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Dr. Cory Hills uses his years of experience as a music professor and percussionist to teach anyone interested in the development of music. He combines his engaging teaching style with singing dolls, musical samples, pop culture references, and YouTube videos to teach music history and appreciation. With an open mind and an inquisitive ear, Dr. Cory Hills makes connections from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance, the Baroque Period, the Classical Period, the Romantic Period, the 20th Century, and beyond. Each era of music influences the next, and Dr. Hills trains your ear to recognize these influences on modern-day music.

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I. Introduction
  Why Study Music History? 9:19
   Intro 0:00 
   Music History/Appreciation 0:22 
    History is Important 0:34 
    Appreciation is Important 0:44 
    We are Listeners 1:32 
   Interesting Music Facts 3:26 
    Major Industries of the World 3:30 
    Arts and Entertainment is a Top 5 Industry for the World 4:14 
   Course Description 5:14 
    Track Music Throughout History and Relate It to the Present Day 5:28 
    We Will Cover Music From… 6:17 
    Lots of Musical Examples 6:25 
   Review and What's Next 7:37 
    Music is Everywhere 7:44 
    Course is Designed to Help Your Ears Make Connections 7:52 
    Parameters of Music: Building Blocks of Music 8:15 
  Melody, Harmony, Form, Texture 13:16
   Intro 0:00 
   Parameters of Music 0:20 
    Parameters of Music is Subjective 0:24 
    Melody, Harmony, Form, and Texture 1:20 
   Melody 1:30 
    The Tune, the Singable Aspect of a Work 1:47 
    The Main Line 1:58 
    Usually Smooth Line 2:24 
    Example 2:45 
   Harmony 3:31 
    The Chords 3:36 
    Harmony Supports the Melody 3:46 
    Example 4:23 
   Form 5:11 
    The Overlooked Giant of Music 5:20 
    Form is the Structure and the Glue 5:37 
    Important Developments Throughout Music History 6:00 
    Example 6:57 
   Texture 8:26 
    How Much Stuff is Going on at Once 8:40 
    'Mono' = One Voice 8:45 
    'Poly' = More Than One Voice 8:56 
    Number of Instruments, Octaves, Instrument Doubling 9:30 
    Example 10:06 
   Review 10:50 
    Melody, Harmony, Form, Texture 10:54 
    Identifying Melody, Harmony, Texture, and Form with Example 11:10 
  Rhythm, Meter, Dynamics, Tone 11:04
   Intro 0:00 
   Rhythm 0:19 
    Allows More Than One Person to Play at the Same Time 0:34 
    The Notes Tell You When to Play 0:45 
    Different Kinds of Notes 1:08 
    Developed Along With Music Notation 1:56 
    Notation Plays Important Role in Development of Western Music 2:07 
   Meter 2:44 
    Tied In With Rhythm 2:50 
    Time Signatures 2:54 
    The Larger Beats 3:20 
    Rhythmic Material Adds Up to the Numerator of the Time Signature 3:37 
    Example 3:52 
   Dynamics 5:12 
    How Loud or Soft You Play 5:20 
    Spectrum and Special Notation System 5:27 
    Can Change at Any Moment 5:53 
    Used to Affect Mood 6:27 
   Tone 7:20 
    Also Known as Timbre or Color of the Sound 7:35 
    Each Instrument has a Unique Sound 7:50 
    Important in Understanding Instrumentation and Orchestration 8:28 
   Review 9:06 
    Rhythm, Meter, Dynamics, Tone 9:12 
    Identifying Meter of Two Examples: 4/4 or 6/8? 9:25 
  Instrumentation & Orchestration 15:53
   Intro 0:00 
   Why Discuss Instruments? 0:13 
    We've Assumed Things that Aren’t Actually True 0:30 
    We Can Use Our Ears to Determine History 1:00 
    Piano Was Invented in 1700 1:17 
    Modern Symphony Orchestra Was Described in 1844 1:49 
    Females Were Not Allowd to Sing in Mass Until 20th Century 2:18 
    The First Rock 'n' Roll Song Produced in 1953 - 'Rock Around the Clock' 3:17 
   Instruments 4:49 
    Middle Ages: Voice, Lute, Recorders 4:50 
    Renaissance: Violin, Guitar, Sackbut, Lyre, Hurdy Gurdy, More Flutes 5:19 
   Instruments Cont'd 6:29 
    Baroque: More Strings, Woodwinds (Oboe, Flute), Harpsichord, Organ, Horn 6:30 
    Classical: Fortepiano (Piano), Clarinet, Trombone, Bassoon 7:35 
    Romantic and 20th Century: Modern Day Instruments, Percussion 8:36 
   What is in a Symphony Orchestra? 9:24 
    Woodwinds 9:53 
    Brass 10:17 
    Percussion 10:35 
    Keyboards 10:57 
    Strings 11:04 
   Review 12:23 
    There Has Been Major Instrument Development 12:26 
    Dominant Instruments: Voice, Strings, Keyboards, Recorders 13:00 
    What Time Period Could This Example Be From? 14:03 
II. The Middle Ages
  Chant 14:36
   Intro 0:00 
   What is Chant? 0:13 
    Importance of the Catholic Church in Music History 0:40 
    Monophony 1:13 
    Examples of Chant 2:03 
   Chant Characteristics 3:40 
    Syllabic: One Note of Music for Each Syllable of Text 3:55 
    Neumatic: One Neume (Two of Three Notes) for Each Syllable of Text 4:17 
    Melismatic: Numberous Notes Occur for Each Syllable of Text 4:46 
    Classes of Chant 5:41 
    Antiphonal: Chants with Phrases Sung by Alternating Choirs 5:48 
    Responsorial: Chant Sung By Soloist with Response by Choir 6:20 
   Notation 6:39 
    Block Notation and Neumes 6:57 
    Rhythm is not a Primary Focus of Chant 8:16 
   Church Modes 8:49 
    Authentic vs. Plagal 9:00 
    Dorian Starts on D 9:21 
    Phrygian Starts on E, Lydian Starts on F, Mixolydian Starts on G 9:42 
    Hypodorian: Down Four, Starts On a Different Note 9:53 
    Hypophyrgian, Hypolydian, Hypomixolydian 10:53 
   Review 11:41 
    Monophony 11:47 
    Syllabic, Neumatic, Melismatic 12:04 
    Neume Notation, Block Notation 12:10 
    8 Church Modes (Authentic, Plagal) 12:28 
    What Are The 8 Church Modes? 12:53 
    What is the Difference Between Authentic and Plagal Modes? 13:38 
  Organum 15:33
   Intro 0:00 
   What is Organum? 0:12 
    Polyphony: More Than One Voice at a Time 0:27 
    Musica Enchiriadis: 9th Century, Anonymous 1:25 
    Guido D'Arezzo 2:02 
   Musica Enchiriadis 2:22 
    First Known Attempt at Polyphony and Organum 2:30 
    Organum 3:06 
    Two Voices: Vox Principalis (Main Voice) and Vox Organalis (Organum, Second Voice) 3:15 
    Simple, Composite, and Parallel Organum 4:03 
   Guido 7:44 
    Micrologus, 1026 7:57 
    Guidonian Hand: Mnemonic Device for Singers to Read Pitches 8:10 
    Proto Staff: Four Staff Notation System, Precursor to Modern-Day Staff 8:48 
   Notre Dame School of Polyphony 9:25 
    Leonin and Perotin 9:42 
    Two Voice 10:20 
    Organum: Melismatic Voice Over Chant 10:30 
    Discant: Note Against Note, Rhythms by Mode 10:54 
    Copula: Transition Between Organum and Discant 11:35 
    Perotin 11:44 
   Substitute Clausula 12:11 
    Often present in Discant 12:41 
    Evolved into Stand Alone Pieces as Substitute Clausula Became Longer 13:00 
    Experimented with Different Languages and Used Rhythmic Modes 13:57 
    Motet 14:07 
   Review 14:20 
  Motet 16:58
   Intro 0:00 
   Motet 0:07 
    Substitute Clausulae 0:16 
    Unique Composition 0:39 
    Components of a Motet 1:02 
    New Upper Voices 1:50 
    Prosula 1:58 
   Rhythmic Modes 2:22 
    Used in Discant 2:36 
    Different Combinations of Longs and Shorts 3:32 
    Mode 1 3:50 
    Mode 2 4:00 
    Mode 3 4:19 
    Mode 4 4:41 
    Mode 5 4:50 
    Mode 6 5:04 
   Notational Developments 5:25 
    Famous Rhythmic Developers 5:40 
    Different Combinations of Longs and Shorts 6:13 
    Longa, Breve, Semibreve, Minim 6:21 
    Perfect or Imperfect Prolation 6:31 
   Notation 6:50 
    Tempus, Prolation 6:56 
    Tempus Perfectum/Prolation Major 7:14 
    Breve 7:50 
    Semibreves 7:55 
    Minim 8:03 
    Breve is the Main Unit of Time 8:15 
    Tempus Perfectum/Prolation Minor 9:00 
    Tempus Imperfectum/Prolation Major 9:37 
    Tempus Imperfectum/Prolation Minor 10:14 
    Common Time Origin 11:05 
   Machaut and the Isorhythmic Motet 11:48 
    Isorhythmic Motet 12:09 
    Talea 12:30 
    Color 12:36 
   Review 13:42 
    Motet 13:56 
    Characteristics 14:07 
    Isorhythmic Motet 14:26 
    Which Rhythmic Mode Are These Examples? 14:44 
  Troubadours 12:09
   Intro 0:00 
   What is a Troubadour? 0:25 
    The Singing Minstrel 0:30 
    Portrayed as a Jester or Joker in Pop Culture 1:13 
    Served A Major Role in Development of Polyphony Because They Traveled 1:27 
    Troubadours were Illiterate and Part of the Lower class 2:07 
   What is a Trouvere? 2:25 
    Poet and Musician from Northern France Who Wrote about Love, Heroism, and the Unattainable 2:34 
    Established Guilds, Brought Their Music to the Middle Class 3:24 
    Simple Forms, Simple Syllabic Melodies, Simple Instrumental Accompaniment 4:10 
   Formes Fixes 5:18 
    Three Main Forms: Rondeau, Ballade, Virelai 5:38 
    A (a) and B (b) Represent Repeated Musical Material 5:51 
    Capital Letters Represent Repeated Text 6:05 
    Lowercase Represent New Text 6:13 
    Virelai 7:00 
    Example 8:05 
   Instruments 9:09 
    Stringed Instruments: Lute, Lyre, Bagpipe, Viol 9:17 
    Were the First Solo Performers 9:30 
    Different Form of Polyphony Than Just Voices 9:58 
    They Traveled, Influencing Different Areas of Europe 10:07 
   Review 10:41 
    Important in Distributing Polyphonic Music Throughout Europe 10:49 
    Polyphony Existed in Churches, But Without Troubadours, Perhaps Polyphony Would Have Never Left the Church 11:10 
III. The Renaissance
  The Mass 20:34
   Intro 0:00 
   Let's Go to Church! 0:22 
    The Catholic Church is at the Center of Western Classical Music 0:30 
    Two Types of Masses: Mass Ordinary and Mass Proper 0:50 
   Let's Go to Church! 1:03 
    Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, Benedictus, Agnes Dei 1:16 
   Mass in the Renaissance 2:38 
    Polyphonic Settings of Complete Mass Ordinary 2:51 
    Chant is Still There 3:09 
    Cantus Firmus: The Chant Line 3:27 
    Masses Organized around the Cantus Firmus 4:02 
    Other Voices Newly Composed 4:12 
    Recall Substitute Clausulae 4:24 
   Three Types of Cyclic Mass 4:44 
    Cantus Firmus Mass 5:02 
    Cants Firmus in the Tenor 5:13 
    Branched Out to Other Voices 5:52 
    Chant Melody Chopped, Sliced, Omitted 6:07 
    Leading Composers: Dufay, Machaut, Dunstable 6:48 
    Motto Mass 7:28 
    Start with Identical Motive at Beginning of Each Motive 7:47 
    Generally Homophonic 8:19 
    Leading Composers: Dufay, Ockeghem 9:17 
   Three Types of Cyclic Mass 9:45 
    Parody Mass Became Most Popular 9:53 
    More Freely Composed 10:06 
    Used Pre-existing Textures from Another Work 10:13 
    Freer Counterpoint and Imitation and Rhythmic Innovation 11:00 
    Imitation: One Voice Mimics Another 11:10 
   Ok, So What's Really Going On? 12:57 
    Composers Were Gaining More Freedom 13:04 
    How Math Played a Role in Innovation 13:30 
    Canons 13:35 
    Inversion 14:05 
    Retrograde 14:54 
    Diminution 15:32 
    Augmentation 16:31 
    Puzzle Canon 17:06 
    Musical Palindromes 17:30 
   Review, Some Important People and Terms 18:00 
    Early Mass: Machaut 18:18 
    Mid Mass: Dufay and Ockeghem 18:22 
    Late Mass: Josquin and Palestrina 18:28 
    Cantus Firmus: Chant Melody Line in Tenor 18:42 
    Imitation: One Voice Mimics Another 18:52 
    Canon: Melody with One or More Imitations 18:59 
    Each Generation of Renaissance Composer Created New Methods to Write Freer Masses 19:09 
    Three Main Types of Cyclic Masses: Cantus Firmus, Motto, Parody 19:36 
  The Madrigal 18:51
   Intro 0:00 
   What in the World is a Madrigal? 0:08 
    Italian Song: Secular Polyphonic Vocal Composition for 2-8 Voices 0:45 
    Developed in 3 Stages Throughout the Renaissance 1:21 
   First Generation 1:38 
    Developed from Frotolla: Homophonic, Rustic, and Popular 1:44 
    Polyphonic Sections Alternate with Chordal, Homophonic Sections 2:42 
    Dissonant Harmonies Appear at Specific Moments in the Text 3:03 
    Primo Libro 4:15 
    Arcadelt 'Il bianco e dolce cigno' 4:30 
   Second Generation 5:55 
    Wider Use of Poetry and More Serious Texts 6:01 
    Experimental Harmonies 6:26 
    Vicentino Wrote a Big Treatise in 1555 6:54 
    Vicentino 'Laura, che 'l verde lauro' 7:42 
   Third Generation 9:28 
    Mannerist 9:30 
    Chose Emotionally Intense Texts to Depict Musically 9:51 
    Voice Crossings 10:29 
    Crazy Rhythms 11:00 
    Sudden Tempo Changes 11:10 
    Text Painting 11:30 
   More Third Generation 12:39 
    Required Skilled Singers and Sophisticated Audiences 12:52 
    Maurenzio 'Solo et pensoso' 14:00 
    Monteverdi (1567-1643) 15:11 
   Review 17:05 
    Madrigals 17:13 
    First Generation 17:21 
    Second Generation 17:30 
    Third Generation 17:36 
    Who is Known as the First Opera Composer? 17:55 
    What is Text Painting? 18:14 
  Instrumental Music 8:17
   Intro 0:00 
   Wait…There Were Instruments Too? 0:12 
    Period Dominated by the Voice 0:25 
    La Familia Gabrieli 0:35 
    Andrea Gabrieli 0:46 
    Giovanni Gabrieli 0:57 
   Andrea Gabrieli 1:42 
    Madrigal Composer, Third Generation 1:45 
    Well-Known Church Organist 2:07 
    Madrigal Became Simpler, More Pastoral, and More Homophonic 2:30 
    Cori Spezzati: Divided Choir 2:50 
    Doubled Some Parts with Instruments 3:18 
    Instruments Then Became Second Choir, Written for Exclusively 3:31 
   Giovanni Gabrieli 3:44 
    Famous Organist and Composer 3:46 
    Sonata pian' e forte (1597): Groundbreaking, First Piece to Use Dynamics, First Piece Written for Just Instruments 4:21 
   Review 6:19 
    Instrumental Music Became Popular Towards the End of the Renaissance 6:22 
    Explosion of Instrumental Music in Baroque 6:40 
    Instruments were Always Around 6:51 
    Classic Composers Started to Write for Them in the Church 7:08 
    Gained Popularity Outside of the Working Class 7:30 
IV. The Baroque Period
  Opera 14:05
   Intro 0:00 
   Hello Divas! 0:30 
    Intense Development of Opera 0:57 
    Started from Monody: Short, Staged Works 1:50 
    Speech Inspired Continuous Song 2:05 
    Continuo: Group Playing Bass Line or Basic Accompaniment 2:20 
    Recitative: Speechlike Reiteration of the Same Note 2:50 
    Used to Tell the Story to the Audience 3:34 
   Let's Go to Venice 3:49 
    Opera Became Popular in Venice (1640) 3:53 
    Opera Houses were Built, 350 Operas Composed in 40 Years 4:41 
   Characteristics 5:44 
    Arias: Diva Solo 5:54 
    Da Capo Aria: Aria with Three Sections 6:01 
    First: Presentation of Music for Voice and Orchestra 6:06 
    Second: Huge Contrast from First Section 6:16 
    Third: Repeat of the First Section with a Twist (Improvisation) 6:34 
    Intended to Show Off the Divas 7:04 
    Singing was Technical and Virtuosic 7:37 
   Opera in France 7:45 
    Lully Popularized Opera in France 8:07 
    Had Rights to Compose Operas from 1673-1687 8:33 
    French Operas were Much Different 9:23 
    Tragedie-Lyrique: Serious Texts 9:30 
    Not Public 9:41 
    More Dramatic 10:00 
    Always Contained an Instrumental Ballet 10:04 
   Opera Seria 10:12 
    Spread throughout Europe in the 1700s 10:23 
    Scarlatti 10:30 
    Italian Overture 10:39 
    Handel 10:52 
    Hasse 10:54 
    Characteristics of Opera Seria 11:34 
    Story Based on History or Legend 11:36 
    No Comedy 11:42 
    Focus on Virtuosic Singer 12:02 
    Recitative Furthers Plot 12:05 
    Aria is for Commentary and Showiness 12:19 
   Review 12:51 
    Started by Monody: Speech Inspired Song 13:08 
    Took Off in Venice 13:17 
    Opera Seria 13:40 
  Concerto 18:50
   Intro 0:00 
   What is a Concerto Grosso? Is it Gross? 0:52 
    Definition Concerto Grosso 1:15 
    Concertino: Small Group of Solo Instruments 2:00 
    Ripieno: Orchestra 1:33 
    Important for Developing Instruments as Stand-Alone Musical Entity 2:04 
    Corelli, Torelli, Vivaldi, Handel, J.S. Bach 2:18 
   Let's Break it Down 2:43 
    Concertino: Solo Group of a Handful of Instruments (Normally Violins, Bass) 2:47 
    Ripieno: Full String Orchestra, Accompanimet 3:14 
    Soloists were Members of the Orchestra 3:28 
    Alternates Between Ripieno and Concertino Sections 3:41 
    Ripieno Sections Often Repeated 3:54 
    Example of Concerto Grosso: Corelli 4:24 
   Ripieno Concerto 5:49 
    No Hierarchy of Soloist and Accompaniment 6:03 
    Very Homophonic 6:32 
    Increased Use of Imitation, Counterpoint, and Canons 6:51 
    Example of Ripieno Concert: Brandenburg Concerto No. 3 by J.S. Bach 7:49 
   Solo Concerto 9:16 
    One Person is the Soloist 9:31 
    At First, Wasn't Popular 9:55 
    Soloist is the Star 10:16 
    Orchestra Serves to Backup the Star 10:21 
    Example of Solo Concerto: Four Seasons by Vivaldi 10:33 
   Vivaldi and Form 12:32 
    Became Known as the Concerto King of 1700s 12:43 
    Developed a Three Movement Structure 12:58 
    First Movement: Fast 13:39 
    Second Movement: Slow 13:48 
    Third Movement: Fast 13:54 
    Soloist: Violin, Flute, Trumpet, Harpsichord, Cello 14:29 
    Well-Known Opera Composer 14:57 
    Used Driving Rhythms 15:13 
    Used Sequences to Extend Phrases 15:25 
   Big Review 16:13 
    Concerto Launched 16:18 
    Concerto Grosso 16:30 
    Ripieno Concerto 16:44 
    Solo Concert 16:50 
    Concerto Grosso: Corelli Influenced by Gabrielli 16:58 
    Ripieno: Bach Influenced by Corelli 17:13 
    Solo: Vivaldi Influenced by Corelli and Opera 17:19 
    It's All Connected 17:37 
    What is a Sequence? 17:55 
    What is the Name of the Solo Group in a Concerto Grosso? 18:23 
  Solo Keyboard Works 19:46
   Intro 0:00 
   Another Lesson NOT on the Voice! 0:18 
    Big Developments in Europe: Money, Courts, Entertainment 0:30 
    Flourish of Activity in Europe 1:28 
    Increased Trade Meant a Cultural Influence 1:49 
    Money Spent on Music Led to More Music 2:06 
    There Wasn't a New Opera Everyday 2:23 
    Concertos were Blooming, but Not Full Concerts 2:40 
    More Intimate Setting for a Soloist led to Solo Keyboard Works 2:57 
   Ready Stop…It's Sonata Time! 3:20 
    Why Do Most People Recognize the Term 'Sonata?' 3:33 
    Sonata is the Most Important Form Development in the History of Western Classical Music 3:47 
    Sonata is Both a Genre and a Form 4:00 
    Sonata Movement of a Symphony 4:25 
   Sonatas 4:48 
    Different Times 4:49 
    Sonata de Camera: Suite of Dances for Two Players and Continuo Performed in Private Concerts 4:58 
    Corelli 5:36 
    Sonata de Chiesa: Collection of Dances in Four Movement Form Used to Fill Space Between Mass Movements 5:40 
    Solo Sonata: Instrumental Piece in Several Movements Designed for a Soloist 6:17 
   Solo Sonata 6:51 
    Imitative Piece in Sections 6:55 
    Changes in Meter and Tempo 7:01 
    Recapitulatory Endings: Summary 7:08 
    Example of Solo Keyboard Sonata: Domenico Scarlatti 7:39 
    Binary Form 9:12 
    Ternary Form 10:23 
    Rounded Binary 11:09 
    YouTube Example of Binary Form 12:10 
   Why is This Important? 12:34 
    Meant a Tight-Knit Structural Form 12:41 
    Presented an Open-Ended Tight-Knit Form 13:15 
    Composer Freedom 13:50 
    Manipulate Musical Parameters, Most Notably Harmony 14:04 
    Large Scale Musical Unity 14:34 
   Sonata Diagram Time! 14:54 
    Exposition, Development, Recapitulation 16:00 
   Review 16:57 
    Solo Keyboard Works Important in Developing the Sonata 17:00 
    Tight-Knit Structure Dominated in a Formulaic Time 17:09 
    Binary, Ternary, Rounded Binary 17:28 
    Exposition, Development, Recapitulation 17:34 
    What Form is This? 17:45 
  Dance Forms 13:33
   Intro 0:00 
   It's Time to Dance 0:29 
    Dance Works, Known as Suites 0:41 
    Importance of Dance Suites 0:54 
    Baroque Period was All About Organization 1:08 
    Suite: Allemande, Courante, Sarabande, Gigue 1:38 
   Back to Bach 2:06 
    Wrote Sonatas and Partitas for Solo Violin 2:19 
    Explored Counterpoint, Harmonic Movement, Rhythmic Motion, Form, Imitation, and Texture 2:40 
    Suites are Short Practice Canvases 3:27 
   Allemande 4:07 
    Moderate Tempo 4:10 
    Duple Meter 4:16 
    Polyphonic Texture 4:21 
    Prelude 4:24 
    Starts on Anacrusis, or Upbeat 4:35 
    Running Patterns 4:47 
    Example of Allemande: Sonata in B Minor 4:57 
   Courante 6:10 
    Binary Form 6:17 
    Triple Form 6:22 
    Quick 6:30 
    Homophonic Texture 6:33 
    Hemiolas (3:2) 6:42 
    Dotted Rhythms to Show Hopping Character of Dance 6:54 
    Example of Courante: Sonata in B Minor 7:04 
   Sarabande 7:55 
    Slow Tempo 8:03 
    Triple Meter 8:05 
    Commences on Down Beat 8:07 
    Originated from 16th Century Latin 8:15 
    Fast Version for Spain, England, and Italy 8:27 
    Slow Version for Germany and France 8:34 
    Example of Sarabande: Sonata in B Minor 8:41 
   Gigue 9:32 
    The Ending 9:40 
    Compound Duple or Triple Meter 9:44 
    Very Quick 9:49 
    Starts on 8th Note Upbeat 10:00 
    Binary Form 10:09 
    Triplets 10:10 
    Wide Melodic Leaps 10:11 
    Imitation 10:12 
    Slower Harmonic Rhythm: How Quickly the Harmonies Change 10:14 
    Example of Gigue: Sonata in B Minor 10:46 
   Review 11:44 
    Why Are the Dance Suite Movements Important? 11:46 
    Miniature Pieces Become Large, Long, and Extremely Detailed Works 12:04 
    Writing Out the Basic Plot for Binary Form 12:21 
    Which Dance Movements are in Two, and Which are in Three? 12:45 
V. The Classical Period
  Opera 14:29
   Intro 0:00 
   Yay, More Opera! 0:30 
    Opera Seria vs. Opera Buffa 0:46 
    Review of Opera Seria 0:55 
    Da Capo Aria 1:44 
    Recitative Furthered Plot 3:20 
   Where’s the Buffa? 3:43 
    Intermezzo: Between Acts 4:05 
    Characters from Commeda Dell'Arte: Italian Theater with Stock Characters 4:46 
   Where's the Buffa? 5:39 
    Emphasis on the Bass Voice 5:48 
    Unexpected Accents 6:16 
    Quick Tempos 6:17 
    Wide Leaps 6:19 
    Frequent Use of Vocal Ensemble 6:22 
    Example: Pergolesi's La Serva de Padrona (1733) 6:55 
    Became So Popular, The Intermezzo Toured On Its Own 7:59 
   Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart 8:22 
    Child Prodigy Gone Bad 8:35 
    Composed In All Forms and All Genres 9:21 
    Redefined Opera Buffa As Its Own Category 9:37 
    The Marriage of Figaro, The Magic Flute, Don Giovanni 9:48 
    Example: The Marriage of Figaro 10:00 
    Simpler Melodies 11:18 
    Formulaic Structures 11:36 
    Emphasis on the Connection of Voice and Text 11:38 
    Stories Never Stalled 11:57 
    Replaced Stock Characters with More Psychologically In-Depth Characters 12:12 
   Review 12:38 
    Development of Opera Continued Into Romantic Period 12:59 
    Rossini Took Over From Mozart (William Tell, Barber of Seville) 12:07 
    Audiences Liked Intermezzos More than the Opera Seria 13:42 
    Transformed into Opera Buffa 13:53 
  Symphony 14:32
   Intro 0:00 
   The Symphony 0:08 
    Later Developing, 1700s 0:20 
    Italian Overture from Opera 0:26 
    Concerto Grosso, Solo Sonata 0:51 
    4 Movements 1:18 
    Tonally Connected 1:43 
    Classical Symphony: Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven 2:20 
   Symphony Four Movement Structure 3:34 
    Writing Out the Four Movements of a Symphony 3:46 
    First Movement 4:02 
    Second Movement 4:15 
    Third Movement 4:42 
    Fourth Movement 4:45 
   High Time for Some Haydn 5:48 
    Father of the Symphony, Wrote 104 Symphonies 6:02 
    High-Quality Pieces of Historical Significance 6:24 
    Used Moderately Sized Orchestra 6:47 
    Inserted Minuet and Trio as the Third Movement: Playful 7:04 
   Ludvig Van Beethoven 7:47 
    1770-1827 8:05 
    Tortured Genius 8:11 
    Both Classical and Romantic Composer, Launched the Romantic Era 8:42 
    Revolutionized Harmony by Obsessing Over Motives 9:09 
   New Era for Composition 10:10 
    First Freelancing Musician Who Sold His Scores 10:38 
    Took Composing to a New Level 11:14 
    Motives 11:19 
   Motives 11:22 
    A Seed 11:25 
    Beethoven Wrote What He Wanted 12:01 
    Piece Organized Around a Musical Idea, and the Piece Develops 12:09 
    Beethoven Expanded the Orchestra 12:34 
   Review 12:51 
    Symphony Came a Long Way in a Short Amount of Time 13:03 
    The Big Three: Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven 13:20 
    Haydn Backed Up to the Baroque 13:32 
    Mozart Was Solely Classical 13:35 
    Beethoven Backed Into the Romantic 13:37 
  Form Variation 15:58
   Intro 0:00 
   Let's Review Form 0:27 
    Form is the Structure of the Piece 0:33 
    Form is the Organization 0:40 
    How to Get From A to B to C and So On 0:44 
    Classical Period Marked A Time for Form Variants 1:11 
    Classical Composers Start to Get Clever with Form 1:55 
   Sonata-Rondo 2:07 
    We Know About a Sonata 2:22 
    Rondo is ABA or ABACA or ABACADA 2:50 
    A is the Refrain, Other Letters are New Thematic Material 3:35 
    Sonata-Rondo: Exposition, Development, Recapitulation 3:56 
   Minuet and Trio 6:14 
    Minuet: Refers to the Original Dance 6:25 
    Trio: Refers to the Three Instruments That Accompany a Second Part of a Dance 6:48 
    Trio Became the Third Movement in a Symphony or String Quartet 7:20 
    Moderate Tempo in Triple Meter 7:52 
    Form: ABA, With B Being the Trio 8:16 
    Third Movement Often Least Complex 8:31 
   Theme and Variations 8:55 
    Initial Theme That Gets Varied 9:08 
    Originally Used to Improvise for audiences 10:08 
    How Are These Themes Varied? 10:37 
    Musical Parameters 10:44 
   Scherzo 11:12 
    Scherzo Means Joke 11:21 
    Scherzo Became Another Variation of the Third Movement 11:50 
    Faster Than a Minuet, In Three, In Ternary or Rounded Binary Form 12:09 
    Very Light and Playful 12:19 
   Why is This Important? 12:40 
    Composers Have Experimented with Parameters, But Not Form 12:55 
    Form is Steeped in Tradition, So It Changes Gradually 13:12 
    Changes in Form Give Composers More Freedom 13:59 
   Review 14:52 
    Many Different Formal Variations with Basic Plot 14:56 
    Sonata-Rondo, Theme and Variations, Minuet and Trio, Scherzo 15:07 
    More Composer Freedom 15:41 
    Expression, Emotion, Story 15:48 
  Concert/Solo Instrumental Works 14:08
   Intro 0:00 
   Solo Concert 0:22 
    Similar to Baroque, But With More Development 0:28 
    More Instruments and More Variation, Unlike Baroque 1:03 
    Decline of Concerto Grosso 2:05 
    Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven 2:30 
    Very Similar to Styles of Symphony 2:45 
   Solo Works 2:58 
    Sonata in Every Instrument 3:00 
    Became the 'It' Form 3:22 
    Decline of the Dance Suite 3:30 
    Rise of Chamber Music 4:02 
    Chamber Music: Anything with More than One Performer (Duo, Trio, Quartet, Etc.) 4:10 
   So Why is Chamber Music Important? 4:43 
    Keep In Mind the Intense Musical Development From Polyphony 4:49 
    Larger-Scale Works 5:15 
    Smaller Works Allow for More Exploration of Tone, Timbre, Texture, and Orchestration 5:22 
    Rumored that Beethoven 5 Motive was Used in Other Works as a Tryout 6:27 
    Like Picasso Sketches 6:59 
   Examples 7:25 
    Mozart Quintet (5) for Clarinet and String Quartet 7:34 
    Combines String Quartet with Solo Writing 8:02 
    Haydn Trio for Flute, Cello, and Piano 8:31 
    Listen to Examples 10:04 
    Haydn: Sounds Like a Symphony 10:22 
    Beethoven: Sounds Like Experiments 10:55 
    Mozart: Seeks Performative Balance 11:14 
   Review 11:59 
    Concerto Continued in Its Development 12:03 
    Solo Writing Continued in Development 12:24 
    Chamber Music Slowly Took Off 12:36 
    Similar to the Need in Baroque for More Intimate Concert Settings 12:52 
    Gave Composers an Outlet for Experimenting 13:32 
VI. The Romantic Period
  Programmatic Music 18:51
   Intro 0:00 
   They Call it Romantic for a Reason 0:29 
    Finally Getting Some Emotion 0:36 
    Programmatic Music: Narrative or Descriptive Content that Attempts to Represent Extra-Musical Concepts without Text 0:58 
    Uses Referential Elements or References to the World Outside of the Composition 1:16 
    Franz Liszt Coined the term, But It Originated with Beethoven 2:06 
    Beethoven's Pastoral Symphony Was an Expression of His Feelings 2:14 
    Music Governed by a Poetic Idea 2:48 
   So Why All of a Sudden? 2:57 
    Arts were Becoming Unified Across Europe 3:06 
    Particularly the Rise of the Narrative 3:38 
    Composers Found They Wanted to Tell Stories Through Music Without Text 3:46 
    Descriptive, Narrative, Evocative 3:57 
    Used Titles, Instruments, Imitation, Harmony, and Text Painting 4:23 
   Berlioz 6:37 
    Symphony Fantastique: 1830 7:04 
    Narrative Work Associated with a Text 7:10 
    Subtitled: An Episode in the Life of an Artist 7:15 
    Provided an Autobiographical Program at the Work's Premiere, Considering the text an Essential Part of the Work 7:38 
    Idee Fixe: Represented the Motive That Appears Throughout the Piece 8:05 
    Listening to Symphony Fantastique 9:02 
   Liszt and Wagner 11:38 
    Liszt Invented the Symphonic Poem: One-Movement Piece for a Symphony Orchestra 12:13 
    Wagner: Opera 12:40 
    Wagner Came Up With the Leitmotif 12:56 
    Leitmotif: Using Music Material to Represent People, Places, Events, Emotions, Etc. 13:09 
   Some Famous Leitmotifs Through the Ages 14:01 
    Think TV, Film, Advertising That Make You Think of Something 14:17 
   Review 17:13 
    Programmatic Music 17:15 
    Began to Dominate Classical Music and Still Does Today 17:25 
    Telling a Story Through Music Without Text 17:48 
    Very Emotional, Vivid, Imagery 17:52 
    Gave Composers Yet Another Outlet for Experimenting 17:57 
    Eventually Became a Battle Between Absolute and Program Music 18:08 
  Symphony 13:47
   Intro 0:00 
   Que Romantica! 0:13 
    The Romantic Symphony Started Around Beethoven's 5th 0:18 
    Symphony Criticized for Lacking Emotion and Meaning 0:50 
    Opposite is True in Romantic 1:23 
    Instrumental Music Closer to Pure Emotion Because No Text 2:06 
    Every Composer Had to Compose a Symphony as a Rite of Passage 2:11 
   Symphony Characteristics 2:28 
    Stayed Remarkably Intact Into the 20th Century 2:39 
    3, 4, or 5 Movements 2:53 
    Movement 1: An Extended Opening Movement in Sonata Form 2:58 
    Movement 2: A Lyrical Slow Movement In Sonata Form, ABA, or Theme and Variations 3:05 
    Movement 3: A Dance-Inspired Scherzo Movement, Usually in Triple Meter 3:13 
    Movement 4: A Fast Finale 3:18 
    Beethoven's Heroic Decade 3:47 
    Heiligenstadt Testament: Letter to Brother 3:56 
    Beethoven Saw Art as Redemption 5:00 
    Then Came the 9th 5:18 
   Symphony 9 (1823): 'Ode to Joy' 5:28 
    Redefined the Symphony as More Than a Musical Entertainment 5:51 
    Curse of the 9th 6:46 
    First Symphony to Have a Chorus 6:53 
    Listening to 'Ode to Joy' 7:06 
    Completely Unified Themes Throughout Movements 7:37 
    Monumental Themes 7:47 
    Created a Crisis for Future Generations 8:06 
    First Time that New Composers were Competing with the Past 8:15 
   Romantic Composers 9:13 
    Mendelssohn Threw Away 3 Complete Symphonies 9:18 
    Schubert Got Sick and Died Writing His 9th 9:28 
    Brahms was Anti-Program, Reinvented In Other Ways 9:57 
    Berlioz First Real Competitor 10:19 
    Mahler Wrote a Symphony for 1000 People 10:34 
    Wagner said Beethoven's 9th was the Pinnacle 11:07 
    One Reason for Rise of Symphonic Poem 11:34 
   Review 11:52 
    Beethoven Ruled the Symphony 11:58 
    Beethoven's Symphonies are Still the Models Composers Aspire to Achieve 12:36 
    Innovative Harmonies, Monumental Orchestration, Grandiose Form, Fully-Unified Theme 12:41 
    Debate Loomed Between Absolute and Program Music 12:54 
    Enter the Symphonic Poem for Something Completely Different 13:14 
  Concerto 12:36
   Intro 0:00 
   Solo Concerto 0:15 
    Started in the Baroque, Virtuosity is Back 0:33 
    Imagine a Concerto 0:58 
    Romantic Concerto 1:20 
    Begins with Beethoven 1:32 
    Attempt to Mimic the Symphony Sound by One Person 1:46 
    Very Difficult Pieces 2:10 
   Let’s Talk Liszt…Again 2:32 
    Known as Playboy Rock Star 2:41 
    His Importance is Vital for Performance Aspect of Western Classical Music 2:53 
    Solo Recital 4:18 
    Transcribed Symphonies for Solo Piano 4:32 
    Friends with Paganini and Saint Seans: Both Composers and Instrumental Virtuosos 4:58 
   Piano Concerto 5:42 
    Liszt Started It 5:48 
    Beethoven Wrote 5 6:01 
    Beethoven, Liszt, Brahms, Tchaikovsky, Grieg, Mendelssohn, Chopin 6:14 
    Beethoven is Not the Only Freelancing Musician Anymore 6:47 
   What Was Happening Musically? 7:11 
    Longer Forms with Combined Movements 7:20 
    Greater Emphasis on Rhythm 7:50 
    Texture to the Extreme 8:11 
    Still Have Romantic Melodies, More Attention to Harmonic Exploration 8:52 
    Develop a Greater Intensity 9:05 
    Example 9:20 
   Review 9:52 
    Virtuosity 10:01 
    Composers Who Performed Composed Concertos For Themselves 10:14 
    Increase in Need for Better Educated, Performing Musicians 10:54 
    Conservatories Became Bigger 10:59 
    Romantic Concerto Combined Elements of Symphony, Tone Poem, and Solo Works 11:48 
    Very Memorable Works That Are Still Standards 11:56 
  Lieder & Miniatures 16:27
   Intro 0:00 
   What In The World Are These?! 0:40 
    Lieder = Songs or Song Cycles 0:44 
    Miniatures = Short, Self-Contained Works 1:06 
    Why Short Pieces? 1:28 
    Wagner's Opera Cycle, Mahler's Symphony, Concertos 1:36 
    We All Need a Mental Break 2:10 
    Opportunity for Short, More Experimental Pieces 2:14 
   Lieder 2:39 
    Songs or Song Cycles (Collection of Songs) 2:41 
    Sung in Operatic Style, But Not an Opera 3:05 
    Features Singers, But Not Divas 3:24 
    More of an Art Song 3:42 
    Always Had Piano Accompaniment 4:16 
    Very Challenging Works Mentally and Physically 4:19 
    Schubert 5:20 
   Franz Schubert (1797-1828) 5:25 
    A Romantic and Programmatic Composer 5:41 
    Wrote Over 600 Lieder 5:53 
    Song Cycles were Unified and Deceitfully Difficult 6:13 
    Musically 7:02 
    Difficulty Modulations 7:07 
    Strophic Forms Around Text 7:49 
    Sets Poems 7:54 
    Song Sections Alternated with Declamatory Song 7:57 
    Dramatic Text 8:31 
    Piano Centered On Text, Set Mood 8:36 
    Example 9:30 
   Piano Miniatures 10:01 
    Not Large Works 10:05 
    Often Shorter in Length, But Not in Scope 10:24 
    Schumann and Chopin as Examples 10:37 
    Very Programmatic and Nationalistic 10:40 
    Musically Experimental, Especially Harmony 11:38 
    Written by Virtuosos for Virtuosos 11:53 
    Extremely Difficult 11:59 
    Nocturne, Mazurka, Polonaise 12:04 
    Strong Forms, Hard Rhythms, Thick Textures 12:09 
   Why Important/Review 12:37 
    Example: Chopin 12:43 
    Lieder and Miniatures Were Essential for Experimental, Eventually Leading to 20th Century 14:23 
    Lieder: Simple in Some Ways, But Deeply Evocative and Expressionistic 14:43 
    Miniatures: Paved Way for Major Dissonance and Extreme Use of Musical Parameters 14:57 
  Symphonic Poem 11:50
   Intro 0:00 
   What is a Symphonic Poem? 0:10 
    Term Coined by Franz Liszt 0:16 
    Programmatic Piece in One Movement, but for an Entire Symphony Orchestra 0:31 
    Who is Liszt? 0:55 
    The First Rock Star of Classical Music 1:33 
    Important Figure for Both Solo and Orchestral Works 1:44 
    Had to Perform to the Side Because He was Too Handsome 1:58 
   Why Symphonic Poems? 2:08 
    Remember the Composers Competing With Beethoven's Symphony Legacy? 2:16 
    Now They Didn't Have To 2:45 
    Russia 3:09 
    A Slew of Prominent Russian Composers Loved the Symphonic Poem: Tchaikowsky, Mussorgsky, Rimsky-Korsakov 3:20 
    Wrote Symphonic Poems Centered on Narrative (Highly National in its Context) 4:02 
   100% Romantic 5:10 
    Grandiose Themes, Tight Forms, Memorable Melodies, Fast and Driving Rhythms, Dense Textures, Lush Orchestration, Wide Dynamics 5:26 
   1812 Overture by Tchaikovsky 6:13 
    1812 is the Epitome of Grandiose (Festival Overture) 6:35 
    Has Acapella Choir, Brass Fanfare, Cannons, Ringing Chimes 6:47 
    Leitmotifs Representing Armies 7:35 
    Example: 1812 Overture 7:57 
   Review 10:40 
    Symphonic Poem, Tone Poem, Festive Overture was Dripping with Romanticism 10:47 
    Coined by Liszt 11:04 
    Contained Leitmotifs 11:09 
    Paralleled a Story, Text, Poem 11:12 
    Imagery, Nationalism, Pride 11:17 
    Became Popular Because It was not a Symphony 11:27 
VII. The 20th Century
  Impressionism & Expressionism 13:55
   Intro 0:00 
   Impressionism 0:35 
    Known As An Art Movement (Monet) 0:50 
    Hazy, Looking Different Up Close As They Do Far Away 1:18 
    Attempted in Music Most Notably by Claude Debussy 1:31 
    Debussy: Wrote Every Style, Major Composer of 20th Century 1:50 
    Paris World Fair 2:25 
   Debussy 2:50 
    Both a Romantic and 20th Century Composer 2:54 
    Also Interested in Evening the Tonal Playing Field 3:07 
    Did It Through Unique Scales Influenced by Far East 3:25 
    Whole Tone, Pentatonic, Octatonic 3:34 
    Modes: Ionian, Dorian, Phyrigian, Lydian, Mixolydian, Aeolian, Locrian 4:58 
    What Does This Do? Obscures the Tonic, Makes It Hazy 6:00 
    Example 6:37 
   Expressionism 7:20 
    Really Heavy Stuff 7:31 
    Schoenberg, Berg (Wozzeck) 7:50 
    Example 8:05 
    Richard Strauss 8:52 
    Wagner Continued Tradition to Huge Romantic Levels 9:04 
    Strauss Took It and Ran Into Psychoanalytical Analysis 9:34 
   Salome and Elektra 9:43 
    Meant to Express the Subconscious 10:00 
    Major Dissonance 10:40 
    Salome Dances with the Head of John the Baptist Before She Gets Killed 10:58 
    Very Programmatic 11:22 
    Lush Orchestration, Timbres 11:27 
    Music to Make You Think, Feel and Express 11:32 
    Example: Final Scene of Salome 11:42 
   Review 12:20 
    Many Different -isms 12:29 
    Impressionism and Expressionism Paralleled Art Movements of the Time 12:47 
    Debussy: Impressionism through Blurring Lines of Tonality 13:03 
    Expressionism: Extra Attention to Text and Desire to Look Within Self 13:20 
    Sets Scene for Second Viennese School and Serialism 13:33 
  Serialism 17:37
   Intro 0:00 
   Oh Boy, Here We Go! 0:10 
    Don't Let Serialism Intimidate You 0:22 
    End of the 19th Century = Opera Experimentation 0:58 
    Wagner Pushed Into Extreme Tonality and Harmonic Shifts 1:25 
    Debussy Started with Impressionism and Used Different Scale Sets 2:00 
    Schoenberg and Others Delved into Expressionism 2:16 
   Arnold Schoenberg (1874-1951) 2:21 
    Pivotal Figure to Say the Least 2:43 
    Also Known as Philosopher and Writer 3:00 
    Romantic Composer Who Liked to Experiment 3:37 
    Austrian Composer/Theorist 3:42 
    Moved to California in 1931 to UCLA 3:53 
    Extreme Figure in Music History 4:07 
    Emancipated Dissonance 4:32 
   Emancipation of Dissonance 4:44 
    Misleading topic 4:48 
    Serialism and Atonality Not the Same Thing 5:02 
    Serialism is Twelve-Tone 5:18 
    Atonality Has No Tonal Center 5:25 
    Started with Motives to the Extreme 5:51 
    Started with Trichords (3-Notes) and Hexachords (6-Notes) 6:02 
    Experimented with Free Atonality and Landed in Serialism 6:44 
    Example of Free Atonality 6:51 
    12 Tone Row 7:20 
   12-Tone Row 7:30 
    12 Notes in Chromatic Scale 7:34 
    System of Ordering so that a Note is Not Repeated Until Each Note has been Heard Once 7:52 
    Creates Equal System of Note Hierarchy 9:01 
    No Leading Tone 9:18 
    Absence of Leading Tone Presents the Option of No Tonality 9:21 
    Gives Composer Complete Control 10:14 
    Result: Mathematical Stuff That Can Be Hard to Hear 11:06 
   Second Viennese School 11:21 
    Schoenberg: Leader of Second Viennese School 11:23 
    Other Members of the Big 3: Berg, Webern 11:35 
    Berg: More Lyrical; Webern: More Pointillistic 12:00 
    Schoenberg: More of a Theorist/Philosopher 13:36 
    Example: Pierrot Lunaire 12:30 
   Why Important/Review 14:38 
    12-Tone Music Dominated Music for Most of 20th Century 14:46 
    Only Recently Known as Compositional Tool Rather than a Style 15:06 
    Schoenberg Came Up with the Idea of Flattening the Tonal Playing Field 15:39 
    Each Note is the Same As Another in 12-Tone Music 15:44 
    Extreme Way of Compositional Control Taken Further by Other Composers 15:55 
    Harsh Reactions from Audiences and Composers 16:30 
  Primitivism 19:56
   Intro 0:00 
   What?! 0:08 
    The Rite of Spring by Igor Stravinsky 0:32 
    Possibly the Most Important Singular Work in Western Music History 1:11 
   Igor Stravinsky (1882-1961) 1:49 
    Russian Composer, Lived in Paris, Moved to U.S. 1:57 
    Wrote Everything 2:40 
    Launched to Fame in Paris with Three Ballets: Firebird (1910), Petrushka (1911), Rite of Spring (1913) 3:06 
   Rite of Spring (1913) 3:43 
    Stravinsky Emancipated Rhythm 4:23 
    Rite of Spring is a Ballet by Diaghilev and Najinsky 4:43 
    Complex Rhythms, Crazy Meters, Timbres, and Dissonance 5:48 
    Polytonality and Polyrhythms 5:57 
    Primitive Aspect of Ballet and Story 6:44 
    Historical Rites, Sacrifices, and Fertility 6:57 
   Rite of Spring 7:44 
    Premiered in 1913 and the Audience Rioted 7:55 
    Example: Rite of Spring 9:40 
    Melody 10:36 
    Melody: Bassoon 13:29 
    Harmony: Polytonality 13:38 
    Form: A Ballet in Two Parts 13:46 
    Tone: Harsh, Instrumental Extremes 13:55 
    Meter: Mixed Meter 14:21 
    Dynamics: Wide and Varied 14:45 
    Texture: Quick Changes 14:52 
   Rhythm! 15:12 
    Polyrhythms (3:2, 4:3, etc.) 15:20 
    Duplets, Triplets, Quintuplets, Sextuplets, etc. 16:03 
   Why Important/Review 17:09 
    Launched the 20th Century as Age of Exploration 17:36 
    Blew the Lid Off Rhythm and Meter Development 17:44 
    Orchestration was Off the Hook 18:08 
    Still One of the Most Recorded and Performed Works 18:18 
    Audience Rioted 18:56 
    Has Influenced Scores of Composers and Artists 19:05 
    One of the Most Written-About Works 19:15 
  Dixieland, Blues, Jazz 18:43
   Intro 0:00 
   Now for Something Completely Different! 1:01 
    Dixieland to Blues to Jazz to Rock 1:15 
    All Linked Through Post-Civil War America and Chicago World Fair 1893 2:05 
    The Fair Changed Everything 2:34 
    Civil War Lesson on Geography 3:03 
    We Know About This Time Period in American History, but Maybe Not in Music 5:22 
   Dixieland 5:39 
    Slave Spirituals, Musical Accompaniment, and Entertainment 5:40 
    Dixieland from South (New Orleans), Down the Mississippi 5:45 
    Louis Armstrong 5:50 
    Musically: Bass Line, Hopping Harmony, Soloist (Trumpet Plays Main Line), Rhythm Section that Improvises 6:33 
    Polyphonic Setting Around a Theme and Variations 7:11 
    Example 1 7:30 
    Example 2: Oh When the Saints 8:22 
   Blues 8:48 
    Another Style from the Turn of the Century 8:50 
    Very Influential for Rock 'n' Roll 8:55 
    Each Style in the South had Unique Style and Sound 9:28 
    Centered on Form: 12 Bar Blues 9:53 
    Simple Form, Simple Instrumentation, Heavy Backbeat 11:09 
    Lyrics Were Very Important, About Real Life 11:32 
    Also Used Blues Scale: C, E Flat, F, F#, G, B Flat, C 11:40 
   Jazz 12:53 
    Encompasses So Much Music 13:00 
    Jazz Band 13:07 
    Instrumentation from Big Band to Combo 13:11 
    Horns, Rhythm Section 13:20 
    Musically: Blues Notes, Polyphony, Improvisation, Syncopation, Swung Note 13:33 
   Important People 15:02 
    Duke Ellington, Art Blakey, Charlie Parker, Miles Davis, Ornette Coleman, etc. 15:08 
    Example 15:47 
    Why Is This Important? Pop Culture! 16:05 
    Jazz Influenced Everything from Classical, TV, Film, and Rock 16:11 
   More/Review 16:40 
    Dixieland, Blues, Jazz Came from the South 16:44 
    Origins in Slave Spirituals Used During Work and for Entertainment 16:47 
    Came to Chicago During the World Fair 16:55 
    Spread Through the South and Eventually North Through Jazz Bands 17:21 
    Big Band Culture and Fever Swept the North in 20s and 30s, Setting Stage for Pop Culture Influence 17:29 
    Post-War Influence: A Need for Far-Reaching Music to The Masses 18:17 
    Enter Rock 'n' Roll 18:28 
  Later 20th Century 15:06
   Intro 0:00 
   Wait…There's Still Classical Music! 0:36 
    Classical Music Continues 0:46 
    John Cage and Aleatory 2:00 
    Chance Music 2:13 
    Based on I-Ching 2:25 
    4'33'' 3:25 
    Restructuring the Ear: Hearing Things in Different Ways 3:34 
    Steve Reich and Minimalism 4:35 
    System of Repeated Cells with Change Over Time 4:42 
    Example: Clapping Music 5:51 
   Rock 6:58 
    Rock 'n' Roll: Product of Times 7:01 
    History is Important in Development 7:13 
    Post-WWII America and Britain 7:16 
    Rise of the Middle Class 7:31 
    Rock Was For the Masses 7:50 
    Not Necessarily Anti-Establishment (Beatles) 8:33 
    Song-Writing Changed to Fit the Needs of Pop Culture 9:09 
    Shorter Songs, Easy Melodies, Digestible Harmonies, Simple Rhythms, Relatable Subject Matter 9:14 
   Cage and Reich Influenced Rock 10:08 
    John Cage Met Yoko Ono 10:20 
    Ono Married John Lennon 10:26 
    Cage and Lennon Were Friends 10:31 
    Reich Worked with Andy Warhol 10:55 
    Andy Warhol was Friends with David Bowie, Phillip Glass, the Ramones, Talking Heads, DJ Dangermouse 10:58 
    Cage and Reich were Influenced by Stravinsky 11:40 
    Stravinsky was Influenced by Beethoven, Beethoven by Mozart…All the Way Back! 11:53 
   That's Funny! 12:11 
    Artists of Today Influenced by Artists of Yesterday 12:17 
    More Communication Between Cultures 12:34 
    Ability to Write in Any Style From Any Time Period 12:38 
    New Genres? New Time Periods? What's to Come? 12:39 
    We're Still Just Experimenting with Organized Sound 13:51 
   Wrap Up 14:16