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Professor Dan Fullerton introduces the new AP Physics 1 and 2 course in this video series. Dan loves taking complex concepts and distilling them into easy-to-understand fundamentals that are illustrated with numerous applications and sample problems. His course prepares students for test day with AP level examples with each lesson, a full AP test walk-through, and even more examples from state physics tests. Topics cover the entire AP Physics 1 and AP Physics 2 syllabus, including Mechanics, Rotation, Energy, Fluids, Thermodynamics, Waves, Optics, and Modern and Nuclear Physics. Professor Fullerton obtained his B.S. and M.S. in Microelectronic Engineering from the Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT) and his secondary physics teaching certification from Drexel University. He taught undergraduate and graduate Microelectronic Engineering courses at RIT for 10 years, and High School Physics since 2007. He was recently named a New York State Master Physics Teacher, and is the author of AP Physics 1 Essentials, Honors Physics Essentials, and Physics: Fundamentals and Problem Solving.

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I. Introduction
  What is Physics? 7:38
   Intro 0:00 
   Objectives 0:12 
   What is Physics? 0:31 
    What is Matter, Energy, and How to They Interact 0:55 
   Why? 0:58 
    Physics Answers the 'Why' Questions. 1:05 
   Matter 1:23 
    Matter 1:29 
    Mass 1:33 
    Inertial Mass 1:53 
    Gravitational Mass 2:12 
   A Spacecraft's Mass 2:58 
   Energy 3:37 
    Energy: The Ability or Capacity to Do Work 3:39 
    Work: The Process of Moving an Object 3:45 
    The Ability or Capacity to Move an Object 3:54 
   Mass-Energy Equivalence 4:51 
    Relationship Between Mass and Energy E=mc2 5:01 
    The Mass of An Object is Really a Measure of Its Energy 5:05 
   The Study of Everything 5:42 
   Introductory Course 6:19 
   Next Steps 7:15 
  Math Review 24:12
   Intro 0:00 
   Outline 0:10 
   Objectives 0:28 
   Why Do We Need Units? 0:52 
    Need to Set Specific Standards for Our Measurements 1:01 
    Physicists Have Agreed to Use the Systeme International 1:24 
   The Systeme International 1:50 
    Based on Powers of 10 1:52 
    7 Fundamental Units: Meter, Kilogram, Second, Ampere, Candela, Kelvin, Mole 2:02 
   The Meter 2:18 
    Meter is a Measure of Length 2:20 
    Measurements Smaller than a Meter, Use: Centimeter, Millimeter, Micrometer, Nanometer 2:25 
    Measurements Larger Than a Meter, Use Kilometer 2:38 
   The Kilogram 2:46 
    Roughly Equivalent to 2.2 English Pounds 2:49 
    Grams, Milligrams 2:53 
    Megagram 2:59 
   Seconds 3:10 
    Base Unit of Time 3:12 
    Minute, Hour, Day 3:20 
    Milliseconds, Microseconds 3:33 
   Derived Units 3:41 
    Velocity 3:45 
    Acceleration 3:57 
    Force 4:04 
   Prefixes for Powers of 10 4:21 
   Converting Fundamental Units, Example 1 4:53 
   Converting Fundamental Units, Example 2 7:18 
   Two-Step Conversions, Example 1 8:24 
   Two-Step Conversions, Example 2 10:06 
   Derived Unit Conversions 11:29 
   Multi-Step Conversions 13:25 
   Metric Estimations 15:04 
   What are Significant Figures? 16:01 
    Represent a Manner of Showing Which Digits In a Number Are Known to Some Level of Certainty 16:03 
    Example 16:09 
   Measuring with Sig Figs 16:36 
    Rule 1 16:40 
    Rule 2 16:44 
    Rule 3 16:52 
   Reading Significant Figures 16:57 
    All Non-Zero Digits Are Significant 17:04 
    All Digits Between Non-Zero Digits Are Significant 17:07 
    Zeros to the Left of the Significant Digits 17:11 
    Zeros to the Right of the Significant Digits 17:16 
   Non-Zero Digits 17:21 
   Digits Between Non-Zeros Are Significant 17:45 
   Zeroes to the Right of the Sig Figs Are Significant 18:17 
   Why Scientific Notation? 18:36 
    Physical Measurements Vary Tremendously in Magnitude 18:38 
    Example 18:47 
   Scientific Notation in Practice 19:23 
    Example 1 19:28 
    Example 2 19:44 
   Using Scientific Notation 20:02 
    Show Your Value Using Correct Number of Significant Figures 20:05 
    Move the Decimal Point 20:09 
    Show Your Number Being Multiplied by 10 Raised to the Appropriate Power 20:14 
   Accuracy and Precision 20:23 
    Accuracy 20:36 
    Precision 20:41 
   Example 1: Scientific Notation w/ Sig Figs 21:48 
   Example 2: Scientific Notation - Compress 22:25 
   Example 3: Scientific Notation - Compress 23:07 
   Example 4: Scientific Notation - Expand 23:31 
  Vectors & Scalars 25:05
   Intro 0:00 
   Objectives 0:05 
   Scalars 0:29 
    Definition of Scalar 0:39 
    Temperature, Mass, Time 0:45 
   Vectors 1:12 
    Vectors are Quantities That Have Magnitude and Direction 1:13 
    Represented by Arrows 1:31 
   Vector Representations 1:47 
   Graphical Vector Addition 2:42 
   Graphical Vector Subtraction 4:58 
   Vector Components 6:08 
   Angle of a Vector 8:22 
   Vector Notation 9:52 
   Example 1: Vector Components 14:30 
   Example 2: Vector Components 16:05 
   Example 3: Vector Magnitude 17:26 
   Example 4: Vector Addition 19:38 
   Example 5: Angle of a Vector 24:06 
II. Mechanics
  Defining & Graphing Motion 30:11
   Intro 0:00 
   Objectives 0:07 
   Position 0:40 
    An Object's Position Cab Be Assigned to a Variable on a Number Scale 0:43 
    Symbol for Position 1:07 
   Distance 1:13 
    When Position Changes, An Object Has Traveled Some Distance 1:14 
    Distance is Scalar and Measured in Meters 1:21 
   Example 1: Distance 1:34 
   Displacement 2:17 
    Displacement is a Vector Which Describes the Straight Line From Start to End Point 2:18 
    Measured in Meters 2:27 
   Example 2: Displacement 2:39 
   Average Speed 3:32 
    The Distance Traveled Divided by the Time Interval 3:33 
    Speed is a Scalar 3:47 
   Example 3: Average Speed 3:57 
   Average Velocity 4:37 
    The Displacement Divided by the Time Interval 4:38 
    Velocity is a Vector 4:53 
   Example 4: Average Velocity 5:06 
   Example 5: Chuck the Hungry Squirrel 5:55 
   Acceleration 8:02 
    Rate At Which Velocity Changes 8:13 
    Acceleration is a Vector 8:26 
   Example 6: Acceleration Problem 8:52 
   Average vs. Instantaneous 9:44 
    Average Values Take Into Account an Entire Time Interval 9:50 
    Instantaneous Value Tells the Rate of Change of a Quantity at a Specific Instant in Time 9:54 
   Example 7: Average Velocity 10:06 
   Particle Diagrams 11:57 
    Similar to the Effect of Oil Leak from a Car on the Pavement 11:59 
    Accelerating 13:03 
   Position-Time Graphs 14:17 
    Shows Position as a Function of Time 14:24 
   Slope of x-t Graph 15:08 
    Slope Gives You the Velocity 15:09 
    Negative Indicates Direction 16:27 
   Velocity-Time Graphs 16:45 
    Shows Velocity as a Function of Time 16:49 
   Area Under v-t Graphs 17:47 
    Area Under the V-T Graph Gives You Change in Displacement 17:48 
   Example 8: Slope of a v-t Graph 19:45 
   Acceleration-Time Graphs 21:44 
    Slope of the v-t Graph Gives You Acceleration 21:45 
    Area Under the a-t Graph Gives You an Object's Change in Velocity 22:24 
   Example 10: Motion Graphing 24:03 
   Example 11: v-t Graph 27:14 
   Example 12: Displacement From v-t Graph 28:14 
  Kinematic Equations 36:13
   Intro 0:00 
   Objectives 0:07 
   Problem-Solving Toolbox 0:42 
    Graphs Are Not Always the Most Effective 0:47 
    Kinematic Equations Helps us Solve for Five Key Variables 0:56 
   Deriving the Kinematic Equations 1:29 
   Kinematic Equations 7:40 
   Problem Solving Steps 8:13 
    Label Your Horizontal or Vertical Motion 8:20 
    Choose a Direction as Positive 8:24 
    Create a Motion Analysis Table 8:33 
    Fill in Your Givens 8:42 
    Solve for Unknowns 8:45 
   Example 1: Horizontal Kinematics 8:51 
   Example 2: Vertical Kinematics 11:13 
   Example 3: 2 Step Problem 13:25 
   Example 4: Acceleration Problem 16:44 
   Example 5: Particle Diagrams 17:56 
   Example 6: Quadratic Solution 20:13 
   Free Fall 24:24 
    When the Only Force Acting on an Object is the Force of Gravity, the Motion is Free Fall 24:27 
   Air Resistance 24:51 
    Drop a Ball 24:56 
    Remove the Air from the Room 25:02 
    Analyze the Motion of Objects by Neglecting Air Resistance 25:06 
   Acceleration Due to Gravity 25:22 
    g = 9.8 m/s2 25:25 
    Approximate g as 10 m/s2 on the AP Exam 25:37 
    G is Referred to as the Gravitational Field Strength 25:48 
   Objects Falling From Rest 26:15 
    Objects Starting from Rest Have an Initial velocity of 0 26:19 
    Acceleration is +g 26:34 
   Example 7: Falling Objects 26:47 
   Objects Launched Upward 27:59 
    Acceleration is -g 28:04 
    At Highest Point, the Object has a Velocity of 0 28:19 
    Symmetry of Motion 28:27 
   Example 8: Ball Thrown Upward 28:47 
   Example 9: Height of a Jump 29:23 
   Example 10: Ball Thrown Downward 33:08 
   Example 11: Maximum Height 34:16 
  Projectiles 20:32
   Intro 0:00 
   Objectives 0:06 
   What is a Projectile? 0:26 
    An Object That is Acted Upon Only By Gravity 0:29 
    Typically Launched at an Angle 0:43 
   Path of a Projectile 1:03 
    Projectiles Launched at an Angle Move in Parabolic Arcs 1:06 
    Symmetric and Parabolic 1:32 
    Horizontal Range and Max Height 1:49 
   Independence of Motion 2:17 
    Vertical 2:49 
    Horizontal 2:52 
   Example 1: Horizontal Launch 3:49 
   Example 2: Parabolic Path 7:41 
   Angled Projectiles 8:30 
    Must First Break Up the Object's Initial Velocity Into x- and y- Components of Initial Velocity 8:32 
    An Object Will Travel the Maximum Horizontal Distance with a Launch Angle of 45 Degrees 8:43 
   Example 3: Human Cannonball 8:55 
   Example 4: Motion Graphs 12:55 
   Example 5: Launch From a Height 15:33 
   Example 6: Acceleration of a Projectile 19:56 
  Relative Motion 10:52
   Intro 0:00 
   Objectives 0:06 
   Reference Frames 0:18 
    Motion of an Observer 0:21 
    No Way to Distinguish Between Motion at Rest and Motion at a Constant Velocity 0:44 
   Motion is Relative 1:35 
    Example 1 1:39 
    Example 2 2:09 
   Calculating Relative Velocities 2:31 
    Example 1 2:43 
    Example 2 2:48 
    Example 3 2:52 
   Example 1 4:58 
   Example 2: Airspeed 6:19 
   Example 3: 2-D Relative Motion 7:39 
   Example 4: Relative Velocity with Direction 9:40 
  Newton's 1st Law of Motion 10:16
   Intro 0:00 
   Objective 0:05 
   Newton's 1st Law of Motion 0:16 
    An Object At Rest Will Remain At Rest 0:21 
    An Object In Motion Will Remain in Motion 0:26 
    Net Force 0:39 
    Also Known As the Law of Inertia 0:46 
   Force 1:02 
    Push or Pull 1:04 
    Newtons 1:08 
    Contact and Field Forces 1:31 
    Contact Forces 1:50 
    Field Forces 2:11 
   What is a Net Force? 2:30 
    Vector Sum of All the Forces Acting on an Object 2:33 
    Translational Equilibrium 2:37 
    Unbalanced Force Is a Net Force 2:46 
   What Does It Mean? 3:49 
    An Object Will Continue in Its Current State of Motion Unless an Unbalanced Force Acts Upon It 3:50 
    Example of Newton's First Law 4:20 
   Objects in Motion 5:05 
    Will Remain in Motion At Constant Velocity 5:06 
    Hard to Find a Frictionless Environment on Earth 5:10 
   Static Equilibrium 5:40 
    Net Force on an Object is 0 5:44 
   Inertia 6:21 
    Tendency of an Object to Resist a Change in Velocity 6:23 
    Inertial Mass 6:35 
    Gravitational Mass 6:40 
   Example 1: Inertia 7:10 
   Example 2: Inertia 7:37 
   Example 3: Translational Equilibrium 8:03 
   Example 4: Net Force 8:40 
  Newton's 2nd Law of Motion 34:55
   Intro 0:00 
   Objective 0:07 
   Free Body Diagrams 0:37 
    Tools Used to Analyze Physical Situations 0:40 
    Show All the Forces Acting on a Single Object 0:45 
   Drawing FBDs 0:58 
    Draw Object of Interest as a Dot 1:00 
    Sketch a Coordinate System 1:10 
   Example 1: Falling Elephant 1:18 
   Example 2: Falling Elephant with Air Resistance 2:07 
   Example 3: Soda on Table 3:00 
   Example 4: Box in Equilibrium 4:25 
   Example 5: Block on a Ramp 5:01 
   Pseudo-FBDs 5:53 
    Draw When Forces Don't Line Up with Axes 5:56 
    Break Forces That Don’t Line Up with Axes into Components That Do 6:00 
   Example 6: Objects on a Ramp 6:32 
   Example 7: Car on a Banked Turn 10:23 
   Newton's 2nd Law of Motion 12:56 
    The Acceleration of an Object is in the Direction of the Directly Proportional to the Net Force Applied 13:06 
   Newton's 1st Two Laws Compared 13:45 
    Newton's 1st Law 13:51 
    Newton's 2nd Law 14:10 
   Applying Newton's 2nd Law 14:50 
   Example 8: Applying Newton's 2nd Law 15:23 
   Example 9: Stopping a Baseball 16:52 
   Example 10: Block on a Surface 19:51 
   Example 11: Concurrent Forces 21:16 
   Mass vs. Weight 22:28 
    Mass 22:29 
    Weight 22:47 
   Example 12: Mass vs. Weight 23:16 
   Translational Equilibrium 24:47 
    Occurs When There Is No Net Force on an Object 24:49 
    Equilibrant 24:57 
   Example 13: Translational Equilibrium 25:29 
   Example 14: Translational Equilibrium 26:56 
   Example 15: Determining Acceleration 28:05 
   Example 16: Suspended Mass 31:03 
  Newton's 3rd Law of Motion 5:58
   Intro 0:00 
   Objectives 0:06 
   Newton's 3rd Law of Motion 0:20 
    All Forces Come in Pairs 0:24 
   Examples 1:22 
   Action-Reaction Pairs 2:07 
    Girl Kicking Soccer Ball 2:11 
    Rocket Ship in Space 2:29 
    Gravity on You 2:53 
   Example 1: Force of Gravity 3:34 
   Example 2: Sailboat 4:00 
   Example 3: Hammer and Nail 4:49 
   Example 4: Net Force 5:06 
  Friction 17:49
   Intro 0:00 
   Objectives 0:06 
   Examples 0:23 
    Friction Opposes Motion 0:24 
    Kinetic Friction 0:27 
    Static Friction 0:36 
    Magnitude of Frictional Force Is Determined By Two Things 0:41 
   Coefficient Friction 2:27 
    Ratio of the Frictional Force and the Normal Force 2:28 
    Chart of Different Values of Friction 2:48 
   Kinetic or Static? 3:31 
   Example 1: Car Sliding 4:18 
   Example 2: Block on Incline 5:03 
   Calculating the Force of Friction 5:48 
    Depends Only Upon the Nature of the Surfaces in Contact and the Magnitude of the Force 5:50 
   Terminal Velocity 6:14 
    Air Resistance 6:18 
    Terminal Velocity of the Falling Object 6:33 
   Example 3: Finding the Frictional Force 7:36 
   Example 4: Box on Wood Surface 9:13 
   Example 5: Static vs. Kinetic Friction 11:49 
   Example 6: Drag Force on Airplane 12:15 
   Example 7: Pulling a Sled 13:21 
  Dynamics Applications 35:27
   Intro 0:00 
   Objectives 0:08 
   Free Body Diagrams 0:49 
   Drawing FBDs 1:09 
    Draw Object of Interest as a Dot 1:12 
    Sketch a Coordinate System 1:18 
   Example 1: FBD of Block on Ramp 1:39 
   Pseudo-FBDs 1:59 
    Draw Object of Interest as a Dot 2:00 
    Break Up the Forces 2:07 
   Box on a Ramp 2:12 
   Example 2: Box at Rest 4:28 
   Example 3: Box Held by Force 5:00 
   What is an Atwood Machine? 6:46 
    Two Objects are Connected by a Light String Over a Mass-less Pulley 6:49 
   Properties of Atwood Machines 7:13 
    Ideal Pulleys are Frictionless and Mass-less 7:16 
    Tension is Constant in a Light String Passing Over an Ideal Pulley 7:23 
   Solving Atwood Machine Problems 8:02 
   Alternate Solution 12:07 
    Analyze the System as a Whole 12:12 
   Elevators 14:24 
    Scales Read the Force They Exert on an Object Placed Upon Them 14:42 
    Can be Used to Analyze Using Newton's 2nd Law and Free body Diagrams 15:23 
   Example 4: Elevator Accelerates Upward 15:36 
   Example 5: Truck on a Hill 18:30 
   Example 6: Force Up a Ramp 19:28 
   Example 7: Acceleration Down a Ramp 21:56 
   Example 8: Basic Atwood Machine 24:05 
   Example 9: Masses and Pulley on a Table 26:47 
   Example 10: Mass and Pulley on a Ramp 29:15 
   Example 11: Elevator Accelerating Downward 33:00 
  Impulse & Momentum 26:06
   Intro 0:00 
   Objectives 0:06 
   Momentum 0:31 
    Example 0:35 
    Momentum measures How Hard It Is to Stop a Moving Object 0:47 
    Vector Quantity 0:58 
   Example 1: Comparing Momenta 1:48 
   Example 2: Calculating Momentum 3:08 
   Example 3: Changing Momentum 3:50 
   Impulse 5:02 
    Change In Momentum 5:05 
   Example 4: Impulse 5:26 
   Example 5: Impulse-Momentum 6:41 
   Deriving the Impulse-Momentum Theorem 9:04 
   Impulse-Momentum Theorem 12:02 
   Example 6: Impulse-Momentum Theorem 12:15 
   Non-Constant Forces 13:55 
    Impulse or Change in Momentum 13:56 
    Determine the Impulse by Calculating the Area of the Triangle Under the Curve 14:07 
   Center of Mass 14:56 
    Real Objects Are More Complex Than Theoretical Particles 14:59 
    Treat Entire Object as if Its Entire Mass Were Contained at the Object's Center of Mass 15:09 
    To Calculate the Center of Mass 15:17 
   Example 7: Force on a Moving Object 15:49 
   Example 8: Motorcycle Accident 17:49 
   Example 9: Auto Collision 19:32 
   Example 10: Center of Mass (1D) 21:29 
   Example 11: Center of Mass (2D) 23:28 
  Collisions 21:59
   Intro 0:00 
   Objectives 0:09 
   Conservation of Momentum 0:18 
    Linear Momentum is Conserved in an Isolated System 0:21 
    Useful for Analyzing Collisions and Explosions 0:27 
   Momentum Tables 0:58 
    Identify Objects in the System 1:05 
    Determine the Momenta of the Objects Before and After the Event 1:10 
    Add All the Momenta From Before the Event and Set Them Equal to Momenta After the Event 1:15 
    Solve Your Resulting Equation for Unknowns 1:20 
   Types of Collisions 1:31 
    Elastic Collision 1:36 
    Inelastic Collision 1:56 
   Example 1: Conservation of Momentum (1D) 2:02 
   Example 2: Inelastic Collision 5:12 
   Example 3: Recoil Velocity 7:16 
   Example 4: Conservation of Momentum (2D) 9:29 
   Example 5: Atomic Collision 16:02 
  Describing Circular Motion 7:18
   Intro 0:00 
   Objectives 0:07 
   Uniform Circular Motion 0:20 
    Circumference 0:32 
    Average Speed Formula Still Applies 0:46 
   Frequency 1:03 
    Number of Revolutions or Cycles Which Occur Each Second 1:04 
    Hertz 1:24 
    Formula for Frequency 1:28 
   Period 1:36 
    Time It Takes for One Complete Revolution or Cycle 1:37 
   Frequency and Period 1:54 
   Example 1: Car on a Track 2:08 
   Example 2: Race Car 3:55 
   Example 3: Toy Train 4:45 
   Example 4: Round-A-Bout 5:39 
  Centripetal Acceleration & Force 26:37
   Intro 0:00 
   Objectives 0:08 
   Uniform Circular Motion 0:38 
   Direction of ac 1:41 
   Magnitude of ac 3:50 
   Centripetal Force 4:08 
    For an Object to Accelerate, There Must Be a Net Force 4:18 
    Centripetal Force 4:26 
   Calculating Centripetal Force 6:14 
   Example 1: Acceleration 7:31 
   Example 2: Direction of ac 8:53 
   Example 3: Loss of Centripetal Force 9:19 
   Example 4: Velocity and Centripetal Force 10:08 
   Example 5: Demon Drop 10:55 
   Example 6: Centripetal Acceleration vs. Speed 14:11 
   Example 7: Calculating ac 15:03 
   Example 8: Running Back 15:45 
   Example 9: Car at an Intersection 17:15 
   Example 10: Bucket in Horizontal Circle 18:40 
   Example 11: Bucket in Vertical Circle 19:20 
   Example 12: Frictionless Banked Curve 21:55 
  Gravitation 32:56
   Intro 0:00 
   Objectives 0:08 
   Universal Gravitation 0:29 
    The Bigger the Mass the Closer the Attraction 0:48 
    Formula for Gravitational Force 1:16 
   Calculating g 2:43 
    Mass of Earth 2:51 
    Radius of Earth 2:55 
   Inverse Square Relationship 4:32 
   Problem Solving Hints 7:21 
    Substitute Values in For Variables at the End of the Problem Only 7:26 
    Estimate the Order of Magnitude of the Answer Before Using Your Calculator 7:38 
    Make Sure Your Answer Makes Sense 7:55 
   Example 1: Asteroids 8:20 
   Example 2: Meteor and the Earth 10:17 
   Example 3: Satellite 13:13 
   Gravitational Fields 13:50 
    Gravity is a Non-Contact Force 13:54 
    Closer Objects 14:14 
    Denser Force Vectors 14:19 
   Gravitational Field Strength 15:09 
   Example 4: Astronaut 16:19 
   Gravitational Potential Energy 18:07 
    Two Masses Separated by Distance Exhibit an Attractive Force 18:11 
    Formula for Gravitational Field 19:21 
   How Do Orbits Work? 19:36 
   Example5: Gravitational Field Strength for Space Shuttle in Orbit 21:35 
   Example 6: Earth's Orbit 25:13 
   Example 7: Bowling Balls 27:25 
   Example 8: Freely Falling Object 28:07 
   Example 9: Finding g 28:40 
   Example 10: Space Vehicle on Mars 29:10 
   Example 11: Fg vs. Mass Graph 30:24 
   Example 12: Mass on Mars 31:14 
   Example 13: Two Satellites 31:51 
  Rotational Kinematics 15:33
   Intro 0:00 
   Objectives 0:07 
   Radians and Degrees 0:26 
    In Degrees, Once Around a Circle is 360 Degrees 0:29 
    In Radians, Once Around a Circle is 2π 0:34 
   Example 1: Degrees to Radians 0:57 
   Example 2: Radians to Degrees 1:31 
   Linear vs. Angular Displacement 2:00 
    Linear Position 2:05 
    Angular Position 2:10 
   Linear vs. Angular Velocity 2:35 
    Linear Speed 2:39 
    Angular Speed 2:42 
   Direction of Angular Velocity 3:05 
   Converting Linear to Angular Velocity 4:22 
   Example 3: Angular Velocity Example 4:41 
   Linear vs. Angular Acceleration 5:36 
   Example 4: Angular Acceleration 6:15 
   Kinematic Variable Parallels 7:47 
    Displacement 7:52 
    Velocity 8:10 
    Acceleration 8:16 
    Time 8:22 
   Kinematic Variable Translations 8:30 
    Displacement 8:34 
    Velocity 8:42 
    Acceleration 8:50 
    Time 0:00 
   Kinematic Equation Parallels 9:09 
    Kinematic Equations 9:12 
    Delta 9:33 
    Final Velocity Squared and Angular Velocity Squared 9:54 
   Example 5: Medieval Flail 10:24 
   Example 6: CD Player 10:57 
   Example 7: Carousel 12:13 
   Example 8: Circular Saw 13:35 
  Torque 11:21
   Intro 0:00 
   Objectives 0:05 
   Torque 0:18 
    Force That Causes an Object to Turn 0:22 
    Must be Perpendicular to the Displacement to Cause a Rotation 0:27 
    Lever Arm: The Stronger the Force, The More Torque 0:45 
   Direction of the Torque Vector 1:53 
    Perpendicular to the Position Vector and the Force Vector 1:54 
    Right-Hand Rule 2:08 
   Newton's 2nd Law: Translational vs. Rotational 2:46 
   Equilibrium 3:58 
    Static Equilibrium 4:01 
    Dynamic Equilibrium 4:09 
    Rotational Equilibrium 4:22 
   Example 1: Pirate Captain 4:32 
   Example 2: Auto Mechanic 5:25 
   Example 3: Sign Post 6:44 
   Example 4: See-Saw 9:01 
  Rotational Dynamics 36:06
   Intro 0:00 
   Objectives 0:08 
   Types of Inertia 0:39 
    Inertial Mass (Translational Inertia) 0:42 
    Moment of Inertia (Rotational Inertia) 0:53 
   Moment of Inertia for Common Objects 1:48 
   Example 1: Calculating Moment of Inertia 2:53 
   Newton's 2nd Law - Revisited 5:09 
    Acceleration of an Object 5:15 
    Angular Acceleration of an Object 5:24 
   Example 2: Rotating Top 5:47 
   Example 3: Spinning Disc 7:54 
   Angular Momentum 9:41 
    Linear Momentum 9:43 
    Angular Momentum 10:00 
   Calculating Angular Momentum 10:51 
    Direction of the Angular Momentum Vector 11:26 
    Total Angular Momentum 12:29 
   Example 4: Angular Momentum of Particles 14:15 
   Example 5: Rotating Pedestal 16:51 
   Example 6: Rotating Discs 18:39 
   Angular Momentum and Heavenly Bodies 20:13 
   Types of Kinetic Energy 23:41 
    Objects Traveling with a Translational Velocity 23:45 
    Objects Traveling with Angular Velocity 24:00 
   Translational vs. Rotational Variables 24:33 
   Example 7: Kinetic Energy of a Basketball 25:45 
   Example 8: Playground Round-A-Bout 28:17 
   Example 9: The Ice Skater 30:54 
   Example 10: The Bowler 33:15 
  Work & Power 31:20
   Intro 0:00 
   Objectives 0:09 
   What Is Work? 0:31 
    Power Output 0:35 
    Transfer Energy 0:39 
    Work is the Process of Moving an Object by Applying a Force 0:46 
   Examples of Work 0:56 
   Calculating Work 2:16 
    Only the Force in the Direction of the Displacement Counts 2:33 
    Formula for Work 2:48 
   Example 1: Moving a Refrigerator 3:16 
   Example 2: Liberating a Car 3:59 
   Example 3: Crate on a Ramp 5:20 
   Example 4: Lifting a Box 7:11 
   Example 5: Pulling a Wagon 8:38 
   Force vs. Displacement Graphs 9:33 
    The Area Under a Force vs. Displacement Graph is the Work Done by the Force 9:37 
    Find the Work Done 9:49 
   Example 6: Work From a Varying Force 11:00 
   Hooke's Law 12:42 
    The More You Stretch or Compress a Spring, The Greater the Force of the Spring 12:46 
    The Spring's Force is Opposite the Direction of Its Displacement from Equilibrium 13:00 
   Determining the Spring Constant 14:21 
   Work Done in Compressing the Spring 15:27 
   Example 7: Finding Spring Constant 16:21 
   Example 8: Calculating Spring Constant 17:58 
   Power 18:43 
    Work 18:46 
    Power 18:50 
   Example 9: Moving a Sofa 19:26 
   Calculating Power 20:41 
   Example 10: Motors Delivering Power 21:27 
   Example 11: Force on a Cyclist 22:40 
   Example 12: Work on a Spinning Mass 23:52 
   Example 13: Work Done by Friction 25:05 
   Example 14: Units of Power 28:38 
   Example 15: Frictional Force on a Sled 29:43 
  Energy 20:15
   Intro 0:00 
   Objectives 0:07 
   What is Energy? 0:24 
    The Ability or Capacity to do Work 0:26 
    The Ability or Capacity to Move an Object 0:34 
   Types of Energy 0:39 
   Energy Transformations 2:07 
    Transfer Energy by Doing Work 2:12 
    Work-Energy Theorem 2:20 
   Units of Energy 2:51 
   Kinetic Energy 3:08 
    Energy of Motion 3:13 
    Ability or Capacity of a Moving Object to Move Another Object 3:17 
    A Single Object Can Only Have Kinetic Energy 3:46 
   Example 1: Kinetic Energy of a Motorcycle 5:08 
   Potential Energy 5:59 
    Energy An Object Possesses 6:10 
    Gravitational Potential Energy 7:21 
    Elastic Potential Energy 9:58 
   Internal Energy 10:16 
    Includes the Kinetic Energy of the Objects That Make Up the System and the Potential Energy of the Configuration 10:20 
   Calculating Gravitational Potential Energy in a Constant Gravitational Field 10:57 
   Sources of Energy on Earth 12:41 
   Example 2: Potential Energy 13:41 
   Example 3: Energy of a System 14:40 
   Example 4: Kinetic and Potential Energy 15:36 
   Example 5: Pendulum 16:55 
  Conservation of Energy 23:20
   Intro 0:00 
   Objectives 0:08 
   Law of Conservation of Energy 0:22 
    Energy Cannot Be Created or Destroyed.. It Can Only Be Changed 0:27 
    Mechanical Energy 0:34 
    Conservation Laws 0:40 
    Examples 0:49 
   Kinematics vs. Energy 4:34 
    Energy Approach 4:56 
    Kinematics Approach 6:04 
   The Pendulum 8:07 
   Example 1: Cart Compressing a Spring 13:09 
   Example 2 14:23 
   Example 3: Car Skidding to a Stop 16:15 
   Example 4: Accelerating an Object 17:27 
   Example 5: Block on Ramp 18:06 
   Example 6: Energy Transfers 19:21 
  Simple Harmonic Motion 58:30
   Intro 0:00 
   Objectives 0:08 
   What Is Simple Harmonic Motion? 0:57 
    Nature's Typical Reaction to a Disturbance 1:00 
    A Displacement Which Results in a Linear Restoring Force Results in SHM 1:25 
   Review of Springs 1:43 
    When a Force is Applied to a Spring, the Spring Applies a Restoring Force 1:46 
    When the Spring is in Equilibrium, It Is 'Unstrained' 1:54 
    Factors Affecting the Force of A Spring 2:00 
   Oscillations 3:42 
    Repeated Motions 3:45 
    Cycle 1 3:52 
    Period 3:58 
    Frequency 4:07 
   Spring-Block Oscillator 4:47 
    Mass of the Block 4:59 
    Spring Constant 5:05 
   Example 1: Spring-Block Oscillator 6:30 
   Diagrams 8:07 
    Displacement 8:42 
    Velocity 8:57 
    Force 9:36 
    Acceleration 10:09 
    U 10:24 
    K 10:47 
   Example 2: Harmonic Oscillator Analysis 16:22 
   Circular Motion vs. SHM 23:26 
   Graphing SHM 25:52 
   Example 3: Position of an Oscillator 28:31 
   Vertical Spring-Block Oscillator 31:13 
   Example 4: Vertical Spring-Block Oscillator 34:26 
   Example 5: Bungee 36:39 
   The Pendulum 43:55 
    Mass Is Attached to a Light String That Swings Without Friction About the Vertical Equilibrium 44:04 
   Energy and the Simple Pendulum 44:58 
   Frequency and Period of a Pendulum 48:25 
    Period of an Ideal Pendulum 48:31 
    Assume Theta is Small 48:54 
   Example 6: The Pendulum 50:15 
   Example 7: Pendulum Clock 53:38 
   Example 8: Pendulum on the Moon 55:14 
   Example 9: Mass on a Spring 56:01 
III. Fluids
  Density & Buoyancy 19:48
   Intro 0:00 
   Objectives 0:09 
   Fluids 0:27 
    Fluid is Matter That Flows Under Pressure 0:31 
    Fluid Mechanics is the Study of Fluids 0:44 
   Density 0:57 
    Density is the Ratio of an Object's Mass to the Volume It Occupies 0:58 
    Less Dense Fluids 1:06 
    Less Dense Solids 1:09 
   Example 1: Density of Water 1:27 
   Example 2: Volume of Gold 2:19 
   Example 3: Floating 3:06 
   Buoyancy 3:54 
    Force Exerted by a Fluid on an Object, Opposing the Object's Weight 3:56 
    Buoyant Force Determined Using Archimedes Principle 4:03 
   Example 4: Buoyant Force 5:12 
   Example 5: Shark Tank 5:56 
   Example 6: Concrete Boat 7:47 
   Example 7: Apparent Mass 10:08 
   Example 8: Volume of a Submerged Cube 13:21 
   Example 9: Determining Density 15:37 
  Pressure & Pascal's Principle 18:07
   Intro 0:00 
   Objectives 0:09 
   Pressure 0:25 
    Pressure is the Effect of a Force Acting Upon a Surface 0:27 
    Formula for Pressure 0:41 
    Force is Always Perpendicular to the Surface 0:50 
   Exerting Pressure 1:03 
    Fluids Exert Outward Pressure in All Directions on the Sides of Any Container Holding the Fluid 1:36 
    Earth's Atmosphere Exerts Pressure 1:42 
   Example 1: Pressure on Keyboard 2:17 
   Example 2: Sleepy Fisherman 3:03 
   Example 3: Scale on Planet Physica 4:12 
   Example 4: Ranking Pressures 5:00 
   Pressure on a Submerged Object 6:45 
    Pressure a Fluid Exerts on an Object Submerged in That Fluid 6:46 
    If There Is Atmosphere Above the Fluid 7:03 
   Example 5: Gauge Pressure Scuba Diving 7:27 
   Example 6: Absolute Pressure Scuba Diving 8:13 
   Pascal's Principle 8:51 
   Force Multiplication Using Pascal's Principle 9:24 
   Example 7: Barber's Chair 11:38 
   Example 8: Hydraulic Auto Lift 13:26 
   Example 9: Pressure on a Penny 14:41 
   Example 10: Depth in Fresh Water 16:39 
   Example 11: Absolute vs. Gauge Pressure 17:23 
  Continuity Equation for Fluids 7:00
   Intro 0:00 
   Objectives 0:08 
   Conservation of Mass for Fluid Flow 0:18 
    Law of Conservation of Mass for Fluids 0:21 
    Volume Flow Rate Remains Constant Throughout the Pipe 0:35 
   Volume Flow Rate 0:59 
    Quantified In Terms Of Volume Flow Rate 1:01 
    Area of Pipe x Velocity of Fluid 1:05 
    Must Be Constant Throughout Pipe 1:10 
   Example 1: Tapered Pipe 1:44 
   Example 2: Garden Hose 2:37 
   Example 3: Oil Pipeline 4:49 
   Example 4: Roots of Continuity Equation 6:16 
  Bernoulli's Principle 20:00
   Intro 0:00 
   Objectives 0:08 
   Bernoulli's Principle 0:21 
   Airplane Wings 0:35 
   Venturi Pump 1:56 
   Bernoulli's Equation 3:32 
   Example 1: Torricelli's Theorem 4:38 
   Example 2: Gauge Pressure 7:26 
   Example 3: Shower Pressure 8:16 
   Example 4: Water Fountain 12:29 
   Example 5: Elevated Cistern 15:26 
IV. Thermal Physics
  Temperature, Heat, & Thermal Expansion 24:17
   Intro 0:00 
   Objectives 0:12 
   Thermal Physics 0:42 
    Explores the Internal Energy of Objects Due to the Motion of the Atoms and Molecules Comprising the Objects 0:46 
    Explores the Transfer of This Energy From Object to Object 0:53 
   Temperature 1:00 
    Thermal Energy Is Related to the Kinetic Energy of All the Particles Comprising the Object 1:03 
    The More Kinetic Energy of the Constituent Particles Have, The Greater the Object's Thermal Energy 1:12 
   Temperature and Phases of Matter 1:44 
    Solids 1:48 
    Liquids 1:56 
    Gases 2:02 
   Average Kinetic Energy and Temperature 2:16 
    Average Kinetic Energy 2:24 
    Boltzmann's Constant 2:29 
   Temperature Scales 3:06 
   Converting Temperatures 4:37 
   Heat 5:03 
    Transfer of Thermal Energy 5:06 
    Accomplished Through Collisions Which is Conduction 5:13 
   Methods of Heat Transfer 5:52 
    Conduction 5:59 
    Convection 6:19 
    Radiation 6:31 
   Quantifying Heat Transfer in Conduction 6:37 
    Rate of Heat Transfer is Measured in Watts 6:42 
   Thermal Conductivity 7:12 
   Example 1: Average Kinetic Energy 7:35 
   Example 2: Body Temperature 8:22 
   Example 3: Temperature of Space 9:30 
   Example 4: Temperature of the Sun 10:44 
   Example 5: Heat Transfer Through Window 11:38 
   Example 6: Heat Transfer Across a Rod 12:40 
   Thermal Expansion 14:18 
    When Objects Are Heated, They Tend to Expand 14:19 
    At Higher Temperatures, Objects Have Higher Average Kinetic Energies 14:24 
    At Higher Levels of Vibration, The Particles Are Not Bound As Tightly to Each Other 14:30 
   Linear Expansion 15:11 
    Amount a Material Expands is Characterized by the Material's Coefficient of Expansion 15:14 
    One-Dimensional Expansion -> Linear Coefficient of Expansion 15:20 
   Volumetric Expansion 15:38 
    Three-Dimensional Expansion -> Volumetric Coefficient of Expansion 15:45 
    Volumetric Coefficient of Expansion is Roughly Three Times the Linear Coefficient of Expansion 16:03 
   Coefficients of Thermal Expansion 16:24 
   Example 7: Contracting Railroad Tie 16:59 
   Example 8: Expansion of an Aluminum Rod 18:37 
   Example 9: Water Spilling Out of a Glass 20:18 
   Example 10: Average Kinetic Energy vs. Temperature 22:18 
   Example 11: Expansion of a Ring 23:07 
  Ideal Gases 24:15
   Intro 0:00 
   Objectives 0:10 
   Ideal Gases 0:25 
    Gas Is Comprised of Many Particles Moving Randomly in a Container 0:34 
    Particles Are Far Apart From One Another 0:46 
    Particles Do Not Exert Forces Upon One Another Unless They Come In Contact in an Elastic Collision 0:53 
   Ideal Gas Law 1:18 
   Atoms, Molecules, and Moles 2:56 
    Protons 2:59 
    Neutrons 3:15 
    Electrons 3:18 
    Examples 3:25 
   Example 1: Counting Moles 4:58 
   Example 2: Moles of CO2 in a Bottle 6:00 
   Example 3: Pressurized CO2 6:54 
   Example 4: Helium Balloon 8:53 
   Internal Energy of an Ideal Gas 10:17 
    The Average Kinetic Energy of the Particles of an Ideal Gas 10:21 
    Total Internal Energy of the Ideal Gas Can Be Found by Multiplying the Average Kinetic Energy of the Gas's Particles by the Numbers of Particles in the Gas 10:32 
   Example 5: Internal Energy of Oxygen 12:00 
   Example 6: Temperature of Argon 12:41 
   Root-Mean-Square Velocity 13:40 
    This is the Square Root of the Average Velocity Squared For All the Molecules in the System 13:43 
    Derived from the Maxwell-Boltzmann Distribution Function 13:56 
   Calculating vrms 14:56 
   Example 7: Average Velocity of a Gas 18:32 
   Example 8: Average Velocity of a Gas 19:44 
   Example 9: vrms of Molecules in Equilibrium 20:59 
   Example 10: Moles to Molecules 22:25 
   Example 11: Relating Temperature and Internal Energy 23:22 
  Thermodynamics 22:29
   Intro 0:00 
   Objectives 0:06 
   Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics 0:26 
   First Law of Thermodynamics 1:00 
    The Change in the Internal Energy of a Closed System is Equal to the Heat Added to the System Plus the Work Done on the System 1:04 
    It is a Restatement of the Law of Conservation of Energy 1:19 
    Sign Conventions Are Important 1:25 
   Work Done on a Gas 1:44 
   Example 1: Adding Heat to a System 3:25 
   Example 2: Expanding a Gas 4:07 
   P-V Diagrams 5:11 
    Pressure-Volume Diagrams are Useful Tools for Visualizing Thermodynamic Processes of Gases 5:13 
    Use Ideal Gas Law to Determine Temperature of Gas 5:25 
   P-V Diagrams II 5:55 
    Volume Increases, Pressure Decreases 6:00 
    As Volume Expands, Gas Does Work 6:19 
    Temperature Rises as You Travel Up and Right on a PV Diagram 6:29 
   Example 3: PV Diagram Analysis 6:40 
   Types of PV Processes 7:52 
    Adiabatic 8:03 
    Isobaric 8:19 
    Isochoric 8:28 
    Isothermal 8:35 
   Adiabatic Processes 8:47 
    Heat Is not Transferred Into or Out of The System 8:50 
    Heat = 0 8:55 
   Isobaric Processes 9:19 
    Pressure Remains Constant 9:21 
    PV Diagram Shows a Horizontal Line 9:27 
   Isochoric Processes 9:51 
    Volume Remains Constant 9:52 
    PV Diagram Shows a Vertical Line 9:58 
    Work Done on the Gas is Zero 10:01 
   Isothermal Processes 10:27 
    Temperature Remains Constant 10:29 
    Lines on a PV Diagram Are Isotherms 10:31 
    PV Remains Constant 10:38 
    Internal Energy of Gas Remains Constant 10:40 
   Example 4: Adiabatic Expansion 10:46 
   Example 5: Removing Heat 11:25 
   Example 6: Ranking Processes 13:08 
   Second Law of Thermodynamics 13:59 
    Heat Flows Naturally From a Warmer Object to a Colder Object 14:02 
    Heat Energy Cannot be Completely Transformed Into Mechanical Work 14:11 
    All Natural Systems Tend Toward a Higher Level of Disorder 14:19 
   Heat Engines 14:52 
    Heat Engines Convert Heat Into Mechanical Work 14:56 
    Efficiency of a Heat Engine is the Ratio of the Engine You Get Out to the Energy You Put In 14:59 
   Power in Heat Engines 16:09 
   Heat Engines and PV Diagrams 17:38 
   Carnot Engine 17:54 
    It Is a Theoretical Heat Engine That Operates at Maximum Possible Efficiency 18:02 
    It Uses Only Isothermal and Adiabatic Processes 18:08 
    Carnot's Theorem 18:11 
   Example 7: Carnot Engine 18:49 
   Example 8: Maximum Efficiency 21:02 
   Example 9: PV Processes 21:51 
V. Electricity & Magnetism
  Electric Fields & Forces 38:24
   Intro 0:00 
   Objectives 0:10 
   Electric Charges 0:34 
    Matter is Made Up of Atoms 0:37 
    Protons Have a Charge of +1 0:45 
    Electrons Have a Charge of -1 1:00 
    Most Atoms Are Neutral 1:04 
    Ions 1:15 
    Fundamental Unit of Charge is the Coulomb 1:29 
    Like Charges Repel, While Opposites Attract 1:50 
   Example 1: Charge on an Object 2:22 
   Example 2: Charge of an Alpha Particle 3:36 
   Conductors and Insulators 4:27 
    Conductors Allow Electric Charges to Move Freely 4:30 
    Insulators Do Not Allow Electric Charges to Move Freely 4:39 
    Resistivity is a Material Property 4:45 
   Charging by Conduction 5:05 
    Materials May Be Charged by Contact, Known as Conduction 5:07 
    Conductors May Be Charged by Contact 5:24 
   Example 3: Charging by Conduction 5:38 
   The Electroscope 6:44 
   Charging by Induction 8:00 
   Example 4: Electrostatic Attraction 9:23 
   Coulomb's Law 11:46 
    Charged Objects Apply a Force Upon Each Other = Coulombic Force 11:52 
    Force of Attraction or Repulsion is Determined by the Amount of Charge and the Distance Between the Charges 12:04 
   Example 5: Determine Electrostatic Force 13:09 
   Example 6: Deflecting an Electron Beam 15:35 
   Electric Fields 16:28 
    The Property of Space That Allows a Charged Object to Feel a Force 16:44 
    Electric Field Strength Vector is the Amount of Electrostatic Force Observed by a Charge Per Unit of Charge 17:01 
    The Direction of the Electric Field Vector is the Direction a Positive Charge Would Feel a Force 17:24 
   Example 7: Field Between Metal Plates 17:58 
   Visualizing the Electric Field 19:27 
    Electric Field Lines Point Away from Positive Charges and Toward Negative Charges 19:40 
    Electric Field Lines Intersect Conductors at Right Angles to the Surface 19:50 
    Field Strength and Line Density Decreases as You Move Away From the Charges 19:58 
   Electric Field Lines 20:09 
   E Field Due to a Point Charge 22:32 
    Electric Fields Are Caused by Charges 22:35 
    Electric Field Due to a Point Charge Can Be Derived From the Definition of the Electric Field and Coulomb's Law 22:38 
    To Find the Electric Field Due to Multiple Charges 23:09 
   Comparing Electricity to Gravity 23:56 
    Force 24:02 
    Field Strength 24:16 
    Constant 24:37 
    Charge/ Mass Units 25:01 
   Example 8: E Field From 3 Point Charges 25:07 
   Example 9: Where is the E Field Zero? 31:43 
   Example 10: Gravity and Electricity 36:38 
   Example 11: Field Due to Point Charge 37:34 
  Electric Potential Difference 35:58
   Intro 0:00 
   Objectives 0:09 
   Electric Potential Energy 0:32 
    When an Object Was Lifted Against Gravity By Applying a Force for Some Distance, Work Was Done 0:35 
    When a Charged Object is Moved Against an Electric Field by Applying a Force for Some Distance, Work is Done 0:43 
    Electric Potential Difference 1:30 
   Example 1: Charge From Work 2:06 
   Example 2: Electric Energy 3:09 
   The Electron-Volt 4:02 
    Electronvolt (eV) 4:15 
    1eV is the Amount of Work Done in Moving an Elementary Charge Through a Potential Difference of 1 Volt 4:28 
   Example 3: Energy in eV 5:33 
   Equipotential Lines 6:32 
    Topographic Maps Show Lines of Equal Altitude, or Equal Gravitational Potential 6:36 
    Lines Connecting Points of Equal Electrical Potential are Known as Equipotential Lines 6:57 
   Drawing Equipotential Lines 8:15 
   Potential Due to a Point Charge 10:46 
    Calculate the Electric Field Vector Due to a Point Charge 10:52 
    Calculate the Potential Difference Due to a Point Charge 11:05 
    To Find the Potential Difference Due to Multiple Point Charges 11:16 
   Example 4: Potential Due to a Point Charge 11:52 
   Example 5: Potential Due to Point Charges 13:04 
   Parallel Plates 16:34 
    Configurations in Which Parallel Plates of Opposite Charge are Situated a Fixed Distance From Each Other 16:37 
    These Can Create a Capacitor 16:45 
   E Field Due to Parallel Plates 17:14 
    Electric Field Away From the Edges of Two Oppositely Charged Parallel Plates is Constant 17:15 
    Magnitude of the Electric Field Strength is Give By the Potential Difference Between the Plates Divided by the Plate Separation 17:47 
   Capacitors 18:09 
    Electric Device Used to Store Charge 18:11 
    Once the Plates Are Charged, They Are Disconnected 18:30 
    Device's Capacitance 18:46 
   Capacitors Store Energy 19:28 
    Charges Located on the Opposite Plates of a Capacitor Exert Forces on Each Other 19:31 
   Example 6: Capacitance 20:28 
   Example 7: Charge on a Capacitor 22:03 
   Designing Capacitors 24:00 
    Area of the Plates 24:05 
    Separation of the Plates 24:09 
    Insulating Material 24:13 
   Example 8: Designing a Capacitor 25:35 
   Example 9: Calculating Capacitance 27:39 
   Example 10: Electron in Space 29:47 
   Example 11: Proton Energy Transfer 30:35 
   Example 12: Two Conducting Spheres 32:50 
   Example 13: Equipotential Lines for a Capacitor 34:48 
  Current & Resistance 21:14
   Intro 0:00 
   Objectives 0:06 
   Electric Current 0:19 
    Path Through Current Flows 0:21 
    Current is the Amount of Charge Passing a Point Per Unit Time 0:25 
    Conventional Current is the Direction of Positive Charge Flow 0:43 
   Example 1: Current Through a Resistor 1:19 
   Example 2: Current Due to Elementary Charges 1:47 
   Example 3: Charge in a Light Bulb 2:35 
   Example 4: Flashlights 3:3 
   Conductivity and Resistivity 4:41 
    Conductivity is a Material's Ability to Conduct Electric Charge 4:53 
    Resistivity is a Material's Ability to Resist the Movement of Electric Charge 5:11 
   Resistance vs. Resistivity vs. Resistors 5:35 
    Resistivity Is a Material Property 5:40 
    Resistance Is a Functional Property of an Element in an Electric Circuit 5:57 
    A Resistor is a Circuit Element 7:23 
   Resistors 7:45 
   Example 5: Calculating Resistance 8:17 
   Example 6: Resistance Dependencies 10:09 
   Configuration of Resistors 10:50 
    When Placed in a Circuit, Resistors Can be Organized in Both Serial and Parallel Arrangements 10:53 
    May Be Useful to Determine an Equivalent Resistance Which Could Be Used to Replace a System or Resistors with a Single Equivalent Resistor 10:58 
   Resistors in Series 11:15 
   Resistors in Parallel 12:35 
   Example 7: Finding Equivalent Resistance 15:01 
   Example 8: Length and Resistance 17:43 
   Example 9: Comparing Resistors 18:21 
   Example 10: Comparing Wires 19:12 
  Ohm's Law & Power 10:35
   Intro 0:00 
   Objectives 0:06 
   Ohm's Law 0:21 
    Relates Resistance, Potential Difference, and Current Flow 0:23 
   Example 1: Resistance of a Wire 1:22 
   Example 2: Circuit Current 1:58 
   Example 3: Variable Resistor 2:30 
   Ohm's 'Law'? 3:22 
    Very Useful Empirical Relationship 3:31 
    Test if a Material is 'Ohmic' 3:40 
   Example 4: Ohmic Material 3:58 
   Electrical Power 4:24 
    Current Flowing Through a Circuit Causes a Transfer of Energy Into Different Types 4:26 
    Example: Light Bulb 4:36 
    Example: Television 4:58 
   Calculating Power 5:09 
    Electrical Energy 5:14 
    Charge Per Unit Time Is Current 5:29 
    Expand Using Ohm's Law 5:48 
   Example 5: Toaster 7:43 
   Example 6: Electric Iron 8:19 
   Example 7: Power of a Resistor 9:19 
   Example 8: Information Required to Determine Power in a Resistor 9:55 
  Circuits & Electrical Meters 8:44
   Intro 0:00 
   Objectives 0:08 
   Electrical Circuits 0:21 
    A Closed-Loop Path Through Which Current Can Flow 0:22 
    Can Be Made Up of Most Any Materials, But Typically Comprised of Electrical Devices 0:27 
   Circuit Schematics 1:09 
    Symbols Represent Circuit Elements 1:30 
    Lines Represent Wires 1:33 
    Sources for Potential Difference: Voltaic Cells, Batteries, Power Supplies 1:36 
   Complete Conducting Paths 2:43 
   Voltmeters 3:20 
    Measure the Potential Difference Between Two Points in a Circuit 3:21 
    Connected in Parallel with the Element to be Measured 3:25 
    Have Very High Resistance 3:59 
   Ammeters 4:19 
    Measure the Current Flowing Through an Element of a Circuit 4:20 
    Connected in Series with the Circuit 4:25 
    Have Very Low Resistance 4:45 
   Example 1: Ammeter and Voltmeter Placement 4:56 
   Example 2: Analyzing R 6:27 
   Example 3: Voltmeter Placement 7:12 
   Example 4: Behavior or Electrical Meters 7:31 
  Circuit Analysis 48:58
   Intro 0:00 
   Objectives 0:07 
   Series Circuits 0:27 
    Series Circuits Have Only a Single Current Path 0:29 
    Removal of any Circuit Element Causes an Open Circuit 0:31 
   Kirchhoff's Laws 1:36 
    Tools Utilized in Analyzing Circuits 1:42 
    Kirchhoff's Current Law States 1:47 
    Junction Rule 2:00 
    Kirchhoff's Voltage Law States 2:05 
    Loop Rule 2:18 
   Example 1: Voltage Across a Resistor 2:23 
   Example 2: Current at a Node 3:45 
   Basic Series Circuit Analysis 4:53 
   Example 3: Current in a Series Circuit 9:21 
   Example 4: Energy Expenditure in a Series Circuit 10:14 
   Example 5: Analysis of a Series Circuit 12:07 
   Example 6: Voltmeter In a Series Circuit 14:57 
   Parallel Circuits 17:11 
    Parallel Circuits Have Multiple Current Paths 17:13 
    Removal of a Circuit Element May Allow Other Branches of the Circuit to Continue Operating 17:15 
   Basic Parallel Circuit Analysis 18:19 
   Example 7: Parallel Circuit Analysis 21:05 
   Example 8: Equivalent Resistance 22:39 
   Example 9: Four Parallel Resistors 23:16 
   Example 10: Ammeter in a Parallel Circuit 26:27 
   Combination Series-Parallel Circuits 28:50 
    Look For Portions of the Circuit With Parallel Elements 28:56 
    Work Back to Original Circuit 29:09 
   Analysis of a Combination Circuit 29:20 
   Internal Resistance 34:11 
    In Reality, Voltage Sources Have Some Amount of 'Internal Resistance' 34:16 
    Terminal Voltage of the Voltage Source is Reduced Slightly 34:25 
   Example 11: Two Voltage Sources 35:16 
   Example 12: Internal Resistance 42:46 
   Example 13: Complex Circuit with Meters 45:22 
   Example 14: Parallel Equivalent Resistance 48:24 
  RC Circuits 24:47
   Intro 0:00 
   Objectives 0:08 
   Capacitors in Parallel 0:34 
    Capacitors Store Charge on Their Plates 0:37 
    Capacitors In Parallel Can Be Replaced with an Equivalent Capacitor 0:46 
   Capacitors in Series 2:42 
    Charge on Capacitors Must Be the Same 2:44 
    Capacitor In Series Can Be Replaced With an Equivalent Capacitor 2:47 
   RC Circuits 5:40 
    Comprised of a Source of Potential Difference, a Resistor Network, and One or More Capacitors 5:42 
    Uncharged Capacitors Act Like Wires 6:04 
    Charged Capacitors Act Like Opens 6:12 
   Charging an RC Circuit 6:23 
   Discharging an RC Circuit 11:36 
   Example 1: RC Analysis 14:50 
   Example 2: More RC Analysis 18:26 
   Example 3: Equivalent Capacitance 21:19 
   Example 4: More Equivalent Capacitance 22:48 
  Magnetic Fields & Properties 19:48
   Intro 0:00 
   Objectives 0:07 
   Magnetism 0:32 
    A Force Caused by Moving Charges 0:34 
    Magnetic Domains Are Clusters of Atoms with Electrons Spinning in the Same Direction 0:51 
   Example 1: Types of Fields 1:23 
   Magnetic Field Lines 2:25 
    Make Closed Loops and Run From North to South Outside the Magnet 2:26 
    Magnetic Flux 2:42 
    Show the Direction the North Pole of a Magnet Would Tend to Point If Placed in the Field 2:54 
   Example 2: Lines of Magnetic Force 3:49 
   Example 3: Forces Between Bar Magnets 4:39 
   The Compass 5:28 
    The Earth is a Giant Magnet 5:31 
    The Earth's Magnetic North pole is Located Near the Geographic South Pole, and Vice Versa 5:33 
    A Compass Lines Up with the Net Magnetic Field 6:07 
   Example 3: Compass in Magnetic Field 6:41 
   Example 4: Compass Near a Bar Magnet 7:14 
   Magnetic Permeability 7:59 
    The Ratio of the Magnetic Field Strength Induced in a Material to the Magnetic Field Strength of the Inducing Field 8:02 
    Free Space 8:13 
    Highly Magnetic Materials Have Higher Values of Magnetic Permeability 8:34 
   Magnetic Dipole Moment 8:41 
    The Force That a Magnet Can Exert on Moving Charges 8:46 
    Relative Strength of a Magnet 8:54 
   Forces on Moving Charges 9:10 
    Moving Charges Create Magnetic Fields 9:11 
    Magnetic Fields Exert Forces on Moving Charges 9:17 
   Direction of the Magnetic Force 9:57 
    Direction is Given by the Right-Hand Rule 10:05 
    Right-Hand Rule 10:09 
   Mass Spectrometer 10:52 
    Magnetic Fields Accelerate Moving Charges So That They Travel in a Circle 10:58 
    Used to Determine the Mass of an Unknown Particle 11:04 
   Velocity Selector 12:44 
    Mass Spectrometer with an Electric Field Added 12:47 
   Example 5: Force on an Electron 14:13 
   Example 6: Velocity of a Charged Particle 15:25 
   Example 7: Direction of the Magnetic Force 16:52 
   Example 8: Direction of Magnetic Force on Moving Charges 17:43 
   Example 9: Electron Released From Rest in Magnetic Field 18:53 
  Current-Carrying Wires 21:29
   Intro 0:00 
   Objectives 0:09 
   Force on a Current-Carrying Wire 0:30 
    A Current-Carrying Wire in a Magnetic Field May Experience a Magnetic Force 0:33 
    Direction Given by the Right-Hand Rule 1:11 
   Example 1: Force on a Current-Carrying Wire 1:38 
   Example 2: Equilibrium on a Submerged Wire 2:33 
   Example 3: Torque on a Loop of Wire 5:55 
   Magnetic Field Due to a Current-Carrying Wire 8:49 
    Moving Charges Create Magnetic Fields 8:53 
    Wires Carry Moving Charges 8:56 
    Direction Given by the Right-Hand Rule 9:21 
   Example 4: Magnetic Field Due to a Wire 10:56 
   Magnetic Field Due to a Solenoid 12:12 
    Solenoid is a Coil of Wire 12:19 
    Direction Given by the Right-Hand Rule 12:47 
   Forces on 2 Parallel Wires 13:34 
    Current Flowing in the Same Direction 14:52 
    Current Flowing in Opposite Directions 14:57 
   Example 5: Magnetic Field Due to Wires 15:19 
   Example 6: Strength of an Electromagnet 18:35 
   Example 7: Force on a Wire 19:30 
   Example 8: Force Between Parallel Wires 20:47 
  Intro to Electromagnetic Induction 17:26
   Intro 0:00 
   Objectives 0:09 
   Induced EMF 0:42 
    Charges Flowing Through a Wire Create Magnetic Fields 0:45 
    Changing Magnetic Fields Cause Charges to Flow or 'Induce' a Current in a Process Known As Electromagnetic Induction 0:49 
    Electro-Motive Force is the Potential Difference Created by a Changing Magnetic Field 0:57 
    Magnetic Flux is the Amount of Magnetic Fields Passing Through an Area 1:17 
   Finding the Magnetic Flux 1:36 
    Magnetic Field Strength 1:39 
    Angle Between the Magnetic Field Strength and the Normal to the Area 1:51 
   Calculating Induced EMF 3:01 
    The Magnitude of the Induced EMF is Equal to the Rate of Change of the Magnetic Flux 3:04 
   Induced EMF in a Rectangular Loop of Wire 4:03 
   Lenz's Law 5:17 
   Electric Generators and Motors 9:28 
    Generate an Induced EMF By Turning a Coil of Wire in a magnetic Field 9:31 
    Generators Use Mechanical Energy to Turn the Coil of Wire 9:39 
    Electric Motor Operates Using Same Principle 10:30 
   Example 1: Finding Magnetic Flux 10:43 
   Example 2: Finding Induced EMF 11:54 
   Example 3: Changing Magnetic Field 13:52 
   Example 4: Current Induced in a Rectangular Loop of Wire 15:23 
VI. Waves & Optics
  Wave Characteristics 26:41
   Intro 0:00 
   Objectives 0:09 
   Waves 0:32 
   Pulse 1:00 
    A Pulse is a Single Disturbance Which Carries Energy Through a Medium or Space 1:05 
    A Wave is a Series of Pulses 1:18 
    When a Pulse Reaches a Hard Boundary 1:37 
    When a Pulse Reaches a Soft or Flexible Boundary 2:04 
   Types of Waves 2:44 
    Mechanical Waves 2:56 
    Electromagnetic Waves 3:14 
   Types of Wave Motion 3:38 
    Longitudinal Waves 3:39 
    Transverse Waves 4:18 
   Anatomy of a Transverse Wave 5:18 
   Example 1: Waves Requiring a Medium 6:59 
   Example 2: Direction of Displacement 7:36 
   Example 3: Bell in a Vacuum Jar 8:47 
   Anatomy of a Longitudinal Wave 9:22 
   Example 4: Tuning Fork 9:57 
   Example 5: Amplitude of a Sound Wave 10:24 
   Frequency and Period 10:47 
   Example 6: Period of an EM Wave 11:23 
   Example 7: Frequency and Period 12:01 
   The Wave Equation 12:32 
    Velocity of a Wave is a Function of the Type of Wave and the Medium It Travels Through 12:36 
    Speed of a Wave is Related to Its Frequency and Wavelength 12:41 
   Example 8: Wavelength Using the Wave Equation 13:54 
   Example 9: Period of an EM Wave 14:35 
   Example 10: Blue Whale Waves 16:03 
   Sound Waves 17:29 
    Sound is a Mechanical Wave Observed by Detecting Vibrations in the Inner Ear 17:33 
    Particles of Sound Wave Vibrate Parallel With the Direction of the Wave's Velocity 17:56 
   Example 11: Distance from Speakers 18:24 
   Resonance 19:45 
    An Object with the Same 'Natural Frequency' May Begin to Vibrate at This Frequency 19:55 
    Classic Example 20:01 
   Example 12: Vibrating Car 20:32 
   Example 13: Sonar Signal 21:28 
   Example 14: Waves Across Media 24:06 
   Example 15: Wavelength of Middle C 25:24 
  Wave Interference 20:45
   Intro 0:00 
   Objectives 0:09 
   Superposition 0:30 
    When More Than One Wave Travels Through the Same Location in the Same Medium 0:32 
    The Total Displacement is the Sum of All the Individual Displacements of the Waves 0:46 
   Example 1: Superposition of Pulses 1:01 
   Types of Interference 2:02 
    Constructive Interference 2:05 
    Destructive Interference 2:18 
   Example 2: Interference 2:47 
   Example 3: Shallow Water Waves 3:27 
   Standing Waves 4:23 
    When Waves of the Same Frequency and Amplitude Traveling in Opposite Directions Meet in the Same Medium 4:26 
    A Wave in Which Nodes Appear to be Standing Still and Antinodes Vibrate with Maximum Amplitude Above and Below the Axis 4:35 
   Standing Waves in String Instruments 5:36 
   Standing Waves in Open Tubes 8:49 
   Standing Waves in Closed Tubes 9:57 
   Interference From Multiple Sources 11:43 
    Constructive 11:55 
    Destructive 12:14 
   Beats 12:49 
    Two Sound Waves with Almost the Same Frequency Interfere to Create a Beat Pattern 12:52 
    A Frequency Difference of 1 to 4 Hz is Best for Human Detection of Beat Phenomena 13:05 
   Example 4 14:13 
   Example 5 18:03 
   Example 6 19:14 
   Example 7: Superposition 20:08 
  Wave Phenomena 19:02
   Intro 0:00 
   Objective 0:08 
   Doppler Effect 0:36 
    The Shift In A Wave's Observed Frequency Due to Relative Motion Between the Source of the Wave and Observer 0:39 
    When Source and/or Observer Move Toward Each Other 0:45 
    When Source and/or Observer Move Away From Each Other 0:52 
   Practical Doppler Effect 1:01 
    Vehicle Traveling Past You 1:05 
    Applications Are Numerous and Widespread 1:56 
   Doppler Effect - Astronomy 2:43 
    Observed Frequencies Are Slightly Lower Than Scientists Would Predict 2:50 
    More Distant Celestial Objects Are Moving Away from the Earth Faster Than Nearer Objects 3:22 
   Example 1: Car Horn 3:36 
   Example 2: Moving Speaker 4:13 
   Diffraction 5:35 
    The Bending of Waves Around Obstacles 5:37 
    Most Apparent When Wavelength Is Same Order of Magnitude as the Obstacle/ Opening 6:10 
   Single-Slit Diffraction 6:16 
   Double-Slit Diffraction 8:13 
   Diffraction Grating 11:07 
    Sharper and Brighter Maxima 11:46 
    Useful for Determining Wavelengths Accurately 12:07 
   Example 3: Double Slit Pattern 12:30 
   Example 4: Determining Wavelength 16:05 
   Example 5: Radar Gun 18:04 
   Example 6: Red Shift 18:29 
  Light As a Wave 11:35
   Intro 0:00 
   Objectives 0:14 
   Electromagnetic (EM) Waves 0:31 
    Light is an EM Wave 0:43 
    EM Waves Are Transverse Due to the Modulation of the Electric and Magnetic Fields Perpendicular to the Wave Velocity 1:00 
   Electromagnetic Wave Characteristics 1:37 
    The Product of an EM Wave's Frequency and Wavelength Must be Constant in a Vacuum 1:43 
   Polarization 3:36 
    Unpoloarized EM Waves Exhibit Modulation in All Directions 3:47 
    Polarized Light Consists of Light Vibrating in a Single Direction 4:07 
   Polarizers 4:29 
    Materials Which Act Like Filters to Only Allow Specific Polarizations of Light to Pass 4:33 
    Polarizers Typically Are Sheets of Material in Which Long Molecules Are Lined Up Like a Picket Fence 5:10 
   Polarizing Sunglasses 5:22 
    Reduce Reflections 5:26 
    Polarizing Sunglasses Have Vertical Polarizing Filters 5:48 
   Liquid Crystal Displays 6:08 
    LCDs Use Liquid Crystals in a Suspension That Align Themselves in a Specific Orientation When a Voltage is Applied 6:13 
    Cross-Orienting a Polarizer and a Matrix of Liquid Crystals so Light Can Be Modulated Pixel-by-Pixel 6:26 
   Example 1: Color of Light 7:30 
   Example 2: Analyzing an EM Wave 8:49 
   Example 3: Remote Control 9:45 
   Example 4: Comparing EM Waves 10:32 
  Reflection & Mirrors 24:32
   Intro 0:00 
   Objectives 0:10 
   Waves at Boundaries 0:37 
    Reflected 0:43 
    Transmitted 0:45 
    Absorbed 0:48 
   Law of Reflection 0:58 
    The Angle of Incidence is Equal to the Angle of Reflection 1:00 
    They Are Both Measured From a Line Perpendicular, or Normal, to the Reflecting Surface 1:22 
   Types of Reflection 1:54 
    Diffuse Reflection 1:57 
    Specular Reflection 2:08 
   Example 1: Specular Reflection 2:24 
   Mirrors 3:20 
    Light Rays From the Object Reach the Plane Mirror and Are Reflected to the Observer 3:27 
    Virtual Image 3:33 
    Magnitude of Image Distance 4:05 
   Plane Mirror Ray Tracing 4:15 
    Object Distance 4:26 
    Image Distance 4:43 
    Magnification of Image 7:03 
   Example 2: Plane Mirror Images 7:28 
   Example 3: Image in a Plane Mirror 7:51 
   Spherical Mirrors 8:10 
    Inner Surface of a Spherical Mirror 8:19 
    Outer Surface of a Spherical Mirror 8:30 
    Focal Point of a Spherical Mirror 8:40 
    Converging 8:51 
    Diverging 9:00 
   Concave (Converging) Spherical Mirrors 9:09 
    Light Rays Coming Into a Mirror Parallel to the Principal Axis 9:14 
    Light Rays Passing Through the Center of Curvature 10:17 
    Light Rays From the Object Passing Directly Through the Focal Point 10:52 
   Mirror Equation (Lens Equation) 12:06 
    Object and Image Distances Are Positive on the Reflecting Side of the Mirror 12:13 
    Formula 12:19 
   Concave Mirror with Object Inside f 12:39 
   Example 4: Concave Spherical Mirror 14:21 
   Example 5: Image From a Concave Mirror 14:51 
   Convex (Diverging) Spherical Mirrors 16:29 
    Light Rays Coming Into a Mirror Parallel to the Principal Axis 16:37 
    Light Rays Striking the Center of the Mirror 16:50 
    Light Rays Never Converge on the Reflective Side of a Convex Mirror 16:54 
   Convex Mirror Ray Tracing 17:07 
   Example 6: Diverging Rays 19:12 
   Example 7: Focal Length 19:28 
   Example 8: Reflected Sonar Wave 19:53 
   Example 9: Plane Mirror Image Distance 20:20 
   Example 10: Image From a Concave Mirror 21:23 
   Example 11: Converging Mirror Image Distance 23:09 
  Refraction & Lenses 39:42
   Intro 0:00 
   Objectives 0:09 
   Refraction 0:42 
    When a Wave Reaches a Boundary Between Media, Part of the Wave is Reflected and Part of the Wave Enters the New Medium 0:43 
    Wavelength Must Change If the Wave's Speed Changes 0:57 
    Refraction is When This Causes The Wave to Bend as It Enters the New Medium 1:12 
   Marching Band Analogy 1:22 
   Index of Refraction 2:37 
    Measure of How Much Light Slows Down in a Material 2:40 
    Ratio of the Speed of an EM Wave in a Vacuum to the Speed of an EM Wave in Another Material is Known as Index of Refraction 3:03 
   Indices of Refraction 3:21 
   Dispersion 4:01 
    White Light is Refracted Twice in Prism 4:23 
    Index of Refraction of the Prism Material Varies Slightly with Respect to Frequency 4:41 
   Example 1: Determining n 5:14 
   Example 2: Light in Diamond and Crown Glass 5:55 
   Snell's Law 6:24 
    The Amount of a Light Wave Bends As It Enters a New Medium is Given by the Law of Refraction 6:32 
    Light Bends Toward the Normal as it Enters a Material With a Higher n 7:08 
    Light Bends Toward the Normal as it Enters a Material With a Lower n 7:14 
   Example 3: Angle of Refraction 7:42 
   Example 4: Changes with Refraction 9:31 
   Total Internal Reflection 10:10 
    When the Angle of Refraction Reaches 90 Degrees 10:23 
    Critical Angle 10:34 
    Total Internal Reflection 10:51 
   Applications of TIR 12:13 
   Example 5: Critical Angle of Water 13:17 
   Thin Lenses 14:15 
    Convex Lenses 14:22 
    Concave Lenses 14:31 
   Convex Lenses 15:24 
    Rays Parallel to the Principal Axis are Refracted Through the Far Focal Point of the Lens 15:28 
    A Ray Drawn From the Object Through the Center of the Lens Passes Through the Center of the Lens Unbent 15:53 
   Example 6: Converging Lens Image 16:46 
   Example 7: Image Distance of Convex Lens 17:18 
   Concave Lenses 18:21 
    Rays From the Object Parallel to the Principal Axis Are Refracted Away from the Principal Axis on a Line from the Near Focal Point Through the Point Where the Ray Intercepts the Center of the Lens 18:25 
    Concave Lenses Produce Upright, Virtual, Reduced Images 20:30 
   Example 8: Light Ray Thought a Lens 20:36 
   Systems of Optical Elements 21:05 
    Find the Image of the First Optical Elements and Utilize It as the Object of the Second Optical Element 21:16 
   Example 9: Lens and Mirrors 21:35 
   Thin Film Interference 27:22 
    When Light is Incident Upon a Thin Film, Some Light is Reflected and Some is Transmitted Into the Film 27:25 
    If the Transmitted Light is Again Reflected, It Travels Back Out of the Film and Can Interfere 27:31 
    Phase Change for Every Reflection from Low-Index to High-Index 28:09 
   Example 10: Thin Film Interference 28:41 
   Example 11: Wavelength in Diamond 32:07 
   Example 12: Light Incident on Crown Glass 33:57 
   Example 13: Real Image from Convex Lens 34:44 
   Example 14: Diverging Lens 35:45 
   Example 15: Creating Enlarged, Real Images 36:22 
   Example 16: Image from a Converging Lens 36:48 
   Example 17: Converging Lens System 37:50 
  Wave-Particle Duality 23:47
   Intro 0:00 
   Objectives 0:11 
   Duality of Light 0:37 
    Photons 0:47 
    Dual Nature 0:53 
    Wave Evidence 1:00 
    Particle Evidence 1:10 
   Blackbody Radiation & the UV Catastrophe 1:20 
    Very Hot Objects Emitted Radiation in a Specific Spectrum of Frequencies and Intensities 1:25 
    Color Objects Emitted More Intensity at Higher Wavelengths 1:45 
   Quantization of Emitted Radiation 1:56 
   Photoelectric Effect 2:38 
    EM Radiation Striking a Piece of Metal May Emit Electrons 2:41 
    Not All EM Radiation Created Photoelectrons 2:49 
   Photons of Light 3:23 
    Photon Has Zero Mass, Zero Charge 3:32 
    Energy of a Photon is Quantized 3:36 
    Energy of a Photon is Related to its Frequency 3:41 
   Creation of Photoelectrons 4:17 
    Electrons in Metals Were Held in 'Energy Walls' 4:20 
    Work Function 4:32 
    Cutoff Frequency 4:54 
   Kinetic Energy of Photoelectrons 5:14 
    Electron in a Metal Absorbs a Photon with Energy Greater Than the Metal's Work Function 5:16 
    Electron is Emitted as a Photoelectron 5:24 
    Any Absorbed Energy Beyond That Required to Free the Electron is the KE of the Photoelectron 5:28 
   Photoelectric Effect in a Circuit 6:37 
   Compton Effect 8:28 
    Less of Energy and Momentum 8:49 
    Lost by X-Ray Equals Energy and Gained by Photoelectron 8:52 
    Compton Wavelength 9:09 
    Major Conclusions 9:36 
   De Broglie Wavelength 10:44 
    Smaller the Particle, the More Apparent the Wave Properties 11:03 
    Wavelength of a Moving Particle is Known as Its de Broglie Wavelength 11:07 
   Davisson-Germer Experiment 11:29 
    Verifies Wave Nature of Moving Particles 11:30 
    Shoot Electrons at Double Slit 11:34 
   Example 1 11:46 
   Example 2 13:07 
   Example 3 13:48 
   Example 4A 15:33 
   Example 4B 18:47 
   Example 5: Wave Nature of Light 19:54 
   Example 6: Moving Electrons 20:43 
   Example 7: Wavelength of an Electron 21:11 
   Example 8: Wrecking Ball 22:50 
VII. Modern Physics
  Atomic Energy Levels 14:21
   Intro 0:00 
   Objectives 0:09 
   Rutherford's Gold Foil Experiment 0:35 
    Most of the Particles Go Through Undeflected 1:12 
    Some Alpha Particles Are Deflected Large Amounts 1:15 
    Atoms Have a Small, Massive, Positive Nucleus 1:20 
    Electrons Orbit the Nucleus 1:23 
    Most of the Atom is Empty Space 1:26 
   Problems with Rutherford's Model 1:31 
    Charges Moving in a Circle Accelerate, Therefore Classical Physics Predicts They Should Release Photons 1:39 
    Lose Energy When They Release Photons 1:46 
    Orbits Should Decay and They Should Be Unstable 1:50 
   Bohr Model of the Atom 2:09 
    Electrons Don't Lose Energy as They Accelerate 2:20 
    Each Atom Allows Only a Limited Number of Specific Orbits at Each Energy Level 2:35 
    Electrons Must Absorb or Emit a Photon of Energy to Change Energy Levels 2:40 
   Energy Level Diagrams 3:29 
    n=1 is the Lowest Energy State 3:34 
    Negative Energy Levels Indicate Electron is Bound to Nucleus of the Atom 4:03 
    When Electron Reaches 0 eV It Is No Longer Bound 4:20 
   Electron Cloud Model (Probability Model) 4:46 
    Electron Only Has A Probability of Being Located in Certain Regions Surrounding the Nucleus 4:53 
    Electron Orbitals Are Probability Regions 4:58 
   Atomic Spectra 5:16 
    Atoms Can Only Emit Certain Frequencies of Photons 5:19 
    Electrons Can Only Absorb Photons With Energy Equal to the Difference in Energy Levels 5:34 
    This Leads to Unique Atomic Spectra of Emitted and Absorbed Radiation for Each Element 5:37 
    Incandescence Emits a Continuous Energy 5:43 
    If All Colors of Light Are Incident Upon a Cold Gas, The Gas Only Absorbs Frequencies Corresponding to Photon Energies Equal to the Difference Between the Gas's Atomic Energy Levels 6:16 
    Continuous Spectrum 6:42 
    Absorption Spectrum 6:50 
    Emission Spectrum 7:08 
   X-Rays 7:36 
    The Photoelectric Effect in Reverse 7:38 
    Electrons Are Accelerated Through a Large Potential Difference and Collide with a Molybdenum or Platinum Plate 7:53 
   Example 1: Electron in Hydrogen Atom 8:24 
   Example 2: EM Emission in Hydrogen 10:05 
   Example 3: Photon Frequencies 11:30 
   Example 4: Bright-Line Spectrum 12:24 
   Example 5: Gas Analysis 13:08 
  Nuclear Physics 15:47
   Intro 0:00 
   Objectives 0:08 
   The Nucleus 0:33 
    Protons Have a Charge or +1 e 0:39 
    Neutrons Are Neutral (0 Charge) 0:42 
    Held Together by the Strong Nuclear Force 0:43 
   Example 1: Deconstructing an Atom 1:20 
   Mass-Energy Equivalence 2:06 
    Mass is a Measure of How Much Energy an Object Contains 2:16 
    Universal Conservation of Laws 2:31 
   Nuclear Binding Energy 2:53 
    A Strong Nuclear Force Holds Nucleons Together 3:04 
    Mass of the Individual Constituents is Greater Than the Mass of the Combined Nucleus 3:19 
    Binding Energy of the Nucleus 3:32 
    Mass Defect 3:37 
   Nuclear Decay 4:30 
    Alpha Decay 4:42 
    Beta Decay 5:09 
    Gamma Decay 5:46 
   Fission 6:40 
    The Splitting of a Nucleus Into Two or More Nuclei 6:42 
    For Larger Nuclei, the Mass of Original Nucleus is Greater Than the Sum of the Mass of the Products When Split 6:47 
   Fusion 8:14 
    The Process of Combining Two Or More Smaller Nuclei Into a Larger Nucleus 8:15 
    This Fuels Our Sun and Stars 8:28 
    Basis of Hydrogen Bomb 8:31 
   Forces in the Universe 9:00 
    Strong Nuclear Force 9:06 
    Electromagnetic Force 9:13 
    Weak Nuclear Force 9:22 
    Gravitational Force 9:27 
   Example 2: Deuterium Nucleus 9:39 
   Example 3: Particle Accelerator 10:24 
   Example 4: Tritium Formation 12:03 
   Example 5: Beta Decay 13:02 
   Example 6: Gamma Decay 14:15 
   Example 7: Annihilation 14:39 
VIII. Sample AP Exams
  AP Practice Exam: Multiple Choice, Part 1 38:01
   Intro 0:00 
   Problem 1 1:33 
   Problem 2 1:57 
   Problem 3 2:50 
   Problem 4 3:46 
   Problem 5 4:13 
   Problem 6 4:41 
   Problem 7 6:12 
   Problem 8 6:49 
   Problem 9 7:49 
   Problem 10 9:31 
   Problem 11 10:08 
   Problem 12 11:03 
   Problem 13 11:30 
   Problem 14 12:28 
   Problem 15 14:04 
   Problem 16 15:05 
   Problem 17 15:55 
   Problem 18 17:06 
   Problem 19 18:43 
   Problem 20 19:58 
   Problem 21 22:03 
   Problem 22 22:49 
   Problem 23 23:28 
   Problem 24 24:04 
   Problem 25 25:07 
   Problem 26 26:46 
   Problem 27 28:03 
   Problem 28 28:49 
   Problem 29 30:20 
   Problem 30 31:10 
   Problem 31 32:63 
   Problem 32 33:46 
   Problem 33 34:47 
   Problem 34 36:07 
   Problem 35 36:44 
  AP Practice Exam: Multiple Choice, Part 2 37:49
   Intro 0:00 
   Problem 36 0:18 
   Problem 37 0:42 
   Problem 38 2:13 
   Problem 39 4:10 
   Problem 40 4:47 
   Problem 41 5:52 
   Problem 42 7:22 
   Problem 43 8:16 
   Problem 44 9:11 
   Problem 45 9:42 
   Problem 46 10:56 
   Problem 47 12:03 
   Problem 48 13:58 
   Problem 49 14:49 
   Problem 50 15:36 
   Problem 51 15:51 
   Problem 52 17:18 
   Problem 53 17:59 
   Problem 54 19:10 
   Problem 55 21:27 
   Problem 56 22:40 
   Problem 57 23:19 
   Problem 58 23:50 
   Problem 59 25:35 
   Problem 60 26:45 
   Problem 61 27:57 
   Problem 62 28:32 
   Problem 63 29:52 
   Problem 64 30:27 
   Problem 65 31:27 
   Problem 66 32:22 
   Problem 67 33:18 
   Problem 68 35:21 
   Problem 69 36:27 
   Problem 70 36:46 
  AP Practice Exam: Free Response, Part 1 16:53
   Intro 0:00 
   Question 1 0:23 
   Question 2 8:55 
  AP Practice Exam: Free Response, Part 2 9:20
   Intro 0:00 
   Question 3 0:14 
   Question 4 4:34 
  AP Practice Exam: Free Response, Part 3 18:12
   Intro 0:00 
   Question 5 0:15 
   Question 6 3:29 
   Question 7 6:18 
   Question 8 12:53 
IX. Additional Examples
  Metric Estimation 3:53
   Intro 0:00 
   Question 1 0:38 
   Question 2 0:51 
   Question 3 1:09 
   Question 4 1:24 
   Question 5 1:49 
   Question 6 2:11 
   Question 7 2:27 
   Question 8 2:49 
   Question 9 3:03 
   Question 10 3:23 
  Defining Motion 7:06
   Intro 0:00 
   Question 1 0:13 
   Question 2 0:50 
   Question 3 1:56 
   Question 4 2:24 
   Question 5 3:32 
   Question 6 4:01 
   Question 7 5:36 
   Question 8 6:36 
  Motion Graphs 6:48
   Intro 0:00 
   Question 1 0:13 
   Question 2 2:01 
   Question 3 3:06 
   Question 4 3:41 
   Question 5 4:30 
   Question 6 5:52 
  Horizontal Kinematics 8:16
   Intro 0:00 
   Question 1 0:19 
   Question 2 2:19 
   Question 3 3:16 
   Question 4 4:36 
   Question 5 6:43 
  Free Fall 7:56
   Intro 0:00 
   Question 1-4 0:12 
   Question 5 2:36 
   Question 6 3:11 
   Question 7 4:44 
   Question 8 6:16 
  Projectile Motion 4:17
   Intro 0:00 
   Question 1 0:13 
   Question 2 0:45 
   Question 3 1:25 
   Question 4 2:00 
   Question 5 2:32 
   Question 6 3:38 
  Newton's 1st Law 4:34
   Intro 0:00 
   Question 1 0:15 
   Question 2 1:02 
   Question 3 1:50 
   Question 4 2:04 
   Question 5 2:26 
   Question 6 2:54 
   Question 7 3:11 
   Question 8 3:29 
   Question 9 3:47 
   Question 10 4:02 
  Newton's 2nd Law 5:40
   Intro 0:00 
   Question 1 0:16 
   Question 2 0:55 
   Question 3 1:50 
   Question 4 2:40 
   Question 5 3:33 
   Question 6 3:56 
   Question 7 4:29 
  Newton's 3rd Law 3:44
   Intro 0:00 
   Question 1 0:17 
   Question 2 0:44 
   Question 3 1:14 
   Question 4 1:51 
   Question 5 2:11 
   Question 6 2:29 
   Question 7 2:53 
  Friction 6:37
   Intro 0:00 
   Question 1 0:13 
   Question 2 0:47 
   Question 3 1:25 
   Question 4 2:26 
   Question 5 3:43 
   Question 6 4:41 
   Question 7 5:13 
   Question 8 5:50 
  Ramps and Inclines 6:13
   Intro 0:00 
   Question 1 0:18 
   Question 2 1:01 
   Question 3 2:50 
   Question 4 3:11 
   Question 5 5:08 
  Circular Motion 5:17
   Intro 0:00 
   Question 1 0:21 
   Question 2 1:01 
   Question 3 1:50 
   Question 4 2:33 
   Question 5 3:10 
   Question 6 3:31 
   Question 7 3:56 
   Question 8 4:33 
  Gravity 6:33
   Intro 0:00 
   Question 1 0:19 
   Question 2 1:05 
   Question 3 2:09 
   Question 4 2:53 
   Question 5 3:17 
   Question 6 4:00 
   Question 7 4:41 
   Question 8 5:20 
  Momentum & Impulse 9:29
   Intro 0:00 
   Question 1 0:19 
   Question 2 2:17 
   Question 3 3:25 
   Question 4 3:56 
   Question 5 4:28 
   Question 6 5:04 
   Question 7 6:18 
   Question 8 6:57 
   Question 9 7:47 
  Conservation of Momentum 9:33
   Intro 0:00 
   Question 1 0:15 
   Question 2 2:08 
   Question 3 4:03 
   Question 4 4:10 
   Question 5 6:08 
   Question 6 6:55 
   Question 7 8:26 
  Work & Power 6:02
   Intro 0:00 
   Question 1 0:13 
   Question 2 0:29 
   Question 3 0:55 
   Question 4 1:36 
   Question 5 2:18 
   Question 6 3:22 
   Question 7 4:01 
   Question 8 4:18 
   Question 9 4:49 
  Springs 7:59
   Intro 0:00 
   Question 1 0:13 
   Question 4 2:26 
   Question 5 3:37 
   Question 6 4:39 
   Question 7 5:28 
   Question 8 5:51 
  Energy & Energy Conservation 8:47
   Intro 0:00 
   Question 1 0:18 
   Question 2 1:27 
   Question 3 1:44 
   Question 4 2:33 
   Question 5 2:44 
   Question 6 3:33 
   Question 7 4:41 
   Question 8 5:19 
   Question 9 5:37 
   Question 10 7:12 
   Question 11 7:40 
  Electric Charge 7:06
   Intro 0:00 
   Question 1 0:10 
   Question 2 1:03 
   Question 3 1:32 
   Question 4 2:12 
   Question 5 3:01 
   Question 6 3:49 
   Question 7 4:24 
   Question 8 4:50 
   Question 9 5:32 
   Question 10 5:55 
   Question 11 6:26 
  Coulomb's Law 4:13
   Intro 0:00 
   Question 1 0:14 
   Question 2 0:47 
   Question 3 1:25 
   Question 4 2:25 
   Question 5 3:01 
  Electric Fields & Forces 4:11
   Intro 0:00 
   Question 1 0:19 
   Question 2 0:51 
   Question 3 1:30 
   Question 4 2:19 
   Question 5 3:12 
  Electric Potential 5:12
   Intro 0:00 
   Question 1 0:14 
   Question 2 0:42 
   Question 3 1:08 
   Question 4 1:43 
   Question 5 2:22 
   Question 6 2:49 
   Question 7 3:14 
   Question 8 4:02 
  Electrical Current 6:54
   Intro 0:00 
   Question 1 0:13 
   Question 2 0:42 
   Question 3 2:01 
   Question 4 3:02 
   Question 5 3:52 
   Question 6 4:15 
   Question 7 4:37 
   Question 8 4:59 
   Question 9 5:50 
  Resistance 5:15
   Intro 0:00 
   Question 1 0:12 
   Question 2 0:53 
   Question 3 1:44 
   Question 4 2:31 
   Question 5 3:21 
   Question 6 4:06 
  Ohm's Law 4:27
   Intro 0:00 
   Question 1 0:12 
   Question 2 0:33 
   Question 3 0:59 
   Question 4 1:32 
   Question 5 1:56 
   Question 6 2:50 
   Question 7 3:19 
   Question 8 3:50 
  Circuit Analysis 6:36
   Intro 0:00 
   Question 1 0:12 
   Question 2 2:16 
   Question 3 2:33 
   Question 4 2:42 
   Question 5 3:18 
   Question 6 5:51 
   Question 7 6:00 
  Magnetism 3:43
   Intro 0:00 
   Question 1 0:16 
   Question 2 0:31 
   Question 3 0:56 
   Question 4 1:19 
   Question 5 1:35 
   Question 6 2:36 
   Question 7 3:03 
  Wave Basics 4:21
   Intro 0:00 
   Question 1 0:13 
   Question 2 0:36 
   Question 3 0:47 
   Question 4 1:13 
   Question 5 1:27 
   Question 6 1:39 
   Question 7 1:54 
   Question 8 2:22 
   Question 9 2:51 
   Question 10 3:32 
  Wave Characteristics 5:33
   Intro 0:00 
   Question 1 0:23 
   Question 2 1:04 
   Question 3 2:01 
   Question 4 2:50 
   Question 5 3:12 
   Question 6 3:57 
   Question 7 4:16 
   Question 8 4:42 
   Question 9 4:56 
  Wave Behaviors 3:52
   Intro 0:00 
   Question 1 0:13 
   Question 2 0:40 
   Question 3 1:04 
   Question 4 1:17 
   Question 5 1:39 
   Question 6 2:07 
   Question 7 2:41 
   Question 8 3:09 
  Reflection 3:48
   Intro 0:00 
   Question 1 0:12 
   Question 2 0:50 
   Question 3 1:29 
   Question 4 1:46 
   Question 5 3:08 
  Refraction 2:49
   Intro 0:00 
   Question 1 0:29 
   Question 5 1:03 
   Question 6 1:24 
   Question 7 2:01 
  Diffraction 2:34
   Intro 0:00 
   Question 1 0:16 
   Question 2 0:31 
   Question 3 0:50 
   Question 4 1:05 
   Question 5 1:37 
   Question 6 2:04 
  Electromagnetic Spectrum 7:06
   Intro 0:00 
   Question 1 0:24 
   Question 2 0:39 
   Question 3 1:05 
   Question 4 1:51 
   Question 5 2:03 
   Question 6 2:58 
   Question 7 3:14 
   Question 8 3:52 
   Question 9 4:30 
   Question 10 5:04 
   Question 11 6:01 
   Question 12 6:16 
  Wave-Particle Duality 5:30
   Intro 0:00 
   Question 1 0:15 
   Question 2 0:34 
   Question 3 0:53 
   Question 4 1:54 
   Question 5 2:16 
   Question 6 2:27 
   Question 7 2:42 
   Question 8 2:59 
   Question 9 3:45 
   Question 10 4:13 
   Question 11 4:33 
  Energy Levels 8:13
   Intro 0:00 
   Question 1 0:25 
   Question 2 1:18 
   Question 3 1:43 
   Question 4 2:08 
   Question 5 3:17 
   Question 6 3:54 
   Question 7 4:40 
   Question 8 5:15 
   Question 9 5:54 
   Question 10 6:41 
   Question 11 7:14 
  Mass-Energy Equivalence 8:15
   Intro 0:00 
   Question 1 0:19 
   Question 2 1:02 
   Question 3 1:37 
   Question 4 2:17 
   Question 5 2:55 
   Question 6 3:32 
   Question 7 4:13 
   Question 8 5:04 
   Question 9 5:29 
   Question 10 5:58 
   Question 11 6:48 
   Question 12 7:39