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Join Professor Michael Wheeler in figuring out why people think, act, and feel the way they do in Educator's Introduction to Psychology course. This course is perfect for college students taking Psychology 101 or high school students taking AP Psychology, and covers everything you'll need to know for class. Professor Wheeler expertly explains difficult topics using real-world examples and his 15+ years experience of teaching psychology. Topics covered include everything from a Nervous System Review to Social Development, Forms of Learning, Personality, Abnormal Psychology, and Therapies. Professor Wheeler received his B.A. in Psychology from UCLA and his M.A. in Industrial/Organization Psychology from CSULB. He has taught psychology for 15+ years and also founded L.E.A.R.N., which secures academic resources for over 5,000 students daily in under-served areas.

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I. Introduction to Psychology

  What is Psychology & Where Did It Come From? 11:53
   Intro 0:00 
   What is Psychology? 0:15 
    Types of Questions Psychology Looks to Answer 0:35 
    Biological Psychology 0:41 
    Personality Psychology 0:46 
    Developmental Psychology 0:53 
    Social Psychology 1:01 
   What Types of Questions Does Psychology Address? 1:20 
    Psychology of Memory 1:22 
    Psychological Disorders 1:33 
    Social-Cultural Psychology 1:48 
    Learning and Evolutionary Psychology 1:59 
    Cognitive Psychology 2:28 
    Industrial Psychology 2:53 
   Roots of Psychology 3:03 
    Philosophy and Biology 3:14 
    Ancient Greek Philosophers 3:22 
    William James: Inner Sensations and Introspection 3:48 
    Wilhelm Wundt: Sensation and Perception 4:20 
    Father of Psychology 4:56 
    Perspectives or Theories 5:12 
    Psychoanalysis 5:53 
    The Science of Mental Life 6:13 
    Watson and Skinner: Behaviorism 6:26 
    Humanistic Approach 7:10 
    Cognitive Approach 8:27 
    Biopsychosocial Approach 9:45 
   Psychology Defined 10:34 
    Scientific Study 10:44 
    Behavior 11:18 
    Mental Processes 11:23 
    Definition Reflects a Focus on Behavior, Emotions, and Cognitions 11:36 
  Psychological Perspectives & Subfields 24:07
   Intro 0:00 
   Psychological Perspectives 0:08 
    Defined Psychology as the Scientific Study of Behavior and Mental Processes 0:09 
    Major Approaches/ Perspectives 0:21 
   Psychoanalysis 1:38 
    Sigmund Freud 1:39 
    Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory: Early Childhood Influences and Unconscious Motives and Desires 3:06 
    Look Deep Into Unconscious to Identify Issues That Form the Root Cause of Symptoms 4:08 
    Defense Mechanisms 4:39 
    Rationalizing 5:05 
    Psychodynamic Therapists 6:17 
   Behaviorism 6:58 
    John Watson and B.F. Skinner: Reward and Punishment 7:26 
    Environmental Conditioning 7:40 
    Everything We Do Has Been Rewarded 8:11 
    Behaviorism Did Not Consider Genetics or Biology 8:26 
   Humanism 9:14 
    Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers 9:15 
    Focus on Healing and Growth 10:01 
    Focus on Becoming Healthier and Happier by Loving and Accepting Ourselves 10:42 
    Self-actualize is the Ultimate Goal 10:49 
    Impacted Much of How We Look At Raising and Educating Children 11:24 
   Cognitive Perspective 11:43 
    Gained Prominence as Computers Became Part of Every Day Life 11:58 
    Focuses on How People Process Information, Solve Problems, and Make Decisions 12:26 
    Integrated in Sub-Disciplines in Psychology and Other Disciplines 12:30 
   Biological Perspective 12:57 
    Biological Creatures 13:08 
    Brain Circuitry and Biological Processes 13:56 
    Drug Therapy 14:26 
   Biopsychosocial Perspective 15:31 
    Interaction of Biology, Cognitions, and the Social Situation or Environment 15:50 
    Biopsychosocial Model 16:39 
   Types of Psychologists 16:47 
    Applied 17:20 
    Research 18:18 
    Clinical/ Educational Psychologist 19:09 
    Developmental Psychologist 19:49 
    Cognitive Psychologist 19:59 
    Biological Psychologist/ Neuropsychologist 20:03 
    Social Psychologist 20:10 
    Industrial Organizational Psychologist 20:49 
    Personality Psychologist 21:13 
    Forensic Psychologist 22:08 
    Abnormal Psychologist 22:22 
    Experimental Qualitative Psychologist 22:29 
   Summary 22:54 
    Perspectives in Psychology Try to Explain The Same Thing 22:58 
    Psychologists Apply Their Knowledge of Human Behavior in Many Different Fields 23:34 
  Psychology as a Science 12:44
   Intro 0:00 
   Critical Analysis 0:10 
    Hindsight Bias 0:41 
    Judgmental Overconfidence 1:50 
   Scientific Method 2:58 
    Psychology is a Science 3:00 
    Making Observations 3:57 
    Developing Theories/ Hypotheses 4:09 
    Testing Hypotheses 4:46 
    Analyzing Results 4:56 
   Scientific Attitude 5:13 
    Scientists Need to Be Critical Thinkers with Scientific Attitude 5:19 
    Search for the Truth 7:14 
   Scientific Terms 7:48 
    Hypothesis 7:52 
    Operational Definition 8:03 
    Replication 9:11 
   Scientific Example 10:17 
   Summary 12:02 
  Data Collection & Analysis 32:15
   Intro 0:00 
   Data Collection 0:13 
    Naturalistic Observation 0:18 
    Case Study 1:25 
    Survey 3:27 
   Data Analysis: Correlation 6:14 
    Correlation Looks At Whether or Not Two Variables are Related 6:36 
    Correlation Provides Information on Direction and Strength 8:19 
    Direction of the Correlation 9:14 
    Strength of the Correlation 12:56 
    Cannot Infer Causality 17:28 
   Data Analysis: Experiment 20:40 
    Show Cause and Effect Relationship 20:43 
    Independent Variable 24:25 
    Dependent Variable 25:58 
    Placebo Effect 27:49 
    Blind Study 29:47 
    Double Blind Study 30:35 

II. Biology and Behavior

  Neurons, the Source of Internal Communication 14:06
   Intro 0:00 
   Neurons 0:10 
    Neural Communication 0:11 
    The Neuron 0:53 
   Structure of a Neuron 1:58 
    Dendrites 2:02 
    Axon 2:18 
    Axon Terminals 2:22 
   Function of a Neuron 2:54 
    Structure of a Neuron: Myelin 2:55 
    Resting Potential 4:02 
    Action Potential 4:38 
   Neurotransmitters 7:03 
    Chemicals That Carry Message from one Neuron to Another 7:18 
    Common Neurotransmitters 8:02 
    Synapse 11:29 
    Drugs That Mimic Neurotransmitters 12:54 
  The Nervous System 15:06
   Intro 0:00 
   The Nervous System 0:08 
    Central Nervous System 0:45 
    Peripheral Nervous System 1:01 
    Sensory Neurons 2:12 
    Motor Neurons 2:52 
    Interneurons 3:20 
   The Peripheral Nervous System 4:12 
    Somatic Nervous System 4:41 
    Autonomic Nervous System 5:10 
    Sympathetic Branch 7:24 
    Parasympathetic Branch 7:52 
   The Spinal Cord 8:25 
    Information Going To and From the Brain Passes Through the Spinal Cord 8:26 
    Interneurons Within the Spinal Cord 8:49 
    Responsible for Reflex Behavior Including the Spinal Reflex 9:00 
   The Endocrine System 11:46 
    Glands Secrete Hormones Into the Blood Stream 12:26 
    Hormones are Chemical Messengers 12:39 
    Pituitary Gland is the Master Gland 13:31 
    Thyroid Gland Influences Metabolism 13:58 
    Adrenal Glands Secrete Epinephrine and Norepinephrine 14:11 
  The Brain 29:04
   Intro 0:00 
   The Brain 0:06 
    Upper and Lower Brain Structures 0:09 
    Lower Brain Structures 0:44 
   Lower Brain Structures 2:03 
    Brainstem 2:07 
    Thalamus 3:39 
    Reticular Formation 4:30 
    Cerebellum 5:08 
    Limbic System 6:15 
   Cerebral Cortex 9:28 
    85% of the Brain's Weight in Humans 10:30 
    20 Billion Neurons Reside in Cerebral Cortex 10:38 
    Thinking, Speaking, Perceiving 11:23 
    'Smarter' Mammals Have a Larger Cerebral Cortex 11:51 
   4 Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex 12:44 
    Frontal Lobe 13:43 
    Parietal Lobe 16:01 
    Temporal Lobe 17:54 
    Occipital Lobe 20:03 
   Association Areas of the Cerebral Cortex 21:13 
    Remaining Area of Lobes with No Known Specific Function 21:51 
    Enable Judgment, Planning, Processing New Memories, and Math and Special Reasoning 22:19 
   The Split Brain 22:38 
    Split Brain Procedure 23:48 
    Left Hemisphere 24:54 
    Right Hemisphere 25:17 

III. Developing Through the Life Span

  Cognitive & Moral Development Through the Lifespan 27:36
   Intro 0:00 
   Prenatal and Newborn Development 0:08 
    Prenatal Development 0:12 
    Newborn Development 1:07 
   Development in Infancy 3:18 
    Born With Nearly All Neurons We Will Ever Have 3:19 
    Stronger Connections with More Stimulation 3:28 
    Memories Consolidate Starting Age 4 4:18 
   Jean Piaget 5:15 
    Theories 6:24 
    Schema 7:00 
   Piaget's Cognitive Stages of Development 10:59 
    Sensorimotor Stage 11:11 
    Preoperational Stage 12:34 
    Concrete Operations Stage 15:41 
    Formal Operations Stage 17:11 
   Moral Development 19:32 
    Preconvenitonal Morality 19:48 
    Conventional Morality 20:30 
    Postconvenitonal Morality 21:25 
   Cognitive Development in Adulthood 22:38 
    Memory in Adulthood 22:57 
    Intelligence in Adulthood 24:24 
  Social Development Through the Lifespan 39:06
   Intro 0:00 
   Psychosocial Stages of Development 0:07 
    Erik Erikson Theorized the Psychosocial Stages of Development 0:08 
    Each Stage Poses a Social Issue 0:15 
    Trust vs. Mistrust 0:54 
    Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt 2:08 
    Initiative vs. Guilt 3:01 
    Industry vs. Inferiority 4:38 
    Identity vs. Role Confusion 6:19 
    Intimacy vs. Isolation 8:04 
    Generativity vs. Stagnation 10:45 
    Integrity vs. Despair 12:43 
   Social Development in Infancy 13:49 
    Secure Attachment 14:14 
    Insecure Attachment 19:29 
   Parenting Styles 21:41 
    Authoritarian Style 22:13 
    Permissive Style 23:21 
    Authoritative Style 24:02 
    Research on Parenting Style 25:12 
   Social Development in Adolescence 26:35 
    Forming an Identity 26:59 
    Teens Who Seek Counseling 27:35 
    81% of American Teens Are Content With Their Lives 28:08 
   Social Development in Adulthood 28:43 
    Transition from Adolescence to Adulthood Varies Among Cultures 29:05 
    Western Cultures Take Longer 30:44 
    Form Close Emotional Relationships 31:44 
   Social Development in Middle Adulthood 32:12 
    Family and Career 32:24 
    Do Not Experience Distress In Their 40's 32:59 
    Married Adults Report Higher Levels of Happiness 33:56 
   Social Development in Late Adulthood 34:55 
    Working Less, Decline in Physical Abilities, Shrinking Group of Close Friends 35:04 
    Happiness Levels 35:45 
    Do Not Process Negative Information as Readily 36:26 
    Death Can Have a Strong Negative Impact 37:37 
    Opportunities 38:03 

IV. Learning

  Forms of Learning: Classical Conditioning 29:16
   Intro 0:00 
   Forms of Learning 0:03 
    Defining Learning 0:11 
    Primary Forms of Learning 1:03 
    Classical Conditioning 1:16 
    Operant Conditioning 2:04 
    Observational Learning 3:25 
   Classical Conditioning 3:54 
    Ivan Pavlov 4:01 
    Learning by Associating Two Things That Occur Together 5:04 
    How It Works 5:14 
    Example of Classical Conditioning 7:12 
    Unconditioned Stimulus 9:19 
    Unconditioned Response 9:33 
    Conditioned Stimulus 9:42 
    Conditioned Response 9:50 
    Example: Dogs 10:00 
    Example: Peoples 11:28 
    Stages of Classical Conditioning 13:44 
    Acquisition 13:50 
    Extinction 14:29 
    Spontaneous Recovery 15:58 
    Generalization 18:02 
    Discrimination 21:24 
   Features of Classical Conditioning 23:05 
    Time Delay 23:14 
    Stronger When Biological Predisposition In Place 25:47 
    Learning Happens Automatically 26:53 
    Conditioned Response Usually Is Not Stronger Than Unconditioned Response 28:12 
  Forms of Learning: Operant Conditioning 35:01
   Intro 0:00 
   Forms of Learning 0:03 
    Classical Conditioning 0:22 
    Operant Conditioning 1:24 
    Observational Learning 1:59 
   Operant Conditioning 2:26 
    Actions or Behaviors Lead to Consequences 2:32 
    Examples 2:54 
    E.L. Thorndike: Law of Effect 4:23 
    B.F. Skinner: Skinner Box 4:29 
    Shaping is a Method of Rewarding Small Steps Toward a Larger Goal 5:22 
    Example 5:39 
   Positive Reinforcement 7:45 
    Reinforcement 8:01 
    Defining Positive Reinforcement 8:54 
   Negative Reinforcement 10:45 
    Defining Negative Reinforcement 10:57 
    Examples 12:04 
   Reinforcers 14:12 
    Defining Reinforcer 14:27 
    Primary Reinforcer 14:47 
    Secondary Reinforcer 15:49 
   Punishment 17:03 
    Defining Punishment 17:10 
    Examples 17:46 
   Punishment 20:04 
    Punishment Teaches What Not To Do 20:05 
    Negative Side Effects 20:39 
   Intermittent Schedules of Reinforcement 23:17 
    Continuous Reinforcement is Reinforcement Given After Every Correct Response 23:18 
    Reinforcing Less Frequently Can Lead to Stronger Behaviors That Don't Extinguish as Quickly 23:49 
    Fixed-Ratio 24:40 
    Variable-Ratio 25:53 
    Fixed-Interval 27:37 
    Variable-Interval 28:29 
   Latent Learning 30:34 
    Cognitive Processes Play a Role in Operant Conditioning 30:35 
    Biological Constraints Predispose Organisms to Learn Associations That are Naturally Adaptive 32:34 
  Forms of Learning: Observational Learning 13:49
   Intro 0:00 
   Forms of Learning 0:06 
    Classical Conditioning 0:13 
    Operant Conditioning 0:41 
    Observational Learning 1:20 
   Observational Learning 1:49 
    Defining Observational Learning 1:51 
    Albert Bandura: Bobo Doll Experiment 2:08 
   Modeling 4:07 
    Bandura's Studies 4:12 
    Modeling is Observing and Imitating What is Seen 4:54 
    Prosocial Modeling 5:17 
   Impact of Watching Violence on TV 6:24 
    Antisocial Modeling 6:26 
    Relationship Between Viewing Violent TV and Acting Violently 7:28 
   Mirror Neurons 10:27 
    Specialized Neurons Fire When We Observe Others Enabling Us to Imitate What the Person is Doing 10:54 
    Enable Empathy 11:36 
    Underlie Our Intensely Social Nature 13:07 

V. Memory

  The Three Stages of Memory 26:39
   Intro 0:00 
   Memory 0:10 
    Memory Is a Large Part of Who We Are 0:16 
    Definition of Memory 0:44 
   Three Stages of Memory 1:19 
    Three Stage Processing Model 1:22 
    Information Processing Model 1:32 
   Three Stage Processing Model of Memory 2:09 
   Sensory Memory 2:13 
    Iconic Memory 3:23 
    Echoic Memory 4:58 
    The Specific Auditory or Visual Information We Choose to Focus on Moves to Short-Term Memory 6:48 
   Short-Term Memory 6:57 
    Working Memory 7:00 
    You Can See It and Work On It 7:37 
    Auditory or Visual Information 7:51 
    Recalling a Memory From the Past 8:33 
    Capacity of Short-Term Memory 9:15 
    Duration of Short-Term Memory 9:39 
    Maintenance Rehearsal 14:37 
   Long-Term Memory 15:25 
    Everything in Your Memory 17:33 
    Information We Can Store 18:23 
    Stored Throughout the Brain in Synaptic Interconnections 19:54 
    Long Term Potentiation 20:33 
   Types of Long-Term Memories 21:56 
    Semantic Memories 22:23 
    Episodic Memories 22:45 
    Procedural Memories 23:03 
    Explicit Memories 23:26 
    Implicit Memories 24:55 
  Memory-Encoding Information 19:36
   Intro 0:00 
   Levels of Processing 0:12 
    Automatic Processing 0:50 
    Effortful Processing 2:11 
   Encoding 2:57 
    Rehearsal 3:04 
    Spacing Effect 3:40 
    Serial Position Effect 5:18 
   How We Encode 7:40 
    Semantic Encoding 8:06 
    Visual Encoding 9:02 
    Auditory Encoding 10:03 
    Mnemonics 11:13 
    Mnemonics Example: ROY G BIV 12:06 
    Visual Image is Created 13:09 
    Organizing Information Into Hierarchies 14:47 
    Key to Encoding Into Long-Term Memory is Making if Meaningful or Familiar 16:04 
    New Terms Are Difficult to Encode 17:10 
  Memory: Storage & Retrieval of Information 16:45
   Intro 0:00 
   Explicit and Implicit Memory Storage 0:11 
    Explicit Memory 0:24 
    Implicit Memory 0:50 
    Where Explicit Memories Are Stored 1:07 
   Explicit Memory Storage 1:48 
    Left Side: Verbal Information 2:00 
    Right Side: Visual Design Memories 2:13 
    Spatial Memory 2:23 
    Additional Sub-regions 2:31 
    Flashbulb Memory 3:04 
    Stronger Emotional Experiences 3:52 
    Emotions Enhance Memory 4:00 
    The Amygdala 4:19 
    Amnesia 4:48 
    Infantile Amnesia 5:17 
   Implicit Memory Storage 6:21 
    Formed and Stored in the Cerebellum 6:26 
    Cerebellum is Key in Forming Memories Created by Classical Conditioning 6:48 
    Two-Way Memory System 7:12 
   Memory Retrieval 8:17 
    Retrieval of Information 8:49 
    Recognition vs. Recall 9:03 
   Retrieval Cues 10:10 
    Retrieval Cues 10:24 
    Priming 11:39 
    Context 12:58 
    Mood 15:20 
  Memory: Why Do We Forget? 21:48
   Intro 0:00 
   Encoding Failure 0:10 
    We Do Not Remember Every Detail of Our Lives 0:46 
    Encoding Failure 1:28 
   Storage Decay 3:06 
    Information Decays From Our Memory Over Time 3:16 
    Ebbinghaus Forgetting Curve 3:58 
   Retrieval Failure 5:33 
    Lack of Cues 6:05 
    Context Cues 6:26 
    State of Mind 7:38 
   Interference 8:31 
    Retroactive Interference 8:59 
    Proactive Interference 10:03 
    Research Shows Sleeping an Hour After Studying Maximizes Memory 11:41 
   Repression 12:44 
    Freud's First Theory on Repressing Traumatic Memories 12:56 
    Research Shows Most Traumatic Events are Highly Emotional and Stronger Memories 13:30 
   Memory Construction 13:58 
    Combination of What We Saw and What We Think We Should Have Seen 14:07 
    Misinformation Effect 15:00 
    Source Amnesia 17:05 
   Improving Memory 18:35 
    Study Repeatedly 18:42 
    Make the Material Meaningful 19:09 
    Use Mnemonic Techniques 19:22 
    Activate Retrieval Cues 19:55 
    Minimize Interference 20:27 
    Sleep More 21:01 
    Test Yourself 21:17 

VI. Personality

  Personality: The Psychoanalytic Approach 29:30
   Intro 0:00 
   Theories of Personality 0:14 
    Pattern of Thinking, Feeling, and Acting 0:18 
    Personality Theories Explain Where Our Personalities Come From 0:44 
    Trait Theory 1:14 
   Psychoanalytic Approach 1:45 
    Sigmund Freud 1:49 
    Psychoanalysis 2:28 
    Main Ideas 2:51 
   The Unconscious 3:56 
    Conscious 4:07 
    Preconscious 4:19 
    Unconscious 4:48 
   Levels of Consciousness 5:17 
    Conscious 5:20 
    Preconscious 5:23 
    Unconscious 5:28 
    Most of Our Behavior, Personality, Beliefs, Habits, and Illnesses Stem From Unconscious Thoughts 5:56 
   Psychoanalysis 6:27 
    Root Cause of Behavioral Issues Stem from Unresolved Issues from Past 6:28 
    Freud's Method of Treatment: Psychoanalysis 6:52 
    Free Association 7:21 
   Structure of Personality 8:09 
    Id 8:35 
    Superego 8:54 
    Ego 9:28 
   Defense Mechanisms 11:14 
    Rationalization 11:47 
    Projection 12:59 
    Reaction Formation 13:29 
    Anger Displacement 14:38 
   Psychosexual Stages of Development 16:35 
    Oral Stage 18:06 
    Anal Stage 19:23 
    Phallic Stage 20:57 
    Latency Stage 22:52 
    Genital Stage 23:04 
   The Neo-Freudians 23:43 
    Freud's Followers Who Differed in Several Ways 23:48 
    Believed the Conscious Mind Had a Role in Interpreting Experience and Coping the with Environment 24:44 
    Sex Drive and Aggression 25:14 
    Alfred Adler: Inferiority 25:35 
    Karen Horney: Love and Security 26:25 
    Carl Jung: Collective Unconscious 26:49 
  Personality: The Behaviorist, Humanistic & Social-Cognitive Perspectives 19:07
   Intro 0:00 
   Theories of Personality 0:14 
    Pattern of Thinking, Feeling, and Acting 0:19 
    Personality Theories Explain Where Our Personalities Come From 0:58 
    Trait Theory 1:15 
   Behaviorist Approach 1:33 
    Environmental Conditioning 2:00 
    Operant Conditioning 2:18 
   Humanistic Approach 4:18 
    Focuses on the Positive Side of Human Potential 4:53 
    Humanistic Approach 5:06 
    Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow 5:28 
    Humanistic Approach Focus 5:34 
   Self-Actualization 6:57 
    Maslow and Self-Actualization 7:00 
    Self-Actualization 7:39 
    Famous People in History 8:04 
    Characteristics of Self-Actualization 8:21 
   Person-Centered Approach 9:34 
    Carl Rogers 9:38 
    Three Conditions to Live a Full Life 9:58 
    Person-Centered Perspective 11:40 
    Questionnaire 12:30 
   Social-Cognitive Perspective 13:22 
    Looks at Behavior as a Function of the Interaction Between the Person and the Environment 13:24 
    Considers How We Influence the Environment 13:55 
    Reciprocal Determinism 15:05 
   Social-Cognitive Perspective 16:30 
    Expectations and Personality 16:34 
    Behavior Influenced By Biology, Experiences, and Cognitive Interpretation 18:06 
  Personality: Trait Theory & Projective Personality Tests 25:04
   Intro 0:00 
   Theories of Personality 0:13 
    Defining Personality 0:15 
    Personality Theories 0:49 
   Personality Traits 1:10 
    Personality Traits 1:11 
    Measured on a Scale from Low to High 1:34 
    Factor Analysis 2:14 
    Trait of Conscientiousness 2:57 
   Stability of Personality 3:29 
    Traits Must Be Fairly Consistent Over Time 3:30 
    Personality is Consistent 3:44 
    Temperament and Extraversion 5:10 
   The Big Five Factor Model 7:01 
    Five Traits 7:28 
    All Other Traits 7:52 
   Big Five Factor Model 8:06 
    Extroversion 9:00 
    Agreeableness 9:54 
    Conscientiousness 10:08 
    Neuroticism 10:41 
    Openness to Experience 11:22 
   Why Measure Personality? 12:09 
    Employment Selection 12:25 
    Job or Occupation Choices 13:14 
    Gain a Better Understanding of Behavior 14:24 
    Team Building 15:06 
   The MMPI 15:43 
    Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory is Designed to Diagnose Disorders 16:07 
    Structure of the Exam 16:29 
   Projective Personality Tests 20:17 
    Purpose of Projective Personality Tests 20:27 
    Rorschach Inkblot Test 21:02 
    Thematic Apperception Test 22:35 
   Summary of Projective Personality Testing 23:52 
    Most Psychologists Do Not See Significant Benefits from Projective Forms of Personality Testing 23:57 
    Some Therapists Use Them As An Additional Tool 24:34 

VII. Social Psychology

  Social Psychology: Attitudes & Behavior 15:22
   Intro 0:00 
   Social Psychology 0:11 
    Influence On Our Attitudes and Behavior Can Be Strong 0:30 
    Social Psychology 0:36 
   Attribution Theory 1:02 
    Attribute Others' Behavior To Internal Dispositions or to External Situations 1:03 
    Fundamental Attribution Error 2:08 
   Attitudes and Behavior 2:45 
    Defining Attitude 2:46 
    Defining Behavior 2:57 
    Cognitive Dissonance 3:42 
   Cognitive Dissonance 4:43 
    Smoker Example 4:44 
    People Often Refuse to Believe Something That Goes Against What They Think is True 6:31 
    Foot-in-the-door Phenomenon 7:53 
    Dissonance Created Leads to a Change in Attitude 9:26 
   Adopting a Role 10:37 
    Behave as Society Expects a Person In That 'Role' to Behave 10:42 
    Our Behavior in a Role Influences Our Attitudes 11:22 
    Stanford Prison Study 11:32 
   Changing Attitudes and Behavior 13:57 
    Can Change How We Think About Others and Feel About Ourselves 14:15 
    Various Therapies Involve Acting in a More Positive Manner 14:22 
  Social Psychology: Conformity & Obedience 18:45
   Intro 0:00 
   Social Psychology 0:11 
    Influence On Our Attitudes and Behavior Can Be Strong 0:14 
    Social Psychology 0:37 
   Conformity 0:53 
    Mimic the Behavior or Others 1:02 
    Mimicking Has Many Beneficial Outcomes 1:43 
    Negative Behaviors are Also Mimicked 2:59 
   Group Pressure and Conformity 3:24 
    Conformity 3:26 
    Solomon Ash 4:02 
    The Experiment 4:17 
    When Does Conformity Increase 5:56 
    Why We Feel Pressure to Conform 7:35 
    Normative Social Influence 7:59 
    Informational Social Influence 9:30 
   Obedience 10:18 
    Compliance and Obedience 10:24 
    Stanley Milgram Conducted a Now Famous Experiment 11:18 
    The Experiment 12:03 
    Point of the Experiment 12:08 
    Milgram's Experiment Showed How Influential Orders from an Authority Figure Can Be 14:40 
    Factors That Lead to More Obedience 16:00 
    If the Situation is Powerful Enough, Normal People Can Become Agents to Terrible Acts 18:05 
  Social Psychology: Group Influence 17:48
   Intro 0:00 
   Social Facilitation 0:09 
    Social Psychology 0:11 
    Social Facilitation 1:06 
   Social Loafing 2:22 
    Defining Social Loafing 2:42 
    Each Person in a Group Tends to 'Slack' Because of These Reasons 3:08 
    Reducing Social Loafing 3:57 
   Deindividuation 4:30 
    Defining Deindividuation 4:34 
    Involves Feelings of Depersonalization 6:11 
    Studies Show That Changing Ones Appearance Increases Levels of Anonymity 7:05 
   Group Polarization 7:51 
    Defining Group Polarization 7:59 
    It Can Be Positive 8:39 
    It Can Be Negative 9:59 
   Groupthink 10:33 
    Defining Groupthink 11:36 
    When Does Groupthink Occur 12:06 
    Examples 12:45 
   The Power of Individuals 15:13 
    Minority Influence 15:58 
    People Who Have Influenced Millions of People 16:05 
    When Minority Influence is the Strongest 16:44 
  Social Relations: Prejudice & Aggression 24:24
   Intro 0:00 
   Prejudice 0:09 
    Social Psychology 0:14 
    Prejudice 0:40 
    Usually Directed at Different Cultural, Ethnic, or Gender Groups 0:50 
    Prejudice Involves Beliefs, Emotions, and Predisposition to Action 1:03 
   Attitudinal Roots of Prejudice 1:48 
    Developing Prejudice Attitudes 1:53 
    Just-World Phenomenon 2:57 
    Stereotypes Rationalize Inequalities 3:52 
    Blame-the-Victim 4:34 
   Ingroup Bias 5:46 
    The Groups We Associated With Help Define Us 5:55 
    'Us' and 'Them' 7:00 
    Ingroup Bias 7:21 
    Ingroup Bias Occurs Naturally 7:30 
    Ingroup Bias Predisposes Prejudice Against Strangers 8:59 
   Emotional Roots of Prejudice 9:53 
    Prejudice Usually Carries an Emotional Element 10:03 
    Scapegoat Theory of Prejudice 10:33 
    When Is Prejudice Higher 11:14 
    Anger and Frustration Create Aggression Which Raises Prejudice Attitudes to a Violent Level 12:17 
   Cognitive Roots of Prejudice 12:40 
    Cognitively Process Information Can Lead to Prejudice 13:13 
    Own-Race Bias 14:06 
    Remember and Over generalize Memorable Or Vivid Stories 14:49 
   Aggression 15:32 
    Defining Aggression 15:37 
    Stems From the Interaction of Biology and Psychology 15:55 
    Biologically, Aggression Comes from Genetics, Neural System, and Biochemicals 16:22 
    Frustration-Aggression Principle 18:22 
    Social and Cultural Factors Play a Role in Aggression 20:42 
    Learned Behavior: Rewarded or Punished 20:52 
    Fight for What You Need and Don't Back Down 21:32 
    Watching Violence on TV Desensitizes Those to Violence and Correlates with Feelings of Hostility and Aggression 22:36 
   Summary 23:44 
  Social Relations: Altruism, Attraction, & the Bystander Effect 31:15
   Intro 0:00 
   Altruism 0:10 
    Social Psychology 0:11 
    Altruism 0:38 
    Kitty Genovese Example 1:07 
   Bystander Intervention 1:38 
    Theory of Bystander Intervention 1:40 
    Notice the Incident 2:03 
    Interpret It As An Emergency 2:11 
    Assume Responsibility 3:22 
    Bystander Effect 3:45 
   The Bystander Effect 3:57 
    Someone Alone Is More Likely to Help Someone in an Emergency 4:03 
    Person in a Group is Less Likely to Help Someone in an Emergency 4:06 
    Diffusion of Responsibility 4:43 
   Social Exchange Theory 4:58 
    Defining the Social Exchange Theory 5:04 
    Helping is Intrinsically Rewarding for Most People 6:48 
    Reciprocity Norms 7:30 
    Social Responsibility Norms 8:15 
   Attraction 8:52 
    Factors That Strongly Impact Attraction 9:30 
    Proximity 9:42 
    Mere Exposure Effect 10:20 
    Physical Attractiveness 10:56 
    Similarity 13:26 
    Reward Theory of Attraction 14:36 
   Romantic Love 15:17 
    Romantic Love 15:25 
    Passionate Love 15:32 
    Companionate Love 15:56 
   Long Lasting Relationships 16:47 
    Equity 17:06 
    Self-disclosure 17:31 
   Conflict 19:14 
    Defining Conflict 19:20 
    Social Traps 20:40 
    View Other People and Nations as Untrustworthy and Evil 22:39 
    Mirror-Image Perceptions 23:21 
   Promoting Peace 24:44 
    Enemy Can Quickly Become an Ally 24:46 
    Four Conditions Contribute to Peacefulness 25:04 
    Contact 25:21 
    Cooperation 26:10 
    Communication 28:51 
    Conciliation 29:53 

VIII. Psychological Disorders

  Psychological Disorders: Definition & Classification 22:37
   Intro 0:00 
   Psychological Disorders 0:11 
    World Health Organization Reports That Worldwide 450 Million People Suffer from a Psychological Disorder 0:12 
    Feel the Pain 0:34 
    'To Study the Abnormal is the Best Way of Understanding the Normal' 1:01 
    Defining Psychological Disorders 1:17 
    Deviant 1:42 
    Distressful 3:25 
    Dysfunctional 4:04 
   Major Categories of Disorders 5:32 
    Mood Disorders 5:39 
    Schizophrenia 5:58 
    Anxiety Disorders 6:04 
    Somatoform Disorders 6:50 
    Dissociative Disorders 7:04 
    Personality Disorders 7:16 
   Medical Model 7:38 
    Strange Behavior Was Often Attributed to Evil Spirits 7:40 
    Severe Stress, Inhumane Conditions, and Disease Are Underlying Causes of Many Odd Behaviors 8:15 
    Asylums Gave Rise to Medical Model 8:43 
   Biopsychosocial Model 9:36 
    Medical Model Looks for Physical Causes of Mental Disorders and Attempts to Cure the Person Through Treatment 9:40 
    Psychologists Believe the Medical Model to Be Incomplete 9:57 
    Biopsychosocial Model 10:07 
   Classification of Disorders 11:15 
    Classification 11:16 
    Diagnostic Classification 12:20 
    Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 13:01 
   DSM-V 14:01 
    DSM-I 14:03 
    Proponents 14:40 
    Critics 15:09 
    Many Studies Have Shown That Biased Perceptions Elecity the Very Behavior Expected 16:40 
    Famous Study 17:05 
   Effects of Labeling 18:16 
    Labeling Someone 18:18 
    Refusing to Seek Treatment Due to the Stigma of Having a 'Psychological Issue' 18:24 
    Individuals Labeled with a Mental Disorder Are Often Portrayed as Dangerous 18:46 
   Prevalence of Psychological Disorders 19:15 
    26% of American Adults 19:16 
    Highest Rate 19:36 
    Lowest Rate 20:04 
    Rates of Serious Psychological Disorders is Doubled in Areas Below the Poverty Line 20:46 
   Psychological Disorders 21:37 
  Mood Disorders 12:28
   Intro 0:00 
   Mood Depressive Disorder 0:07 
    Mood Disorders 0:13 
    Major Depressive Disorder 0:46 
    Depression 1:34 
   Major Depressive Disorder 1:43 
    Depression Often Follows Stressful Events 1:46 
    Rates of Depression 1:58 
    Women are Twice as Likely To Suffer 2:18 
    Men are More Vulnerable to Externalized Disorders 2:44 
    Depression Subsides on Its Own 2:49 
    About 50% of People Who Recover from Depression Will Experience it Again Within Two Years 3:28 
    Experience Behavioral Changes and Cognitive Changes 3:49 
   Causes of Depression 4:26 
    Stems from Interaction of Biology, Cognitions and the Environment 4:27 
    Biology and Genetics 5:07 
    Imbalance of Serotonin, Norepinephrine, and Dopamine 7:06 
    Social Cognitive Perspective 8:25 
   Bipolar Disorder 9:56 
    Lows of Depression are Sometimes Followed by Extreme Hyperactivity 9:58 
    Defining Bipolar Disorder 10:30 
    Manic Phase 10:49 
    Some Artists With Bipolar Disease Created Some of Their Greatest Works During Milder Manic Phases 11:22 
    Summary 11:53 
  Anxiety Disorders 21:53
   Intro 0:00 
   Anxiety Disorders 0:06 
    Characterized by Persistent, Intense Feelings of Anxiousness and Fear 0:09 
    Some Anxiety Disorders Include 0:18 
    15% of Americans Suffer from One or More Anxiety Disorders 0:42 
    Occur Twice as Frequently in Females 0:57 
   Generalized Anxiety Disorder 1:12 
    Characterized by Negative Feelings, Tension, Constant Worrying, and Apprehension 1:17 
    Often Resort to Maladaptive Behaviors and Suffer Physical Problems 1:58 
   Panic Disorder 3:09 
    Characterized by Panic Attacks 3:11 
    Panic Attacks Usually Last 10-20 Mins 3:47 
    Often Experience Anxiety Anticipating Another Panic Attack 4:10 
   Phobias 4:33 
    Characterized by an Intense, Irrational Fear 4:36 
    Most Common Phobias 5:30 
    9-18% of Americans Suffer from Phobias 6:45 
    More Prevalent in Adults Than Children, and More in Females than Males 6:50 
   Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder 7:19 
    Characterized by Repetitive Thoughts and/or Actions 7:23 
    More Common Among Teens and Young Adults 8:41 
   Most Common Obsessions and Compulsions 8:51 
    Most Common Obsessions 8:53 
    Most Common Compulsions 9:59 
   Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder 10:55 
    Characterized by Haunting Memories, Nightmares, Social Withdrawal, Jumpy Anxiety, or Insomnia That Lingers After a Traumatic Experience 11:03 
    Factors That Increase the Risk of PTSD 13:05 
   Causes of Anxiety Disorders 13:46 
    Anxiety is a Feeling and a Cognition 14:00 
    The Learning Perspective 14:08 
    Classical Conditioning 14:52 
    Reinforced and Repeated Behaviors 15:26 
    The Biological Perspective 16:34 
    People with 'High-Strung' Temperaments 17:20 
    Traumatic Experiences Can Cause Fear Circuits 18:06 
    Hereditary Explanation 18:46 
   Summary 21:23 
  Schizophrenia 21:21
   Intro 0:00 
   Schizophrenia 0:07 
    Psychotic Disorder Marked by Irrationality and Lost Contact with Reality 0:32 
    Characterized by Disorganized Thinking, Disturbed Perceptions, Inappropriate Emotions and Behavior 1:18 
    Disorganized Thinking 1:32 
    Disturbed Perceptions 2:17 
    Inappropriate Emotions and Behavior 2:57 
   Positive and Negative Symptoms 4:05 
    Positive Symptoms 4:58 
    Negative Symptoms 5:12 
   Types of Schizophrenia 5:51 
    Chronic Schizophrenia 6:02 
    Acute Schizophrenia 6:57 
   Facts About Schizophrenia 7:57 
    Age 8:00 
    Over 50% of People with Schizophrenia Also Have a Substance Abuse Disorder 8:28 
    Life-Expectancy 9:31 
   Causes of Schizophrenia 10:05 
    Complex Cluster of Disorders 10:28 
    Brain Abnormalities 11:19 
    Dopamine 11:52 
    Abnormal Activity in Multiple Areas of the Brain 12:13 
    Prenatal Factors 15:13 
    Known Risk Factors: Low Birth Rate and Oxygen Deprivation 15:46 
    Mid-pregnancy Virus 16:29 
    Genetic Factors 18:02 
    Psychological and Environmental Factors 19:00 
  Dissociative, Somatic, and Personality Disorders 29:23
   Intro 0:00 
   Dissociative Disorders 0:09 
    Disorders of Consciousness 0:16 
    Three Dissociative Disorders 0:46 
   Dissociative Identity Disorder 1:51 
    Defining Dissociative Identity Disorder 1:54 
    Identities Can Suddenly Change 2:10 
    Psychoanalytic Therapists 4:07 
    Learning Psychologists 4:25 
    Uncommon 5:04 
    Skeptics 6:28 
    Patients Exhibit Physical Signs When Changing from One Identity to Another 7:41 
   Somatic Symptom Disorders 9:07 
    Characteristics 9:17 
    Stems from Anxiety 9:49 
    Two Prevalent Disorders 10:09 
   Somatization Disorder 11:11 
    Patient Interprets Normal Sensations as Symptoms of a Dreaded Disease 11:12 
    Search for Confirmation of Disease 11:17 
    Temporary Relief 12:00 
   Culture and Somatic Symptom Disorders 12:20 
    Emotional Symptoms 13:29 
    Physical Symptoms 13:52 
   Personality Disorders 14:29 
    Characteristics 14:39 
    Difficulty with Cognitions, Emotions, Interpersonal Functioning, and/or Impulse Control 14:54 
    Three Clusters 16:20 
    Odd or Eccentric Personality Disorders 16:31 
    Dramatic, Emotional, or Erratic Personality Disorders 17:08 
    Anxious or Fearful Personality Disorders 18:06 
   Antisocial Personality Disorder 20:04 
    Sociopath or Psychopath 20:14 
    Patient Profile 20:36 
    Roughly 50% Adolescents Become Criminals as Adults 21:00 
    Exhibit The Following Behavior 21:22 
    No Fears and Feels Nothing Toward His Victims 22:19 
    Do Not Have Antisocial Personality Disorder -- They Show Concern for Friends 23:22 
    Prevalence is Higher Among Prisoners and Those in Drug and Alcohol Treatment Programs 23:54 
   Roots of Antisocial Personality Disorder 24:13 
     Biological and Psychological Roots 24:14 
    Children with Low Levels of Arousal 25:10 
    Less Activity in Frontal Lobe 25:52 
    Lower Levels of Serotonin 26:24 
    Head Injuries Have Been Linked to Antisocial Personality Disorder 27:04 
    Socio-Cultural and Psychological Factors 28:50 

IX. Therapies

  Psychological Therapies 36:56
   Intro 0:00 
   Types of Therapy 0:08 
    Psychological 0:48 
    Biomedical 1:04 
    Psychotherapy and Biomedical Approach 1:24 
    Electric Approach 1:52 
    Major Psychological Therapies 2:16 
   Psychoanalysis 2:46 
    Sigmund Freud 2:50 
    Psychodynamic Therapists 3:08 
    Original Psychoanalytic Theory 3:52 
    Role of the Unconscious 4:19 
    5 Psychosexual Stages 4:22 
    Id, Superego, Ego 4:31 
    Purpose of Psychoanalysis 5:50 
    Patient Engages in Free Association 6:04 
   Psychodynamic Therapy 6:57 
    Transference 7:00 
    How Psychodynamic Therapists Help Clients 7:53 
   Humanistic Therapies 9:08 
    Humanistic Therapies 9:14 
    Involves Understanding Who We Are and Why We Act and Feel Certain Ways 10:26 
    Therapists Promote Self-Acceptance and Self Love 11:08 
    Carl Rogers Developed Client Centered Therapy 11:48 
    Improve Self-Awareness and Self-Esteem 14:00 
   Behavior Therapies 14:10 
    Behavior Therapies 14:16 
    Classical Conditioning Techniques 15:02 
    Systematic Desensitization 15:31 
    Aversive Conditioning 16:45 
    Operant Conditioning Techniques 18:00 
   Cognitive Therapies 20:06 
    Look at Our Responses to Events as the Problem 20:17 
    Focus 22:42 
   Cognitive Behavioral Therapies 23:01 
    Focus 23:02 
    Effective for Anxiety and Depression 23:26 
    Dealing with Anxiety Issues 23:58 
   Group and Family Therapies 25:30 
    When Issues within the Family Occur 25:32 
    Family Members Can Work on Communication 26:22 
    Most Therapies Occur in Small Groups 26:33 
    Effective in Dealing with Relationship Issues 27:20 
   Effectiveness of Psychotherapy 27:25 
    Most People Who Seek Therapy Report Improvement After 27:42 
    Therapists Also Report Seeing Positive Outcomes From Sessions with Clients 28:15 
    Behavioral Conditioning 30:24 
    Cognitive Therapy 30:57 
   Alternative Therapies 31:30 
    Alternative Methods 31:49 
    Considerations When Seeking Therapy 33:03 
   Conclusions 33:50 
    Three Common Elements 33:55 
    Evaluating Therapists, Experience, and Degrees 35:40 
  Biomedical Therapies 29:17
   Intro 0:00 
   Types of Therapy 0:07 
    Psychological 0:36 
    Biomedical 1:16 
   Biomedical Therapies 1:20 
    Treat Psychological Disorders with Drugs 1:21 
    Psychiatrist Administers Medication 1:59 
    Electric Approach 2:25 
   Drug Therapies 2:40 
    Advances in Psychopharmacology 2:45 
    Pros of Drug Therapy 3:37 
    Cons of Drug Therapy 4:15 
   Antipsychotic Drugs 6:50 
    Blocks Dopamine Receptor Sites 6:54 
    Control Positive Symptoms 7:24 
    Most Common is Chlorpromazine 8:24 
    Chronic Schizophrenia Patients Do Not Respond to Antipsychotics 8:52 
    Atypical Antipsychotics 8:58 
    Target Dopamine and Serotonin Receptors 9:14 
   Antianxiety Drugs 10:17 
    Treat Symptoms of Anxiety 10:19 
    Xanax and Ativan 10:25 
    Physiological Dependence 12:47 
   Antidepressants 13:38 
    Boost a Person's Mood By Increasing the Neurotransmitters 14:28 
    Prozac and Zoloft 14:36 
    Becoming the Most Common Method to Treat Symptoms of Anxiety Disorders 16:10 
    SSRIs 16:18 
    Addictive 16:50 
   Electroconvulsive Therapy 17:08 
    Shock Treatment 17:19 
    Low Voltage Currents to the Brain 17:55 
    Short Term Success Rate 18:32 
    Relapse 18:54 
   Alternative Neurostimulation Therapies 19:17 
    Deep Brain Stimulation 19:20 
    Brain Pacemaker 20:14 
   Psychosurgery 21:39 
    Psychosurgery 21:42 
    Lobotomy 22:10 
    Vegetable State 22:19 
    Today It is Only Performed in Extreme Cases 23:29 
   Lifestyle Therapy 24:04 
    We Cannot Isolate Our Mind From Our Body 25:01 
    80% of All Physical Illness is Related to Stress 25:35 
    Eat, Sleep, Exercise 26:20 
    Ways to Take Care of Ourselves 27:12