I. Introduction 

What is Physics? 
7:38 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Objectives 
0:12  
 
What is Physics? 
0:31  
 
 What is Matter, Energy, and How to They Interact 
0:55  
 
Why? 
0:58  
 
 Physics Answers the 'Why' Questions. 
1:05  
 
Matter 
1:23  
 
 Matter 
1:29  
 
 Mass 
1:33  
 
 Inertial Mass 
1:53  
 
 Gravitational Mass 
2:12  
 
A Spacecraft's Mass 
2:58  
 
Energy 
3:37  
 
 Energy: The Ability or Capacity to Do Work 
3:39  
 
 Work: The Process of Moving an Object 
3:45  
 
 The Ability or Capacity to Move an Object 
3:54  
 
MassEnergy Equivalence 
4:51  
 
 Relationship Between Mass and Energy E=mc2 
5:01  
 
 The Mass of An Object is Really a Measure of Its Energy 
5:05  
 
The Study of Everything 
5:42  
 
Introductory Course 
6:19  
 
Next Steps 
7:15  

Math Review 
24:12 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Outline 
0:10  
 
Objectives 
0:28  
 
Why Do We Need Units? 
0:52  
 
 Need to Set Specific Standards for Our Measurements 
1:01  
 
 Physicists Have Agreed to Use the Systeme International 
1:24  
 
The Systeme International 
1:50  
 
 Based on Powers of 10 
1:52  
 
 7 Fundamental Units: Meter, Kilogram, Second, Ampere, Candela, Kelvin, Mole 
2:02  
 
The Meter 
2:18  
 
 Meter is a Measure of Length 
2:20  
 
 Measurements Smaller than a Meter, Use: Centimeter, Millimeter, Micrometer, Nanometer 
2:25  
 
 Measurements Larger Than a Meter, Use Kilometer 
2:38  
 
The Kilogram 
2:46  
 
 Roughly Equivalent to 2.2 English Pounds 
2:49  
 
 Grams, Milligrams 
2:53  
 
 Megagram 
2:59  
 
Seconds 
3:10  
 
 Base Unit of Time 
3:12  
 
 Minute, Hour, Day 
3:20  
 
 Milliseconds, Microseconds 
3:33  
 
Derived Units 
3:41  
 
 Velocity 
3:45  
 
 Acceleration 
3:57  
 
 Force 
4:04  
 
Prefixes for Powers of 10 
4:21  
 
Converting Fundamental Units, Example 1 
4:53  
 
Converting Fundamental Units, Example 2 
7:18  
 
TwoStep Conversions, Example 1 
8:24  
 
TwoStep Conversions, Example 2 
10:06  
 
Derived Unit Conversions 
11:29  
 
MultiStep Conversions 
13:25  
 
Metric Estimations 
15:04  
 
What are Significant Figures? 
16:01  
 
 Represent a Manner of Showing Which Digits In a Number Are Known to Some Level of Certainty 
16:03  
 
 Example 
16:09  
 
Measuring with Sig Figs 
16:36  
 
 Rule 1 
16:40  
 
 Rule 2 
16:44  
 
 Rule 3 
16:52  
 
Reading Significant Figures 
16:57  
 
 All NonZero Digits Are Significant 
17:04  
 
 All Digits Between NonZero Digits Are Significant 
17:07  
 
 Zeros to the Left of the Significant Digits 
17:11  
 
 Zeros to the Right of the Significant Digits 
17:16  
 
NonZero Digits 
17:21  
 
Digits Between NonZeros Are Significant 
17:45  
 
Zeroes to the Right of the Sig Figs Are Significant 
18:17  
 
Why Scientific Notation? 
18:36  
 
 Physical Measurements Vary Tremendously in Magnitude 
18:38  
 
 Example 
18:47  
 
Scientific Notation in Practice 
19:23  
 
 Example 1 
19:28  
 
 Example 2 
19:44  
 
Using Scientific Notation 
20:02  
 
 Show Your Value Using Correct Number of Significant Figures 
20:05  
 
 Move the Decimal Point 
20:09  
 
 Show Your Number Being Multiplied by 10 Raised to the Appropriate Power 
20:14  
 
Accuracy and Precision 
20:23  
 
 Accuracy 
20:36  
 
 Precision 
20:41  
 
Example 1: Scientific Notation w/ Sig Figs 
21:48  
 
Example 2: Scientific Notation  Compress 
22:25  
 
Example 3: Scientific Notation  Compress 
23:07  
 
Example 4: Scientific Notation  Expand 
23:31  

Vectors & Scalars 
25:05 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Objectives 
0:05  
 
Scalars 
0:29  
 
 Definition of Scalar 
0:39  
 
 Temperature, Mass, Time 
0:45  
 
Vectors 
1:12  
 
 Vectors are Quantities That Have Magnitude and Direction 
1:13  
 
 Represented by Arrows 
1:31  
 
Vector Representations 
1:47  
 
Graphical Vector Addition 
2:42  
 
Graphical Vector Subtraction 
4:58  
 
Vector Components 
6:08  
 
Angle of a Vector 
8:22  
 
Vector Notation 
9:52  
 
Example 1: Vector Components 
14:30  
 
Example 2: Vector Components 
16:05  
 
Example 3: Vector Magnitude 
17:26  
 
Example 4: Vector Addition 
19:38  
 
Example 5: Angle of a Vector 
24:06  
II. Mechanics 

Defining & Graphing Motion 
30:11 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Objectives 
0:07  
 
Position 
0:40  
 
 An Object's Position Cab Be Assigned to a Variable on a Number Scale 
0:43  
 
 Symbol for Position 
1:07  
 
Distance 
1:13  
 
 When Position Changes, An Object Has Traveled Some Distance 
1:14  
 
 Distance is Scalar and Measured in Meters 
1:21  
 
Example 1: Distance 
1:34  
 
Displacement 
2:17  
 
 Displacement is a Vector Which Describes the Straight Line From Start to End Point 
2:18  
 
 Measured in Meters 
2:27  
 
Example 2: Displacement 
2:39  
 
Average Speed 
3:32  
 
 The Distance Traveled Divided by the Time Interval 
3:33  
 
 Speed is a Scalar 
3:47  
 
Example 3: Average Speed 
3:57  
 
Average Velocity 
4:37  
 
 The Displacement Divided by the Time Interval 
4:38  
 
 Velocity is a Vector 
4:53  
 
Example 4: Average Velocity 
5:06  
 
Example 5: Chuck the Hungry Squirrel 
5:55  
 
Acceleration 
8:02  
 
 Rate At Which Velocity Changes 
8:13  
 
 Acceleration is a Vector 
8:26  
 
Example 6: Acceleration Problem 
8:52  
 
Average vs. Instantaneous 
9:44  
 
 Average Values Take Into Account an Entire Time Interval 
9:50  
 
 Instantaneous Value Tells the Rate of Change of a Quantity at a Specific Instant in Time 
9:54  
 
Example 7: Average Velocity 
10:06  
 
Particle Diagrams 
11:57  
 
 Similar to the Effect of Oil Leak from a Car on the Pavement 
11:59  
 
 Accelerating 
13:03  
 
PositionTime Graphs 
14:17  
 
 Shows Position as a Function of Time 
14:24  
 
Slope of xt Graph 
15:08  
 
 Slope Gives You the Velocity 
15:09  
 
 Negative Indicates Direction 
16:27  
 
VelocityTime Graphs 
16:45  
 
 Shows Velocity as a Function of Time 
16:49  
 
Area Under vt Graphs 
17:47  
 
 Area Under the VT Graph Gives You Change in Displacement 
17:48  
 
Example 8: Slope of a vt Graph 
19:45  
 
AccelerationTime Graphs 
21:44  
 
 Slope of the vt Graph Gives You Acceleration 
21:45  
 
 Area Under the at Graph Gives You an Object's Change in Velocity 
22:24  
 
Example 10: Motion Graphing 
24:03  
 
Example 11: vt Graph 
27:14  
 
Example 12: Displacement From vt Graph 
28:14  

Kinematic Equations 
36:13 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Objectives 
0:07  
 
ProblemSolving Toolbox 
0:42  
 
 Graphs Are Not Always the Most Effective 
0:47  
 
 Kinematic Equations Helps us Solve for Five Key Variables 
0:56  
 
Deriving the Kinematic Equations 
1:29  
 
Kinematic Equations 
7:40  
 
Problem Solving Steps 
8:13  
 
 Label Your Horizontal or Vertical Motion 
8:20  
 
 Choose a Direction as Positive 
8:24  
 
 Create a Motion Analysis Table 
8:33  
 
 Fill in Your Givens 
8:42  
 
 Solve for Unknowns 
8:45  
 
Example 1: Horizontal Kinematics 
8:51  
 
Example 2: Vertical Kinematics 
11:13  
 
Example 3: 2 Step Problem 
13:25  
 
Example 4: Acceleration Problem 
16:44  
 
Example 5: Particle Diagrams 
17:56  
 
Example 6: Quadratic Solution 
20:13  
 
Free Fall 
24:24  
 
 When the Only Force Acting on an Object is the Force of Gravity, the Motion is Free Fall 
24:27  
 
Air Resistance 
24:51  
 
 Drop a Ball 
24:56  
 
 Remove the Air from the Room 
25:02  
 
 Analyze the Motion of Objects by Neglecting Air Resistance 
25:06  
 
Acceleration Due to Gravity 
25:22  
 
 g = 9.8 m/s2 
25:25  
 
 Approximate g as 10 m/s2 on the AP Exam 
25:37  
 
 G is Referred to as the Gravitational Field Strength 
25:48  
 
Objects Falling From Rest 
26:15  
 
 Objects Starting from Rest Have an Initial velocity of 0 
26:19  
 
 Acceleration is +g 
26:34  
 
Example 7: Falling Objects 
26:47  
 
Objects Launched Upward 
27:59  
 
 Acceleration is g 
28:04  
 
 At Highest Point, the Object has a Velocity of 0 
28:19  
 
 Symmetry of Motion 
28:27  
 
Example 8: Ball Thrown Upward 
28:47  
 
Example 9: Height of a Jump 
29:23  
 
Example 10: Ball Thrown Downward 
33:08  
 
Example 11: Maximum Height 
34:16  

Projectiles 
20:32 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Objectives 
0:06  
 
What is a Projectile? 
0:26  
 
 An Object That is Acted Upon Only By Gravity 
0:29  
 
 Typically Launched at an Angle 
0:43  
 
Path of a Projectile 
1:03  
 
 Projectiles Launched at an Angle Move in Parabolic Arcs 
1:06  
 
 Symmetric and Parabolic 
1:32  
 
 Horizontal Range and Max Height 
1:49  
 
Independence of Motion 
2:17  
 
 Vertical 
2:49  
 
 Horizontal 
2:52  
 
Example 1: Horizontal Launch 
3:49  
 
Example 2: Parabolic Path 
7:41  
 
Angled Projectiles 
8:30  
 
 Must First Break Up the Object's Initial Velocity Into x and y Components of Initial Velocity 
8:32  
 
 An Object Will Travel the Maximum Horizontal Distance with a Launch Angle of 45 Degrees 
8:43  
 
Example 3: Human Cannonball 
8:55  
 
Example 4: Motion Graphs 
12:55  
 
Example 5: Launch From a Height 
15:33  
 
Example 6: Acceleration of a Projectile 
19:56  

Relative Motion 
10:52 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Objectives 
0:06  
 
Reference Frames 
0:18  
 
 Motion of an Observer 
0:21  
 
 No Way to Distinguish Between Motion at Rest and Motion at a Constant Velocity 
0:44  
 
Motion is Relative 
1:35  
 
 Example 1 
1:39  
 
 Example 2 
2:09  
 
Calculating Relative Velocities 
2:31  
 
 Example 1 
2:43  
 
 Example 2 
2:48  
 
 Example 3 
2:52  
 
Example 1 
4:58  
 
Example 2: Airspeed 
6:19  
 
Example 3: 2D Relative Motion 
7:39  
 
Example 4: Relative Velocity with Direction 
9:40  

Newton's 1st Law of Motion 
10:16 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Objective 
0:05  
 
Newton's 1st Law of Motion 
0:16  
 
 An Object At Rest Will Remain At Rest 
0:21  
 
 An Object In Motion Will Remain in Motion 
0:26  
 
 Net Force 
0:39  
 
 Also Known As the Law of Inertia 
0:46  
 
Force 
1:02  
 
 Push or Pull 
1:04  
 
 Newtons 
1:08  
 
 Contact and Field Forces 
1:31  
 
 Contact Forces 
1:50  
 
 Field Forces 
2:11  
 
What is a Net Force? 
2:30  
 
 Vector Sum of All the Forces Acting on an Object 
2:33  
 
 Translational Equilibrium 
2:37  
 
 Unbalanced Force Is a Net Force 
2:46  
 
What Does It Mean? 
3:49  
 
 An Object Will Continue in Its Current State of Motion Unless an Unbalanced Force Acts Upon It 
3:50  
 
 Example of Newton's First Law 
4:20  
 
Objects in Motion 
5:05  
 
 Will Remain in Motion At Constant Velocity 
5:06  
 
 Hard to Find a Frictionless Environment on Earth 
5:10  
 
Static Equilibrium 
5:40  
 
 Net Force on an Object is 0 
5:44  
 
Inertia 
6:21  
 
 Tendency of an Object to Resist a Change in Velocity 
6:23  
 
 Inertial Mass 
6:35  
 
 Gravitational Mass 
6:40  
 
Example 1: Inertia 
7:10  
 
Example 2: Inertia 
7:37  
 
Example 3: Translational Equilibrium 
8:03  
 
Example 4: Net Force 
8:40  

Newton's 2nd Law of Motion 
34:55 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Objective 
0:07  
 
Free Body Diagrams 
0:37  
 
 Tools Used to Analyze Physical Situations 
0:40  
 
 Show All the Forces Acting on a Single Object 
0:45  
 
Drawing FBDs 
0:58  
 
 Draw Object of Interest as a Dot 
1:00  
 
 Sketch a Coordinate System 
1:10  
 
Example 1: Falling Elephant 
1:18  
 
Example 2: Falling Elephant with Air Resistance 
2:07  
 
Example 3: Soda on Table 
3:00  
 
Example 4: Box in Equilibrium 
4:25  
 
Example 5: Block on a Ramp 
5:01  
 
PseudoFBDs 
5:53  
 
 Draw When Forces Don't Line Up with Axes 
5:56  
 
 Break Forces That Don’t Line Up with Axes into Components That Do 
6:00  
 
Example 6: Objects on a Ramp 
6:32  
 
Example 7: Car on a Banked Turn 
10:23  
 
Newton's 2nd Law of Motion 
12:56  
 
 The Acceleration of an Object is in the Direction of the Directly Proportional to the Net Force Applied 
13:06  
 
Newton's 1st Two Laws Compared 
13:45  
 
 Newton's 1st Law 
13:51  
 
 Newton's 2nd Law 
14:10  
 
Applying Newton's 2nd Law 
14:50  
 
Example 8: Applying Newton's 2nd Law 
15:23  
 
Example 9: Stopping a Baseball 
16:52  
 
Example 10: Block on a Surface 
19:51  
 
Example 11: Concurrent Forces 
21:16  
 
Mass vs. Weight 
22:28  
 
 Mass 
22:29  
 
 Weight 
22:47  
 
Example 12: Mass vs. Weight 
23:16  
 
Translational Equilibrium 
24:47  
 
 Occurs When There Is No Net Force on an Object 
24:49  
 
 Equilibrant 
24:57  
 
Example 13: Translational Equilibrium 
25:29  
 
Example 14: Translational Equilibrium 
26:56  
 
Example 15: Determining Acceleration 
28:05  
 
Example 16: Suspended Mass 
31:03  

Newton's 3rd Law of Motion 
5:58 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Objectives 
0:06  
 
Newton's 3rd Law of Motion 
0:20  
 
 All Forces Come in Pairs 
0:24  
 
Examples 
1:22  
 
ActionReaction Pairs 
2:07  
 
 Girl Kicking Soccer Ball 
2:11  
 
 Rocket Ship in Space 
2:29  
 
 Gravity on You 
2:53  
 
Example 1: Force of Gravity 
3:34  
 
Example 2: Sailboat 
4:00  
 
Example 3: Hammer and Nail 
4:49  
 
Example 4: Net Force 
5:06  

Friction 
17:49 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Objectives 
0:06  
 
Examples 
0:23  
 
 Friction Opposes Motion 
0:24  
 
 Kinetic Friction 
0:27  
 
 Static Friction 
0:36  
 
 Magnitude of Frictional Force Is Determined By Two Things 
0:41  
 
Coefficient Friction 
2:27  
 
 Ratio of the Frictional Force and the Normal Force 
2:28  
 
 Chart of Different Values of Friction 
2:48  
 
Kinetic or Static? 
3:31  
 
Example 1: Car Sliding 
4:18  
 
Example 2: Block on Incline 
5:03  
 
Calculating the Force of Friction 
5:48  
 
 Depends Only Upon the Nature of the Surfaces in Contact and the Magnitude of the Force 
5:50  
 
Terminal Velocity 
6:14  
 
 Air Resistance 
6:18  
 
 Terminal Velocity of the Falling Object 
6:33  
 
Example 3: Finding the Frictional Force 
7:36  
 
Example 4: Box on Wood Surface 
9:13  
 
Example 5: Static vs. Kinetic Friction 
11:49  
 
Example 6: Drag Force on Airplane 
12:15  
 
Example 7: Pulling a Sled 
13:21  

Dynamics Applications 
35:27 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Objectives 
0:08  
 
Free Body Diagrams 
0:49  
 
Drawing FBDs 
1:09  
 
 Draw Object of Interest as a Dot 
1:12  
 
 Sketch a Coordinate System 
1:18  
 
Example 1: FBD of Block on Ramp 
1:39  
 
PseudoFBDs 
1:59  
 
 Draw Object of Interest as a Dot 
2:00  
 
 Break Up the Forces 
2:07  
 
Box on a Ramp 
2:12  
 
Example 2: Box at Rest 
4:28  
 
Example 3: Box Held by Force 
5:00  
 
What is an Atwood Machine? 
6:46  
 
 Two Objects are Connected by a Light String Over a Massless Pulley 
6:49  
 
Properties of Atwood Machines 
7:13  
 
 Ideal Pulleys are Frictionless and Massless 
7:16  
 
 Tension is Constant in a Light String Passing Over an Ideal Pulley 
7:23  
 
Solving Atwood Machine Problems 
8:02  
 
Alternate Solution 
12:07  
 
 Analyze the System as a Whole 
12:12  
 
Elevators 
14:24  
 
 Scales Read the Force They Exert on an Object Placed Upon Them 
14:42  
 
 Can be Used to Analyze Using Newton's 2nd Law and Free body Diagrams 
15:23  
 
Example 4: Elevator Accelerates Upward 
15:36  
 
Example 5: Truck on a Hill 
18:30  
 
Example 6: Force Up a Ramp 
19:28  
 
Example 7: Acceleration Down a Ramp 
21:56  
 
Example 8: Basic Atwood Machine 
24:05  
 
Example 9: Masses and Pulley on a Table 
26:47  
 
Example 10: Mass and Pulley on a Ramp 
29:15  
 
Example 11: Elevator Accelerating Downward 
33:00  

Impulse & Momentum 
26:06 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Objectives 
0:06  
 
Momentum 
0:31  
 
 Example 
0:35  
 
 Momentum measures How Hard It Is to Stop a Moving Object 
0:47  
 
 Vector Quantity 
0:58  
 
Example 1: Comparing Momenta 
1:48  
 
Example 2: Calculating Momentum 
3:08  
 
Example 3: Changing Momentum 
3:50  
 
Impulse 
5:02  
 
 Change In Momentum 
5:05  
 
Example 4: Impulse 
5:26  
 
Example 5: ImpulseMomentum 
6:41  
 
Deriving the ImpulseMomentum Theorem 
9:04  
 
ImpulseMomentum Theorem 
12:02  
 
Example 6: ImpulseMomentum Theorem 
12:15  
 
NonConstant Forces 
13:55  
 
 Impulse or Change in Momentum 
13:56  
 
 Determine the Impulse by Calculating the Area of the Triangle Under the Curve 
14:07  
 
Center of Mass 
14:56  
 
 Real Objects Are More Complex Than Theoretical Particles 
14:59  
 
 Treat Entire Object as if Its Entire Mass Were Contained at the Object's Center of Mass 
15:09  
 
 To Calculate the Center of Mass 
15:17  
 
Example 7: Force on a Moving Object 
15:49  
 
Example 8: Motorcycle Accident 
17:49  
 
Example 9: Auto Collision 
19:32  
 
Example 10: Center of Mass (1D) 
21:29  
 
Example 11: Center of Mass (2D) 
23:28  

Collisions 
21:59 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Objectives 
0:09  
 
Conservation of Momentum 
0:18  
 
 Linear Momentum is Conserved in an Isolated System 
0:21  
 
 Useful for Analyzing Collisions and Explosions 
0:27  
 
Momentum Tables 
0:58  
 
 Identify Objects in the System 
1:05  
 
 Determine the Momenta of the Objects Before and After the Event 
1:10  
 
 Add All the Momenta From Before the Event and Set Them Equal to Momenta After the Event 
1:15  
 
 Solve Your Resulting Equation for Unknowns 
1:20  
 
Types of Collisions 
1:31  
 
 Elastic Collision 
1:36  
 
 Inelastic Collision 
1:56  
 
Example 1: Conservation of Momentum (1D) 
2:02  
 
Example 2: Inelastic Collision 
5:12  
 
Example 3: Recoil Velocity 
7:16  
 
Example 4: Conservation of Momentum (2D) 
9:29  
 
Example 5: Atomic Collision 
16:02  

Describing Circular Motion 
7:18 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Objectives 
0:07  
 
Uniform Circular Motion 
0:20  
 
 Circumference 
0:32  
 
 Average Speed Formula Still Applies 
0:46  
 
Frequency 
1:03  
 
 Number of Revolutions or Cycles Which Occur Each Second 
1:04  
 
 Hertz 
1:24  
 
 Formula for Frequency 
1:28  
 
Period 
1:36  
 
 Time It Takes for One Complete Revolution or Cycle 
1:37  
 
Frequency and Period 
1:54  
 
Example 1: Car on a Track 
2:08  
 
Example 2: Race Car 
3:55  
 
Example 3: Toy Train 
4:45  
 
Example 4: RoundABout 
5:39  

Centripetal Acceleration & Force 
26:37 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Objectives 
0:08  
 
Uniform Circular Motion 
0:38  
 
Direction of ac 
1:41  
 
Magnitude of ac 
3:50  
 
Centripetal Force 
4:08  
 
 For an Object to Accelerate, There Must Be a Net Force 
4:18  
 
 Centripetal Force 
4:26  
 
Calculating Centripetal Force 
6:14  
 
Example 1: Acceleration 
7:31  
 
Example 2: Direction of ac 
8:53  
 
Example 3: Loss of Centripetal Force 
9:19  
 
Example 4: Velocity and Centripetal Force 
10:08  
 
Example 5: Demon Drop 
10:55  
 
Example 6: Centripetal Acceleration vs. Speed 
14:11  
 
Example 7: Calculating ac 
15:03  
 
Example 8: Running Back 
15:45  
 
Example 9: Car at an Intersection 
17:15  
 
Example 10: Bucket in Horizontal Circle 
18:40  
 
Example 11: Bucket in Vertical Circle 
19:20  
 
Example 12: Frictionless Banked Curve 
21:55  

Gravitation 
32:56 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Objectives 
0:08  
 
Universal Gravitation 
0:29  
 
 The Bigger the Mass the Closer the Attraction 
0:48  
 
 Formula for Gravitational Force 
1:16  
 
Calculating g 
2:43  
 
 Mass of Earth 
2:51  
 
 Radius of Earth 
2:55  
 
Inverse Square Relationship 
4:32  
 
Problem Solving Hints 
7:21  
 
 Substitute Values in For Variables at the End of the Problem Only 
7:26  
 
 Estimate the Order of Magnitude of the Answer Before Using Your Calculator 
7:38  
 
 Make Sure Your Answer Makes Sense 
7:55  
 
Example 1: Asteroids 
8:20  
 
Example 2: Meteor and the Earth 
10:17  
 
Example 3: Satellite 
13:13  
 
Gravitational Fields 
13:50  
 
 Gravity is a NonContact Force 
13:54  
 
 Closer Objects 
14:14  
 
 Denser Force Vectors 
14:19  
 
Gravitational Field Strength 
15:09  
 
Example 4: Astronaut 
16:19  
 
Gravitational Potential Energy 
18:07  
 
 Two Masses Separated by Distance Exhibit an Attractive Force 
18:11  
 
 Formula for Gravitational Field 
19:21  
 
How Do Orbits Work? 
19:36  
 
Example5: Gravitational Field Strength for Space Shuttle in Orbit 
21:35  
 
Example 6: Earth's Orbit 
25:13  
 
Example 7: Bowling Balls 
27:25  
 
Example 8: Freely Falling Object 
28:07  
 
Example 9: Finding g 
28:40  
 
Example 10: Space Vehicle on Mars 
29:10  
 
Example 11: Fg vs. Mass Graph 
30:24  
 
Example 12: Mass on Mars 
31:14  
 
Example 13: Two Satellites 
31:51  

Rotational Kinematics 
15:33 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Objectives 
0:07  
 
Radians and Degrees 
0:26  
 
 In Degrees, Once Around a Circle is 360 Degrees 
0:29  
 
 In Radians, Once Around a Circle is 2π 
0:34  
 
Example 1: Degrees to Radians 
0:57  
 
Example 2: Radians to Degrees 
1:31  
 
Linear vs. Angular Displacement 
2:00  
 
 Linear Position 
2:05  
 
 Angular Position 
2:10  
 
Linear vs. Angular Velocity 
2:35  
 
 Linear Speed 
2:39  
 
 Angular Speed 
2:42  
 
Direction of Angular Velocity 
3:05  
 
Converting Linear to Angular Velocity 
4:22  
 
Example 3: Angular Velocity Example 
4:41  
 
Linear vs. Angular Acceleration 
5:36  
 
Example 4: Angular Acceleration 
6:15  
 
Kinematic Variable Parallels 
7:47  
 
 Displacement 
7:52  
 
 Velocity 
8:10  
 
 Acceleration 
8:16  
 
 Time 
8:22  
 
Kinematic Variable Translations 
8:30  
 
 Displacement 
8:34  
 
 Velocity 
8:42  
 
 Acceleration 
8:50  
 
 Time 
0:00  
 
Kinematic Equation Parallels 
9:09  
 
 Kinematic Equations 
9:12  
 
 Delta 
9:33  
 
 Final Velocity Squared and Angular Velocity Squared 
9:54  
 
Example 5: Medieval Flail 
10:24  
 
Example 6: CD Player 
10:57  
 
Example 7: Carousel 
12:13  
 
Example 8: Circular Saw 
13:35  

Torque 
11:21 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Objectives 
0:05  
 
Torque 
0:18  
 
 Force That Causes an Object to Turn 
0:22  
 
 Must be Perpendicular to the Displacement to Cause a Rotation 
0:27  
 
 Lever Arm: The Stronger the Force, The More Torque 
0:45  
 
Direction of the Torque Vector 
1:53  
 
 Perpendicular to the Position Vector and the Force Vector 
1:54  
 
 RightHand Rule 
2:08  
 
Newton's 2nd Law: Translational vs. Rotational 
2:46  
 
Equilibrium 
3:58  
 
 Static Equilibrium 
4:01  
 
 Dynamic Equilibrium 
4:09  
 
 Rotational Equilibrium 
4:22  
 
Example 1: Pirate Captain 
4:32  
 
Example 2: Auto Mechanic 
5:25  
 
Example 3: Sign Post 
6:44  
 
Example 4: SeeSaw 
9:01  

Rotational Dynamics 
36:06 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Objectives 
0:08  
 
Types of Inertia 
0:39  
 
 Inertial Mass (Translational Inertia) 
0:42  
 
 Moment of Inertia (Rotational Inertia) 
0:53  
 
Moment of Inertia for Common Objects 
1:48  
 
Example 1: Calculating Moment of Inertia 
2:53  
 
Newton's 2nd Law  Revisited 
5:09  
 
 Acceleration of an Object 
5:15  
 
 Angular Acceleration of an Object 
5:24  
 
Example 2: Rotating Top 
5:47  
 
Example 3: Spinning Disc 
7:54  
 
Angular Momentum 
9:41  
 
 Linear Momentum 
9:43  
 
 Angular Momentum 
10:00  
 
Calculating Angular Momentum 
10:51  
 
 Direction of the Angular Momentum Vector 
11:26  
 
 Total Angular Momentum 
12:29  
 
Example 4: Angular Momentum of Particles 
14:15  
 
Example 5: Rotating Pedestal 
16:51  
 
Example 6: Rotating Discs 
18:39  
 
Angular Momentum and Heavenly Bodies 
20:13  
 
Types of Kinetic Energy 
23:41  
 
 Objects Traveling with a Translational Velocity 
23:45  
 
 Objects Traveling with Angular Velocity 
24:00  
 
Translational vs. Rotational Variables 
24:33  
 
Example 7: Kinetic Energy of a Basketball 
25:45  
 
Example 8: Playground RoundABout 
28:17  
 
Example 9: The Ice Skater 
30:54  
 
Example 10: The Bowler 
33:15  

Work & Power 
31:20 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Objectives 
0:09  
 
What Is Work? 
0:31  
 
 Power Output 
0:35  
 
 Transfer Energy 
0:39  
 
 Work is the Process of Moving an Object by Applying a Force 
0:46  
 
Examples of Work 
0:56  
 
Calculating Work 
2:16  
 
 Only the Force in the Direction of the Displacement Counts 
2:33  
 
 Formula for Work 
2:48  
 
Example 1: Moving a Refrigerator 
3:16  
 
Example 2: Liberating a Car 
3:59  
 
Example 3: Crate on a Ramp 
5:20  
 
Example 4: Lifting a Box 
7:11  
 
Example 5: Pulling a Wagon 
8:38  
 
Force vs. Displacement Graphs 
9:33  
 
 The Area Under a Force vs. Displacement Graph is the Work Done by the Force 
9:37  
 
 Find the Work Done 
9:49  
 
Example 6: Work From a Varying Force 
11:00  
 
Hooke's Law 
12:42  
 
 The More You Stretch or Compress a Spring, The Greater the Force of the Spring 
12:46  
 
 The Spring's Force is Opposite the Direction of Its Displacement from Equilibrium 
13:00  
 
Determining the Spring Constant 
14:21  
 
Work Done in Compressing the Spring 
15:27  
 
Example 7: Finding Spring Constant 
16:21  
 
Example 8: Calculating Spring Constant 
17:58  
 
Power 
18:43  
 
 Work 
18:46  
 
 Power 
18:50  
 
Example 9: Moving a Sofa 
19:26  
 
Calculating Power 
20:41  
 
Example 10: Motors Delivering Power 
21:27  
 
Example 11: Force on a Cyclist 
22:40  
 
Example 12: Work on a Spinning Mass 
23:52  
 
Example 13: Work Done by Friction 
25:05  
 
Example 14: Units of Power 
28:38  
 
Example 15: Frictional Force on a Sled 
29:43  

Energy 
20:15 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Objectives 
0:07  
 
What is Energy? 
0:24  
 
 The Ability or Capacity to do Work 
0:26  
 
 The Ability or Capacity to Move an Object 
0:34  
 
Types of Energy 
0:39  
 
Energy Transformations 
2:07  
 
 Transfer Energy by Doing Work 
2:12  
 
 WorkEnergy Theorem 
2:20  
 
Units of Energy 
2:51  
 
Kinetic Energy 
3:08  
 
 Energy of Motion 
3:13  
 
 Ability or Capacity of a Moving Object to Move Another Object 
3:17  
 
 A Single Object Can Only Have Kinetic Energy 
3:46  
 
Example 1: Kinetic Energy of a Motorcycle 
5:08  
 
Potential Energy 
5:59  
 
 Energy An Object Possesses 
6:10  
 
 Gravitational Potential Energy 
7:21  
 
 Elastic Potential Energy 
9:58  
 
Internal Energy 
10:16  
 
 Includes the Kinetic Energy of the Objects That Make Up the System and the Potential Energy of the Configuration 
10:20  
 
Calculating Gravitational Potential Energy in a Constant Gravitational Field 
10:57  
 
Sources of Energy on Earth 
12:41  
 
Example 2: Potential Energy 
13:41  
 
Example 3: Energy of a System 
14:40  
 
Example 4: Kinetic and Potential Energy 
15:36  
 
Example 5: Pendulum 
16:55  

Conservation of Energy 
23:20 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Objectives 
0:08  
 
Law of Conservation of Energy 
0:22  
 
 Energy Cannot Be Created or Destroyed.. It Can Only Be Changed 
0:27  
 
 Mechanical Energy 
0:34  
 
 Conservation Laws 
0:40  
 
 Examples 
0:49  
 
Kinematics vs. Energy 
4:34  
 
 Energy Approach 
4:56  
 
 Kinematics Approach 
6:04  
 
The Pendulum 
8:07  
 
Example 1: Cart Compressing a Spring 
13:09  
 
Example 2 
14:23  
 
Example 3: Car Skidding to a Stop 
16:15  
 
Example 4: Accelerating an Object 
17:27  
 
Example 5: Block on Ramp 
18:06  
 
Example 6: Energy Transfers 
19:21  

Simple Harmonic Motion 
58:30 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Objectives 
0:08  
 
What Is Simple Harmonic Motion? 
0:57  
 
 Nature's Typical Reaction to a Disturbance 
1:00  
 
 A Displacement Which Results in a Linear Restoring Force Results in SHM 
1:25  
 
Review of Springs 
1:43  
 
 When a Force is Applied to a Spring, the Spring Applies a Restoring Force 
1:46  
 
 When the Spring is in Equilibrium, It Is 'Unstrained' 
1:54  
 
 Factors Affecting the Force of A Spring 
2:00  
 
Oscillations 
3:42  
 
 Repeated Motions 
3:45  
 
 Cycle 1 
3:52  
 
 Period 
3:58  
 
 Frequency 
4:07  
 
SpringBlock Oscillator 
4:47  
 
 Mass of the Block 
4:59  
 
 Spring Constant 
5:05  
 
Example 1: SpringBlock Oscillator 
6:30  
 
Diagrams 
8:07  
 
 Displacement 
8:42  
 
 Velocity 
8:57  
 
 Force 
9:36  
 
 Acceleration 
10:09  
 
 U 
10:24  
 
 K 
10:47  
 
Example 2: Harmonic Oscillator Analysis 
16:22  
 
Circular Motion vs. SHM 
23:26  
 
Graphing SHM 
25:52  
 
Example 3: Position of an Oscillator 
28:31  
 
Vertical SpringBlock Oscillator 
31:13  
 
Example 4: Vertical SpringBlock Oscillator 
34:26  
 
Example 5: Bungee 
36:39  
 
The Pendulum 
43:55  
 
 Mass Is Attached to a Light String That Swings Without Friction About the Vertical Equilibrium 
44:04  
 
Energy and the Simple Pendulum 
44:58  
 
Frequency and Period of a Pendulum 
48:25  
 
 Period of an Ideal Pendulum 
48:31  
 
 Assume Theta is Small 
48:54  
 
Example 6: The Pendulum 
50:15  
 
Example 7: Pendulum Clock 
53:38  
 
Example 8: Pendulum on the Moon 
55:14  
 
Example 9: Mass on a Spring 
56:01  
III. Fluids 

Density & Buoyancy 
19:48 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Objectives 
0:09  
 
Fluids 
0:27  
 
 Fluid is Matter That Flows Under Pressure 
0:31  
 
 Fluid Mechanics is the Study of Fluids 
0:44  
 
Density 
0:57  
 
 Density is the Ratio of an Object's Mass to the Volume It Occupies 
0:58  
 
 Less Dense Fluids 
1:06  
 
 Less Dense Solids 
1:09  
 
Example 1: Density of Water 
1:27  
 
Example 2: Volume of Gold 
2:19  
 
Example 3: Floating 
3:06  
 
Buoyancy 
3:54  
 
 Force Exerted by a Fluid on an Object, Opposing the Object's Weight 
3:56  
 
 Buoyant Force Determined Using Archimedes Principle 
4:03  
 
Example 4: Buoyant Force 
5:12  
 
Example 5: Shark Tank 
5:56  
 
Example 6: Concrete Boat 
7:47  
 
Example 7: Apparent Mass 
10:08  
 
Example 8: Volume of a Submerged Cube 
13:21  
 
Example 9: Determining Density 
15:37  

Pressure & Pascal's Principle 
18:07 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Objectives 
0:09  
 
Pressure 
0:25  
 
 Pressure is the Effect of a Force Acting Upon a Surface 
0:27  
 
 Formula for Pressure 
0:41  
 
 Force is Always Perpendicular to the Surface 
0:50  
 
Exerting Pressure 
1:03  
 
 Fluids Exert Outward Pressure in All Directions on the Sides of Any Container Holding the Fluid 
1:36  
 
 Earth's Atmosphere Exerts Pressure 
1:42  
 
Example 1: Pressure on Keyboard 
2:17  
 
Example 2: Sleepy Fisherman 
3:03  
 
Example 3: Scale on Planet Physica 
4:12  
 
Example 4: Ranking Pressures 
5:00  
 
Pressure on a Submerged Object 
6:45  
 
 Pressure a Fluid Exerts on an Object Submerged in That Fluid 
6:46  
 
 If There Is Atmosphere Above the Fluid 
7:03  
 
Example 5: Gauge Pressure Scuba Diving 
7:27  
 
Example 6: Absolute Pressure Scuba Diving 
8:13  
 
Pascal's Principle 
8:51  
 
Force Multiplication Using Pascal's Principle 
9:24  
 
Example 7: Barber's Chair 
11:38  
 
Example 8: Hydraulic Auto Lift 
13:26  
 
Example 9: Pressure on a Penny 
14:41  
 
Example 10: Depth in Fresh Water 
16:39  
 
Example 11: Absolute vs. Gauge Pressure 
17:23  

Continuity Equation for Fluids 
7:00 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Objectives 
0:08  
 
Conservation of Mass for Fluid Flow 
0:18  
 
 Law of Conservation of Mass for Fluids 
0:21  
 
 Volume Flow Rate Remains Constant Throughout the Pipe 
0:35  
 
Volume Flow Rate 
0:59  
 
 Quantified In Terms Of Volume Flow Rate 
1:01  
 
 Area of Pipe x Velocity of Fluid 
1:05  
 
 Must Be Constant Throughout Pipe 
1:10  
 
Example 1: Tapered Pipe 
1:44  
 
Example 2: Garden Hose 
2:37  
 
Example 3: Oil Pipeline 
4:49  
 
Example 4: Roots of Continuity Equation 
6:16  

Bernoulli's Principle 
20:00 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Objectives 
0:08  
 
Bernoulli's Principle 
0:21  
 
Airplane Wings 
0:35  
 
Venturi Pump 
1:56  
 
Bernoulli's Equation 
3:32  
 
Example 1: Torricelli's Theorem 
4:38  
 
Example 2: Gauge Pressure 
7:26  
 
Example 3: Shower Pressure 
8:16  
 
Example 4: Water Fountain 
12:29  
 
Example 5: Elevated Cistern 
15:26  
IV. Thermal Physics 

Temperature, Heat, & Thermal Expansion 
24:17 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Objectives 
0:12  
 
Thermal Physics 
0:42  
 
 Explores the Internal Energy of Objects Due to the Motion of the Atoms and Molecules Comprising the Objects 
0:46  
 
 Explores the Transfer of This Energy From Object to Object 
0:53  
 
Temperature 
1:00  
 
 Thermal Energy Is Related to the Kinetic Energy of All the Particles Comprising the Object 
1:03  
 
 The More Kinetic Energy of the Constituent Particles Have, The Greater the Object's Thermal Energy 
1:12  
 
Temperature and Phases of Matter 
1:44  
 
 Solids 
1:48  
 
 Liquids 
1:56  
 
 Gases 
2:02  
 
Average Kinetic Energy and Temperature 
2:16  
 
 Average Kinetic Energy 
2:24  
 
 Boltzmann's Constant 
2:29  
 
Temperature Scales 
3:06  
 
Converting Temperatures 
4:37  
 
Heat 
5:03  
 
 Transfer of Thermal Energy 
5:06  
 
 Accomplished Through Collisions Which is Conduction 
5:13  
 
Methods of Heat Transfer 
5:52  
 
 Conduction 
5:59  
 
 Convection 
6:19  
 
 Radiation 
6:31  
 
Quantifying Heat Transfer in Conduction 
6:37  
 
 Rate of Heat Transfer is Measured in Watts 
6:42  
 
Thermal Conductivity 
7:12  
 
Example 1: Average Kinetic Energy 
7:35  
 
Example 2: Body Temperature 
8:22  
 
Example 3: Temperature of Space 
9:30  
 
Example 4: Temperature of the Sun 
10:44  
 
Example 5: Heat Transfer Through Window 
11:38  
 
Example 6: Heat Transfer Across a Rod 
12:40  
 
Thermal Expansion 
14:18  
 
 When Objects Are Heated, They Tend to Expand 
14:19  
 
 At Higher Temperatures, Objects Have Higher Average Kinetic Energies 
14:24  
 
 At Higher Levels of Vibration, The Particles Are Not Bound As Tightly to Each Other 
14:30  
 
Linear Expansion 
15:11  
 
 Amount a Material Expands is Characterized by the Material's Coefficient of Expansion 
15:14  
 
 OneDimensional Expansion > Linear Coefficient of Expansion 
15:20  
 
Volumetric Expansion 
15:38  
 
 ThreeDimensional Expansion > Volumetric Coefficient of Expansion 
15:45  
 
 Volumetric Coefficient of Expansion is Roughly Three Times the Linear Coefficient of Expansion 
16:03  
 
Coefficients of Thermal Expansion 
16:24  
 
Example 7: Contracting Railroad Tie 
16:59  
 
Example 8: Expansion of an Aluminum Rod 
18:37  
 
Example 9: Water Spilling Out of a Glass 
20:18  
 
Example 10: Average Kinetic Energy vs. Temperature 
22:18  
 
Example 11: Expansion of a Ring 
23:07  

Ideal Gases 
24:15 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Objectives 
0:10  
 
Ideal Gases 
0:25  
 
 Gas Is Comprised of Many Particles Moving Randomly in a Container 
0:34  
 
 Particles Are Far Apart From One Another 
0:46  
 
 Particles Do Not Exert Forces Upon One Another Unless They Come In Contact in an Elastic Collision 
0:53  
 
Ideal Gas Law 
1:18  
 
Atoms, Molecules, and Moles 
2:56  
 
 Protons 
2:59  
 
 Neutrons 
3:15  
 
 Electrons 
3:18  
 
 Examples 
3:25  
 
Example 1: Counting Moles 
4:58  
 
Example 2: Moles of CO2 in a Bottle 
6:00  
 
Example 3: Pressurized CO2 
6:54  
 
Example 4: Helium Balloon 
8:53  
 
Internal Energy of an Ideal Gas 
10:17  
 
 The Average Kinetic Energy of the Particles of an Ideal Gas 
10:21  
 
 Total Internal Energy of the Ideal Gas Can Be Found by Multiplying the Average Kinetic Energy of the Gas's Particles by the Numbers of Particles in the Gas 
10:32  
 
Example 5: Internal Energy of Oxygen 
12:00  
 
Example 6: Temperature of Argon 
12:41  
 
RootMeanSquare Velocity 
13:40  
 
 This is the Square Root of the Average Velocity Squared For All the Molecules in the System 
13:43  
 
 Derived from the MaxwellBoltzmann Distribution Function 
13:56  
 
Calculating vrms 
14:56  
 
Example 7: Average Velocity of a Gas 
18:32  
 
Example 8: Average Velocity of a Gas 
19:44  
 
Example 9: vrms of Molecules in Equilibrium 
20:59  
 
Example 10: Moles to Molecules 
22:25  
 
Example 11: Relating Temperature and Internal Energy 
23:22  

Thermodynamics 
22:29 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Objectives 
0:06  
 
Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics 
0:26  
 
First Law of Thermodynamics 
1:00  
 
 The Change in the Internal Energy of a Closed System is Equal to the Heat Added to the System Plus the Work Done on the System 
1:04  
 
 It is a Restatement of the Law of Conservation of Energy 
1:19  
 
 Sign Conventions Are Important 
1:25  
 
Work Done on a Gas 
1:44  
 
Example 1: Adding Heat to a System 
3:25  
 
Example 2: Expanding a Gas 
4:07  
 
PV Diagrams 
5:11  
 
 PressureVolume Diagrams are Useful Tools for Visualizing Thermodynamic Processes of Gases 
5:13  
 
 Use Ideal Gas Law to Determine Temperature of Gas 
5:25  
 
PV Diagrams II 
5:55  
 
 Volume Increases, Pressure Decreases 
6:00  
 
 As Volume Expands, Gas Does Work 
6:19  
 
 Temperature Rises as You Travel Up and Right on a PV Diagram 
6:29  
 
Example 3: PV Diagram Analysis 
6:40  
 
Types of PV Processes 
7:52  
 
 Adiabatic 
8:03  
 
 Isobaric 
8:19  
 
 Isochoric 
8:28  
 
 Isothermal 
8:35  
 
Adiabatic Processes 
8:47  
 
 Heat Is not Transferred Into or Out of The System 
8:50  
 
 Heat = 0 
8:55  
 
Isobaric Processes 
9:19  
 
 Pressure Remains Constant 
9:21  
 
 PV Diagram Shows a Horizontal Line 
9:27  
 
Isochoric Processes 
9:51  
 
 Volume Remains Constant 
9:52  
 
 PV Diagram Shows a Vertical Line 
9:58  
 
 Work Done on the Gas is Zero 
10:01  
 
Isothermal Processes 
10:27  
 
 Temperature Remains Constant 
10:29  
 
 Lines on a PV Diagram Are Isotherms 
10:31  
 
 PV Remains Constant 
10:38  
 
 Internal Energy of Gas Remains Constant 
10:40  
 
Example 4: Adiabatic Expansion 
10:46  
 
Example 5: Removing Heat 
11:25  
 
Example 6: Ranking Processes 
13:08  
 
Second Law of Thermodynamics 
13:59  
 
 Heat Flows Naturally From a Warmer Object to a Colder Object 
14:02  
 
 Heat Energy Cannot be Completely Transformed Into Mechanical Work 
14:11  
 
 All Natural Systems Tend Toward a Higher Level of Disorder 
14:19  
 
Heat Engines 
14:52  
 
 Heat Engines Convert Heat Into Mechanical Work 
14:56  
 
 Efficiency of a Heat Engine is the Ratio of the Engine You Get Out to the Energy You Put In 
14:59  
 
Power in Heat Engines 
16:09  
 
Heat Engines and PV Diagrams 
17:38  
 
Carnot Engine 
17:54  
 
 It Is a Theoretical Heat Engine That Operates at Maximum Possible Efficiency 
18:02  
 
 It Uses Only Isothermal and Adiabatic Processes 
18:08  
 
 Carnot's Theorem 
18:11  
 
Example 7: Carnot Engine 
18:49  
 
Example 8: Maximum Efficiency 
21:02  
 
Example 9: PV Processes 
21:51  
V. Electricity & Magnetism 

Electric Fields & Forces 
38:24 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Objectives 
0:10  
 
Electric Charges 
0:34  
 
 Matter is Made Up of Atoms 
0:37  
 
 Protons Have a Charge of +1 
0:45  
 
 Electrons Have a Charge of 1 
1:00  
 
 Most Atoms Are Neutral 
1:04  
 
 Ions 
1:15  
 
 Fundamental Unit of Charge is the Coulomb 
1:29  
 
 Like Charges Repel, While Opposites Attract 
1:50  
 
Example 1: Charge on an Object 
2:22  
 
Example 2: Charge of an Alpha Particle 
3:36  
 
Conductors and Insulators 
4:27  
 
 Conductors Allow Electric Charges to Move Freely 
4:30  
 
 Insulators Do Not Allow Electric Charges to Move Freely 
4:39  
 
 Resistivity is a Material Property 
4:45  
 
Charging by Conduction 
5:05  
 
 Materials May Be Charged by Contact, Known as Conduction 
5:07  
 
 Conductors May Be Charged by Contact 
5:24  
 
Example 3: Charging by Conduction 
5:38  
 
The Electroscope 
6:44  
 
Charging by Induction 
8:00  
 
Example 4: Electrostatic Attraction 
9:23  
 
Coulomb's Law 
11:46  
 
 Charged Objects Apply a Force Upon Each Other = Coulombic Force 
11:52  
 
 Force of Attraction or Repulsion is Determined by the Amount of Charge and the Distance Between the Charges 
12:04  
 
Example 5: Determine Electrostatic Force 
13:09  
 
Example 6: Deflecting an Electron Beam 
15:35  
 
Electric Fields 
16:28  
 
 The Property of Space That Allows a Charged Object to Feel a Force 
16:44  
 
 Electric Field Strength Vector is the Amount of Electrostatic Force Observed by a Charge Per Unit of Charge 
17:01  
 
 The Direction of the Electric Field Vector is the Direction a Positive Charge Would Feel a Force 
17:24  
 
Example 7: Field Between Metal Plates 
17:58  
 
Visualizing the Electric Field 
19:27  
 
 Electric Field Lines Point Away from Positive Charges and Toward Negative Charges 
19:40  
 
 Electric Field Lines Intersect Conductors at Right Angles to the Surface 
19:50  
 
 Field Strength and Line Density Decreases as You Move Away From the Charges 
19:58  
 
Electric Field Lines 
20:09  
 
E Field Due to a Point Charge 
22:32  
 
 Electric Fields Are Caused by Charges 
22:35  
 
 Electric Field Due to a Point Charge Can Be Derived From the Definition of the Electric Field and Coulomb's Law 
22:38  
 
 To Find the Electric Field Due to Multiple Charges 
23:09  
 
Comparing Electricity to Gravity 
23:56  
 
 Force 
24:02  
 
 Field Strength 
24:16  
 
 Constant 
24:37  
 
 Charge/ Mass Units 
25:01  
 
Example 8: E Field From 3 Point Charges 
25:07  
 
Example 9: Where is the E Field Zero? 
31:43  
 
Example 10: Gravity and Electricity 
36:38  
 
Example 11: Field Due to Point Charge 
37:34  

Electric Potential Difference 
35:58 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Objectives 
0:09  
 
Electric Potential Energy 
0:32  
 
 When an Object Was Lifted Against Gravity By Applying a Force for Some Distance, Work Was Done 
0:35  
 
 When a Charged Object is Moved Against an Electric Field by Applying a Force for Some Distance, Work is Done 
0:43  
 
 Electric Potential Difference 
1:30  
 
Example 1: Charge From Work 
2:06  
 
Example 2: Electric Energy 
3:09  
 
The ElectronVolt 
4:02  
 
 Electronvolt (eV) 
4:15  
 
 1eV is the Amount of Work Done in Moving an Elementary Charge Through a Potential Difference of 1 Volt 
4:28  
 
Example 3: Energy in eV 
5:33  
 
Equipotential Lines 
6:32  
 
 Topographic Maps Show Lines of Equal Altitude, or Equal Gravitational Potential 
6:36  
 
 Lines Connecting Points of Equal Electrical Potential are Known as Equipotential Lines 
6:57  
 
Drawing Equipotential Lines 
8:15  
 
Potential Due to a Point Charge 
10:46  
 
 Calculate the Electric Field Vector Due to a Point Charge 
10:52  
 
 Calculate the Potential Difference Due to a Point Charge 
11:05  
 
 To Find the Potential Difference Due to Multiple Point Charges 
11:16  
 
Example 4: Potential Due to a Point Charge 
11:52  
 
Example 5: Potential Due to Point Charges 
13:04  
 
Parallel Plates 
16:34  
 
 Configurations in Which Parallel Plates of Opposite Charge are Situated a Fixed Distance From Each Other 
16:37  
 
 These Can Create a Capacitor 
16:45  
 
E Field Due to Parallel Plates 
17:14  
 
 Electric Field Away From the Edges of Two Oppositely Charged Parallel Plates is Constant 
17:15  
 
 Magnitude of the Electric Field Strength is Give By the Potential Difference Between the Plates Divided by the Plate Separation 
17:47  
 
Capacitors 
18:09  
 
 Electric Device Used to Store Charge 
18:11  
 
 Once the Plates Are Charged, They Are Disconnected 
18:30  
 
 Device's Capacitance 
18:46  
 
Capacitors Store Energy 
19:28  
 
 Charges Located on the Opposite Plates of a Capacitor Exert Forces on Each Other 
19:31  
 
Example 6: Capacitance 
20:28  
 
Example 7: Charge on a Capacitor 
22:03  
 
Designing Capacitors 
24:00  
 
 Area of the Plates 
24:05  
 
 Separation of the Plates 
24:09  
 
 Insulating Material 
24:13  
 
Example 8: Designing a Capacitor 
25:35  
 
Example 9: Calculating Capacitance 
27:39  
 
Example 10: Electron in Space 
29:47  
 
Example 11: Proton Energy Transfer 
30:35  
 
Example 12: Two Conducting Spheres 
32:50  
 
Example 13: Equipotential Lines for a Capacitor 
34:48  

Current & Resistance 
21:14 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Objectives 
0:06  
 
Electric Current 
0:19  
 
 Path Through Current Flows 
0:21  
 
 Current is the Amount of Charge Passing a Point Per Unit Time 
0:25  
 
 Conventional Current is the Direction of Positive Charge Flow 
0:43  
 
Example 1: Current Through a Resistor 
1:19  
 
Example 2: Current Due to Elementary Charges 
1:47  
 
Example 3: Charge in a Light Bulb 
2:35  
 
Example 4: Flashlights 
3:3  
 
Conductivity and Resistivity 
4:41  
 
 Conductivity is a Material's Ability to Conduct Electric Charge 
4:53  
 
 Resistivity is a Material's Ability to Resist the Movement of Electric Charge 
5:11  
 
Resistance vs. Resistivity vs. Resistors 
5:35  
 
 Resistivity Is a Material Property 
5:40  
 
 Resistance Is a Functional Property of an Element in an Electric Circuit 
5:57  
 
 A Resistor is a Circuit Element 
7:23  
 
Resistors 
7:45  
 
Example 5: Calculating Resistance 
8:17  
 
Example 6: Resistance Dependencies 
10:09  
 
Configuration of Resistors 
10:50  
 
 When Placed in a Circuit, Resistors Can be Organized in Both Serial and Parallel Arrangements 
10:53  
 
 May Be Useful to Determine an Equivalent Resistance Which Could Be Used to Replace a System or Resistors with a Single Equivalent Resistor 
10:58  
 
Resistors in Series 
11:15  
 
Resistors in Parallel 
12:35  
 
Example 7: Finding Equivalent Resistance 
15:01  
 
Example 8: Length and Resistance 
17:43  
 
Example 9: Comparing Resistors 
18:21  
 
Example 10: Comparing Wires 
19:12  

Ohm's Law & Power 
10:35 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Objectives 
0:06  
 
Ohm's Law 
0:21  
 
 Relates Resistance, Potential Difference, and Current Flow 
0:23  
 
Example 1: Resistance of a Wire 
1:22  
 
Example 2: Circuit Current 
1:58  
 
Example 3: Variable Resistor 
2:30  
 
Ohm's 'Law'? 
3:22  
 
 Very Useful Empirical Relationship 
3:31  
 
 Test if a Material is 'Ohmic' 
3:40  
 
Example 4: Ohmic Material 
3:58  
 
Electrical Power 
4:24  
 
 Current Flowing Through a Circuit Causes a Transfer of Energy Into Different Types 
4:26  
 
 Example: Light Bulb 
4:36  
 
 Example: Television 
4:58  
 
Calculating Power 
5:09  
 
 Electrical Energy 
5:14  
 
 Charge Per Unit Time Is Current 
5:29  
 
 Expand Using Ohm's Law 
5:48  
 
Example 5: Toaster 
7:43  
 
Example 6: Electric Iron 
8:19  
 
Example 7: Power of a Resistor 
9:19  
 
Example 8: Information Required to Determine Power in a Resistor 
9:55  

Circuits & Electrical Meters 
8:44 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Objectives 
0:08  
 
Electrical Circuits 
0:21  
 
 A ClosedLoop Path Through Which Current Can Flow 
0:22  
 
 Can Be Made Up of Most Any Materials, But Typically Comprised of Electrical Devices 
0:27  
 
Circuit Schematics 
1:09  
 
 Symbols Represent Circuit Elements 
1:30  
 
 Lines Represent Wires 
1:33  
 
 Sources for Potential Difference: Voltaic Cells, Batteries, Power Supplies 
1:36  
 
Complete Conducting Paths 
2:43  
 
Voltmeters 
3:20  
 
 Measure the Potential Difference Between Two Points in a Circuit 
3:21  
 
 Connected in Parallel with the Element to be Measured 
3:25  
 
 Have Very High Resistance 
3:59  
 
Ammeters 
4:19  
 
 Measure the Current Flowing Through an Element of a Circuit 
4:20  
 
 Connected in Series with the Circuit 
4:25  
 
 Have Very Low Resistance 
4:45  
 
Example 1: Ammeter and Voltmeter Placement 
4:56  
 
Example 2: Analyzing R 
6:27  
 
Example 3: Voltmeter Placement 
7:12  
 
Example 4: Behavior or Electrical Meters 
7:31  

Circuit Analysis 
48:58 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Objectives 
0:07  
 
Series Circuits 
0:27  
 
 Series Circuits Have Only a Single Current Path 
0:29  
 
 Removal of any Circuit Element Causes an Open Circuit 
0:31  
 
Kirchhoff's Laws 
1:36  
 
 Tools Utilized in Analyzing Circuits 
1:42  
 
 Kirchhoff's Current Law States 
1:47  
 
 Junction Rule 
2:00  
 
 Kirchhoff's Voltage Law States 
2:05  
 
 Loop Rule 
2:18  
 
Example 1: Voltage Across a Resistor 
2:23  
 
Example 2: Current at a Node 
3:45  
 
Basic Series Circuit Analysis 
4:53  
 
Example 3: Current in a Series Circuit 
9:21  
 
Example 4: Energy Expenditure in a Series Circuit 
10:14  
 
Example 5: Analysis of a Series Circuit 
12:07  
 
Example 6: Voltmeter In a Series Circuit 
14:57  
 
Parallel Circuits 
17:11  
 
 Parallel Circuits Have Multiple Current Paths 
17:13  
 
 Removal of a Circuit Element May Allow Other Branches of the Circuit to Continue Operating 
17:15  
 
Basic Parallel Circuit Analysis 
18:19  
 
Example 7: Parallel Circuit Analysis 
21:05  
 
Example 8: Equivalent Resistance 
22:39  
 
Example 9: Four Parallel Resistors 
23:16  
 
Example 10: Ammeter in a Parallel Circuit 
26:27  
 
Combination SeriesParallel Circuits 
28:50  
 
 Look For Portions of the Circuit With Parallel Elements 
28:56  
 
 Work Back to Original Circuit 
29:09  
 
Analysis of a Combination Circuit 
29:20  
 
Internal Resistance 
34:11  
 
 In Reality, Voltage Sources Have Some Amount of 'Internal Resistance' 
34:16  
 
 Terminal Voltage of the Voltage Source is Reduced Slightly 
34:25  
 
Example 11: Two Voltage Sources 
35:16  
 
Example 12: Internal Resistance 
42:46  
 
Example 13: Complex Circuit with Meters 
45:22  
 
Example 14: Parallel Equivalent Resistance 
48:24  

RC Circuits 
24:47 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Objectives 
0:08  
 
Capacitors in Parallel 
0:34  
 
 Capacitors Store Charge on Their Plates 
0:37  
 
 Capacitors In Parallel Can Be Replaced with an Equivalent Capacitor 
0:46  
 
Capacitors in Series 
2:42  
 
 Charge on Capacitors Must Be the Same 
2:44  
 
 Capacitor In Series Can Be Replaced With an Equivalent Capacitor 
2:47  
 
RC Circuits 
5:40  
 
 Comprised of a Source of Potential Difference, a Resistor Network, and One or More Capacitors 
5:42  
 
 Uncharged Capacitors Act Like Wires 
6:04  
 
 Charged Capacitors Act Like Opens 
6:12  
 
Charging an RC Circuit 
6:23  
 
Discharging an RC Circuit 
11:36  
 
Example 1: RC Analysis 
14:50  
 
Example 2: More RC Analysis 
18:26  
 
Example 3: Equivalent Capacitance 
21:19  
 
Example 4: More Equivalent Capacitance 
22:48  

Magnetic Fields & Properties 
19:48 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Objectives 
0:07  
 
Magnetism 
0:32  
 
 A Force Caused by Moving Charges 
0:34  
 
 Magnetic Domains Are Clusters of Atoms with Electrons Spinning in the Same Direction 
0:51  
 
Example 1: Types of Fields 
1:23  
 
Magnetic Field Lines 
2:25  
 
 Make Closed Loops and Run From North to South Outside the Magnet 
2:26  
 
 Magnetic Flux 
2:42  
 
 Show the Direction the North Pole of a Magnet Would Tend to Point If Placed in the Field 
2:54  
 
Example 2: Lines of Magnetic Force 
3:49  
 
Example 3: Forces Between Bar Magnets 
4:39  
 
The Compass 
5:28  
 
 The Earth is a Giant Magnet 
5:31  
 
 The Earth's Magnetic North pole is Located Near the Geographic South Pole, and Vice Versa 
5:33  
 
 A Compass Lines Up with the Net Magnetic Field 
6:07  
 
Example 3: Compass in Magnetic Field 
6:41  
 
Example 4: Compass Near a Bar Magnet 
7:14  
 
Magnetic Permeability 
7:59  
 
 The Ratio of the Magnetic Field Strength Induced in a Material to the Magnetic Field Strength of the Inducing Field 
8:02  
 
 Free Space 
8:13  
 
 Highly Magnetic Materials Have Higher Values of Magnetic Permeability 
8:34  
 
Magnetic Dipole Moment 
8:41  
 
 The Force That a Magnet Can Exert on Moving Charges 
8:46  
 
 Relative Strength of a Magnet 
8:54  
 
Forces on Moving Charges 
9:10  
 
 Moving Charges Create Magnetic Fields 
9:11  
 
 Magnetic Fields Exert Forces on Moving Charges 
9:17  
 
Direction of the Magnetic Force 
9:57  
 
 Direction is Given by the RightHand Rule 
10:05  
 
 RightHand Rule 
10:09  
 
Mass Spectrometer 
10:52  
 
 Magnetic Fields Accelerate Moving Charges So That They Travel in a Circle 
10:58  
 
 Used to Determine the Mass of an Unknown Particle 
11:04  
 
Velocity Selector 
12:44  
 
 Mass Spectrometer with an Electric Field Added 
12:47  
 
Example 5: Force on an Electron 
14:13  
 
Example 6: Velocity of a Charged Particle 
15:25  
 
Example 7: Direction of the Magnetic Force 
16:52  
 
Example 8: Direction of Magnetic Force on Moving Charges 
17:43  
 
Example 9: Electron Released From Rest in Magnetic Field 
18:53  

CurrentCarrying Wires 
21:29 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Objectives 
0:09  
 
Force on a CurrentCarrying Wire 
0:30  
 
 A CurrentCarrying Wire in a Magnetic Field May Experience a Magnetic Force 
0:33  
 
 Direction Given by the RightHand Rule 
1:11  
 
Example 1: Force on a CurrentCarrying Wire 
1:38  
 
Example 2: Equilibrium on a Submerged Wire 
2:33  
 
Example 3: Torque on a Loop of Wire 
5:55  
 
Magnetic Field Due to a CurrentCarrying Wire 
8:49  
 
 Moving Charges Create Magnetic Fields 
8:53  
 
 Wires Carry Moving Charges 
8:56  
 
 Direction Given by the RightHand Rule 
9:21  
 
Example 4: Magnetic Field Due to a Wire 
10:56  
 
Magnetic Field Due to a Solenoid 
12:12  
 
 Solenoid is a Coil of Wire 
12:19  
 
 Direction Given by the RightHand Rule 
12:47  
 
Forces on 2 Parallel Wires 
13:34  
 
 Current Flowing in the Same Direction 
14:52  
 
 Current Flowing in Opposite Directions 
14:57  
 
Example 5: Magnetic Field Due to Wires 
15:19  
 
Example 6: Strength of an Electromagnet 
18:35  
 
Example 7: Force on a Wire 
19:30  
 
Example 8: Force Between Parallel Wires 
20:47  

Intro to Electromagnetic Induction 
17:26 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Objectives 
0:09  
 
Induced EMF 
0:42  
 
 Charges Flowing Through a Wire Create Magnetic Fields 
0:45  
 
 Changing Magnetic Fields Cause Charges to Flow or 'Induce' a Current in a Process Known As Electromagnetic Induction 
0:49  
 
 ElectroMotive Force is the Potential Difference Created by a Changing Magnetic Field 
0:57  
 
 Magnetic Flux is the Amount of Magnetic Fields Passing Through an Area 
1:17  
 
Finding the Magnetic Flux 
1:36  
 
 Magnetic Field Strength 
1:39  
 
 Angle Between the Magnetic Field Strength and the Normal to the Area 
1:51  
 
Calculating Induced EMF 
3:01  
 
 The Magnitude of the Induced EMF is Equal to the Rate of Change of the Magnetic Flux 
3:04  
 
Induced EMF in a Rectangular Loop of Wire 
4:03  
 
Lenz's Law 
5:17  
 
Electric Generators and Motors 
9:28  
 
 Generate an Induced EMF By Turning a Coil of Wire in a magnetic Field 
9:31  
 
 Generators Use Mechanical Energy to Turn the Coil of Wire 
9:39  
 
 Electric Motor Operates Using Same Principle 
10:30  
 
Example 1: Finding Magnetic Flux 
10:43  
 
Example 2: Finding Induced EMF 
11:54  
 
Example 3: Changing Magnetic Field 
13:52  
 
Example 4: Current Induced in a Rectangular Loop of Wire 
15:23  
VI. Waves & Optics 

Wave Characteristics 
26:41 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Objectives 
0:09  
 
Waves 
0:32  
 
Pulse 
1:00  
 
 A Pulse is a Single Disturbance Which Carries Energy Through a Medium or Space 
1:05  
 
 A Wave is a Series of Pulses 
1:18  
 
 When a Pulse Reaches a Hard Boundary 
1:37  
 
 When a Pulse Reaches a Soft or Flexible Boundary 
2:04  
 
Types of Waves 
2:44  
 
 Mechanical Waves 
2:56  
 
 Electromagnetic Waves 
3:14  
 
Types of Wave Motion 
3:38  
 
 Longitudinal Waves 
3:39  
 
 Transverse Waves 
4:18  
 
Anatomy of a Transverse Wave 
5:18  
 
Example 1: Waves Requiring a Medium 
6:59  
 
Example 2: Direction of Displacement 
7:36  
 
Example 3: Bell in a Vacuum Jar 
8:47  
 
Anatomy of a Longitudinal Wave 
9:22  
 
Example 4: Tuning Fork 
9:57  
 
Example 5: Amplitude of a Sound Wave 
10:24  
 
Frequency and Period 
10:47  
 
Example 6: Period of an EM Wave 
11:23  
 
Example 7: Frequency and Period 
12:01  
 
The Wave Equation 
12:32  
 
 Velocity of a Wave is a Function of the Type of Wave and the Medium It Travels Through 
12:36  
 
 Speed of a Wave is Related to Its Frequency and Wavelength 
12:41  
 
Example 8: Wavelength Using the Wave Equation 
13:54  
 
Example 9: Period of an EM Wave 
14:35  
 
Example 10: Blue Whale Waves 
16:03  
 
Sound Waves 
17:29  
 
 Sound is a Mechanical Wave Observed by Detecting Vibrations in the Inner Ear 
17:33  
 
 Particles of Sound Wave Vibrate Parallel With the Direction of the Wave's Velocity 
17:56  
 
Example 11: Distance from Speakers 
18:24  
 
Resonance 
19:45  
 
 An Object with the Same 'Natural Frequency' May Begin to Vibrate at This Frequency 
19:55  
 
 Classic Example 
20:01  
 
Example 12: Vibrating Car 
20:32  
 
Example 13: Sonar Signal 
21:28  
 
Example 14: Waves Across Media 
24:06  
 
Example 15: Wavelength of Middle C 
25:24  

Wave Interference 
20:45 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Objectives 
0:09  
 
Superposition 
0:30  
 
 When More Than One Wave Travels Through the Same Location in the Same Medium 
0:32  
 
 The Total Displacement is the Sum of All the Individual Displacements of the Waves 
0:46  
 
Example 1: Superposition of Pulses 
1:01  
 
Types of Interference 
2:02  
 
 Constructive Interference 
2:05  
 
 Destructive Interference 
2:18  
 
Example 2: Interference 
2:47  
 
Example 3: Shallow Water Waves 
3:27  
 
Standing Waves 
4:23  
 
 When Waves of the Same Frequency and Amplitude Traveling in Opposite Directions Meet in the Same Medium 
4:26  
 
 A Wave in Which Nodes Appear to be Standing Still and Antinodes Vibrate with Maximum Amplitude Above and Below the Axis 
4:35  
 
Standing Waves in String Instruments 
5:36  
 
Standing Waves in Open Tubes 
8:49  
 
Standing Waves in Closed Tubes 
9:57  
 
Interference From Multiple Sources 
11:43  
 
 Constructive 
11:55  
 
 Destructive 
12:14  
 
Beats 
12:49  
 
 Two Sound Waves with Almost the Same Frequency Interfere to Create a Beat Pattern 
12:52  
 
 A Frequency Difference of 1 to 4 Hz is Best for Human Detection of Beat Phenomena 
13:05  
 
Example 4 
14:13  
 
Example 5 
18:03  
 
Example 6 
19:14  
 
Example 7: Superposition 
20:08  

Wave Phenomena 
19:02 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Objective 
0:08  
 
Doppler Effect 
0:36  
 
 The Shift In A Wave's Observed Frequency Due to Relative Motion Between the Source of the Wave and Observer 
0:39  
 
 When Source and/or Observer Move Toward Each Other 
0:45  
 
 When Source and/or Observer Move Away From Each Other 
0:52  
 
Practical Doppler Effect 
1:01  
 
 Vehicle Traveling Past You 
1:05  
 
 Applications Are Numerous and Widespread 
1:56  
 
Doppler Effect  Astronomy 
2:43  
 
 Observed Frequencies Are Slightly Lower Than Scientists Would Predict 
2:50  
 
 More Distant Celestial Objects Are Moving Away from the Earth Faster Than Nearer Objects 
3:22  
 
Example 1: Car Horn 
3:36  
 
Example 2: Moving Speaker 
4:13  
 
Diffraction 
5:35  
 
 The Bending of Waves Around Obstacles 
5:37  
 
 Most Apparent When Wavelength Is Same Order of Magnitude as the Obstacle/ Opening 
6:10  
 
SingleSlit Diffraction 
6:16  
 
DoubleSlit Diffraction 
8:13  
 
Diffraction Grating 
11:07  
 
 Sharper and Brighter Maxima 
11:46  
 
 Useful for Determining Wavelengths Accurately 
12:07  
 
Example 3: Double Slit Pattern 
12:30  
 
Example 4: Determining Wavelength 
16:05  
 
Example 5: Radar Gun 
18:04  
 
Example 6: Red Shift 
18:29  

Light As a Wave 
11:35 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Objectives 
0:14  
 
Electromagnetic (EM) Waves 
0:31  
 
 Light is an EM Wave 
0:43  
 
 EM Waves Are Transverse Due to the Modulation of the Electric and Magnetic Fields Perpendicular to the Wave Velocity 
1:00  
 
Electromagnetic Wave Characteristics 
1:37  
 
 The Product of an EM Wave's Frequency and Wavelength Must be Constant in a Vacuum 
1:43  
 
Polarization 
3:36  
 
 Unpoloarized EM Waves Exhibit Modulation in All Directions 
3:47  
 
 Polarized Light Consists of Light Vibrating in a Single Direction 
4:07  
 
Polarizers 
4:29  
 
 Materials Which Act Like Filters to Only Allow Specific Polarizations of Light to Pass 
4:33  
 
 Polarizers Typically Are Sheets of Material in Which Long Molecules Are Lined Up Like a Picket Fence 
5:10  
 
Polarizing Sunglasses 
5:22  
 
 Reduce Reflections 
5:26  
 
 Polarizing Sunglasses Have Vertical Polarizing Filters 
5:48  
 
Liquid Crystal Displays 
6:08  
 
 LCDs Use Liquid Crystals in a Suspension That Align Themselves in a Specific Orientation When a Voltage is Applied 
6:13  
 
 CrossOrienting a Polarizer and a Matrix of Liquid Crystals so Light Can Be Modulated PixelbyPixel 
6:26  
 
Example 1: Color of Light 
7:30  
 
Example 2: Analyzing an EM Wave 
8:49  
 
Example 3: Remote Control 
9:45  
 
Example 4: Comparing EM Waves 
10:32  

Reflection & Mirrors 
24:32 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Objectives 
0:10  
 
Waves at Boundaries 
0:37  
 
 Reflected 
0:43  
 
 Transmitted 
0:45  
 
 Absorbed 
0:48  
 
Law of Reflection 
0:58  
 
 The Angle of Incidence is Equal to the Angle of Reflection 
1:00  
 
 They Are Both Measured From a Line Perpendicular, or Normal, to the Reflecting Surface 
1:22  
 
Types of Reflection 
1:54  
 
 Diffuse Reflection 
1:57  
 
 Specular Reflection 
2:08  
 
Example 1: Specular Reflection 
2:24  
 
Mirrors 
3:20  
 
 Light Rays From the Object Reach the Plane Mirror and Are Reflected to the Observer 
3:27  
 
 Virtual Image 
3:33  
 
 Magnitude of Image Distance 
4:05  
 
Plane Mirror Ray Tracing 
4:15  
 
 Object Distance 
4:26  
 
 Image Distance 
4:43  
 
 Magnification of Image 
7:03  
 
Example 2: Plane Mirror Images 
7:28  
 
Example 3: Image in a Plane Mirror 
7:51  
 
Spherical Mirrors 
8:10  
 
 Inner Surface of a Spherical Mirror 
8:19  
 
 Outer Surface of a Spherical Mirror 
8:30  
 
 Focal Point of a Spherical Mirror 
8:40  
 
 Converging 
8:51  
 
 Diverging 
9:00  
 
Concave (Converging) Spherical Mirrors 
9:09  
 
 Light Rays Coming Into a Mirror Parallel to the Principal Axis 
9:14  
 
 Light Rays Passing Through the Center of Curvature 
10:17  
 
 Light Rays From the Object Passing Directly Through the Focal Point 
10:52  
 
Mirror Equation (Lens Equation) 
12:06  
 
 Object and Image Distances Are Positive on the Reflecting Side of the Mirror 
12:13  
 
 Formula 
12:19  
 
Concave Mirror with Object Inside f 
12:39  
 
Example 4: Concave Spherical Mirror 
14:21  
 
Example 5: Image From a Concave Mirror 
14:51  
 
Convex (Diverging) Spherical Mirrors 
16:29  
 
 Light Rays Coming Into a Mirror Parallel to the Principal Axis 
16:37  
 
 Light Rays Striking the Center of the Mirror 
16:50  
 
 Light Rays Never Converge on the Reflective Side of a Convex Mirror 
16:54  
 
Convex Mirror Ray Tracing 
17:07  
 
Example 6: Diverging Rays 
19:12  
 
Example 7: Focal Length 
19:28  
 
Example 8: Reflected Sonar Wave 
19:53  
 
Example 9: Plane Mirror Image Distance 
20:20  
 
Example 10: Image From a Concave Mirror 
21:23  
 
Example 11: Converging Mirror Image Distance 
23:09  

Refraction & Lenses 
39:42 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Objectives 
0:09  
 
Refraction 
0:42  
 
 When a Wave Reaches a Boundary Between Media, Part of the Wave is Reflected and Part of the Wave Enters the New Medium 
0:43  
 
 Wavelength Must Change If the Wave's Speed Changes 
0:57  
 
 Refraction is When This Causes The Wave to Bend as It Enters the New Medium 
1:12  
 
Marching Band Analogy 
1:22  
 
Index of Refraction 
2:37  
 
 Measure of How Much Light Slows Down in a Material 
2:40  
 
 Ratio of the Speed of an EM Wave in a Vacuum to the Speed of an EM Wave in Another Material is Known as Index of Refraction 
3:03  
 
Indices of Refraction 
3:21  
 
Dispersion 
4:01  
 
 White Light is Refracted Twice in Prism 
4:23  
 
 Index of Refraction of the Prism Material Varies Slightly with Respect to Frequency 
4:41  
 
Example 1: Determining n 
5:14  
 
Example 2: Light in Diamond and Crown Glass 
5:55  
 
Snell's Law 
6:24  
 
 The Amount of a Light Wave Bends As It Enters a New Medium is Given by the Law of Refraction 
6:32  
 
 Light Bends Toward the Normal as it Enters a Material With a Higher n 
7:08  
 
 Light Bends Toward the Normal as it Enters a Material With a Lower n 
7:14  
 
Example 3: Angle of Refraction 
7:42  
 
Example 4: Changes with Refraction 
9:31  
 
Total Internal Reflection 
10:10  
 
 When the Angle of Refraction Reaches 90 Degrees 
10:23  
 
 Critical Angle 
10:34  
 
 Total Internal Reflection 
10:51  
 
Applications of TIR 
12:13  
 
Example 5: Critical Angle of Water 
13:17  
 
Thin Lenses 
14:15  
 
 Convex Lenses 
14:22  
 
 Concave Lenses 
14:31  
 
Convex Lenses 
15:24  
 
 Rays Parallel to the Principal Axis are Refracted Through the Far Focal Point of the Lens 
15:28  
 
 A Ray Drawn From the Object Through the Center of the Lens Passes Through the Center of the Lens Unbent 
15:53  
 
Example 6: Converging Lens Image 
16:46  
 
Example 7: Image Distance of Convex Lens 
17:18  
 
Concave Lenses 
18:21  
 
 Rays From the Object Parallel to the Principal Axis Are Refracted Away from the Principal Axis on a Line from the Near Focal Point Through the Point Where the Ray Intercepts the Center of the Lens 
18:25  
 
 Concave Lenses Produce Upright, Virtual, Reduced Images 
20:30  
 
Example 8: Light Ray Thought a Lens 
20:36  
 
Systems of Optical Elements 
21:05  
 
 Find the Image of the First Optical Elements and Utilize It as the Object of the Second Optical Element 
21:16  
 
Example 9: Lens and Mirrors 
21:35  
 
Thin Film Interference 
27:22  
 
 When Light is Incident Upon a Thin Film, Some Light is Reflected and Some is Transmitted Into the Film 
27:25  
 
 If the Transmitted Light is Again Reflected, It Travels Back Out of the Film and Can Interfere 
27:31  
 
 Phase Change for Every Reflection from LowIndex to HighIndex 
28:09  
 
Example 10: Thin Film Interference 
28:41  
 
Example 11: Wavelength in Diamond 
32:07  
 
Example 12: Light Incident on Crown Glass 
33:57  
 
Example 13: Real Image from Convex Lens 
34:44  
 
Example 14: Diverging Lens 
35:45  
 
Example 15: Creating Enlarged, Real Images 
36:22  
 
Example 16: Image from a Converging Lens 
36:48  
 
Example 17: Converging Lens System 
37:50  

WaveParticle Duality 
23:47 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Objectives 
0:11  
 
Duality of Light 
0:37  
 
 Photons 
0:47  
 
 Dual Nature 
0:53  
 
 Wave Evidence 
1:00  
 
 Particle Evidence 
1:10  
 
Blackbody Radiation & the UV Catastrophe 
1:20  
 
 Very Hot Objects Emitted Radiation in a Specific Spectrum of Frequencies and Intensities 
1:25  
 
 Color Objects Emitted More Intensity at Higher Wavelengths 
1:45  
 
Quantization of Emitted Radiation 
1:56  
 
Photoelectric Effect 
2:38  
 
 EM Radiation Striking a Piece of Metal May Emit Electrons 
2:41  
 
 Not All EM Radiation Created Photoelectrons 
2:49  
 
Photons of Light 
3:23  
 
 Photon Has Zero Mass, Zero Charge 
3:32  
 
 Energy of a Photon is Quantized 
3:36  
 
 Energy of a Photon is Related to its Frequency 
3:41  
 
Creation of Photoelectrons 
4:17  
 
 Electrons in Metals Were Held in 'Energy Walls' 
4:20  
 
 Work Function 
4:32  
 
 Cutoff Frequency 
4:54  
 
Kinetic Energy of Photoelectrons 
5:14  
 
 Electron in a Metal Absorbs a Photon with Energy Greater Than the Metal's Work Function 
5:16  
 
 Electron is Emitted as a Photoelectron 
5:24  
 
 Any Absorbed Energy Beyond That Required to Free the Electron is the KE of the Photoelectron 
5:28  
 
Photoelectric Effect in a Circuit 
6:37  
 
Compton Effect 
8:28  
 
 Less of Energy and Momentum 
8:49  
 
 Lost by XRay Equals Energy and Gained by Photoelectron 
8:52  
 
 Compton Wavelength 
9:09  
 
 Major Conclusions 
9:36  
 
De Broglie Wavelength 
10:44  
 
 Smaller the Particle, the More Apparent the Wave Properties 
11:03  
 
 Wavelength of a Moving Particle is Known as Its de Broglie Wavelength 
11:07  
 
DavissonGermer Experiment 
11:29  
 
 Verifies Wave Nature of Moving Particles 
11:30  
 
 Shoot Electrons at Double Slit 
11:34  
 
Example 1 
11:46  
 
Example 2 
13:07  
 
Example 3 
13:48  
 
Example 4A 
15:33  
 
Example 4B 
18:47  
 
Example 5: Wave Nature of Light 
19:54  
 
Example 6: Moving Electrons 
20:43  
 
Example 7: Wavelength of an Electron 
21:11  
 
Example 8: Wrecking Ball 
22:50  
VII. Modern Physics 

Atomic Energy Levels 
14:21 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Objectives 
0:09  
 
Rutherford's Gold Foil Experiment 
0:35  
 
 Most of the Particles Go Through Undeflected 
1:12  
 
 Some Alpha Particles Are Deflected Large Amounts 
1:15  
 
 Atoms Have a Small, Massive, Positive Nucleus 
1:20  
 
 Electrons Orbit the Nucleus 
1:23  
 
 Most of the Atom is Empty Space 
1:26  
 
Problems with Rutherford's Model 
1:31  
 
 Charges Moving in a Circle Accelerate, Therefore Classical Physics Predicts They Should Release Photons 
1:39  
 
 Lose Energy When They Release Photons 
1:46  
 
 Orbits Should Decay and They Should Be Unstable 
1:50  
 
Bohr Model of the Atom 
2:09  
 
 Electrons Don't Lose Energy as They Accelerate 
2:20  
 
 Each Atom Allows Only a Limited Number of Specific Orbits at Each Energy Level 
2:35  
 
 Electrons Must Absorb or Emit a Photon of Energy to Change Energy Levels 
2:40  
 
Energy Level Diagrams 
3:29  
 
 n=1 is the Lowest Energy State 
3:34  
 
 Negative Energy Levels Indicate Electron is Bound to Nucleus of the Atom 
4:03  
 
 When Electron Reaches 0 eV It Is No Longer Bound 
4:20  
 
Electron Cloud Model (Probability Model) 
4:46  
 
 Electron Only Has A Probability of Being Located in Certain Regions Surrounding the Nucleus 
4:53  
 
 Electron Orbitals Are Probability Regions 
4:58  
 
Atomic Spectra 
5:16  
 
 Atoms Can Only Emit Certain Frequencies of Photons 
5:19  
 
 Electrons Can Only Absorb Photons With Energy Equal to the Difference in Energy Levels 
5:34  
 
 This Leads to Unique Atomic Spectra of Emitted and Absorbed Radiation for Each Element 
5:37  
 
 Incandescence Emits a Continuous Energy 
5:43  
 
 If All Colors of Light Are Incident Upon a Cold Gas, The Gas Only Absorbs Frequencies Corresponding to Photon Energies Equal to the Difference Between the Gas's Atomic Energy Levels 
6:16  
 
 Continuous Spectrum 
6:42  
 
 Absorption Spectrum 
6:50  
 
 Emission Spectrum 
7:08  
 
XRays 
7:36  
 
 The Photoelectric Effect in Reverse 
7:38  
 
 Electrons Are Accelerated Through a Large Potential Difference and Collide with a Molybdenum or Platinum Plate 
7:53  
 
Example 1: Electron in Hydrogen Atom 
8:24  
 
Example 2: EM Emission in Hydrogen 
10:05  
 
Example 3: Photon Frequencies 
11:30  
 
Example 4: BrightLine Spectrum 
12:24  
 
Example 5: Gas Analysis 
13:08  

Nuclear Physics 
15:47 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Objectives 
0:08  
 
The Nucleus 
0:33  
 
 Protons Have a Charge or +1 e 
0:39  
 
 Neutrons Are Neutral (0 Charge) 
0:42  
 
 Held Together by the Strong Nuclear Force 
0:43  
 
Example 1: Deconstructing an Atom 
1:20  
 
MassEnergy Equivalence 
2:06  
 
 Mass is a Measure of How Much Energy an Object Contains 
2:16  
 
 Universal Conservation of Laws 
2:31  
 
Nuclear Binding Energy 
2:53  
 
 A Strong Nuclear Force Holds Nucleons Together 
3:04  
 
 Mass of the Individual Constituents is Greater Than the Mass of the Combined Nucleus 
3:19  
 
 Binding Energy of the Nucleus 
3:32  
 
 Mass Defect 
3:37  
 
Nuclear Decay 
4:30  
 
 Alpha Decay 
4:42  
 
 Beta Decay 
5:09  
 
 Gamma Decay 
5:46  
 
Fission 
6:40  
 
 The Splitting of a Nucleus Into Two or More Nuclei 
6:42  
 
 For Larger Nuclei, the Mass of Original Nucleus is Greater Than the Sum of the Mass of the Products When Split 
6:47  
 
Fusion 
8:14  
 
 The Process of Combining Two Or More Smaller Nuclei Into a Larger Nucleus 
8:15  
 
 This Fuels Our Sun and Stars 
8:28  
 
 Basis of Hydrogen Bomb 
8:31  
 
Forces in the Universe 
9:00  
 
 Strong Nuclear Force 
9:06  
 
 Electromagnetic Force 
9:13  
 
 Weak Nuclear Force 
9:22  
 
 Gravitational Force 
9:27  
 
Example 2: Deuterium Nucleus 
9:39  
 
Example 3: Particle Accelerator 
10:24  
 
Example 4: Tritium Formation 
12:03  
 
Example 5: Beta Decay 
13:02  
 
Example 6: Gamma Decay 
14:15  
 
Example 7: Annihilation 
14:39  
VIII. Sample AP Exams 

AP Practice Exam: Multiple Choice, Part 1 
38:01 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Problem 1 
1:33  
 
Problem 2 
1:57  
 
Problem 3 
2:50  
 
Problem 4 
3:46  
 
Problem 5 
4:13  
 
Problem 6 
4:41  
 
Problem 7 
6:12  
 
Problem 8 
6:49  
 
Problem 9 
7:49  
 
Problem 10 
9:31  
 
Problem 11 
10:08  
 
Problem 12 
11:03  
 
Problem 13 
11:30  
 
Problem 14 
12:28  
 
Problem 15 
14:04  
 
Problem 16 
15:05  
 
Problem 17 
15:55  
 
Problem 18 
17:06  
 
Problem 19 
18:43  
 
Problem 20 
19:58  
 
Problem 21 
22:03  
 
Problem 22 
22:49  
 
Problem 23 
23:28  
 
Problem 24 
24:04  
 
Problem 25 
25:07  
 
Problem 26 
26:46  
 
Problem 27 
28:03  
 
Problem 28 
28:49  
 
Problem 29 
30:20  
 
Problem 30 
31:10  
 
Problem 31 
32:63  
 
Problem 32 
33:46  
 
Problem 33 
34:47  
 
Problem 34 
36:07  
 
Problem 35 
36:44  

AP Practice Exam: Multiple Choice, Part 2 
37:49 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Problem 36 
0:18  
 
Problem 37 
0:42  
 
Problem 38 
2:13  
 
Problem 39 
4:10  
 
Problem 40 
4:47  
 
Problem 41 
5:52  
 
Problem 42 
7:22  
 
Problem 43 
8:16  
 
Problem 44 
9:11  
 
Problem 45 
9:42  
 
Problem 46 
10:56  
 
Problem 47 
12:03  
 
Problem 48 
13:58  
 
Problem 49 
14:49  
 
Problem 50 
15:36  
 
Problem 51 
15:51  
 
Problem 52 
17:18  
 
Problem 53 
17:59  
 
Problem 54 
19:10  
 
Problem 55 
21:27  
 
Problem 56 
22:40  
 
Problem 57 
23:19  
 
Problem 58 
23:50  
 
Problem 59 
25:35  
 
Problem 60 
26:45  
 
Problem 61 
27:57  
 
Problem 62 
28:32  
 
Problem 63 
29:52  
 
Problem 64 
30:27  
 
Problem 65 
31:27  
 
Problem 66 
32:22  
 
Problem 67 
33:18  
 
Problem 68 
35:21  
 
Problem 69 
36:27  
 
Problem 70 
36:46  

AP Practice Exam: Free Response, Part 1 
16:53 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Question 1 
0:23  
 
Question 2 
8:55  

AP Practice Exam: Free Response, Part 2 
9:20 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Question 3 
0:14  
 
Question 4 
4:34  

AP Practice Exam: Free Response, Part 3 
18:12 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Question 5 
0:15  
 
Question 6 
3:29  
 
Question 7 
6:18  
 
Question 8 
12:53  
IX. Additional Examples 

Metric Estimation 
3:53 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Question 1 
0:38  
 
Question 2 
0:51  
 
Question 3 
1:09  
 
Question 4 
1:24  
 
Question 5 
1:49  
 
Question 6 
2:11  
 
Question 7 
2:27  
 
Question 8 
2:49  
 
Question 9 
3:03  
 
Question 10 
3:23  

Defining Motion 
7:06 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Question 1 
0:13  
 
Question 2 
0:50  
 
Question 3 
1:56  
 
Question 4 
2:24  
 
Question 5 
3:32  
 
Question 6 
4:01  
 
Question 7 
5:36  
 
Question 8 
6:36  

Motion Graphs 
6:48 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Question 1 
0:13  
 
Question 2 
2:01  
 
Question 3 
3:06  
 
Question 4 
3:41  
 
Question 5 
4:30  
 
Question 6 
5:52  

Horizontal Kinematics 
8:16 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Question 1 
0:19  
 
Question 2 
2:19  
 
Question 3 
3:16  
 
Question 4 
4:36  
 
Question 5 
6:43  

Free Fall 
7:56 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Question 14 
0:12  
 
Question 5 
2:36  
 
Question 6 
3:11  
 
Question 7 
4:44  
 
Question 8 
6:16  

Projectile Motion 
4:17 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Question 1 
0:13  
 
Question 2 
0:45  
 
Question 3 
1:25  
 
Question 4 
2:00  
 
Question 5 
2:32  
 
Question 6 
3:38  

Newton's 1st Law 
4:34 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Question 1 
0:15  
 
Question 2 
1:02  
 
Question 3 
1:50  
 
Question 4 
2:04  
 
Question 5 
2:26  
 
Question 6 
2:54  
 
Question 7 
3:11  
 
Question 8 
3:29  
 
Question 9 
3:47  
 
Question 10 
4:02  

Newton's 2nd Law 
5:40 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Question 1 
0:16  
 
Question 2 
0:55  
 
Question 3 
1:50  
 
Question 4 
2:40  
 
Question 5 
3:33  
 
Question 6 
3:56  
 
Question 7 
4:29  

Newton's 3rd Law 
3:44 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Question 1 
0:17  
 
Question 2 
0:44  
 
Question 3 
1:14  
 
Question 4 
1:51  
 
Question 5 
2:11  
 
Question 6 
2:29  
 
Question 7 
2:53  

Friction 
6:37 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Question 1 
0:13  
 
Question 2 
0:47  
 
Question 3 
1:25  
 
Question 4 
2:26  
 
Question 5 
3:43  
 
Question 6 
4:41  
 
Question 7 
5:13  
 
Question 8 
5:50  

Ramps and Inclines 
6:13 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Question 1 
0:18  
 
Question 2 
1:01  
 
Question 3 
2:50  
 
Question 4 
3:11  
 
Question 5 
5:08  

Circular Motion 
5:17 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Question 1 
0:21  
 
Question 2 
1:01  
 
Question 3 
1:50  
 
Question 4 
2:33  
 
Question 5 
3:10  
 
Question 6 
3:31  
 
Question 7 
3:56  
 
Question 8 
4:33  

Gravity 
6:33 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Question 1 
0:19  
 
Question 2 
1:05  
 
Question 3 
2:09  
 
Question 4 
2:53  
 
Question 5 
3:17  
 
Question 6 
4:00  
 
Question 7 
4:41  
 
Question 8 
5:20  

Momentum & Impulse 
9:29 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Question 1 
0:19  
 
Question 2 
2:17  
 
Question 3 
3:25  
 
Question 4 
3:56  
 
Question 5 
4:28  
 
Question 6 
5:04  
 
Question 7 
6:18  
 
Question 8 
6:57  
 
Question 9 
7:47  

Conservation of Momentum 
9:33 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Question 1 
0:15  
 
Question 2 
2:08  
 
Question 3 
4:03  
 
Question 4 
4:10  
 
Question 5 
6:08  
 
Question 6 
6:55  
 
Question 7 
8:26  

Work & Power 
6:02 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Question 1 
0:13  
 
Question 2 
0:29  
 
Question 3 
0:55  
 
Question 4 
1:36  
 
Question 5 
2:18  
 
Question 6 
3:22  
 
Question 7 
4:01  
 
Question 8 
4:18  
 
Question 9 
4:49  

Springs 
7:59 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Question 1 
0:13  
 
Question 4 
2:26  
 
Question 5 
3:37  
 
Question 6 
4:39  
 
Question 7 
5:28  
 
Question 8 
5:51  

Energy & Energy Conservation 
8:47 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Question 1 
0:18  
 
Question 2 
1:27  
 
Question 3 
1:44  
 
Question 4 
2:33  
 
Question 5 
2:44  
 
Question 6 
3:33  
 
Question 7 
4:41  
 
Question 8 
5:19  
 
Question 9 
5:37  
 
Question 10 
7:12  
 
Question 11 
7:40  

Electric Charge 
7:06 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Question 1 
0:10  
 
Question 2 
1:03  
 
Question 3 
1:32  
 
Question 4 
2:12  
 
Question 5 
3:01  
 
Question 6 
3:49  
 
Question 7 
4:24  
 
Question 8 
4:50  
 
Question 9 
5:32  
 
Question 10 
5:55  
 
Question 11 
6:26  

Coulomb's Law 
4:13 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Question 1 
0:14  
 
Question 2 
0:47  
 
Question 3 
1:25  
 
Question 4 
2:25  
 
Question 5 
3:01  

Electric Fields & Forces 
4:11 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Question 1 
0:19  
 
Question 2 
0:51  
 
Question 3 
1:30  
 
Question 4 
2:19  
 
Question 5 
3:12  

Electric Potential 
5:12 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Question 1 
0:14  
 
Question 2 
0:42  
 
Question 3 
1:08  
 
Question 4 
1:43  
 
Question 5 
2:22  
 
Question 6 
2:49  
 
Question 7 
3:14  
 
Question 8 
4:02  

Electrical Current 
6:54 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Question 1 
0:13  
 
Question 2 
0:42  
 
Question 3 
2:01  
 
Question 4 
3:02  
 
Question 5 
3:52  
 
Question 6 
4:15  
 
Question 7 
4:37  
 
Question 8 
4:59  
 
Question 9 
5:50  

Resistance 
5:15 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Question 1 
0:12  
 
Question 2 
0:53  
 
Question 3 
1:44  
 
Question 4 
2:31  
 
Question 5 
3:21  
 
Question 6 
4:06  

Ohm's Law 
4:27 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Question 1 
0:12  
 
Question 2 
0:33  
 
Question 3 
0:59  
 
Question 4 
1:32  
 
Question 5 
1:56  
 
Question 6 
2:50  
 
Question 7 
3:19  
 
Question 8 
3:50  

Circuit Analysis 
6:36 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Question 1 
0:12  
 
Question 2 
2:16  
 
Question 3 
2:33  
 
Question 4 
2:42  
 
Question 5 
3:18  
 
Question 6 
5:51  
 
Question 7 
6:00  

Magnetism 
3:43 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Question 1 
0:16  
 
Question 2 
0:31  
 
Question 3 
0:56  
 
Question 4 
1:19  
 
Question 5 
1:35  
 
Question 6 
2:36  
 
Question 7 
3:03  

Wave Basics 
4:21 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Question 1 
0:13  
 
Question 2 
0:36  
 
Question 3 
0:47  
 
Question 4 
1:13  
 
Question 5 
1:27  
 
Question 6 
1:39  
 
Question 7 
1:54  
 
Question 8 
2:22  
 
Question 9 
2:51  
 
Question 10 
3:32  

Wave Characteristics 
5:33 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Question 1 
0:23  
 
Question 2 
1:04  
 
Question 3 
2:01  
 
Question 4 
2:50  
 
Question 5 
3:12  
 
Question 6 
3:57  
 
Question 7 
4:16  
 
Question 8 
4:42  
 
Question 9 
4:56  

Wave Behaviors 
3:52 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Question 1 
0:13  
 
Question 2 
0:40  
 
Question 3 
1:04  
 
Question 4 
1:17  
 
Question 5 
1:39  
 
Question 6 
2:07  
 
Question 7 
2:41  
 
Question 8 
3:09  

Reflection 
3:48 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Question 1 
0:12  
 
Question 2 
0:50  
 
Question 3 
1:29  
 
Question 4 
1:46  
 
Question 5 
3:08  

Refraction 
2:49 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Question 1 
0:29  
 
Question 5 
1:03  
 
Question 6 
1:24  
 
Question 7 
2:01  

Diffraction 
2:34 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Question 1 
0:16  
 
Question 2 
0:31  
 
Question 3 
0:50  
 
Question 4 
1:05  
 
Question 5 
1:37  
 
Question 6 
2:04  

Electromagnetic Spectrum 
7:06 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Question 1 
0:24  
 
Question 2 
0:39  
 
Question 3 
1:05  
 
Question 4 
1:51  
 
Question 5 
2:03  
 
Question 6 
2:58  
 
Question 7 
3:14  
 
Question 8 
3:52  
 
Question 9 
4:30  
 
Question 10 
5:04  
 
Question 11 
6:01  
 
Question 12 
6:16  

WaveParticle Duality 
5:30 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Question 1 
0:15  
 
Question 2 
0:34  
 
Question 3 
0:53  
 
Question 4 
1:54  
 
Question 5 
2:16  
 
Question 6 
2:27  
 
Question 7 
2:42  
 
Question 8 
2:59  
 
Question 9 
3:45  
 
Question 10 
4:13  
 
Question 11 
4:33  

Energy Levels 
8:13 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Question 1 
0:25  
 
Question 2 
1:18  
 
Question 3 
1:43  
 
Question 4 
2:08  
 
Question 5 
3:17  
 
Question 6 
3:54  
 
Question 7 
4:40  
 
Question 8 
5:15  
 
Question 9 
5:54  
 
Question 10 
6:41  
 
Question 11 
7:14  

MassEnergy Equivalence 
8:15 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Question 1 
0:19  
 
Question 2 
1:02  
 
Question 3 
1:37  
 
Question 4 
2:17  
 
Question 5 
2:55  
 
Question 6 
3:32  
 
Question 7 
4:13  
 
Question 8 
5:04  
 
Question 9 
5:29  
 
Question 10 
5:58  
 
Question 11 
6:48  
 
Question 12 
7:39  