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Post by Kathleen Etzel on January 18 at 11:09:02 AM

Peggy Eaton's maiden name was O'Neil.  The Eaton Affair was also termed the Petticoat Affair.  Here is a link for some more information to all other students:

Jacksonian Democracy

  • On one hand, expansion of the vote for white male farmers & wage earners; in 1824, less than 27% of adult white males voted whereas in 1828, 58% voted & in 1840, 80%
  • On the other hand, still limits, such as in the South, election laws still favored planters & no franchise for free blacks in the South & hardly anywhere in the North. Limited rights for women.
  • Martin Van Buren was instrumental in creating the first political machine and advocated for the spoils system to award public jobs to political supporters.
  • Van Buren helped Andrew Jackson’s campaign and Jackson won the 1828 election. The “common man’s president” was the first president from a trans-Appalachian state.
  • His critics labeled Jackson a “king” and a new political party emerged: the Whigs, who fought against Jacksonian policies (destroying Clay’s American System, vetoing numerous bills, and killing the bank)
  • The nullification crisis that arose due to Calhoun’s rejection of the tariff highlighted opposing interpretations of the Constitution, especially states’ rights v. federal power.

Jacksonian Democracy

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  1. Intro
    • Overview
      • The Rise of Popular Politics
      • The Political Machine
      • Changing in Voting Patterns
        • Jackson Runs a Tough Campaign
          • Age of Jackson
          • First Days in Office
            • Whigs
            • President of the Common Man
            • To the Victors Belong the Spoils
            • Jackson's Political Rivals: Clay
            • The Rise of Martin Van Buren and Jackson's Scandalous Cabinet
            • The Rats Leaving a Falling House
              • Calhoun and Nullification
              • Nullification Crisis
              • Compromise Reached
              • Example 1
                • Example 2
                • The Rise of Martin Van Buren and Jackson's Scandalous Cabinet
                • The Rats Leaving a Falling House
                  • Calhoun and Nullification
                  • Nullification Crisis
                  • Compromise Reached
                  • Example 1
                    • Example 2
                      • Intro 0:00
                      • Overview 0:07
                      • The Rise of Popular Politics 2:21
                        • Expansion of the Vote
                        • Presidential Electors
                        • No Franchise
                      • The Political Machine 4:38
                        • Martin Van Buren
                        • Patronage
                        • Spoils System
                        • Jacksonians
                      • Changing in Voting Patterns 8:52
                      • Jackson Runs a Tough Campaign 10:57
                      • Age of Jackson 11:42
                        • Jackson's Inauguration
                        • Reign of King Mob
                        • Economic Equality
                      • First Days in Office 15:14
                      • Whigs 15:54
                        • Against Jackson
                        • Like a Monarch
                        • Northern Whigs
                        • Southern Whigs
                      • President of the Common Man 19:22
                        • Self-Made man from TN
                        • Equal Protection and Equal Benefits
                        • No Region
                        • Permanent Office Holders
                        • Frugal Jeffersonian
                      • To the Victors Belong the Spoils 21:48
                        • Spoils System
                        • A Central, Corrupting Feature
                        • To the Victors Belong the Spoils
                      • Jackson's Political Rivals: Clay 24:14
                        • Four Internal Improvement Bills
                        • The Bank of the United States
                        • Vetoing Numerous Bills
                      • The Rise of Martin Van Buren and Jackson's Scandalous Cabinet 26:05
                        • Kitchen Cabinet
                        • Albany Regency
                        • Senator Eaton
                      • The Rats Leaving a Falling House 28:50
                      • Calhoun and Nullification 29:33
                        • John C. Calhoun of South Carolina
                        • Nullification
                        • Tariff of Abominations
                        • Sectional Controversy
                      • Nullification Crisis 31:45
                        • Preserve Federal Union
                        • A Force Bill
                      • Compromise Reached 34:09
                        • Henry Clay
                        • Passed the Compromise and Force Bill
                        • Nullification of the Tariffs
                      • Example 1 35:09
                      • Example 2 37:54
                        • Four Internal Improvement Bills
                        • The Bank of the United States
                        • Vetoing Numerous Bills
                      • The Rise of Martin Van Buren and Jackson's Scandalous Cabinet 26:05
                        • Kitchen Cabinet
                        • Albany Regency
                        • Senator Eaton
                      • The Rats Leaving a Falling House 28:50
                      • Calhoun and Nullification 29:33
                        • John C. Calhoun of South Carolina
                        • Nullification
                        • Tariff of Abominations
                        • Sectional Controversy
                      • Nullification Crisis 31:45
                        • Preserve Federal Union
                        • A Force Bill
                      • Compromise Reached 34:09
                        • Henry Clay
                        • Passed the Compromise and Force Bill
                        • Nullification of the Tariffs
                      • Example 1 35:09
                      • Example 2 37:54

                      Transcription: Jacksonian Democracy

                      Welcome back to

                      This lesson, we are going to focus on Jacksonian democracy.0003

                      We are going to talk about the infamous, the controversial Andrew Jackson, and the so called democratic revolution.0009

                      We are going to see that the Democratic Republican Party is going to be refashioned into simply the Democratic Party.0019

                      We are going to talk about how generally speaking throughout the Jacksonian era, 0029

                      we are going to see the democratization increasing tremendously, throughout the 1830’s and 1840’s onward.0035

                      The Jacksonian era, I would say like 1830’s into the 1840’s.0047

                      We are going to see more and more people are going to have opportunities to vote and to participate in the political process.0053

                      However, I do not want to overstate it because there certainly are limits.0061

                      Yes, something to keep in mind as you learn about these topics is, democracy for whom?0067

                      Who is included, who is not included in these democratic revolution?0075

                      We will see an expansion of the universal white male suffrage, 0081

                      but we still do not see rights for African-Americans, women, and other minority groups as well.0085

                      In this lesson, we are going to focus primarily on Jackson's first term.0094

                      In the next lesson, we will focus on the second part so we could break it down a bit.0098

                      We will talk about the importance of the spoils system and the overall politics of the common man,0105

                      as Jackson was known for being a huge advocate of the common man, being a self made man himself.0112

                      Then, we are also going to talk about the Whigs, the rise of the Whigs, which will result from their unhappiness with Andrew Jackson.0120

                      And then, we will conclude with the discussion of the nullification crisis 0131

                      which was a major challenge during Jackson's administration, first administration, in particular.0136

                      Let me set the context here.0143

                      It is the rise of popular politics.0145

                      On one hand, we are going to see an expansion of the vote for white male farmers and wage earners.0149

                      This was significant because up until this point, it was only property owners and elites who had political power and voting power.0155

                      This was changing, especially by the time Jackson was voted into office.0167

                      Many people, including Jackson, and those who are like minded, 0174

                      began to challenge the old political order that was dominated by wealthy notables, landowners, and so forth.0178

                      More people during the Jacksonian era start to vote more and more, 0186

                      and we are going to see that laws are going to change throughout several states, 0192

                      that allow people more of a voice in choosing presidential electors.0198

                      That is extremely important.0205

                      We are to see some significant gains here.0211

                      In 1824, less than 27% of adult white males voted, whereas in 1828, 58% voted, by 1840, 80%.0213

                      A very significant increase in white male participation in the voting sphere.0223

                      It is going to be a major gain during this era.0231

                      And obviously, we know there are still a lot of limits.0235

                      In the south, election laws still favored planters.0238

                      No franchise for free blacks in the south, and hardly anywhere in the north.0241

                      We will see specifically in states like Illinois, Indiana, Missouri, there were no property qualifications to vote, as well as to hold office.0248

                      Some major gains that will feed into Jacksonian democracy, 0261

                      and ultimately empower those who historically had been kept out of the political process.0266

                      That is why Jackson's presidency is so significant, and a turning point in many ways in U.S. politics.0275

                      Jackson is very controversial, some people love him, some people hate him.0285

                      He has some very dramatic characteristics that make him very controversial.0292

                      But before we get into some of the nitty gritty, let us talk a little bit about the man behind Andrew Jackson.0303

                      We need to attribute his success as a politician to Martin Van Buren, the little magician, 0312

                      as he was known for supporting Andrew Jackson and helping him run a very successful campaign.0320

                      During this Jacksonian era, we are going to see the rise and the importance of what is known as the political machine.0331

                      This is a 19th century term for highly organized groups operating within and intending to control political parties.0340

                      Yes, we are going to see that the party is increasingly going to become a very important tool in politics.0349

                      People like Martin Van Buren will use the political machine to strengthen the party, and to promote party loyalty and discipline.0358

                      Martin Van Buren, who is brought up in the Hudson River Valley area, had Dutch ancestors.0369

                      He ends up becoming very much involved in politics.0380

                      He creates the first political machine between 1817 and 1823.0383

                      He used newspapers to promote a platform.0388

                      He used patronage, as well, that was very important to award public jobs.0391

                      Patronage is supporting the people who vote for you.0400

                      It is very much tied to the spoils system, award public job to political supporters.0406

                      The idea is I help you, you help me, we all win.0413

                      It is a win-win situation.0419

                      He advocated for party discipline and required state legislators to follow the caucus.0421

                      It was a meeting of party leaders.0427

                      The party caucus, these informal meetings of politicians was held by political parties0430

                      to make majority decisions and enforce party discipline.0437

                      In early U.S. history, small groups of party leaders chose candidates for office and party caucuses.0442

                      But we are going to see change in the 1830’s, when the major political parties0449

                      had switched to using the national convention format to nominate their candidates.0455

                      That is going to be something that will eventually change.0465

                      But Martin Van Buren is instrumental in behind the scenes, and building up the Democratic Party,0468

                      and getting them to come out and vote for Andrew Jackson.0479

                      Because you may recall that Andrew Jackson was defeated, 0483

                      based on decision of the House of Representatives in the election of 1824.0488

                      Andrew Jackson is going to need all the support he can get.0495

                      Martin Van Buren is very important in helping to develop the political machine, 0500

                      and these important concepts that will be part of the Jackson administration and Jacksonian democracy.0504

                      Yes, we will see the agree fashion as the Democrats, and as a result we will also see the backlash against the Jacksonian, 0514

                      when a new second party system will be composed of the Democrats vs. the Whigs.0524

                      We will talk about the Whigs in a little bit.0532

                      Just to kind of show you a little map here, a little graph, of some of the changes in voting patterns that we start to see.0535

                      The Democrats and the Whigs were challenged to respond to the relentless westward expansion of the nation,0549

                      and the emergence of the industrial economy.0558

                      How are we going to deal with it, we know that there will be sectional tensions between northerners and southerners, and also the westerners.0563

                      How the nation is going to develop.0571

                      We are going to see again, national conventions are going to be really important.0577

                      We will also see the rise of third parties, even though we would see that the United States’ political system is a two party system.0582

                      But third parties, those besides the two main parties, like during this time period, the Anti-Masonic party.0591

                      This party formed in reaction to those who were very much suspicious against the Masons.0601

                      They accuse Masons of being anti-democratic and privileged.0609

                      You can see people, ordinary people, getting fed up with elitist politics and taking matters into their own hands.0614

                      This was something that was becoming more and more accepted.0623

                      The Working Men's party is another example of another third party that starts to emerge during this time, that we do not see in this graph.0626

                      This primarily focuses on the two prominent parties throughout the 1820s’, 30’s, and 40’s.0634

                      You could see during the Jacksonian era that the Democrats are in control.0644

                      By the 1840’s, we see that the Whigs are in control.0651

                      Looking in another comparison, you remember that even though Andrew Jackson did win the popular vote,0660

                      he did not have a majority of electoral votes.0668

                      This ends up being decided by the House of Representatives.0671

                      He viewed this as a corrupt bargain, when John Quincy Adams ended up winning the presidency.0674

                      But that did not stop him, he came back in 1828.0681

                      With the help of Martin Van Buren and the people, ultimately, we are going to see that Jackson kicks butt here,0685

                      and has 178 electoral votes that definitely gave him the majority.0695

                      He becomes the first president from a trans-Appalachian state.0706

                      And in particular, he is from Tennessee.0710

                      This is a significant turning point in U.S. politics.0715

                      Andrew Jackson came from humble beginnings.0720

                      His parents were killed during the revolutionary war.0726

                      He had to work hard, he was a military hero.0731

                      He was very rough around the edges.0737

                      He was not college educated.0739

                      He was shaking up the status quo, that is for sure.0742

                      He was viewed as, what today we will call a Washington outsider.0748

                      He became a symbol for the common man.0753

                      Although, that could not be overstated because he did work his way up the ladder socially, 0758

                      became a lawyer, became a politician, war hero, and so forth.0763

                      He did own slaves, he had his own plantation.0769

                      Yet, he really was a self made man, he did not come from privilege.0773

                      He was not born into all this success.0777

                      Anyway, the symbolism of him being the President of the common man is very important and very empowering to many people.0781

                      There are those who do not like Andrew Jackson.0791

                      We will certainly cover that as well.0793

                      However, when Jackson is elected and he is inaugurated,0796

                      he goes and celebrated in the White House, thousands crowded in Washington DC for his inauguration, 0802

                      farmers, laborers, other working class people.0810

                      He was viewed as a president of the people.0814

                      There were certainly those who were very concerned about the turn of events, and they fear the reign of king mob.0818

                      These people who were not fit for such a prestigious role in government, 0831

                      that there were definitely those who were very concerned, that the country was going downhill, 0839

                      and that this was not a good sign for the United States.0848

                      I have a picture here to illustrate ordinary people who had this crazy bash, when Jackson was inaugurated.0854

                      They had a wild party and glasses were broken, china was broken.0864

                      It was just a down home party at the White House.0871

                      Anyway, Jackson is going to become very important for ordinary working class people and farmers.0876

                      His goal is to provide opportunities for more people to have equality.0882

                      We will see the economic equality did not occur despite the transformation that did take place concerning politics.0889

                      More white males began voting and won the right to hold public office.0901

                      That is going to be very significant.0907

                      We will start to see policies that do empower people, at least politically, but economically there still are a lot of limits.0909

                      First day in his office, you can see people are passed out, they are having a good time.0917

                      They are feeling boost, they are having fun, they are raising hell.0924

                      Here you may see Hickory, his name was old Hickory, because he was stubborn, 0931

                      he was hard and rough around the edges, and definitely had that frontier spirit, that many people, ordinary people, in particular, liked.0938

                      They could relate to him. 0953

                      The Whigs took their name from a British political party and they had a reputation for supporting liberal principles and reform.0962

                      Although, they were a heterogeneous group initially, the Whigs gradually elaborated a distinct vision.0976

                      They tended to be elitist, you could say.0986

                      Men of ability, wealth, chosen by talent, but not birth.0992

                      That is also, the distinction that we should make is that, in some ways a self made man but more elitist, 1000

                      I guess, than the Democratic style of politician.1013

                      Whigs tended to be more Protestant and they also attracted Protestants, as well as upwardly mobile groups.1019

                      The Whigs really emerged as a party that was against Andrew Jackson.1031

                      That is another major point you should remember.1036

                      They believed that he was acting like a monarch, or they were certainly concerned that he was going to be a monarch.1039

                      When we get into a lot of his policies, you will understand why.1045

                      I will build upon this.1048

                      But in fact, a lot of the Whigs will call him King Jackson.1051

                      There are some famous cartoons that also portray him as a king.1054

                      This is the first major time in U.S. history when we are starting to see presidents being labeled as kings, 1059

                      and abusing power, and not following the constitution.1069

                      Anyway, the Whigs are going to be very critical of Jackson.1076

                      They dissolve in the 1850’s.1080

                      We are going to see there is a divide, northern Whigs, as you can see, and southern Whigs.1082

                      The issue that is going to tear them apart is whether to extend slavery or not into their territories.1089

                      That is going to lead to their demise.1096

                      But for the meantime, when they are still active, northern Whigs call for return to Clay and Adams's American System.1099

                      The government program that was conceived in the early 1820’s to expand economic development, 1109

                      through a federally funded system of internal improvements such as roads, canals, tariffs, and a national bank.1114

                      Jackson hated this idea.1123

                      You can see, this is the reaction, they want to go back to what Adams was promoting before.1128

                      Southern Whigs advocated for economic development but they did not support high tariffs and social mobility.1137

                      They like the status quo, they like being in charge and keeping the hierarchy as it stood.1145

                      Many Whigs were also Anti-Masons.1154

                      That is going to also come into play.1159

                      A bit more here on Jackson, as I was saying, considered as self made man, no college education.1164

                      He embraced a simple theory of democracy, equal protection and equal benefits to all white male citizens.1171

                      He was a Jeffersonian at heart.1181

                      But Jackson is going to try to expand the meaning of Jeffersonianism, to include more people.1184

                      That is what is going to be revolutionary.1193

                      In this sense, he was a unifier.1200

                      He believes that no region or class should be favored over another.1202

                      Again, there are limits, he did have slaves.1209

                      He was not a friend of African-Americans.1212

                      Women still did not have rights.1214

                      Although, he did have a very soft spot for women, and actually he lost his wife, in fact, and she was socially shunned.1218

                      It is not that he did not like women, but his policies did not support women's equality.1235

                      We are going to talk about this next time, Native Americans were still subjugated.1245

                      He is a huge foe and will be a huge advocate of removal.1252

                      That is obviously something that is very controversial, that he is going to be very outspoken about.1257

                      What else about Jackson, he wanted to replace permanent officeholders and preferred rotation of officeholders.1267

                      He wanted to shake up the establishment, and kind of push for the spoils system,1276

                      and reward people who were loyal to him, who voted for him, and give them jobs.1283

                      He did not think that, you should have all of these qualifications to have that job.1291

                      He believed that we need to shake up the status quo and put new people in there.1297

                      He was fragile, physically, like Jefferson.1303

                      Jackson embraced what is known as the spoils system,1310

                      a system already well entrenched in a number of state governments.1314

                      This is the practice of elected officials appointing their own followers and supporters to public offices following electoral victory.1318

                      As the saying goes, to the victors belongs the spoils.1326

                      Yes, if you win, then you should be able to reward your followers for their loyalty, for their vote, 1332

                      that they should be able to gain something too.1342

                      Underlying this practice was a view that in a democracy,1347

                      rotation office was preferable to permanent upper class, the upper class of officeholders.1351

                      As I was saying, he wants to shake it up.1357

                      He began this practice on a national level in 1829, and it became a central,1360

                      certainly, by the end of the 19th century, a corrupting feature of the U.S. political life.1367

                      Spoiler alert, we will see by the time of the 1890’s, in fact the Pendleton, it might actually be 1880’s,1376

                      I think it is '93, the Pendleton Act will in fact, institute a civil service exam, and will put an end to this system.1390

                      Because it will become quite entrenched.1401

                      You could see that this can become a very slippery slope where you are giving people jobs1404

                      because they are loyal to you, and not so much because they are qualified.1409

                      Thank you, Jackson.1415

                      Moving along, we are going to see however that there are a lot of positive democratic reforms that are put into place.1418

                      Just some visuals of old Hickory, to the victors belongs the spoils.1428

                      There is money, he is riding a pig.1438

                      Down here, you can see fraud, bribery, plunder.1442

                      Quite critical, in fact, there are certainly were those who are very critical.1446

                      Jackson certainly had his enemies and political rivals, one of them being Henry Clay.1456

                      Jackson wanted to destroy the American System and rejected support for transportation projects, 1469

                      which he also opposed on constitutional grounds.1476

                      He had a very strict interpretation of the constitution.1480

                      He did veto for internal improvement bills.1485

                      And in fact, it is worth mentioning that Andrew Jackson, I forgot the exact number off the top of my head, 1489

                      but I will get that fact for you next time, but Andrew Jackson at this point in U.S. history, 1495

                      vetoed more bills than any other president up to this point.1501

                      That was very significant, that is also going to feed into the criticisms that he is a king.1507

                      He is very kinglike, and he is abusing his power, and not cooperating with the government, particularly Congress.1513

                      Jackson also disliked the Bank of the United States.1523

                      And speaking of spoiler alerts, we will see that he is going to kill the bank.1526

                      But we are going to get into that issue next time.1532

                      Clay favored the banks, they just did not see eye to eye, politically.1534

                      Here we go, Jackson known for vetoing numerous bills, even one bill that would have used federal funds to construct the Maysville road, 1541

                      because it was wholly within one state, Kentucky, the home state of Henry Clay.1551

                      He was that petty, we are not going to build a road across his state.1559

                      Kind of funny, you can see the character of old Hickory, the stubborn man.1566

                      We are going to see that Jackson is a bit nitty gritty, and some people like him for that, some people hate him for it.1575

                      But he definitely had some scandals surrounding him, and definitely tarnished his reputation.1585

                      People were very gossipy, especially the elitist people.1592

                      There is a lot of whispering going on, about first of all, his wife, 1597

                      and then we are going to see even within his cabinet, there are some scandals that caused him a lot of trouble.1603

                      Jackson’s kitchen cabinet was very important to him, his advisers.1615

                      We are going to see that this is going to cause tensions when there are few scandals surrounding the cabinet.1623

                      Martin Van Buren was Secretary of State and was part of this kitchen cabinet.1632

                      He led the Albany regency in New York and helped create one of the first modern party organizations.1638

                      He is going to be very influential.1646

                      There are other cabinet members like Senator Eaton, who became Secretary of War in 1828, were very controversial.1648

                      In fact, there was a scandal called the Eaton affair.1656

                      When Senator Eaton had a relationship with Peggy.1660

                      She eventually, I have forgotten what her maiden name was, but she had previously been married to a military officer who had died apparently.1668

                      As soon as he died, she married Eaton right away.1678

                      There were rumors that they had been having this long affair.1684

                      And other wives of other cabinet members did not like Peggy.1687

                      And of course all of the social events that the women were leading, this caused problems for the Jackson administration.1693

                      It was really ugly and hurtful.1706

                      She was being shunned and this was putting pressure on the Secretary of War who eventually stepped down.1711

                      Just to give you an example, there were other scandals as well.1723

                      But this one in particular, ended up being a thorn in Jackson side.1726

                      Here is a very kind of critical mockery of Jackson's administration and his cabinet.1734

                      The rats leaving a falling house.1744

                      This was meant to tarnish his reputation and can be viewed as mudslinging, especially the Whigs who are not fond of Andrew Jackson.1747

                      They are comparing his cabinet members to rats.1760

                      You can see a pretty negative connotation in this cartoon.1766

                      On top of it, we are going to see tensions arising between Calhoun, John C. Calhoun of South Carolina.1778

                      John C. Calhoun who disliked the tariff because it hurt the states’ economy, but Calhoun was Vice President.1789

                      He in fact called this tariff, the tariff of abominations.1800

                      He is instead going to advocate for the idea of nullification.1804

                      The idea stating that a state convention could declare federal laws unconstitutional, 1809

                      if they seem to overstep Congressional powers.1815

                      South Carolina politicians advance this in 1828, as response to Congress’ so called tariff of abominations.1820

                      This is a very states’ rights approach.1829

                      This is going to upset Jackson, whose job as President is to unify the country not to feed into sectional tensions.1834

                      That is his job as President, to be a unifying force and to enforce the law.1846

                      Although, he will pick and choose which laws he wants to enforce.1852

                      But in this case, we are going to see he is going to take a stand.1857

                      Even though you think he is from the south, he may be empathetic to their cause.1860

                      However, we are going to see that he is going to surprise many people.1870

                      Then, there is this famous Webster hang debate that was highlighting the sectional tensions that were emerging,1876

                      which highlighted this conflict in different visions, States’ Rights vs. National Power.1884

                      A suggestion was made during this debate, to discontinue the sale of land and surveys.1892

                      Hayne, who was also from South Carolina, charged that this policy favored the east politically and economically.1897

                      Part of this, then Webster, who was a nationalist Whig, challenged their response 1907

                      and asserted that National Power superseded states’ rights.1912

                      Hayne who was influenced by Calhoun, responded with a defense of theory of nullification.1917

                      The idea that states have the right to nullify.1923

                      But Webster's reply was that no, you cannot do that, liberty and union, now and forever, one and inseparable.1926

                      Ultimately, he is going to be advocating for the supremacy of the constitution that relates to federal law that supersedes state laws.1935

                      Then, there is actually going to be a social gatherings and 1946

                      all the involved politicians are going to be cheering, and making toasts, and having some cocktails.1950

                      And in fact, that we are kind of alluding to States' rights types of arguments, 1961

                      and Jackson who actually ends up having the last word on this whole debate says, our federal union, it must be preserved.1969

                      This is important, he is showing his leadership to squash this whole nullification conflict and theme.1979

                      But he is willing to cut a deal.1992

                      Let us see what happens here.1995

                      South Carolina, they held a state convention and they devoted to nullify the tariffs, that rebellious South Carolina.1996

                      Stay tuned.2005

                      The tariffs in 1828 and 1832, and they forbade the collection of duties within the state.2008

                      Hayne was elected governor and Calhoun became a South Carolina senator.2014

                      We are going to see Calhoun is no longer the Vice President.2020

                      And Jackson is very much against this idea.2025

                      He viewed that nullification was treason.2030

                      He proposed a force bill, he needs to enforce this law 2034

                      which did authorize the use of military force to see that the acts of Congress were being obeyed.2039

                      Eventually, a compromise was reached.2051

                      Henry Clay, who was known for being very instrumental in formulating compromises.2054

                      He was elected to the Senate and devised a compromise by which the tariff would be lowered, gradually,2059

                      so that by 1842, it would reach approximately the same level as 1816.2066

                      The compromise and the force bill were passed on the same day.2074

                      We will see that South Carolina will repeal its nullification of the tariffs.2080

                      The sectional tensions will deflate temporarily.2085

                      We are going to see that down the road, sectional tensions will reemerge.2095

                      But for the time being, we are seeing things smooth over, thank you Henry Clay.2102

                      We are already at the point in the lesson where we are going to talk about some of the examples.2111

                      Who do we have here, Calhoun.2119

                      Let us get to it, we hold that on the separation from the crown of Great Britain,2123

                      the several colonies became free and independent states, each enjoying a separate and independent right of self government, 2127

                      and that no authority can be exercised over them, but by their consent.2136

                      It is equally true that the constitution of the United States is a compact formed between the several states,2140

                      that the government created it by a joint agency of the states, pointed to execute the powers enumerated and granted by that instrument, 2147

                      that all its acts not intentionally authorized of themselves.2158

                      Here we go, this is important, essentially, null and void.2163

                      And that the states have the right to pronounce in the last resort authoritative judgment on the use of patents of the federal government, 2167

                      such we deemed to being inherent rights of the states.2179

                      A very States’ rights sentiment.2189

                      Which of the following was the immediate cause of the publication of the statement in this excerpt?2192

                      I forgot to highlight the year, that was in 1832.2202

                      Was it the inauguration of Andrew Jackson, the end of the slave trade,2209

                      a Supreme Court decision on States' rights, a law passed by Congress that raised the tariff.2213

                      The answer.2222

                      As described in the excerpt, which of the following makes the final decision on whether a law is invalid in a state.2225

                      The answer according to Calhoun, states.2239

                      Third one, which of the following is or are, most similar to the statement in the excerpt?2246

                      Monroe doctrine, Kentucky and Virginia resolutions, the Marbury vs. Madison decision, or the Missouri compromise?2254

                      The answer is this one, which is also a very states’ rights type of declaration.2265

                      We are moving along, short answer.2278

                      Briefly explain which one of the following best supports the statement.2279

                      The duties of all public officers are so plain and simple that more is lost by the long continuance of a man in office,2283

                      than is generally to be gained by their experience.2292

                      Choices, political party conventions, rotation office, or the spoils system?2298

                      I’m going to do this one.2313

                      Political party conventions replace the caucuses of party leaders in selecting candidates, 2317

                      and were more open to popular participation, and therefore more democratic.2322

                      Contrast your choice against one of the other options demonstrating why their option is not as good as your choice.2333

                      The spoils system was based on a belief in appointing people to jobs because of their political party affiliation,2340

                      not on being qualified to do the job.2348

                      Moving on, last question, briefly explain how one of the following people would either support or question this statement.2357

                      I’m going to choose Martin Van Buren.2369

                      Martin Van Buren is a strong supporter of Jackson and his policies would support the statement 2372

                      and continue the policies of the spoils system and rotation office during his own presidency.2377

                      John Quincy Adams would be critical.2388

                      John C. Calhoun, he would be supportive for the most part, except for the unfair and nullification of the Jacksonian administration.2391

                      A little bit about Jackson, old Hickory.2405

                      We will talk more about him next time, and his controversial bank policies, and the removal of Native Americans.2410

                      With that, I'm going to conclude this lesson, and thank you for watching