition
Comparing Classical/Operant Conditioning 22:50
Differences in How Conditioning Becomes Extinct, and in Spontaneous Recovery
Comparing Classical/Operant Conditioning 23:52
Differences in Generalization and Discrimination
Additional Concepts in Learning 25:11
Habituation -- Gradual Process Where the Organism Decreases a Response to Stimulus That is Repeated Over Time
Learned Helplessness -- Martin Seligman, Puppies, and Humans -- Condition of a Human or Animal That Has Learned to Behave Helplessness, Failing to Respond Even Though There are Opportunities For It to Help Itself by Avoiding Unpleasant Circumstances or by Gaining Positive Rewards
What is a Model and What Is Imitation in Social Learning Theory?
What Is Reciprocal Determinism and How Can It Create Certain Outcomes for Individuals Who Isolate Themselves?
Describe the Bobo Doll Study and Why it was so Important for Understanding Social Learning Theory
Compare and Contrast CC and OC in Terms of Acquisition, Reinforcement, Generalization, Discrimination, and Extinction
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This book that preps you for the AP Psychology Exam includes 2 full-length practie tests with detailed explanations, thorough subject reviews for all test topics, from sensation and perception to abnormal psychology, and proven techniques to help you score higher.
This book is an updated manual that offers detailed preparation for the AP Psychology exam with features that include: three full-length exams (one diagnostic test and two full-length practice tests), and a review of all AP test topics, including research methods, the biological basis of behavior, sensation and perception, states of consciousness, learning, cognition, personality, abnormal psychology, and treatment of disorders. It also includes fifteen additional multiple-choice practice questions for each unit with explained answers, and an analysis of the test's essay section with a sample annotated essay.
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