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For more information, please see full course syllabus of AP Psychology
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Lecture Comments (2)

1 answer

Last reply by: Professor Charles Schallhorn
Mon Nov 10, 2014 2:17 PM

Post by Soheil Pana on October 31, 2014

" Some old hore, eehhm some old horse'' ^^  cracked me up ! ^^

Memory, Part II

  • Maintenance rehearsal is simple repetition of ideas to recall them
  • Elaborative rehearsal combines the new info with existing memories to help transfer into long term memory
  • Pseudo-memories are false memories that people believe are true
  • Procedural memories are related to skills and actions
  • Declarative memories are related to facts
  • Semantic memories are related to impersonal facts and everyday knowledge
  • Episodic memories are related to personal experiences
  • The serial-position effect shows us that we recall the beginning and end of lists of terms we are trying to recall
  • Recognition and recall are two ways to show memory—recall is harder due to the lack of external cues
  • There are many reasons why we forget—disuse, interference, state/mood dependence, lack of cues

Memory, Part II

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  1. Intro
    • Transfer of Training
    • Repression and Suppression
    • Flashbulb Memories
    • Memory Formation
    • Electroconvulsive Shock (ECS)
    • Memory Structures
    • Ways to Improve Memory
    • Ways to Improve Memory, Continued
    • More Ways to Improve Memory
    • Mnemonics: Memory Tricks
    • Using Mnemonics to Recall an Order
    • Eyewitness Memory
    • Elizabeth Loftus, Continued
    • Eyewitness Memory
    • Review
    • Intro 0:00
    • Transfer of Training 0:08
      • Positive Transfer: Mastery of One Task Aids Learning or Performing Another
      • Negative Transfer: Mastery of One Task Conflicts With Learning or Performing Another
      • e.g. Volleyball and Softball Training Helps One Another
    • Repression and Suppression 1:03
      • Repression: Unconsciously Pushing Painful, Embarrassing, or Threatening Memories Out of Awareness/Consciousness
      • Suppression: Consciously Putting Something Painful or Threatening Out of Mind Or Trying to Keep It From Entering Awareness
    • Flashbulb Memories 2:00
      • Memories Created During Times of Personal Tragedy, Accident, or Other Emotionally Significant Events
      • Includes Both Positive and Negative Events
      • Not Always Accurate
      • Great Confidence is Placed in Them Even Though They May Be Inaccurate
    • Memory Formation 3:40
      • Retrograde Amnesia: Forgetting Events That Occurred Before an Injury or Trauma
      • Anterograde Amnesia: Forgetting Events That Follow an Injury or Trauma (e.g. 50 First Dates or Memento)
      • Consolidation: Forming a Long-Term Memory
    • Electroconvulsive Shock (ECS) 4:47
      • Mild Electrical Shock Passed Through the Brain Produces a Convulsion, Destroys Any Memory That is Being Formed; One Way to Prevent Consolidation
    • Memory Structures 5:23
      • Hippocampus: Brain Structure Associated With Emotion and Transfer of Information Passing From Short-Term Memory Into Long-Term Memory
      • Long-Term Potentiation (LTP): An Increase in a Synapse's Firing Potential After Brief, Rapid Stimulation. Believed to be a Neural Basis for Learning and Memory
    • Ways to Improve Memory 9:01
      • Practice, Practice, Practice
      • Remember the First Time You Played Rock Band or Some Other Video Game? Were You Immediately an Expert?
      • Priming: The Activation, Often Unconsciously, of Particular Associations in Memory
      • Recitation: Summarizing Aloud While You Are Learning
      • Meaningful -- Make the Ideas You Are Studying Meaningful -- When Possible, Make Connections to Ideas You Already Know
      • Organization: Organizing Difficult Items Into Chunks; a Type of Reordering
    • Ways to Improve Memory, Continued 13:40
      • Study Repeatedly: Use Distributed/Spaced Practice-Take Advantage of Down Time -- Little Bits to Review Material
      • Minimize Interference -- Do Not Study Similar Subjects Back to Back
      • Sleep -- Get Enough
      • Overlearning: Studying is Continued Beyond Bare Mastery
      • Knowledge of Results: Feedback Allowing You to Check Your Progress -- Test Yourself
    • More Ways to Improve Memory 15:51
      • Spaced Practice: Alternating Short Study Sessions With Brief Rest Periods
      • Massed Practice: Studying for Long Periods Without Rest Periods
      • Lack of Sleep Decreases Retention; Sleep Aids Consolidation
      • Hunger Decreases Retention
      • Cognitive Interview: Technique Used to Improve Memories of Witnesses
    • Mnemonics: Memory Tricks 17:26
      • Any Kind of Memory System of Aid
    • Using Mnemonics to Recall an Order 18:37
      • Form a Chain or a Story: Remember Lists in Order, Forming an Exaggerated Association Connecting Item One to Two and So On
      • Take a Mental Walk: Mentally Walk Along a Familiar Path, Placing Objects or Ideas Along The Path
      • Form Acronyms -- My Very Eager Mother Just Served Us Nine (Pizzas) -- The Planets
      • SOHCAHTOA -- Trigonometry
    • Eyewitness Memory 21:17
      • Elizabeth Loftus -- Lots of Research Into the Consolidation of Memory and How Memories Are Easily Changed -- Includes Planting False Memories, Misinformation and Incorrect Attribution
      • Misinformation Effect: By Incorporating Misleading Information or Asking Leading Questions, An Investigator Can Change One's Memory of an Event
      • Source Amnesia: Attributing to the Wrong Source an Event We Have Experienced, Heard About, Read About, or Imagined. (Also Called Source Misattribution.) Source Amnesia, Along With the Misinformation Effect, is at the Heart of Many False Memories
    • Elizabeth Loftus, Continued 23:10
      • False Memories -- In Court, Gave Evidence of the Malleability of Memory and Showed How the Idea of Repressed Memories Are Likely Just Ideas Implanted During Therapy Sessions, Not Recollections of Actual Events
      • The Lost in the Mall Technique With Children -- Gave Children the Idea That They Had Had an Experience of Being Lost. 25% Indicated That They Later Thought That This Was a Real Occurrence in Their Lives, They Had a Memory For it
      • Later Variations Showed the 1/3 of Subjects Could Be Convinced That They Had Traumatizing Events That Had Occurred to Them
    • Eyewitness Memory 24:40
      • The Book, Picking Cotton
      • Wrongfully Accused Man, Ronald Cotton -- Convicted of Rape by Eyewitness Testimony
      • Eventually Overturned When Real Rapist Was Arrested On Another Charge
      • Link to Book
      • Link to The Innocence Project
    • Review 26:38
      • How Do Misinformation, Imagination, and Source Amnesia Influence Our Memory Construction?
      • How Real Seeming Are False Memories?
      • What Is The Controversy Related to Claims of Repressed and Recovered Memories?
      • How Can an Understanding of Memory Contribute to More Effective Studying Techniques?