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Puritan New England, The Pequots And Metacom's Rebellion

  • Puritans left England b/c of Elizabeth I’s policies and wanted to “purify” the Anglican Church.
  • Women & children, as well as men came to North America
  • The Pilgrims, Puritans who were “Separatists” that wanted to separate from the Anglican Church, sailed to N. America in 1620 on the Mayflower
  • Led by William Bradford, they set sail for the New World and created the Mayflower Compact, a covenant for religious and political autonomy and self-government.
  • Plymouth colony became a thriving community in 1621, and they survived with the help of the local Wampanoag tribe.
  • More Puritans sought refuge in America in 1630 and about 900 Puritans settled Massachusetts Bay Colony; thousands will migrate to the colony eventually.
  • MBC was a “holy commonwealth” and church and state were intertwined.
  • Conformity was expected and dissenters like Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson were not tolerated and were therefore banished for their heretical beliefs.
  • Relations with Native Americans worsened, especially as the Puritan encroachments threatened Native American settlements. Metacom’s Rebellion resulted in 1676, and the Native American population declined tremendously because of disease and warfare.
  • Refer to “After the Mayflower” from We Shall Remain http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/weshallremain/the_films/episode_1_trailer and episodes 1 and 2 of God in America http://www.pbs.org/godinamerica/

Puritan New England, The Pequots And Metacom's Rebellion

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  • Intro 0:00
  • Overview 0:09
  • Puritan Migration 1:20
  • Pilgrim Separatists Sail to North America 2:29
    • Elizabeth I
    • Separatists
    • Mayflower
  • The Mayflower and Pilgrims 5:25
    • 64-Day Voyage
    • Pilgrims
  • The Mayflower Compact 6:35
    • Self-Government
    • Just and Equal Laws
  • Grim Conditions for the Pilgrims at Plymouth 9:55
    • William Bradford
    • The Local Wampanoag Tribe
    • Thanksgiving Holiday
  • Puritans Arrive in MA Bay Colony in 1630 14:00
    • Arabella
    • John Winthrop
  • More Puritans Follow the Pilgrims 16:15
    • The Anglican Church
    • Massachusetts Bay Colony
    • Joint-Stock Corporation
  • Puritan Governance and Society 19:19
    • John Winthrop
    • Holy Commonwealth
    • Creation of the Theocracy
    • The Role of Church and the Bible
  • Pious, Patriarchal Puritans 23:57
    • Patriarchal Society
    • Predestination
    • Three Ways to Deal With Uncertainties
  • Puritan Dissenters 27:21
    • Roger Williams
    • Anne Hutchinson
    • Antinomianism
  • More Dissent and New Colonies 31:24
    • Thomas Hooker
    • The Fundamental Orders
  • Puritanism and Witchcraft 33:21
    • Witchcraft
    • European Enlightenment
  • Puritans Value Education 39:53
    • Puritan Law
    • Harvard College
  • Tight-Knit Yeoman Society 41:14
    • Town Meeting
    • Proprietors
    • A Socioeconomic Hierarchy
  • Puritan Town and Village Map 44:45
  • Halfway Covenant 46:03
    • Clergy
    • New England Congregationalists
    • Partial Church Members
  • Map of Algonquian Peoples In MA 48:17
  • Puritans and Pequots 49:36
    • Pequot Warriors
    • Savages
    • Praying Towns
  • The Wampanoag and Metacom's Rebellion 51:40
    • Peaceful Relations with Wampanoag
    • Metacom
    • The White Settlements
    • Losses of the Rebellion
  • Metacom 55:24
  • Example 1 56:06
  • Example 2 59:10
  • Example 3 1:01:13

Transcription: Puritan New England, The Pequots And Metacom's Rebellion

Welcome back to www.educator.com.0000

This lesson is on Puritan New England, the Pequots, and Metacom’s rebellion.0003

This lesson, we are going to focus on two major groups, actually more than two.0011

But two major groups of Puritans, I should say.0016

The pilgrim separatists who settled Plymouth plantation and they were really the first group of Puritans who arrived in North America.0019

Then, we are going to talk about the next major wave of Puritans to come to the new world.0028

They are going to settle Massachusetts Bay colony with its center in today’s Boston.0036

Then, we are going to cover the beliefs of both of these different groups and highlight why their ideas are still really influential today.0043

A lot of the values that we hold very dear in the United States really come from the Puritans.0056

Their impact cannot be overstated.0066

Lastly, we are going to focus on relations between Puritans and the Native American people in the region.0071

Let us get started.0080

The first thing that I have here for you to take a look at is a map of Puritan migration.0082

As you could see here, the Puritans came from England during various times.0091

We see in 1620, 1635, even into the Caribbean.0099

Mostly, we are going to focus on New England, the migrations to New England.0105

You could also see that Puritans also migrated to the Chesapeake region, areas that we talked about previously.0112

This map shows you the origin of the various Massachusetts Puritans.0122

One thing you will also notice is that a lot of the towns in England will also be transplanted as names 0130

and help in the naming of different towns in New England.0141

We are going to see the first group of pilgrims in the early 1600’s known as the separatist, will come to North America.0152

In particular, they will arrive on the famous Plymouth Rock.0162

Why did they leave?0168

They were upset with Elizabeth’s policies, was with the first policies.0170

They were being persecuted in England for their religious beliefs.0176

They were also very distrustful of a corrupt church and believed that0183

the only way that they could be true to their religious beliefs is to actually separate from the Anglican church, 0189

and to start their own new settlements.0196

We will see that some pilgrims for a time period will, in fact, they have been fleeing to Holland.0201

But they are not completely happy there either.0208

They did not have a lot of opportunities.0212

Many of them will eventually come back to England and then decide to come to North America.0216

A few key differences between this migration and the migration we talked about previously in the Virginia colony.0224

We will see that women, children, as well as men, came to North America.0237

Unlike in the Virginia settlement where we see mainly men come at first.0243

Here I talked again about the separatist.0251

We want to separate, that is the key term there, from the Anglican church.0254

The first group settled on the famous Mayflower ship that was led by William Bradford.0260

William Bradford at the time was a 31 year old man, who was very critical of the Anglican church 0270

and wanted to lead his people in their quest for a new settlement.0277

He became a really influential governor in Plymouth plantation.0284

In fact, writes a very influential book about the pilgrim's experiences called "Of Plymouth Plantation".0289

Where he really chronicles and describes the life of the pilgrims abroad, in Europe, in the old world, as well as in the new.0298

One of the greatest contributions during their migration, that again, has a very long lasting impact in the United States,0309

in U.S. history, is that the famous Mayflower Compact that we are going to talk about in a bit.0320

Here is picture of the ship, the famous Mayflower.0327

It was a small wooden ship, it was not a merchant ship like others, most ships that were actually sailing across the Atlantic.0330

They did have a very rough a voyage.0338

They left in autumn.0341

This was rough going in the 1600’s to travel across the sea.0343

They spent 64 day rough voyage and eventually arrived in early December.0352

44 of the passengers were pilgrims.0362

We usually mainly focus on that group.0369

They call themselves pilgrims or saints, while the rest were called strangers, 0373

kind of a different connotation at that time, whose primary aim was profit and not religious freedom.0380

We usually end up focusing more on the pilgrims who came over during this trip to the new world.0387

Here is a picture of the Mayflower Compact and all the people who signed it.0397

You could see it is in an older style of English and written in calligraphy.0404

The actual real document is not around anymore.0411

We are lucky that we actually still have record of it because it was copied from the original version.0415

But the actual original version is no longer here.0424

Few more things about the Mayflower Compact.0433

The idea of what the Compact meant, it is an agreement.0437

This is very indicative of the pilgrims beliefs in the idea of a covenant which is this agreement that is really blessed by God.0442

The idea is that it is kind of this understanding of this agreement and it is something that they are really bound to.0458

If they sign in and that they agreed to it, that they really need to follow this and be true to it.0469

The idea, kind of generally speaking, is this is a covenant for religious and political autonomy and self government.0476

Many historians, in fact, will consider this to be the first constitution in North America.0484

Even though it is a very simple, straightforward document,0492

because of the language in it that focused on establishing just and equal lives for the common good, this type of thing.0496

You should actually take a look at the wording and read through the Mayflower Compact.0511

It is a very important document for you to understand.0518

Do not be intimidated by the older style English.0521

You would still be able to understand some of the major concepts that were emphasized in the Compact.0525

Again, it is really famous for its effort to create this, even if it is a simple style of government where people come together0531

and agree to create a civil type of government, a fair government based on just and equal laws.0543

Again, the term equal at this point is very relative.0552

We do see that this is a very patriarchal type of interpretation and only men actually sign the compact.0558

In fact, most of the adult men on the ship signed the compact.0571

In fact, just to also emphasize its importance, many would even say that it influenced the declaration of independence and the constitution.0580

It was very difficult not only coming across the Atlantic, but also once they arrived.0599

Yes, these conditions were pretty grim for the pilgrims.0608

The first winter certainly tested the pilgrims, as hunger and disease took a heavy toll reducing the population by half.0614

It was quite difficult.0625

William Bradford, again, he was the one who wrote prolifically about their experiences.0629

He wrote that no friends to welcome us, no inns to entertain us or refresh our weatherbeaten bodies.0637

Some other words, they were really on their own.0645

They were trail blazers, they had to be very independent and try to pick themselves up, despite these difficult circumstances.0649

They were really starting from scratch.0659

It was especially difficult on the women.0663

As you can see, only 3 of the 18 married women survived.0668

The pilgrims will receive some help from the local Wampanoag tribe, who they show how to plant corn, beans, and squash.0673

If you remember, the importance of the three sisters, the crops that are Native to the Americas that will help sustain civilizations.0688

That is going to be important to help the pilgrims to survive.0703

They also have the help of the famous Native American Squanto.0710

You should look up some more information about Squanto.0718

Squanto was a Native American in the region and he even traveled to Europe and pilgrims did know about him previously.0723

He does befriend the pilgrims and helps them early on.0738

Eventually, we will see even by the fall of 1621, that the Plymouth colony became much more healthy0744

and they really started to thrive, which is a positive sign for the pilgrims.0753

That they were going to be successful.0760

Out of this cooperation, we are going to see at first that eventually the governor will in fact0765

make a decree saying that people should be able to have a feast.0773

They should have a feast and they have a thanksgiving holiday.0779

This is part of our, one of our important holidays that we have today.0783

There is a lot of mythology surrounding it.0791

Anyway, that kind of comes from this history where pilgrims and Native Americans0796

celebrate all the wonderful things that are growing in the area.0802

They celebrate this bountiful harvest and feast for several days, in fact, not just one day, like we do today.0810

Anyway, this was kind of their smaller settlement, the initial settlement of Puritans.0819

We will see other waves of Puritans coming to North America.0826

This early group will eventually be absorbed into the next settlement of Puritans.0830

As you can see about 10 years later, we are going to see another major group of Puritans coming to Massachusetts.0845

Aboard the Arabella, the famous Arabella, this is one of the important leaders,0853

John Winthrop, who will also become a governor of Massachusetts Bay colony.0860

One thing to keep in mind again, coming back to the covenant, that these Puritans really see that they have a sense of purpose 0866

and he helps to provide the leadership on this trip, reminds the Puritans of their covenant with God.0876

Again, the term covenant is really important when you are talking about the Puritans.0884

Who end up, again, this group in 1630, they settle Massachusetts Bay colony.0891

This map, you can see here that mainly focuses on Plymouth that we are talking about before, that will expand tremendously.0901

This is kind of the original part of Plymouth right here.0908

This was the first landing, this is Cape Cod today.0913

This is the other major portion of Plymouth.0919

But as you can see, it will eventually expand.0922

But Massachusetts Bay is really to the North, and in fact will be much bigger than this region right here, eventually.0924

The Puritans who arrived and settle Massachusetts Bay colony, they come on the Arabella.0932

John Winthrop is their leader, reminds them of their covenant with God, that they must honor God and be blessed.0939

Or if they failed, they would be punished.0946

There is the other side of the coin, if you do not fulfill the covenant.0950

If you do not go along with the plan and you are not doing what God wants you to do, 0956

that is going to be a problem, that they will basically perish and suffer.0963

And that it is basically their fault.0970

One major difference between these groups of Puritans is that they wanted to purify, reform the church.0978

However, they wanted to stay connected to the Anglican church.0988

That is one of the major differences between the pilgrim Puritans and the next wave of Puritans that follow.0995

Sometimes people do not know the difference.1004

That is something you should definitely make sure that you know the differences.1006

Again, however, very similar to the pilgrims,1012

we are going to see this group again, is they are trying to seek refuge and trying to flee from the persecution.1015

They disliked the Anglican rituals that were forced on their churches, so they set refuge in America.1026

They eventually established the Massachusetts Bay colony.1036

Over the next decade, thousand of Puritans, about 10,000 Puritans1040

migrated to Massachusetts Bay colony, with 10,000 others fleeing hard times in England.1045

Around the same time period, because of the effects of the enclosure acts1054

and other economic problems, we are going to see that people want to leave England.1059

They really want to start anew, they are really desperate to create a new life and to have new opportunities.1065

What else, the Puritans are going to create a representative political institutions 1074

that were based on transforming their initial joint stock corporation.1080

There is that concept again that we talk about previously with the Virginia company.1089

This company is going to be called, I do not have it written down here.1095

I will write it here.1100

The Massachusetts Bay colony, I’m sorry, Bay Company not colony.1104

This is another example of a joint stock corporation.1114

This is going to help fund the colony.1118

They will be really influential in helping to create the overall government structure and economic structure as well.1123

With that, I should continue my highlighting, they are going to create their structure.1135

The general court of share holdings that we are going to see Winthrop, 1145

who will become the governor and his associates had rights to organize and fund the colony.1151

I have a little bit more about John Winthrop.1161

As I was saying, he is a very important person you should be familiar with.1164

He was the governor of Massachusetts Bay colony.1170

He was a devout Puritan and one of the most significant leaders, especially, early on in Puritan history.1175

He delivered a famous sermon that was called the model of Christian charity.1182

This is a very small excerpt from it, and really it helps to symbolize and emphasize what the goal really was for the Puritans.1190

Here we go.1201

We must consider that we shall be as a city upon a hill.1201

The eyes of all the people are upon us.1206

Think about that for a minute, what does that mean?1210

What does it mean to you?1213

A city upon a hill, the eyes of all the people are upon us.1216

If you think about being elevated on a hill, that there is a lot of light shining on top of this hill.1222

That really the idea is to create this holy commonwealth, this model society for all to see, to be a good example.1230

Ultimately, they view themselves as the chosen people, that they were really chosen by God to create the city, city upon a hill.1247

That is really going to be the essence of their founding and what they really want to advocate for.1260

We are going to see that religious beliefs are going to be very influential in all that they do.1271

In many ways, this is somewhat debatable but we are going to see many historians would say that a theocracy was created.1280

We will see that religious ideas, I should say, more than church.1292

Although, we certainly will see that the church is at the center of the society1298

but we really will see an influence of religious ideas on the overall structure of the government and the society,1304

and in many ways, their economic life as well.1315

You probably have heard of the Protestant work ethic.1319

That really derives from, Puritans are really a great example of that, that it is very godly to work hard.1323

Anyway, something to keep in mind.1334

What else do they have in their society?1337

The right to vote and hold office was there.1340

They did have this established but it was limited to men who were church members.1344

You do see that this is where you can see the relationship between church and state.1350

Church members have a voice.1357

If you did not, you would not be able to participate.1360

As time goes on, obviously that is going to change.1365

But this is really their main belief in the early years.1368

The Bible also was their legal, as well as spiritual guide for Massachusetts Bay.1372

Protestant ideas and ideals were really promoted in this settlement.1379

Political unity really required religious conformity.1387

The idea of following along, of being obedient, those values are really important and emphasized in Puritan society.1393

They were expected of all members of society.1404

This again, is very much tied into the concept of the covenant.1407

These series of agreements, if you will, between man and his wife, between the minister and the congregation, even within the town and the settlement.1413

These expectations to conform, to be obedient, and to live a holy life, and to really be a model for all.1427

Pious, patriarchal Puritans.1441

We do see that the women share all the burdens of building the colonies.1447

They were considered second class citizens.1452

Yes, inferior to men.1455

I do have a picture here to show you some typical dress.1459

They were very humble in the way that they dress.1464

A lot of vibrant colors, which sometimes people like to make fun of, they were too flamboyant in their dress.1473

Anyway, some people might say that it is drab, that it might be a little bit unfair.1485

But nonetheless, yes, they were not too revealing in their clothing.1493

The Puritans were known for being patriarchal and everyone was to know their place.1499

The father was definitely the head of the household, of the family, and expected to be respected.1507

Some other traditions of the Puritans and some of their beliefs.1518

They eliminated bishops and placed power in the hands of the laity or ordinary members of the congregation.1523

In fact, this group will be called the Congregationalist.1530

You can see the root word here, congregation.1536

The idea is that the power is in the hands of the church members, the people, the laity, not the clergy.1539

They are trying to flip that power structure that the Catholics had promoted for so many years.1555

Puritans were very much influenced by Calvinist ideas and they did believe in predestination.1563

Another important thing to keep in mind.1571

Again, really think of the protestant reformation as this continuation, that the idea of wanting to continue to improve upon the church, 1574

that is going to lead to more Protestant churches, more churches that are trying to perfect1584

and improve upon the religious beliefs and practices.1595

Puritans dealt with the uncertainties of the divine election in three ways.1601

Through the conversion experience which was a born again, conviction of salvation.1607

Preparation, confidence in redemption built on years of spiritual guidance and belief in, 1613

there is that word again, covenant with God, that promised salvation in exchange for obedience to God's laws.1621

Those are the main beliefs related to the divine that were promoted by the Puritans.1633

What if you did not agree with the Puritans, because again, human beings are unique.1644

What we are going to see is that, there will be some who will start to question some of these doctrines.1653

These dissenters will have to face the consequences as a result.1661

I want to highlight some of these famous dissenters because you need to know them.1670

Dissenters, those who kind of disagree, who rebel, speak out against the religious teachings.1675

Again, all were expected to conform to.1683

Roger Williams was one of the famous dissenters of the Puritans.1686

He agreed with the pilgrims in separation of church and state.1693

He had also rejected the idea that civil authorities could compel observance of the Sabbath.1700

He also disliked the idea that Puritans could take land away from the Native Americans without compensation.1709

He thought that was immoral.1721

That was not a popular view amongst the majority of the Puritans at this time.1723

Yes, he is going to receive a lot of backlash for his beliefs.1731

He, again, advocated for separation.1736

He was eventually banned from Massachusetts Bay colony, excommunicated, so to speak.1740

He was kicked out and along with this followers, he leaves Massachusetts Bay colony and found new settlements in Rhode Island.1746

In particular, he really starts out in Providence Rhode Island, where there was no legally established church.1757

He is going to really advocate for more religious toleration.1765

He is a really important dissenter you should be familiar with.1771

Another famous dissenter is Anne Hutchinson.1775

She is going to be problematic because she is a woman who also is speaking out and questioning a lot of the beliefs.1780

She took that Protestant idea and not tried to put so much emphasis on the clergy, 1788

on the ministers, and really interpreting those ideas in a much more radical way.1796

Yes, she believed in a diminishing world, Puritan ministers.1807

She wanted the power of the people.1810

In fact, she even had religious meetings in her own home.1812

That was scandalous at the time, that did not go over well.1821

Again, this is a patriarchal society and here is this woman who did not know her place.1828

She was shaking things up.1837

That is also going to be a no-no.1839

That did not go over too well.1845

Another idea she supported was antinomianism.1847

The idea that faith alone, not deeds, is necessary for salvation.1851

That was something else that led many of the church leaders in the Massachusetts Bay colony to consider her a heretic.1859

The magistrates eventually convicted and banished Hutchinson and her family from the colony.1875

She actually also ends up going to Rhode Island.1885

She also was eventually killed in a Native American attack.1889

And then, the last person I wanted to mention who is another example of the dissenter was Thomas Hooker, 1896

who in 1636 ended up leaving Massachusetts Bay and founded Hartford, Connecticut.1903

He also really had a problem with the limited rights for church members in Puritan society.1913

He encouraged, and this group adapted the fundamental orders which is plan of government that included an established church,1921

a popularly elected governor and assembly, voting rights for most property owning men, not just for church members.1935

This expanded the scope of who is included in government and who would have a voice and voting rights.1945

That is also considered the fundamental orders.1957

This example here is another indication that many of the Puritans are experimenting with early forms of democratic government.1961

You have to keep in mind that there are democratic practices happening at the same time as anti-democratic practices.1973

Especially, once we start getting into the treatment of Native Americans.1983

Certainly, we know not everyone was included in the political process.1988

You had to own property.1992

Property is really important in men.1998

Puritanism and witchcraft.2007

Because a lot of their religious beliefs, we are going to see that this is also going to kind of feed into some of the extremism 2010

that resulted during the famous witch trials and witch hysteria, witchcraft hysteria.2020

Puritans, just to put this into context, thought that the physical world was fused with supernatural forces.2029

Their respect for spiritual forces perpetuated certain pagan superstitions shared by nearly everyone.2037

But condemned with these ideas, were condemned by zealous ministers.2046

That is what is going to just kind of understanding the mindset of the various people involved,2053

that people were influenced by pagan ideas, even though, they were expected to follow the Bible.2059

Kind of being tempted by the devil and those other supernatural ideas.2070

They should stay away from but people were aware of them.2078

That is going to feed into some of the irrationality that is going to unleash in Salem and some of the regions surrounding that town.2084

This is going to lead to a horrible hysteria that is very famous in this part of history and over all U.S. history.2101

We even use the term witch hunting, that refers to this area.2112

Even though there have been witch burnings and so forth in Europe for many years.2119

And anyway, I cannot go into huge depth on this.2134

This is a fascinating topic and you should definitely delve into it and learn more about it.2137

But it is something that they do not really cover in huge depth, usually on the AP exam.2141

Anyway, this is going to be definitely one of the most famous incidents, I would say, in Puritan history.2148

The famous Salem witch hysteria and the trials that result.2157

One thing to keep in mind, again, putting this into context, 2162

is that around the time that this started to happen, the mid to late 1600’s, Salem was struggling economically.2166

The resources were being stretched.2177

There were also Native American attacks and this was kind of making people feel very insecure, overall.2181

There were tensions between different families.2192

There were rivalries between different families.2195

There were even socioeconomic tensions between land owning families and those who did not have as many means.2199

That is where we are going to start see this situation breakout.2213

This really starts with the group of girls in Salem who accused an Indian slave named Tituba of witchcraft and she was from the Caribbean.2222

She ends up confessing her whole connection to the devil, really, and these supernatural forces that overtake her.2236

This really ignites the whole witchcraft scare where people are calling each other witches and so forth.2251

The trials end up wreaking havoc on the whole region which eventually resulted,2259

you could see between 1647 and 1662, Puritan civil authorities in Massachusetts,2267

this did extend to Connecticut, hanged 14 people for witchcraft.2275

In 1692, in Salem, this was happening beforehand, 175 were arrested and 19 were hanged for witchcraft.2280

This was something that spun out of control and indicated how extreme beliefs and fears could really cause this type of hysteria.2294

There is another theory that people could have been poisoned by tainted wheat.2311

In fact, this is kind of a new theory that people were kind of going crazy because they were poisoned, essentially.2320

There were some different theories that you can learn more about in more depth and make a judgment for yourself.2329

Definitely fascinating chapter in U.S. history.2337

Popular revolution against the executions brought an end in New England to the legal prosecutions for witchcraft and heresy.2342

This became something that especially once we get to the enlightenment by the 1700’s, 2357

people are going to have more rational ideas and they view this as extremely irrational and not based on fact.2366

They used a lot of what they called spectral evidence, that they could not really prove that this was really founded in any facts.2375

We will eventually see that this will subside.2388

Moving on, speaking of rationality.2395

Some other things to emphasize with the Puritans is that they definitely value education.2399

We will see when we look at the map, that they are having a school, really.2406

Of course, the churches are going to be really important, being able to read the Bible is really very much tied to this.2412

We will see there is a Puritan law, that all villages with 50 or more people must have a school.2420

Their children were taught to read, write, and do arithmetic, at least called priars.2425

The first college in the United States was established, Harvard College, named after John Harvard, who was a Puritan from Boston.2432

Harvard was founded in 1636 to train ministers.2443

You will still see the influence of educating your ministers, first and foremost, 2450

that is kind of the foundation, the early history of this college.2457

Obviously, it expanded into other things still around today.2461

But they also still have a divinity school.2465

You can still see the connection of this history to the Puritans. 2469

Education, very important.2474

Also having a tight-knit society was really important and a society based on Yeomen.2477

Meaning that people are farmers, that they can be eventually independent farmers.2488

People live in these small communities and villages.2495

We will see that a simple land distribution policy was established, that encouraged the development of self governing communities.2499

Most land dwellers had the opportunity to at least access land.2510

When I show you the map, you will see what I'm talking about.2516

There were common areas and pastures that people would have access to, so that they could grow food and have a farm.2518

Here you can kind see the early development of how important the village and the town, and that community,2528

will help to create cooperation and a structure of organization for people to talk things out in a democratic way. 2540

That is part of the evolution of the democratic ideas that really emerged in the United States.2552

All land owners, although, there were limits, I always have to include that.2564

It was not perfect, this was a process.2569

All land owners had a voice in the town meeting.2573

During the town meeting, kind of like it sounds, where people would come together,2580

this is really part of the system of local government.2586

In New England, which all males, heads of households, met regularly to select men, deduct taxes, and regulate markets, roads, and schools.2589

To take care of the business of the local area and to make decisions, and so forth.2601

An important example of people coming together in a democratic way to make decisions.2613

New England farmers did enjoy more political power than their European or Chesapeake counterparts.2618

That is also significant to point out.2627

In organizing Puritan town governments, the general courts of Massachusetts Bay and Connecticut2632

restored the title to each township on a group of settlers or proprietors, who then bestowed the land among the male heads of families.2637

This was the type of land distribution system that they had established in Puritan New England.2651

Most people have access to land.2659

However, there still was a socioeconomic hierarchy.2662

The largest plots of land were given to men of high social status.2667

There certainly were limits to this.2673

But certainly, in comparison to what was happening in Europe and what was happening in Chesapeake Bay, 2676

this is much more democratic and more people had access to improving their socioeconomic situation.2683

Here is an actual picture to exemplify a typical New England Puritan town.2693

You can see, just to point out a few things here, the centrality of the church.2702

Here is the village common where people can all meet.2708

They could have social events here.2711

The town hall where they could meet to discuss political issues, etc.2715

The school, again, that I emphasize education is extremely important.2720

But you can see how tightly met this committee was.2725

Here is the common, people having access to land.2730

You could also observe that there is also a lot of wilderness at this time.2737

The individually owned family farms, you could see that there are several of them located through out the town and village.2744

Just to give you a visual idea of what that would have looked like.2756

I also want to mention about the halfway covenant.2766

As you now, some of the ideas of the Puritans were sometimes controversial.2771

As they settled for many years and new generations were born, 2775

we are going to see that the church is going to need to alter some of its rules, in order to maintain church membership.2781

In the 1660’s, in an effort to maintain its influence and membership, the halfway covenant was offered by some clergy.2792

This will be so much controversial, we will see.2802

This religious political solution was adapted by New England Congregationalists.2807

Puritans who allowed the children of baptized but unconverted church members to be baptized, 2814

could also become church members with political rights.2822

That was a change, instead of just, you have to be a church member and you have to go through the conversion experience.2826

This is kind of a way to compromise some of those strict doctrines that have been advocated for previously.2839

Under this, people could become partial church members, even if they have not felt a conversion, 2846

an experience that was previously required to become a church member.2855

The practice was eventually abandoned by most churches, however, by the 18th century, during the great awakening.2860

When leaders thought the church membership could be given only to convinced believers.2867

We will see these religious ideas are going be embraced by some and questioned by others.2874

They will be those who continue to kind of contest and want to improve upon the beliefs that had already been established.2883

The halfway covenant was really looking to open things up for the Puritans.2892

Now we are getting into the last part of the lesson where we are going to talk about the Native American people of the region.2902

This map really shows you a huge space of the Algonquian speaking peoples.2909

This was the major family of these various tribes of Eastern woodlands tribes.2917

We will see in the early 1600’s like 1619, in particular,2927

about 90% of the Native American population along the coast of New England died from massive epidemics.2933

But the Pequots, these group here, in the Narragansett's were spared at first.2943

In 1633, a second epidemic actually spreads throughout New England and this does not spare any of the tribes.2952

This was extremely unsettling to Native Americans.2966

We are going to see a huge loss of life.2969

In fact, estimates are up to 90% of the Native American peoples were killed by disease.2975

If they were not killed by disease, we will see that the Puritans will use force to takeover,2985

as we will see, Indian lands, really based on religious grounds.2993

In 1636, we will see that conflict is going to arise.3002

Pequot warriors attacked English farmers who would intrude on their lands.3010

This is going to eventually lead to the Pequot wars and retaliation.3016

Puritan militia men and their Indian allies massacred about 500 Pequots. 3022

Huge loss of life here.3030

The Puritans had a very biased view of the Native Americans.3033

They viewed them as savages and did not deserve civilized treatment.3039

And that, Native Americans were not necessary genetically inferior but it was sin or Satan, 3045

rather than race, that accounted for their degenerate condition.3054

That was kind of the issue for the Puritans, not so much of a racial issue.3061

That could have played into it a bit, but it was more of their religious ethos.3067

We will see that this will feed into the establishment of praying towns3073

or Native American settlements that were supervised by Puritan minister.3077

The effort really was to convert Indians to adapt English culture and Protestantism.3082

Very similar to the Franciscan missions that we talked about in New Mexico or in other parts of the southwest.3092

We see democratic ideas along with anti-democratic ideas at the same time.3103

After the Pequot wars, we will see that there were peaceful relations for nearly 40 years, 3111

with the Wampanoag which is another tribe in the region.3120

They were old allies of the pilgrims.3124

Again, the pilgrims got along with the Native American people for a while.3126

And then, we are going to see that problems are going to erupt as well, in that settlement.3133

The main thing that is going to put pressure on Native Americans is the huge increase in the English population.3143

We will see Whites will outnumber the Native Americans, 55,000 while Indians are about 16,000, in New England.3151

This is like late 1600’s.3164

To stop the European advance, the Wampanoag leader Metacom ends up forging a military alliance with other local tribes.3168

This will eventually breakout into, he will also be known as King Philip, was his English name.3179

This is going to eventually lead to a war that will become known as King Philip’s war.3194

It is also known as Metacom's rebellion.3203

You should be familiar with both terms.3205

The Wampanoag, we are going to see the group attacked white settlements throughout New England.3213

The fighting continued until Metacom’s death in 1676.3219

The previous generation had better relations.3228

This was really something that was very disappointing to the Native American people,3232

because they saw the Puritans as very greedy and that they were not going to stop expanding into their lands.3238

They were obviously very threatened and their livelihood was disrupted.3247

This was pretty brutal.3253

Losses were high in both sides but the Indians losses were worse.3255

25% of the Indians already diminished population died from war or disease.3261

A huge loss for Native Americans.3269

Those who did survive migrated farther into New England, into the New England back country3273

where they intermarried with other Algonquian tribe members that were tied to the French,3284

who became their ally in future attacks against the English.3290

That is going to get kind of messy because we are going to see rivalry between the English and the French.3295

Both of those European groups are going to play off of the tensions between different Native American groups,3303

and that, Native American groups will try to do the same as well.3313

We will see that it is usually the Native Americans who end up suffering much more than the Europeans.3317

I’m just going to finish here, kind of a grim note.3326

Again, keep in mind that we have to think of both sides and think of all the different themes of this lesson.3331

Anyway, just to leave you with a quotation from Metacom.3340

We were the first in doing good to the English and the English the first in doing wrong.3344

This was the famous Metacom, or as the English like to call him King Philip.3350

That concludes our lesson on the Puritans, the Pequots, and Metacom’s rebellion.3357

Now we are going to get into some of the examples, some questions that you might see on a typical AP test.3367

First, you should read the excerpt I have here.3375

We must be knit together in this work as one man,3379

we must entertain each other in brotherly affection,3384

we must be willing to abridge ourselves of our superfluities for the supply of others' necessities.3388

We must uphold a familiar commerce together in all meekness, gentleness, patience, and liberality.3396

We must delight in each other, make others conditions our own,3403

rejoice together, mourn together, labor and suffer together.3409

Always having before our eyes our commission and community in the work, as members of the same body.3414

The eyes of all people are upon us, so that if we shall deal falsely with our God in this work we shall have undertaken,3424

and cause him to withdraw his present help from us, we shall be made a story and a byword through the world.3432

This is an excerpt from John Winthrop’s Model of Christian charity.3442

Lots of things should be going through your mind.3451

First, you want to identify who the person is.3454

We talked about this before.3456

Things that you should think about.3460

As you read, highlight.3462

Some things I could even point out here now.3464

The idea of community, that we are all in it together, brotherly affection.3468

As you go through these examples, feel free to pause, take your time, read it again slowly to yourself.3479

The question is on the next slide.3488

What is the main message of Winthrop’s sermon?3491

Individualism is the most important value of the Puritans.3494

In order to create an ideal society, Puritans must work together for a common goal.3498

It is important to inspire the English to move to the new world to support their business venture.3504

Or allow all people to worship and live as they please.3510

The answer is B.3514

Let us move to the next one.3521

How did the Puritans view themselves?3522

As secular individuals who advocate a separation of church and state.3525

As chosen people to do God’s work.3530

As pagans who embrace the natural world.3533

As sinners who are destined to suffer.3536

What do you think?3540

The answer is B.3542

Let us move on.3548

This another quotation.3553

It was a fearful sight to see them thus frying in the fire and the streams of blood quenching the same,3555

and horrible was the stink and scent thereof,3561

But the victory seemed a sweet sacrifice,3564

they gave the praise thereof to God, who had wrought wonderfully for them,3567

thus to enclose their enemies in their hands, and give them so speedy a victory over so proud and insulting, and blasphemous, an enemy.3573

Blasphemous, that is a pretty strong word.3584

The horrible stink and scent, we probably know what that is talking about, streams of blood quenching.3588

Praise thereof to God who had wrought so wonderfully for them.3601

That would probably not be the Native Americans but the pilgrims.3607

Again, highlight your different keywords that will help you understand the passage.3617

See if you recognize the author.3625

Hopefully, you remember William Bradford.3628

We talked about him today.3630

This sets out the context when and where.3635

This was inspired by.3641

The question, which of the following best describes the Puritan attitude toward the Pequots?3645

The Puritans view the Pequots as savages who did not deserve civilized treatment.3650

The Puritans viewed the Pequots as the chosen people.3655

The Puritans did not think that they could convert the Pequots to Christianity.3659

The Puritans viewed the Pequots as equals.3663

The answer is A.3668

Let us talk about example 3.3674

For this short answer question, answer A and B.3677

Explain how one of the following supports the statement. 3681

Puritans intolerance of dissent led to the founding of a number of new colonies.3684

We have Hartford Connecticut, Providence Rhode Island, and Albany New York.3690

Albany New York looks like an oddball.3696

I’m going to cross that one out.3698

I think I'm going to choose Providence Rhode Island.3701

It is one that is a well known one.3706

I’m going to come up with a sentence that will help to address this question.3714

You do not want to restate the question.3719

You want to come up with a unique sentence that is original, that addresses this as succinctly as possible.3722

Some Puritans disagreed with the treatment of Native Americans.3740

They left, they in fact, spoke out against this policy and ended up founding a new colony in Providence Rhode Island.3749

That would be an example.3761

Letter B, identify an individual who founded one of these colonies and briefly describe his or her basic ideas that challenged Puritan principles.3765

Roger Williams was a dissenter who left Massachusetts Bay colony because of his controversial views concerning Native American, 3776

that they should not have their land confiscated by the Puritans.3790

He also advocated for a separation of church and state.3804

He was therefore banished from the settlement and set up Providence Rhode Island.3810

A new colony where he encouraged religious toleration.3819

There is an example for you.3828

Thank you for watching www.educator.com.3831