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U.S. Foreign Policy Under Theodore Roosevelt, William H. Taft, and Woodrow Wilson

  • Teddy Roosevelt’s “big stick” policy: foreign policy in Latin America depended on strong military action to achieve U.S. goals
  • The justification: use U.S. leadership & help to maintain balance of power principles to “civilize” or “uplift” “weaker” nations
  • Roosevelt sent warships in to support Panamanian rebellion & Panama eventually declared its independence & U.S. took control of Panama “Canal Zone” & agreed to pay $10 million & annual rent of $250,000
  • Roosevelt Corollary: the U.S. would assume the role of police power, restoring order & depriving other creditors of the excuse to intervene (keep western hemisphere free of Euro. intervention)
  • Open Door Policy in China: The U.S. wanted access so they sent Secretary of State John Hay to seek trading opportunities w/China so it promised to respect Chinese sovereignty if they opened up trade opportunities for U.S.
  • Backlash against imperialism in China: the Boxer Rebellion
  • Tensions with Japan eventually led to Root-Takahira Agreement of 1900 that confirmed the status quo in the Pacific as well as the principles of free oceanic commerce & equal trade opportunity in China
  • Taft shifts to “dollar diplomacy” and Wilson pursues “moral diplomacy” in Latin America
  • The U.S. intervened to a certain extent during Mexican Revolution especially after Pancho Villa raided town of Columbus, NM, so Wilson responded by sending General John J. Pershing & 10,000 + troops into Mexico on a “punitive expedition” to punish Villa & his forces; they never caught Villa, however

U.S. Foreign Policy Under Theodore Roosevelt, William H. Taft, and Woodrow Wilson

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  1. Intro
    • Overview
      • Roosevelt's “Big Stick” Policy
      • Speak Softly and Carry a Big Stick
        • The U.S. Builds the Panama Canal
        • The Panama Canal
        • Panama Canal
          • Roosevelt Corollary
          • Latin Americans' Reactions
          • U.S. Pursues Interests in China
          • Spheres of Influence
            • Chinese Response to Imperialism
            • Hay Reaffirms the Open Door Policy
            • Tensions Between U.S. and Japan Rise
            • Anti-Asian Backlash in the U.S.
            • Taft's Dollar Diplomacy
            • Woodrow Wilson Shifts the Foreign Policy
            • U.S. and Mexican Revolution
            • U.S. “Punitive Expedition”
            • Tension Were Brewing in Europe
            • Triple Alliance and Triple Entente
              • International Efforts for Peace
              • Example 1
                • Example 2
                  • Example 3
                    • Intro 0:00
                    • Overview 1:06
                    • Roosevelt's “Big Stick” Policy 2:21
                      • Strong Military Action
                      • Civilize or Uplift Weaker Nations
                      • Anglo-American Friendship
                    • Speak Softly and Carry a Big Stick 6:45
                    • The U.S. Builds the Panama Canal 7:57
                      • Ferdinand de Lesseps
                      • Panama Route
                      • Declared its Independence
                      • Canal Zone
                    • The Panama Canal 9:52
                      • Commanding Commercial and Strategic Position
                      • Control Malaria
                      • Combat Several Tropical Diseases
                    • Panama Canal 11:24
                    • Roosevelt Corollary 11:47
                      • Age of Economic Imperialism
                      • Police Power
                    • Latin Americans' Reactions 14:34
                      • Aggressive Form with Mr. Roosevelt
                      • Sovereignty and Liberty of Nicaraguans
                    • U.S. Pursues Interests in China 16:10
                      • Spheres of Influence
                      • Secretary of State John Hay
                    • Spheres of Influence 19:05
                    • Chinese Response to Imperialism 20:24
                      • The Boxer Rebellion
                      • Western Devils
                      • U.S. and Japanese Troops
                    • Hay Reaffirms the Open Door Policy 22:26
                      • Support Chinese Students
                      • A Trade Relationship
                      • Scholarships for Chinese Students
                    • Tensions Between U.S. and Japan Rise 23:36
                      • The Spheres of Influence in China
                      • A Peace Treaty
                      • The Root-Takahira Agreement of 1900
                    • Anti-Asian Backlash in the U.S. 25:21
                      • Prejudice Against Asian-Americans
                      • Gentlemen's Agreement
                    • Taft's Dollar Diplomacy 27:18
                      • Increase U.S. Investments in Businesses
                      • The Rationale
                      • Chinese Revolution
                    • Woodrow Wilson Shifts the Foreign Policy 29:52
                      • Anti-Imperialist William Jennings Bryan
                      • Moral Diplomacy
                      • Agreement with Haiti
                      • Dominican Republic and Mexico
                    • U.S. and Mexican Revolution 32:43
                      • Caudillos and Coup d'etats
                      • Counsel Mexico for its Own Good
                      • Venustiano Carranza
                    • U.S. “Punitive Expedition” 35:50
                      • Francisco Poncho Villa and Emiliano Zapata
                      • Punitive Expedition
                    • Tension Were Brewing in Europe 37:55
                      • Triple Alliance and Dual Alliance
                      • Triple Entente
                      • The Apostle of Peace
                    • Triple Alliance and Triple Entente 40:13
                    • International Efforts for Peace 40:29
                      • Hague Peace Conference of 1899
                      • Erosion of the Nation's Sovereignty
                      • Cooling Off Treaties
                    • Example 1 41:32
                    • Example 2 43:33
                    • Example 3 46:03