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Manifest Destiny, Westward Expansion, And Increased Sectionalism

  • Manifest Destiny: : the ideology that it was American’s God-given right to expand westward (from the Atlantic to the Pacific), that white people of northern Euro. ancestry were superior
  • By the 1820s, the Mex. govt encouraged American immigration into Texas in order to strengthen the economy & increase tax revenues; the promise of cheap land attracted many white settlers to the region.
  • Eventually, Texas became independent after the Battle of San Jacinto & they signed a treaty giving TX independence
  • Huge westward migration: between 1840-1860, about 300,000 migrants traveled along the great overland trails
  • The Election of 1844 determined U.S. policy toward CA, OR, & TX & James Polk (Democrat) was a strong supporter of annexation & “re-occupation of Oregon” & used the slogan “fifty four forty or fight!” Polk wins & makes Texas a state in 1845.
  • The Mexican American War broke out in 1846 (provoked by the U.S.) and ended in 1848.
  • By 1846, a settlement was negotiated: Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (finally signed in 1848) whereby Mexico agreed to cede CA & NM to the U.S. & acknowledge the Rio Grande as the boundary of TX
  • As westward expansion continued, sectionalism grew because of disagreements between pro-slavery and anti-slavery Americans.
  • More about Manifest Destiny: http://www.pbs.org/kera/usmexicanwar/prelude/md_introduction.html

Manifest Destiny, Westward Expansion, And Increased Sectionalism

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  1. Intro
    • Overview
      • Westward Expansion
      • John Gast's American Progress
        • Americans in Texas
        • Stephen Austin: “The father of Texas” and Sam Houston, the First President of the Republic of Texas
          • Tensions between U.S. and Mexico
          • U.S. Settlements and The Texas War of Independence
          • Main Battles in the Texas War of Independence
            • Oregon
            • Huge Westward Migration and Trails
            • Expansion Issue Politicized
            • Compromise over Oregon And The Southwest
            • Map of the U.S.-Mexican War
              • U.S.-Mexican War
              • Mexican Cession
                • Polk Supports Extending the Missouri Compromise Line
                • The Sectional Debate Heats Up
                • Dissent and Divergence
                • Example 1
                  • Example 2
                    • Example 3
                      • Intro 0:00
                      • Overview 0:08
                      • Westward Expansion 3:17
                        • Manifest Destiny
                        • Penny Press
                        • Empire of Liberty
                      • John Gast's American Progress 8:05
                      • Americans in Texas 10:03
                        • Interested in Texas
                        • American Immigration Into Texas
                        • Stephen Austin
                        • Revolt Broke Out
                      • Stephen Austin: “The father of Texas” and Sam Houston, the First President of the Republic of Texas 13:36
                      • Tensions between U.S. and Mexico 14:02
                        • Legalize Slavery
                        • Instability in Mexico
                        • Independence of Texas
                        • Battle of San Jacinto
                      • U.S. Settlements and The Texas War of Independence 17:09
                        • U.S. Annexation of Texas
                        • Southern Democrats
                        • Election of 1844
                        • President martin Van Buren Refused
                      • Main Battles in the Texas War of Independence 18:55
                      • Oregon 19:51
                        • U.S. and British Sovereignty
                        • The Catholic Missionaries From Canada
                        • Oregon Fever
                        • A Measles Epidemic
                      • Huge Westward Migration and Trails 21:50
                        • Great Overland Trails
                        • Gender Lines
                      • Expansion Issue Politicized 23:37
                        • The Election of 1844
                        • President Tyler
                        • James Polk
                        • Fifty Four Forty or Fight
                      • Compromise over Oregon And The Southwest 25:26
                        • Border 49th Parallel
                        • The Northern Border of Oregon
                        • Zachary Taylor
                        • The Mexican American War
                      • Map of the U.S.-Mexican War 26:43
                      • U.S.-Mexican War 28:30
                        • John Slidell
                        • Whig Critics
                        • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
                      • Mexican Cession 29:42
                      • Polk Supports Extending the Missouri Compromise Line 30:43
                        • Banning Slavery North of the Line and Permitting it South of the Line
                        • Popular Sovereignty
                      • The Sectional Debate Heats Up 31:41
                        • Polk's Expansionist Agenda
                        • The Wilmot Proviso
                        • A Threat to Republican Liberties and White Yeoman Farming
                      • Dissent and Divergence 34:08
                        • Dissenter of the U.S.-Mexican War
                        • Frederick Douglass
                        • Diverging Views of Douglass and Garrison
                      • Example 1 37:32
                      • Example 2 40:54
                      • Example 3 41:50

                      Transcription: Manifest Destiny, Westward Expansion, And Increased Sectionalism

                      Welcome back to www.educator.com.0000

                      This lesson is on manifest destiny, westward expansion, and increased sectionalism.0002

                      We are going to touch upon the major themes during this antebellum era or the pre civil war era.0010

                      Most of the material that we are going to focus on is rooted in the desire for many Americans to expand westward.0019

                      They use this ideology of "manifest destiny" as their justification0028

                      for looking to expand the U.S. territory and empire from the Atlantic to the Pacific.0036

                      They believe that they have God on their side and they are justified in doing so.0045

                      We will get into that in a little more depth later on.0052

                      But during this time period, this is 1840’s, 1850’s, we will certainly see the expansion west and southwest.0056

                      And as a result, we are going to see new territories, new states coming into the Union such as Texas, California, and Oregon, to name a few.0066

                      There will be others as well.0076

                      This expansion to the west, as we call it in the United States, will eventually lead us to war with Mexico.0078

                      We are going to get into the causes of war with Mexico, as well as the consequences and the outcome of the Mexico and U.S. war.0089

                      We will also talk about how political violence will increasingly replace compromise.0098

                      Throughout U.S. history, we will see again that the issues related to slavery had been avoided.0104

                      What I like to say, kind of the can was kicked down the road from time to time.0114

                      This was such a contentious issue, and certainly a sectional issue, a major disagreement.0120

                      We will start to see that there are series of compromises and acts that will be passed, 0126

                      that will try to rectify this controversy over slavery.0133

                      But eventually, we are going to see this comes to a head and compromise fails, 0138

                      and more and more violence erupts that will culminate certainly in the Civil War.0143

                      Sectionalism is a huge theme throughout the antebellum era, and certainly centered on the slavery issue.0150

                      But other issues are connected to this as well, certainly the different economic systems that were in place, 0160

                      the cultural values that were different, and the conflict between States’ rights, 0167

                      that there was more of an emphasis in the Southern States vs. National Federal Power.0174

                      We will be getting into those major issues.0183

                      And then, we will see the decline of the second party system and the emergence of new parties that will kind of chime in on the slavery issue.0186

                      The term westward expansion is perhaps a U.S. centric term that we like to use a lot for better or for worse in U.S. history, 0201

                      to try to describe this phenomenon of moving from the East Coast of the United States.0212

                      At this point, the United States was also in, what today we call Midwest, the Great American plains, as it was also labeled.0220

                      We will see this desire to continue to move westward.0233

                      Yes, we will see after the 1840’s that the United States will acquire more than a million square miles of new territory.0238

                      Tremendous expansion and opportunity for Americans to invest in land.0246

                      And in many ways, to achieve that, later on we will call the American dream.0252

                      Even what Jefferson had spoken of, that every American should have a piece of land, and be able to have a farm and live self sufficiently.0261

                      Anyway, all of these ideas tied together and inspired many Americans to move westward.0272

                      We know there are other perspectives, when we talk about westward expansion.0280

                      To Native Americans, this term westward expansion is going to be disastrous.0284

                      As Native Americans will continue to be pushed farther and farther to the west, and marginalized in U.S. society, pushed on to reservations.0290

                      We will see even the worst case scenario also being killed and murdered, and viewed as, in the way for these western settlers.0301

                      There is a biased, I would say, to be aware of in this narrative of westward expansion.0317

                      Manifest destiny is very much tied in into this story, 0326

                      this ideology that it was American's God-given right to expand westward from the Atlantic to the Pacific.0330

                      It was an idealistic concept that white people of northern European ancestry were superior,0339

                      and therefore, justified in their expansion to the west.0348

                      On top of that, the idea is that they are bringing civilization.0353

                      They are bringing Republican institutions, they are bringing the Christian religion, and particularly, the Protestant Christian religion,0358

                      to other parts of what will become the United States, and that was a good thing.0367

                      We are bringing technology, modern institutions, republican institutions, all these things were viewed as positive, superior.0372

                      And therefore, Americans were justified in encroaching upon Native American lands and pushing them off their lands.0383

                      You could see this is a very biased type of ideology, but nonetheless, a powerful ideology that inspired many Americans.0392

                      And in many ways, will inform and be the justification for U.S. foreign policy, especially in terms of waging war with Mexico, for instance.0401

                      On top of this idea of manifest destiny, how did they get the word out,0421

                      how did they influence the government and other policymakers who believe in this idea.0424

                      In many ways, the penny press, the media, will become extremely important in helping to publicize the idea of manifest destiny.0432

                      John O'Sullivan who was a journalist at the time, lawyer, and Democratic Party activist, coined the phrase "manifest destiny".0441

                      The other thing to keep in mind is that newspapers are cheap, it cost a penny or two, in some cases.0451

                      Very accessible, very affordable, and very influential on people's hearts and minds, 0461

                      and the way that they viewed these opportunities.0466

                      However, not all people agreed how far the expansion of this empire of liberty should go.0470

                      Some believed the territorial expansion would reopen the slavery issue, which of course it would, and cause lots of dissension.0476

                      This image John Gast’s American Progress is very famous and very much tied into this idea of manifest destiny.0489

                      You should really try to have a good grasp of the meaning of this image, this painting.0499

                      One thing you may notice, looking and comparing the colors in the east and in the west.0506

                      Columbia here, what is in her hand.0515

                      You may notice that she is carrying a telegraph wire.0519

                      You may notice the types of industry, and technologies, and transportation systems0524

                      that have been developed in the east, which is very light, very symbolic of progress.0533

                      That it is good, that it is civilized.0540

                      You will notice people farming here, stagecoach.0544

                      But they are all obviously looking westward.0548

                      Of course, she looks very angelic, with the light on her back.0551

                      She is looking to the west.0556

                      There are dark clouds, and you can see Native American people who are bare breasted, with the kind of the stereotypical Mohawk.0558

                      You see animals, bears and bison on the wild frontier.0569

                      This of course is the unknown, the uncivilized, that needs to be conquered, and is really savage.0574

                      Therefore, the message here being that white Americans are going to help 0585

                      enlighten this dark west part of the United States, and help to civilize it.0591

                      A very important image that will tie into this westward expansion and justification to move westward.0599

                      Moving on, and talking about the southwest.0609

                      We are going to see that the United States is very much interested in Texas since the early 1800’s.0614

                      Do keep in mind again, that Mexico became independent from Spain in 1821.0621

                      And ultimately, Mexico was actually quite large at this point.0629

                      But they did go through a period of instability.0637

                      And in fact, a lot of the Latin American countries will have a lot of what they call caudillo rulers, who are very militaristic.0642

                      Republican democratic types of institutions did not take shape there.0651

                      This is going to cause a lot of political instability in the long run, which will leave Mexico very vulnerable.0658

                      But anyway, in the meantime, interest in Texas.0666

                      Many Americans were interested in Texas since the early 1800’s, and tried to claim it under the Louisiana Purchase.0670

                      They also tried to purchase it several times but Mexicans would not sell it.0678

                      Part of it was pride and feeling that the politicians to the north, that the U.S. government was very patronizing,0683

                      the Mexicans started to sense that, like an early version of the U.S. imperialism, you could say,0695

                      where the Americans did feel justified to be the domineering country in the western hemisphere.0704

                      And perhaps, some of that was also very much an influence that grew out of the Monroe doctrine, 0711

                      if you remember that from earlier times.0718

                      By the 1820’s, the Mexican government encouraged American immigration into Texas,0723

                      in order to strengthen the economy and increase tax revenue.0728

                      Actually, this is also interesting that the Mexican government wanted white Americans, investors, to help bolster the economy in Texas.0733

                      But this ended up backfiring on the Mexicans.0742

                      The promise of cheap land attracted many white settlers to the region.0748

                      Many came in hordes and created ranches, and established their farms and so forth, and became Texans for all intents and purposes.0753

                      One very influential Texan, Steven Austin, had a sizable land grant and had successfully set up centers of power.0767

                      Eventually, we are going to see that as the Mexican government starts to crackdown, it become more repressive,0779

                      that many of the local Texans are going to revolt and rebel, 0785

                      and rise up against a lot of what they viewed as unfair treatment and unfair rule.0791

                      We will see a revolt broke out to establish Texas as an independent Republic, but Mexico crushed the revolt.0799

                      There was a period where they kind of pulled back from immigration, they banned it to Texas.0808

                      But then, it was eventually dropped.0814

                      A couple of pictures of very influential leaders who will be instrumental in leading the independence movement.0819

                      Steven Austin who was also known as the father of Texas, and Sam Houston who helped lead the independence movement from Mexico,0829

                      and will become the first President of the Republic of Texas, which we will get to in a second.0838

                      Tensions start to rise more and more between the United States and Mexico0847

                      because of Texas immigrant ties to the United States mainly, and the desire to legalize slavery.0850

                      Again, if you could think of the map and where slavery was banned and where it was allowed.0858

                      In the south, if you could think of how the United States was expanding to the west and into the southwest,0863

                      it seemed very logical that slavery would expand into Texas.0870

                      However, one thing to keep in mind that I may not have mentioned at this point,0877

                      is that Mexico actually abolished slavery in 1829, much earlier than in the United States.0881

                      This was an issue, is that many farmers, many plantation owners, and so forth, wanted to have slaves.0890

                      That was a conflict of interest with the Mexican government as well.0900

                      That was a contentious issue.0906

                      The antislavery proponents are very much against expanding slavery into Texas or expanding it at all.0907

                      That is going to become very controversial.0918

                      Texans were divided concerning how they should address their unhappiness with the Mexican close central rule.0921

                      Some wanted more autonomy and some wanted complete independence.0928

                      Eventually, we will see instability in Mexico led to a coup e'etat, and overthrow by Santa Ana, and he became the dictator.0934

                      This is a huge theme throughout Latin America.0945

                      A lot of tumultuous overthrows and instability that is going to make this region pretty vulnerable to U.S. influence.0949

                      As a result, Mexican rule over Texas strengthens, tensions are exacerbated.0960

                      U.S. rebels will eventually proclaim independence of Texas on March 2, 1836 and they adapted a constitution that legalized slavery.0967

                      And eventually, after several key battles, Texas became independent after the battle of San Jacinto.0981

                      They signed the treaty giving Texas independence.0988

                      I also left out here that there was a key battle called the Battle of the Alamo, when there was a 13 day siege, where numerous lives were lost.0992

                      Texans sacrificed for the cause and because of this brutal attack on the Texans by the Mexican military government, 1004

                      we are going to see that the Texas Independence movement actually ends up gaining more support,1014

                      which will eventually bring more people into the cause, 1021

                      and help them eventually win and make them successful in declaring their independence.1024

                      After Texas becomes independent, we are going to see that this is also going to open up a new can of worms.1032

                      There is hope and fear by some within the United States that the U.S. annexation of Texas would be the next step in this history.1040

                      This became a huge contentious political issue.1054

                      Southern democrats were fearful that Texas would abandon slavery, if they were to become annexed by the United States.1059

                      This again, this whole issue of whether the United States should annex or incorporate Texas into the United States1068

                      became a very key political issue during the election of 1844.1075

                      In comes James Polk, who was a Democrat, who promised to pursue expansion into Texas, and was pro annexation.1082

                      He also promised to deliver Oregon at the same time.1093

                      He was very much a pro expansionist and very aggressive in his approach in acquiring these two new territories.1098

                      Other politicians at the time, President Martin Van Buren who refused to bring the issue of the annexation of Texas before Congress,1109

                      kind of avoiding it, fearing that it would spark a war with Mexico and fuel sectional tensions.1117

                      Kind of avoiding the issue, not trying to take a strong stance on it.1125

                      But we are going to see that Polk, in fact, ends up getting a lot of support for his stance.1129

                      The other thing to keep in mind, this map shows the main battles in the Texas war of independence.1137

                      Here you could see Austin's colony and you could see the locations of where the Alamo was.1146

                      The idea, remember the Alamo that helped to inspire a lot of Texans in the independence movement.1153

                      The other very key battle the battle, the Battle of San Jacinto.1160

                      After Texas becomes its own independent republic, we are going see that the next major issue that is going to come to a head is,1168

                      there is a disputed area here in pink, that was claimed by Texas that Mexico did not recognize.1178

                      This is going to cause some major disagreement and will cause huge impetus to go to war with Mexico later on.1185

                      Meanwhile, in the Pacific northwest, another huge political issue.1195

                      This region here in green had been claimed by Britain and the United States.1202

                      There was a conflict over ownership of this property and so far this region.1206

                      More and more U.S. settlers, insistent with this idea of manifest destiny and expansion to the west, 1211

                      settling in the west, we will see increased U.S. interest because of evangelical efforts.1220

                      A lot of the evangelical Protestants came to this region to counter the Catholic missionaries from Canada, 1227

                      as well as Spanish missionaries as well.1235

                      They wanted to convert Native Americans and also stake their claim and make their presence known.1239

                      Significant numbers of white Americans began moving into Oregon in the early 1840’s, 1247

                      and they eventually outnumbered the British.1252

                      Many came on this famous Oregon Trail that allowed them to migrate here in huge numbers.1256

                      This was so popular it became Oregon fever, where there are many moving in here and trying to set up and settle.1263

                      This is going to also put a lot of pressure on the government to push for having Oregon become a state.1272

                      Native Americans, again, on the short end of the stick here, and feeling the effects of white incursion, 1284

                      a measles epidemic wiped out the population that have been unexposed.1292

                      Very vulnerable to these new migrants.1299

                      Anyway, we are going see a huge conflict over the Oregon country that will eventually be rectified.1304

                      But will be politicized, certainly, during the election of 1844.1314

                      Meanwhile, we will see huge westward migration because of these various trails, 1321

                      used different types of roads that allowed these Americans to travel westward.1327

                      Between 1840 and 1860, huge demographic transition about 300,000 migrants traveled along the Great Oberlin Trails.1333

                      You can see here are some of the trails like the Mormon trail, there is also the Pony Express mail route, 1343

                      that was established that helped the whole mail service in the United States.1349

                      The Santa Fe trail, and others, Spanish trail here, California trail, Oregon trail.1355

                      All these different trails were very important in helping these migrants settle in the western region.1361

                      This was a very difficult process however, we did not have freeways at this point.1369

                      A lot of hardships, extreme weather, cholera, you have probably heard the Donner story1375

                      where they had to resort to cannibalism, being stuck in the Sierra Nevada’s.1382

                      A very difficult process moving westward but nonetheless, we will see Americans moving into this region1392

                      and having a huge influence and impact on the lands, the people, etc.1400

                      We will see that families divided task along gender lines.1407

                      Women will definitely be participating in this migration and assigned to specific jobs.1412

                      Coming back to the election of 1844, this will determine U.S. policy towards California, Oregon, and Texas.1421

                      President Tyler who was running for reelection advocated for annexation and expansion into the territories.1429

                      The others who are involved here, Henry Clay vs. Martin Van Buren, avoided then opposed the annexation of Texas.1439

                      Clay later supported annexation.1449

                      You know Clay, he is the great compromiser.1452

                      Today, we would call him a flip flopper.1455

                      You can see such a politician cannot take a strong stance on something 1457

                      because he is trying to be adaptable and make sure they gain support.1462

                      But James Polk who was a Democrat was a strong supporter of annexation, 1468

                      and very outspoken about this issue, and reoccupation, what he called, of Oregon.1472

                      He had this very strong provocative slogan called 5440 or fight.1479

                      This aggressive slogan that was adopted in the Oregon Territory over this border dispute1486

                      between Great Britain and the United States, and actually Canada and Oregon.1493

                      This was his slogan.1501

                      The Democrats wanted the U.S. border drawn at the 54'40" latitude.1503

                      But we will eventually see that that does not happen, but he does win the election.1509

                      I will come back to the border in a minute.1517

                      He does win and he makes Texas a state in 1845.1520

                      Polk is in power.1527

                      Regarding Oregon, at first the British rejected a compromise, the idea of the border at the fort.1529

                      Eventually, what we are going to see is that the border was set at the 49th parallel.1536

                      And again, the Americans claim 54-40 or fight, this is where the border is going to be or we are going to be fight you.1541

                      Eventually, the British accept the proposal, and in 1846, Oregon became part of the United States.1550

                      The 49th parallel was established as a northern border of Oregon.1558

                      U.S. gained about half of the original land that it wanted in the first place, but they eventually work it out with the British.1565

                      Meanwhile in the southwest, Polk sent Zachary Taylor to Texas,1574

                      and Americans became increasingly interested in acquiring New Mexico in California1578

                      because of the flourishing trade that had been doing very well in those regions.1584

                      Eventually, we will see that the United States will provoke a war that will start around the border between Texas and Mexico.1590

                      War will break out and it will eventually end in 1848.1600

                      You will not need to know all the different battles and all the specifics of the U.S. Mexican war.1606

                      In Mexico, they actually call this the U.S. invasion of Mexico.1615

                      Just to emphasize the difference in perspective, when we talk about historic events.1622

                      Some of the major battles you can see here, at Matamoros, in Monterrey, in Veracruz, in Mexico City.1633

                      Some of the major issues of contention, along this region in particular, 1644

                      we are going to see that this is where the fighting is going to break out.1650

                      The United States claimed that we were shot upon, this was a way to provoke war with Mexico.1658

                      There was actually an effort by John Slidell to buy territory but it was rejected.1666

                      The United States wanted this territory.1671

                      He was like, we need to go to war with Mexico, since they are unwilling to negotiate with us.1674

                      Meanwhile, there is like two different fronts happening at the same time.1684

                      We are also seeing a lot of activity in California under the leadership of John Fremont, in particular, 1692

                      as well as Kearny, in Southern California and in the southwest.1698

                      Eventually, we will see that the Mexican American war will come to an end.1707

                      John Slidell, as I was saying here, was sent to try to buy off the Mexicans but that did not happen.1715

                      Polk orders Taylor into Mexico.1721

                      Eventually, Congress declared war.1724

                      The majority of the Congress supported the war.1726

                      Although, there were some who opposed the war which is key to keep in mind, such as the Whig critics.1730

                      And in fact, many they call themselves conscience Whigs.1736

                      That is something to keep in mind.1741

                      Because of the expense, they were much more fragile.1744

                      Those who are against slavery were also very much concerned about the expansion of slavery.1748

                      By 1846, Kearny's forces had conquered California after a difficult battle.1754

                      But by 1846, a settlement was negotiated and the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was finally signed in 1848, 1760

                      where Mexico agreed to cede California and New Mexico to the United States,1769

                      and acknowledge that contested border, the Rio Grande, as the boundary of Texas.1775

                      With it, we are going to see in green, all this new territory will become part of the United States, 1783

                      as a result of the Mexican American war.1789

                      The U.S. had to pay Mexicans $15,000,000 and they assumed claims its new citizens had against Mexico.1791

                      Again, this is another map just to show you.1801

                      This will come a little bit later which I will talk about, this little piece of land will be purchased from Mexico.1805

                      It shows down here that will make it complete in the southwestern part,1812

                      what we call the southwestern part of the United States.1817

                      The Mexican cession, the area now contained within the state of Nevada was acquired by the U.S. in 1848, following the war.1821

                      The area was not immediately organized into territories and states, and was generally labeled as unorganized territory until 1850.1828

                      This is going to become very contentious because how they are going to decide whether slavery will be expanded or not.1840

                      Speaking of that, we will see that Polk will in fact, suggest and will support the idea of extending the Missouri compromise line.1847

                      This is an older map but just to remind you of what that look like.1858

                      This is Spanish possession but just think again that this is unorganized territory.1863

                      The Missouri compromise line again was here, the southern border of Missouri.1870

                      His idea was to extend this all the way to the Pacific.1874

                      The idea that north of that line, slavery would be banned.1880

                      South of that line, it would be permitted.1884

                      This is an idea that does not end up working.1887

                      Some supported the idea of popular sovereignty, allowing each territory to decide for itself.1892

                      But overall, nothing was decided.1897

                      We will see as a result, many of sectional controversy starting to emerge and many compromises will be attempted.1901

                      Polk, as president, was trying to unify the country, to transcend sectional differences but it was a difficult task.1909

                      One of the other issues is that even within each political party, there were divisions.1921

                      The Democrats were split because of Polk's expansionist agenda.1925

                      He eventually decided, in fact, not to run for reelection in 1848.1931

                      Actually, many northern Democrats under the leadership, people like Stephen Douglas 1939

                      will advocate more for popular sovereignty of territories deciding on their own whether they should allow or ban slavery.1946

                      Southern Democrats are just pro slavery.1957

                      That is going to cause divisions even within parties.1960

                      One idea that was proposed by David Wilmot called the Wilmot Proviso.1965

                      This was introduced that would prohibit slavery in any new territory acquired from Mexico.1970

                      This was passed in the House but failed in the Senate.1977

                      Ultimately, it was not passed.1981

                      The sectional debate is going to intensify.1984

                      Within this climate, we are going to see new political movements and new political party emerge, 1989

                      the Free Soil movement that will also turn into Free Soil party.1995

                      They abandon the Liberty Party’s emphasis on the sinfulness of slavery.2001

                      And instead, depicted slavery as a threat to republican liberties.2005

                      They are kind of playing a different spin on it to try to get more people to follow their cause and to join the party and movement.2009

                      Again, kind of interesting to pull from that Republican ideology and mindset, 2019

                      instead of the moralistic argument, and the white Yeomen farming tradition.2027

                      Instead of supporting these plantation owners, these elitists that will expand slavery,2036

                      why not support the small family farm, that concept.2044

                      They are just taking a new angle on it.2049

                      The other thing to keep in mind is not everyone was pro expansion, pro slavery.2053

                      We will talk a little bit dissent and divergence, even within movements, like the abolitionist movement, for instance.2059

                      Kind of back to some dissent of the U.S. Mexican war.2069

                      Some of the people who were outspoken against the U.S. Mexican war.2072

                      Abolitionists were very much concerned about the expansion of slavery.2076

                      Abraham Lincoln who will become a very famous Republican leader.2081

                      Stephen Douglas who was a Democrat but actually pro popular sovereignty.2086

                      Henry David Thoreau, you remember this important transcendentalist who wrote civil disobedience and was very much against slavery.2091

                      He was very much against the Mexican American war, and in fact refused to pay his taxes because of the U.S. involvement.2104

                      He did not want to support U.S. policy.2112

                      That was his way to rebel and try to make the case that you have to be true to yourself,2115

                      and that some laws are meant to be broken if they are immoral and wrong.2124

                      Ralph Waldo Emerson in that same type of theme like Thoreau, that was very much against slavery and the Mexican American war.2129

                      Even within the abolitionist movement, we will see that there are disagreements.2146

                      Frederick Douglass who was the foremost black abolitionist, endorsed the free soil movement that we are just talking about before.2151

                      It is a compromised position to a certain extent.2162

                      This acknowledge that wherever slavery existed, that you have to kind of accept it as a necessary evil.2167

                      Even though he was very much against slavery, wanted to ban it.2175

                      But for the meantime, kind of this political approach is that where it exists, let it remain.2179

                      But in all the new territories, slavery should be banned.2185

                      That was the position Frederick Douglass is going to take.2190

                      While, William Lloyd Garrison denounced them calling the free soil doctrine racist white man-ism.2193

                      He was not a compromiser in this regard at all.2200

                      The two views of these two key abolitionists began to diverge.2206

                      Douglass viewed Garrison’s position as too radical, of expelling the south from the Union.2211

                      That this would just anger the southerners so much and that that would be very counterproductive to the overall cause.2219

                      That having a more modern approach would be more effective in the long run, 2227

                      than trying to marginalize the southern pro slavery.2239

                      Anyway, that became a huge issue and put a lot of strain on their friendship and relationship.2245

                      Here we are actually at the end, that came up on me quickly.2254

                      We will continue in the next lesson to talk about the actual compromises that will start to unfold.2260

                      This one, Robert C. Winthrop, speech to the House of Representatives, arbitration of the Oregon question.2270

                      Where, where was the heroic determination for the executive to vindicate our title to the whole of Oregon.2277

                      Yes Sir, the whole or none, it has been openly vowed that Oregon and Texas were born,2283

                      and cradled together in the Baltimore convention.2292

                      That they were that twin offspring of that political conclave.2296

                      And in that avowal may be found the whole explanation of the difficulties and dangers which the question is now attended.2299

                      I maintain one, that this question is one for negotiations, compromise, and amicable adjustment.2309

                      Two, that satisfactory evidence has not yet been afforded that no compromise which the United States ought to accept can be affected.2321

                      Three, that if no other mode of amicable settlement remains, arbitration ought to be resorted to.2330

                      Winthrop suggests that Polk’s slogan 54-40 or fight was based mainly on which of the following attitudes?2343

                      Polk had strong anti British sentiments.2352

                      Polk believed that the country needed more free land.2354

                      Polk hoped to get political benefit.2357

                      Polk felt pressure from southerners.2361

                      The answer, this one is a little tricky.2383

                      It is actually this one.2386

                      Which of the following did Winthrop offer as a final way to settle the Oregon question?2390

                      The two countries should submit their claims to arbitration.2396

                      The two countries should negotiate until they reached a compromise.2399

                      The U.S. should annex the land and settle it.2403

                      The U.S. should purchase the land from Great Britain.2406

                      The answer.2417

                      Third question in example 1, President Polk accepted a compromise with Britain on the Oregon dispute because,2423

                      A, the U.S. was facing problems with Mexico.2431

                      B, the British offered a large payment.2436

                      C, the Russians were becoming involved.2439

                      D, the people who settled in California were successful.2441

                      The answer is A.2449

                      Moving on to example 2, this is based on a map of territorial acquisitions between 1783 and 1853.2455

                      Which period was the peak of manifest destiny?2465

                      1776 to 1783, 1803 to 1810, 1819 to 1841, or 1842 to 1853.2468

                      The answer, manifest destiny.2486

                      One attempt to prevent slavery in the territories was the Wilmot Proviso.2491

                      By going to war, the U.S. gained the territory labeled as the Mexican session.2501

                      And lastly, we have short answers here.2512

                      Answer A, B, and C, briefly explain why one of the following best supports the views 2516

                      that a belief in a manifest destiny played a decisive role in U.S. politics and policies during the 1840’s.2521

                      You should have a pretty good grip on all three of these.2531

                      For the sake of this, to give you an example, I’m going to choose this one here.2535

                      Here is my example.2540

                      The annexation of Texas took place under President Tyler who persuaded both Houses of Congress to pass a joint resolution for annexation.2544

                      He had added vast lands next to the Louisiana Purchase.2553

                      B, contrast your choice against one of the other options demonstrating why that option is not as good as your choice.2563

                      I will choose this one for B.2572

                      54-40 or fight call for adding all the Oregon Territory but resulted in the U.S. gaining half of the original land that they had not intended to acquire.2576

                      C, briefly explain one criticism of this belief in manifest destiny during the 1840’s.2591

                      Not all Americans believed in manifest destiny and expansionism, especially antislavery advocates.2598

                      Henry David Thoreau was an outspoken critic of the Mexican American war and slavery, 2605

                      and did not pay his taxes to express his sentiments against U.S. policies.2610

                      We are completed, we are done with the lesson on manifest destiny, and westward expansion, and rising sectional tensions.2617

                      With that, thank you very much and thanks for watching www.educator.com.2626