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For more information, please see full course syllabus of AP Psychology
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Cognitive Aspect of Learning

  • Observational learning follows the old adage, “monkey see, monkey do”
  • Albert Bandura’s research with children and a toy (Bobo doll) revealed much about the nature of modeling and imitation
  • Bandura also added “social cognitive theory” to behaviorism by adding the concepts of self-efficacy theory and reciprocal determinism
  • Robert Rescorla added to the work of Pavlov by showing how an animal can learn the predictability of an event (expectancy)
  • Skinner’s ideas elaborated with Tolman’s work on a cognitive map and latent learning
  • Tolman also examined insight learning, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation
  • Martin Seligman used puppies to create an understanding of learned helplessness

Cognitive Aspect of Learning

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  1. Intro
    • Objectives
    • Observational Learning
    • Observational Learning
    • Bandura, Continued
    • Pavlov's Ideas Extended
    • Skinner's Ideas Extended
    • Skinner's Ideas Extended
    • Applications of Skinner's Ideas
    • Comparing Classical/Operant Conditioning
    • Comparing Classical/Operant Conditioning
    • Comparing Classical/Operant Conditioning
    • Additional Concepts in Learning
    • Review
    • Intro 0:00
    • Objectives 0:12
      • Describe the Essential Characteristics of Insight Learning, Latent Learning, and Social Learning.
      • Apply Learning Principles to Explain Emotional Learning, Taste Aversion, Superstitious Behavior, and Learned Helplessness.
      • Suggest How Behavior Modification, Biofeedback, Coping Strategies, and Self-Control Can Be Used to Address Behavioral Problems.
      • Identify Key Contributors in the Psychology of Learning (e.g. Albert Bandura, John Garcia, Ivan Pavlov, Robert Rescorla, B.F. Skinner, Edward Thorndike, Edward Tolman, John B. Watson).
    • Observational Learning 0:52
      • Monkey See, Monkey Do
      • Children See, Children Do
      • Ever Watch a Child View a TY Show With Violent Characters and Then See His/Her Behavior Change?
      • Albert Bandura -- Bobo Doll Learning
      • Observational Learning
      • Model and Imitation
      • In Sociology, Anticipatory Socialization
      • Mirror Neurons -- Frontal Lobe Neurons That Fire When Performing Certain Actions or When Observing Another Doing So. The Brain's Mirroring of Another's Action May Enable Imitation and Empathy
    • Observational Learning 8:04
      • Prosocial Effects
      • Antisocial Effects
    • Bandura, Continued 9:55
      • Social Cognitive Theory -- Learn by Imitating Actions of Others, Vicarious Learning
      • Self-Efficacy Theory (Sense of Control)
      • Reciprocal Determinism -- The Individual And Environment Influence and Change Each Other
    • Pavlov's Ideas Extended 13:06
      • Robert Rescorla
    • Skinner's Ideas Extended 14:17
      • Cognition and Operant Conditioning
      • Latent Learning -- Learning That Becomes Apparent When There is an Incentive to Show It -- Can Seemingly Lay Dormant
    • Skinner's Ideas Extended 17:15
      • Biological
    • Applications of Skinner's Ideas 18:26
      • Operant Conditioning
    • Comparing Classical/Operant Conditioning 21:59
      • Differences in Their Basic Ideas, Responses, and Acquisition
    • Comparing Classical/Operant Conditioning 22:50
      • Differences in How Conditioning Becomes Extinct, and in Spontaneous Recovery
    • Comparing Classical/Operant Conditioning 23:52
      • Differences in Generalization and Discrimination
    • Additional Concepts in Learning 25:11
      • Habituation -- Gradual Process Where the Organism Decreases a Response to Stimulus That is Repeated Over Time
      • Learned Helplessness -- Martin Seligman, Puppies, and Humans -- Condition of a Human or Animal That Has Learned to Behave Helplessness, Failing to Respond Even Though There are Opportunities For It to Help Itself by Avoiding Unpleasant Circumstances or by Gaining Positive Rewards
      • Superstitious Behavior
      • Biofeedback
    • Review 32:43
      • What is a Model and What Is Imitation in Social Learning Theory?
      • What Is Reciprocal Determinism and How Can It Create Certain Outcomes for Individuals Who Isolate Themselves?
      • Describe the Bobo Doll Study and Why it was so Important for Understanding Social Learning Theory
      • Compare and Contrast CC and OC in Terms of Acquisition, Reinforcement, Generalization, Discrimination, and Extinction