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Join Dr. Catherine Carpenter as she explores everything in a standard Microbiology college course with clear explanations and tons of relevant real-world examples.

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I.Introduction to Microbiology

  History of Microbiology 40:36
   Intro 0:00 
   Overview of Microbiology 0:35 
    What is Microbiology? 0:39 
    History of Microbiology 0:47 
   What is Microbiology? 3:11 
    Study of Biology of Pathogen 4:05 
    Study of Biology of Vector 4:13 
    Biology of Human Host 4:28 
   Microbiology 6:32 
    Study of Microorganisms 6:35 
    Includes Viruses, Small Macroscopic Organisms, and Parasites 7:48 
    Microorganisms are Responsible for Cycling the Chemical Elements Essential for Life 9:32 
    Produce More Energy Through Photosynthesis Than Plants 10:00 
    90% of Cells in Our Body are Microbes 11:20 
   Important Discoveries in Microbiology 11:29 
    Anton Van Leeuwenhoek 11:48 
    Invented of the Microscope 11:59 
   What Was Leeuwenhoek's World? 12:47 
   The First Smallpox Vaccination: Jenner 1796 13:25 
    Jenner Invented the First Vaccine 13:35 
    Protected from Smallpox 13:58 
   Edward Jenner and Vaccination 14:49 
    Cowpox Virus 15:25 
    Material Used for Vaccine Probably Contained Cowpox Virus 15:46 
    Inoculate James Phipps by Taking Pus from the Lesions on the Hands of a Diary Maid 16:20 
   Louis Pasteur and Theory of Spontaneous Generation 17:58 
    Pasteur's S-Shaped Flask Kept Microbes Out but Let Air In 18:04 
    Disproved Theory of Spontaneous Generation 18:20 
   Fermentation, Pasteurization, and Vaccination: Louis Pasteur 19:53 
    Fermentation 19:54 
    Pasteurizing 20:14 
    Vaccination 20:56 
   The Germ Theory of Disease: Robert Koch 21:13 
    Koch's Postulates 21:47 
   Koch's Postulates 23:13 
    Procedure to Determine Criteria to Establish Casual Relationship Between a Microbe and Disease 23:34 
   A Fortunate Accident: Antibiotics 25:40 
    Alexander Fleming Discovered the First Antibiotic 25:55 
   Summary of Important Discoveries 27:12 
    Ability to Visualize Microorganisms 27:49 
    Vaccination 28:59 
    Fermentation, Pasteurization and Vaccination from Rabies 29:21 
    Germ Theory of Disease 29:42 
    Antibiotics 30:08 
   Example 1 31:36 
   Example 2 32:02 
   Example 3 33:56 
   Example 4 37:53 
   Example 5 38:57 
  Laboratory Testing & Visualization 44:19
   Intro 0:00 
   Laboratory Testing and Visualization 0:37 
    Serology 1:09 
    Visualization: Types of Microscopes 1:32 
   A Clinical Microbiology Lab Report Form 1:57 
   Generalized Tests for Microorganisms 2:36 
    Morphological Characteristics 2:44 
    Differential Staining 3:00 
    Biochemical Tests 3:45 
   A Clinical Microbiology Lab Report Form 4:19 
   Serology 6:38 
    Detect Levels of Antibodies 6:46 
    Blood Serum 7:43 
    Recent of Past Infection 7:59 
    Differentiate Different Strains 9:39 
   Example of Serology Testing for HBV 10:02 
   Direct Agglutination Testing 12:52 
    Visual Test 13:08 
    Positive Results 13:16 
    Antibodies Sufficient in Level 14:13 
   ELISA Test 15:56 
    Sandwich ELISA 16:39 
   Western Blot 18:56 
    Proteins are Positioned on the Filter so Antibodies Can Bind to the Antigens 19:09 
    Filter is Then Washed with Patient's Serum 19:27 
    Positive Test for Particular Microorganisms 20:04 
   Flow Cytometry 21:09 
    Used to Identify Bacteria Without Culturing the Bacteria 21:17 
    Moving Fluid Containing Bacteria is Forced Through Small Opening 22:03 
    Differences in Electrical Conductivity Between the Cells are Detected 22:17 
    Results Distinguishing Three Different Species of Microorganisms 22:56 
   Genetic Testing: DNA Fingerprinting 23:49 
    Way to Specify and Differentiate Bacteria 25:36 
    Some Produce Taxon 25:47 
    Used as a Proxy for Microbial Cell Abundance 26:13 
    Detailed Figure 26:43 
   Pattern Matching to Determine Bacterial Strain 27:22 
    Example 28:00 
    Picture of That 28:04 
   Instruments to Visualize Microorganisms 29:36 
   Light Microscope 30:22 
    Image 31:18 
   Darkfield Microscopy 31:44 
    An Illumination Technique Used to Enhance the Contrast in Unstained Samples 31:51 
    How It Works 32:01 
   Planaria in Pond Water 32:19 
   Electron Microscope 32:55 
    Uses Electron Beam to Illuminate a Specimen and Produce a Magnified Image 33:23 
    Electron Microscopy 33:34 
    Electron Microscope Image 34:23 
   Atomic Force Microscope 34:41 
    Manipulates Matter at the Nanoscale 35:09 
    Atomic Force Microscopy Image 35:37 
   Atomic Force Imaging 35:54 
   Instruments to Visualize Microorganisms 37:02 
    Light Microscopes 37:18 
   Example 1 37:28 
   Example 2 40:19 
   Example 3 40:57 
   Example 4 42:13 
   Example 5 42:35 
  Present Day Importance of Microbiology 43:48
   Intro 0:00 
   Two Important Topic Area in Microbiology 0:41 
   Gut Microbiome 1:21 
    A Forgotten Organ 1:25 
    Colonization of the Gut Begins at Birth 2:34 
    Factors That Alter the Relationship 4:02 
    Pathologic Inflammation 7:05 
    Commensal Species 9:47 
    Pathobionts 10:28 
   Functional Comparison of the Gut Microbiome with Other Sequenced Microbiomes 10:38 
   Genes and Microbiome 11:34 
    Vitamin K Example 12:00 
    Escherichia Coli 13:07 
    Genomes of the Bacteria and Viruses of the Human Gut Encode 3.3 Million Genes 14:02 
   Link to Microbiome and Health 14:57 
   Antibiotic Resistance 15:42 
    Natural Selection, Survival of the Fittest, Adaptation 16:39 
   Theory of Evolution 17:07 
    Origin of Species 17:13 
    Darwin Came Up with Theory 17:50 
   Link to Theory of Evolution 18:01 
   Natural Selection 19:03 
    Natural Selection 19:09 
    Adaptive Trait 19:21 
   Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria 19:49 
    Two Week Course of Antibiotics 20:10 
    Antibiotic Resistant Strains Found in Hospitals and Schools 21:21 
   Evolution of Resistant Bacteria 22:01 
   Evolution of Resistance 24:06 
    Natural Selection 24:08 
    Some Bacteria Transfers the Resistant Genes to Other Bacteria Who Don't Have It 24:24 
    It Reproduces and Soon Populates an Antibiotic Resistant Infection 25:06 
   Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria 25:30 
    Acquired Resistance 25:31 
    Resistance Develops by Mutation of Resident or by Acquisition of New Genes 26:55 
    Flourish in Areas of High Antimicrobial Use 27:10 
   Spread of Antibiotic Resistance 27:19 
   Selection of Resistant Bacteria by Overuse and Misuse of Antibiotics 29:02 
   Multiple Antibiotics 29:46 
   Antibiotics Used Unnecessarily 30:35 
    Bacterial and Viral Pneumonia 31:13 
    Indiscriminant Use of Antibiotic 31:52 
    Unnecessary Antibiotics Can Promote Resistant Bacteria 32:25 
    Future Antibiotics May Lose Effectiveness 32:33 
   Ease of Obtaining Antibiotics 33:11 
    Over the Counter 33:13 
    Encourages Indiscriminant and Inappropriate Use of Antibiotics 33:25 
   Use in Animal Feed 34:26 
    Prevent Infections and Promote Growth 34:30 
    Animals Can Develop Resistance Also 35:03 
   Tutorial on Antibiotic Resistance 36:05 
   Example 1 36:32 
   Example 2 39:30 

II. Cell Biology

  Biology of the Prototype Cell 10:02
   Intro 0:00 
   Cellular Organization 0:14 
    Prokaryotes 0:27 
    Eukaryotes 0:48 
   Three Domains of Life 0:51 
    Eubacteria 1:02 
    Archaebacteria 1:09 
    Eukaryotes 1:15 
   Evolution of Bacteria 1:21 
   Common Qualities 2:02 
    Nucleus 2:12 
    Plasma Membrane 2:47 
    Cytoplasm 3:09 
   Multicellularity 3:17 
    Multicellularity Evolved 3:28 
    Cells Gave Rise to Earth's First Lineage of Multicellular Organisms 3:57 
    Fossils of Bangiomorpha Pubescens are 1.2 Billion Years Old 4:18 
    Cells Differentiated for Attaching to a Substrate 4:37 
    Longitudinal Division Divides Disc-Shaped Cells Into Radially Arranged Wedge-Shaped Cells 4:54 
   According to Energy 5:08 
    Phototrophs 5:36 
    Chemotrophs 6:02 
   Introducing Prokaryotic Cells 6:46 
    Bacteria and Archaea 6:51 
    Smallest Form of Life 6:58 
    Similar in Appearance and Size 7:06 
    Aerobic 7:13 
    Anaerobic 7:19 
    Facultative 7:26 
   Example 1 7:37 
   Example 2 9:02 
  Structures in Common & Structures That Are Unique 8:40
   Intro 0:00 
   Structures 0:22 
    Way to Remember Cell Structures 0:23 
   Membrane Similarities 0:34 
    Both Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes Have Plasma Membrane 0:42 
   Replication Molecules 1:17 
    Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes Have DNA and RNA 1:18 
    One Way Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes are Different 1:41 
   Genome Differences 1:49 
    Eukaryotes 1:52 
    Prokaryotes 2:12 
   Cell Division Differences 2:43 
    Prokaryotes 2:49 
    Eukaryotes 2:55 
   Organelle Differences 3:07 
    Eukaryotes 3:10 
    Prokaryotes 3:31 
   Energy Metabolism Differences 3:42 
    Eukaryotes 3:48 
    Prokaryotes 4:21 
   Cytoskeleton Differences 4:41 
    Eukaryotes 4:50 
    Prokaryotes 5:27 
   Example 1 5:46 
   Example 2 7:13 
  DNA & RNA 11:46
   Intro 0:00 
   Which Came First 0:31 
    RNA Came First 0:38 
    Short RNA Molecules 0:54 
    Stored Information 1:05 
   Early RNA 1:21 
    Synthesized Proteins and Carried Info 1:24 
    Information Carrying Role of RNA 1:36 
    Evolution of Double-Stranded DNA Enabled the Storage of More Complex Info 2:01 
    DNA Became a Better Mechanism for Information Storage of Complex Traits 2:13 
   Replicating Molecules 2:35 
    Replicating Molecules Evolved and Began to Undergo Natural Selection 2:51 
    Replication 3:05 
    Protein Synthesis 3:13 
   RNA Evolves Into DNA 3:24 
    DNA Contains Instruction 3:32 
    RNA Transcribes DNA 3:54 
    Proteins Are Made from the Instructions 3:59 
   DNA Structure 4:15 
   Chromosomal DNA 5:02 
   DNA Coiling 5:26 
   DNA - Nucleic Functions 5:51 
    Transcription 6:04 
    Replication 6:29 
   Function of DNA 7:10 
   DNA Replication 7:36 
    Complete Unzipping of DNA 7:38 
    Assembly of Complementary Nucleotides 7:47 
    Only Occurs in Cell Division 8:09 
   DNA Replication Diagram 8:18 
   DNA Transcription and Translation 8:41 
   Example 1 9:46 
   Example 2 10:27 
   Example 3 10:45 
  Motility 11:24
   Intro 0:00 
   Motility is an Important Property 0:26 
    Flagella 0:37 
    Pili 0:55 
   Prokaryotic Cell 1:08 
   Pili 1:38 
    Fimbriae 1:45 
    Pili Connect a Bacterium to Others of the Same Species 1:57 
    Transferred Plasmids Can Bring a New Function to the Cell 2:37 
   Fimbriae 3:07 
    Distributed Over the Entire Surface of the Cell 3:08 
    Have a Tendency to Adhere to Surfaces and to One Another 3:17 
    Example: Neisseria Gonorrhea 3:40 
   An Electron Micrograph of E Coli 3:53 
   Bacterial Conjugation with Pilus 4:12 
   Prokaryotic Flagella 5:14 
    Eukaryotes 5:34 
    Prokaryotes 5:43 
    Underneath Inner Plasma Membrane in Gram Positive and Gram Negative Bacteria 6:05 
   Different Types of Flagella 6:13 
    Flagella Organization 6:14 
    Bacteria Alters Speed and Direction of Rotation 7:11 
    Examples 8:07 
   Example 1 8:41 
   Example 2 10:05 
  Plasma Membrane 16:11
   Intro 0:00 
   Plasma Membrane 0:22 
    Functions of Plasma Membrane 0:28 
    Physical Isolation 0:31 
    Regulation of Exchange with the Environment 1:05 
    Communication Between the Cell and Its Environment 1:46 
    Structural Support 2:28 
   Plasma Membrane Composition 2:46 
    Lipids 2:59 
    Proteins 3:17 
    Carbohydrates 3:43 
   Lipid Bi-Layer of Plasma Membrane 4:19 
    Micelle 4:28 
    Bilayer 5:11 
    Liposome 5:40 
   Cellular Evolution 5:59 
    Evoloution of Membranes Advantages 6:49 
    Encased Cells Out-Competed Naked Cells 7:37 
   Plasma Membrane Structure 7:57 
   Plasma Membrane Differences 10:59 
    Eukaryotic Cells Have Carbohydrates 11:11 
    Eukaryotic Plasma Membranes Contain Sterols 12:08 
    Prokaryotic Plasma Membranes Consist Mostly of Phospholipids and Proteins 12:26 
   Example 1 12:41 
   Example 2 13:30 
   Example 3 15:02 
  Antibody & Antigen Recognition 15:50
   Intro 0:00 
   Finding and Cell Signaling 0:22 
   Ligand Binding 1:00 
    Ligand Binds 1:01 
    Binding Site is Complementary to the Ligand 1:30 
    Interaction Between Ligand and Binding Site is Specific 2:39 
    Induced Fit 3:24 
   Ligand Binding Illustration 1 3:44 
   Ligand Binding Illustration 2 4:21 
   Antibody Structure 4:44 
   Antigen-Antibody Specificity 5:40 
   Antigen-Antibody Reaction 6:27 
   Example 1 10:10 
   Example 2 11:54 
   Example 3 13:29 
  Microbial Metabolism 21:44
   Intro 0:00 
   Organisms and Carbon 0:20 
    Autotrophs 0:40 
    Heterotrophs 1:12 
   Organisms and Energy 2:07 
   Metabolism 3:19 
    Metabolism 3:26 
    Catabolism 3:53 
    Anabolism 4:15 
   Cellular Respiration 4:56 
    Aerobic Respiration 5:47 
    Anaerobic Respiration 6:13 
   Glucose 6:41 
    Most Important Carbohydrate 6:42 
    Three Major Outcomes 7:14 
    Stored 7:21 
    Oxidized via Glycolysis 7:22 
    Oxidized via the Pentose Phosphate 7:50 
   Outcomes of Glucose I 8:37 
   Outcomes of Glucose II 10:21 
   Overview of Aerobic Metabolism 11:50 
    Glycolysis 12:01 
    Citric Acid Cycle 12:05 
    Oxidative Phosphorylation 12:13 
    Formula 12:17 
   Aerobic Metabolism 12:28 
   Respiration and Fermentation 13:52 
   Carbohydrate Catabolism 15:00 
   Overview of Anaerobic Metabolism 15:59 
    Energy in Glucose is Released Without the Presence of Oxygen 16:00 
    Lactic Acid 16:08 
   ATP Production Requirements 17:13 
    Energy Sources 17:22 
    Electron Carriers 17:41 
    Final Electron Acceptors 17:49 
   Example 1 18:09 
   Example 2 18:41 
   Example 3 20:13 
  Microbial Genetics 39:49
   Intro 0:00 
   What is a Gene? 0:39 
    A Portion of the Chromosome That Determines or Affects a Single Character or Phenotype 0:51 
    Biochemical Definition of a Gene 0:57 
    Original Definition: One Gene-One Polypeptide 1:20 
   What is a Gene? 1:48 
    Regulatory Sequence 1:50 
   Genetic Code 2:44 
   Transcription and Replication 3:56 
   Replication of Bacterial DNA 5:05 
    Copy Both Sides of DNA Strand 5:20 
   DNA Transcription 5:53 
    DNA is Transcribed to Make RNA 6:18 
    RNA Polymerase Binds to the Promoter Sequence 6:24 
    Direction 6:29 
    Transcription Stops When It Reaches the Terminator Sequence 6:33 
   Bacterial Transcription 6:39 
    Transcription 6:46 
    No Nucleus 6:52 
   Translation 7:51 
    mRNA is Translated In Codons 8:11 
    Translation of mRNA Begins at the Start Codon 8:18 
    Translation Ends at Nonsense Codon 8:22 
   Gene Regulation 8:34 
    Constitutive Genes Are Expressed at a Fixed Rate 8:43 
    Other Genes Are Expressed Only as Needed 8:58 
   Regulation of Transcription 9:11 
   Repression 10:16 
   Induction 11:04 
   Germline Mutation 12:09 
    Evolutionary Biology 12:32 
    Molecular Biology 13:48 
   Mutations 14:34 
    Random and Rare 14:36 
    Can Be Beneficial or Neutral 14:46 
    Not All Mutations Matter 14:58 
    Somatic Mutations 15:20 
    Germline Mutations 16:30 
   Causes of Mutations 16:44 
    DNA Fails to Copy Accurately 16:48 
    External Influences Can Create Mutations 17:21 
   Types of Mutations 18:14 
    Substitution 18:18 
    Examples of Substitutions 18:29 
    Silent Mutations 19:56 
    Insertion 20:39 
    Deletion 20:51 
    Frame Shift 21:12 
   Bacterial Gene Recombination 22:16 
    Vertical Gene Transfer 22:57 
    Horizontal Gene Transfer 23:16 
   Genetic Recombination 23:46 
    Exchange of Genes Between Two DNA Molecules 23:47 
    Crossing Over Occurs When Two Chromosomes Break and Rejoin 23:52 
    Recipient Chromosome Contains New DNA 23:57 
   Bacterial Recombination 24:51 
   Bacterial Transformation 25:53 
   Conjugation in E. Coli 28:36 
   Transduction by a Bacteriophage 30:04 
   Plasmids 31:53 
    What are Plasmids? 32:00 
    F-Factor 32:14 
    Other Plasmids Encode for Proteins That Enhance the Pathogenicity of a Bacterium 32:39 
    Dissimilation Plasmids 33:24 
     R Factors 33:44 
   R-Factor, A Type of Plasmid 33:53 
   Transposons 35:04 
    Move From One Region of DNA to Another 35:29 
    Contain Insertion Sequences for Cutting and Resealing DNA (Tansposase) 35:34 
   Example 1 36:14 
   Example 2 37:34 
   Example 3 38:15 

III. Virus Biology

  Viral Structure, Genome, & Replication 16:50
   Intro 0:00 
   Medical Virology 0:11 
    Viral Structure 1:37 
    Viral Genome 1:55 
   What is a Virus? 2:09 
    Smaller 2:15 
    DNA or RNA with no Nucleus 2:34 
   Classification of Viruses 3:03 
    Type and Confirmation of Genomic Nucleic Acid 3:07 
    Viral Morphology 3:19 
   Viral Structure 3:54 
    Virion 3:58 
    Envelope 4:29 
    Capsid 5:39 
    Nucleocapsid 5:55 
   Viral Genome - Composition 6:27 
    Viral Genome 6:31 
    DNA vs. RNA Structure 6:42 
    RNA 7:49 
    Pathogenicity & Virulence 7:42 
    DNA 8:06 
   Viral Genome - Shape 8:36 
    Segmented 8:40 
    Non-segmented 9:22 
   Changes in the Viral Genome 9:36 
    Genetic Recombination 9:56 
    Reassortment 10:26 
   Changes in the Viral Genome 11:16 
    Quasi-species 11:24 
    Ebola Virus 11:58 
   Example 1 12:33 
   Example 2 13:42 
   Example 3 15:13 
  Viral Entry Into a Cell & Transmission 12:31
   Intro 0:00 
   Medical Virology 0:27 
    Viral Entry Into a Cell 0:30 
    Viral Transmission 0:39 
   Viral Entry into Cells 0:53 
    Attachment 0:58 
    Membrane Fusion 1:29 
    Pre Formation 1:56 
    Penetration 2:12 
   Transmission of Viruses 2:34 
    Aerosol 2:51 
    Contaminated Food 3:19 
    Arthropods 4:01 
    Sexual Contact 5:06 
    Organ and Tissue Transplant 5:22 
   Site of Virus Entry 6:17 
    Respiratory Tract 6:37 
    GI Tract 7:08 
    Urethra, Vagina, Anus 7:34 
    Skin 7:42 
    Conjunctiva 7:45 
    Type of Cell Best Suited for Virus 7:57 
   Example 1 9:23 
   Example 2 10:13 
  Medically Important Viruses 24:41
   Intro 0:00 
   Medical Virology 0:41 
    Viruses We Will Study 1:00 
    How the Viruses Differs 1:10 
   Medically-Important Viruses 1:23 
   Selected Viruses of Medical Importance 2:55 
    Herpesviridae, Simplevirus 2:59 
    Herpes Virus 4:09 
    Papillomaviridae, Alphapapillomavirus 4:47 
    Papilloma Virus 5:27 
    Reoviridae, Rotavirus 6:57 
    Rotavirus 7:58 
    Paramyxovirinae, Morbilivirus 9:04 
    Measles Virus 10:19 
    Orthomyxoviridae (Influenza Virus) 10:58 
    Influenza Virus - Antigenic Drift 12:52 
    Influenza Virus - Antigenic Shift 15:19 
   Medically-Important Viruses 18:39 
    Avian Influenza 18:41 
   Example 1 20:19 
   Example 2 21:50 
   Example 3 23:01 

IV. Classification of Microbes

  Overall Classification of Microbes 15:51
   Intro 0:00 
   What is Taxonomy? 0:18 
    Science of Classifying Organisms 0:21 
    Universal Names Used by All Countries 1:11 
    Reference for Identifying Organisms 1:19 
    Binomial Nomenclature 1:28 
   Systematics or Phylogeny 2:11 
    Phylogeny 2:12 
    Like Reading a Family Tree 2:28 
    Root of the Tree 2:33 
    Moving Forward in Time 2:49 
    Clade 3:01 
    Ancestors and Lineage 3:39 
   Taxonomic Hierarchy 4:17 
    Genus and Species 4:28 
    Classification Changes 4:38 
   History of Microbial Taxonomy 4:51 
    Discovery of Microscope 5:09 
    Kingdoms Plantae and Animalia 5:33 
    Smallpox Vaccine 5:42 
    Bacteria and Fungi 6:11 
    Kingdom Portista 6:24 
    Prokaryotes Introduced as a New Kingdom 6:57 
    Definition of Prokaryote 7:17 
    Kingdom Fungi 7:33 
    Kingdom Prokaryote 7:40 
    Two Types of Prokaryotic Cells 7:48 
   Using Molecular Techniques to Classify 7:58 
    Classify Microbes 8:24 
    Three Domain System of Classification 9:21 
   Classification Criteria 9:29 
    Physiology 9:58 
    Ecology 10:06 
    Behavior 10:27 
    Morphology 10:54 
    Molecular Evidence (RNA) 11:11 
   Three Domains of Life 11:39 
    Eukaryotes 11:46 
    Prokaryotes 11:48 
    Archaea 11:54 
   Example 1 12:13 
   Example 2 13:15 
  Prokaryotes: Bacteria & Archaea 12:14
   Intro 0:00 
   Classification of Prokaryotes 0:45 
    Lack of Nucleus 0:51 
    Culture 1:05 
    Clone 1:19 
    Strain 1:37 
   Phylogenetic Relationship 2:02 
   Archaea 3:53 
    Two Distinct Groups: Archaea and Bacteria 4:05 
    Archaea Lived in High Temperatures 4:29 
    Habitats 4:51 
    Only Habitants to Live in Extreme Habitats 5:24 
    New Research Shoes Archaeans are Abundant in the Open Sea 5:40 
   Archaea Morphology 5:59 
    Basic Archaeal Structure: Cytoplasm, Cell Membrane, and Cell Wall 6:08 
    Archaeal Cell Membranes 6:13 
    Plasmid 7:11 
    Archaeal Ribosomes 7:29 
   Example 1 8:20 
   Example 2 11:01 

V. The Immune System

  The Immune System 20:18
   Intro 0:00 
   Immune System Introduction 0:28 
    Body Defends Itself from Anything Foreign 0:49 
    What Immunity Constitutes 1:13 
    Immune Responses Can be Classified as Nonspecific or Specific 1:27 
    Nonspecific Immune Response 1:54 
    Specific Immune Response 2:22 
    Physiological Barriers 2:49 
   The Immune System 3:18 
    Innate Immune Response 3:20 
    Adaptive Immune Response 3:42 
   Immunity 4:47 
    Immunology 5:32 
    Immunity 5:39 
    Immune System 6:21 
   Barriers to Infection - Mechanical 6:41 
    Physical Barriers 6:54 
    Epithelial Surfaces 8:31 
    Mucosal Surfaces 9:54 
    Muco-ciliary Escalator 10:40 
   Barriers to Infection - Chemical 11:25 
    Enzymes 11:33 
    pH 12:29 
    Lung 13:48 
   Physiological Barriers 14:56 
   The Immune System 16:52 
   Example 1 17:15 
  The Complement System 16:53
   Intro 0:00 
   What is Complement? 0:37 
    Proteins 0:40 
    Synthesized by Different Cell Types 1:01 
   Complement System 1:14 
    Destroy Pathogens Directly 1:51 
    Activate Other Components of the Immune Response 2:02 
    Collaborate with Other Components of the Immune Response 2:12 
    Classical Pathway 2:28 
    Lection Pathway 3:29 
    Alternative Pathway 3:52 
   Integral Protein Types That Function in Cell-Cell Interaction 4:08 
   Function of the Complement System 4:49 
    Complement is Activated Upon Infection 4:50 
    Complement Functions Like Enzymes 6:16 
   Enzyme Activation 6:37 
   Function of the Complement System 7:43 
    Complements the Ability of Antibodies and Phagocytic Cells to Identify and Remove Foreign Pathogens 7:49 
    Amplification 8:50 
   Activation of the Complement System 9:17 
    Cytolysis 9:27 
    Chemotaxis 9:39 
    Opsonization 10:41 
    Anaphylatoxins 11:16 
   Complement and Membrane Attack Complex 12:10 
   The Membrane Attached Complex 12:49 
   Pathways of Complement Activation 13:07 
    Classical 13:43 
    Lectin 13:54 
    Alternative 14:07 
   Example 1 14:33 
   Example 2 15:23 
   Example 3 16:11 
  Adaptive Immunity 31:10
   Intro 0:00 
   What is Adaptive Immunity? 0:27 
    Primary Immune Response 0:41 
    Initiated by a Dendritic Cell That Ingested a Pathogen 1:24 
    Naïve B Cells are Stimulated to Proliferate and Differentiate in Specific Response to the Pathogen 1:49 
    Process of Adaptive Immunity 2:28 
   Humoral Immunity 3:03 
   Development of Acquired Immune Cells 3:41 
   The B Cell 4:50 
    Produced in the Bone Marrow 4:52 
    Outer Surface Contains a Specialized B Cell Receptor 5:01 
    Initial Activation 5:55 
    Secondary Activation 6:15 
   Hallmarks of Humoral Immunity 6:23 
    B Lymphocyte is the Central Cell 6:51 
    Antibody-mediated 6:58 
    Highly Complex 7:03 
   Step 1: Antigen Recognition 7:18 
    B Cells Recognize Extracellular Antigenics 7:22 
    Antigens on Pathogen Surfaces 7:54 
   Step 2: Clonal Expansion 10:43 
    B Cell Divides 10:48 
    Clone 11:46 
    Maturation of B Cells 12:33 
   Step 3: Differentiation 13:46 
    B Cells Differentiate Into Plasma Cells 13:49 
    Plasma Cell Produces and Secrets Antibodies Specific to the Origin Antigen 14:00 
    Produce and Secrete Abs Specific to the Original Antigen 15:38 
    Antigen Presenting Cells Show Protein Antigens to Helper T Cells 15:55 
   Step 4: Antigen Elimination 16:30 
    Newly-Manufactured Antibodies Attach to the Antigen 16:36 
    Termination of the Humoral Immune Response 17:30 
   Step 5: Immune Memory 18:32 
    Memory B Cells Reside in Bone Marrow 18:53 
    High-Affinity Immunoglobulins 19:15 
    Survive for Years 20:15 
    Respond Rapidly When the Antigen is Seen Again 20:39 
   Antibodies 22:34 
    Classes - IgM 22:41 
   Example 1 24:51 
   Example 2 26:54 
   Example 3 28:03 
  Antibody & Antigen Interactions 41:22
   Intro 0:00 
   Antibody-Antigen 0:22 
   Where Do Antigens-Antibodies Belong? 0:57 
   What is an Antibody? 1:12 
    Immunoglobulin 1:17 
    Definition of Antibody 1:32 
    Each Antigen is Specific to an Antigen 1:58 
    Antigen Binds to an Antigen 2:44 
    Produced by Plasma Cells 3:18 
   Antibody Structure 3:55 
    Paratope 4:17 
    Hinge Region 4:53 
    Fragment Crystallizable 5:44 
   Antibody Function 6:21 
    Recognizes and Captures Foreign Proteins and Molecules 6:41 
    Activates Complement 6:52 
    Binds to Immune Cells to Activate Their Specific Functions 7:55 
   The Antibody Isotypes 9:25 
    IgM 9:37 
    IgG 12:36 
    IgD 14:01 
    IgA 14:27 
    IgE 14:45 
   What is an Antigen? 15:18 
    An Antigen is to Provoke an Immune Response 15:53 
    Exogenous 16:43 
    Endogenous 17:16 
    Autogenous 18:10 
   Antigen-Antibody Reaction 19:08 
    Affinity 19:33 
    Avidity 19:57 
    Specificity 21:02 
    Cross Reactivity 21:31 
    Foreignness 22:17 
    Size 24:32 
   What Determines Antigenicity? 25:04 
    Antigenicity Definition 25:13 
    Conformation 25:29 
    Composition 26:02 
    Bacterial Components 26:27 
   Antigenic Determinants: Innate Immunity 26:53 
   Example 1 30:41 
   Example 2 33:15 
   Example 3 36:37 
  Tumor Immunology 33:16
   Intro 0:00 
   Antibodies Surrounding Tumor 0:40 
   Introduction to Tumor Immunology 1:22 
    Human Papilloma 1:41 
    Hepatitis B 2:26 
    Helicobacter Pylori 2:47 
    Immunology 4:05 
   Overview of Tumor Immunology 4:17 
    Immune Surveillance Theory 4:18 
    Malignant Transformation 4:34 
    Immune Reactivity to Tumors 4:37 
    Tumor Antigens 4:43 
    Tumor Immunotherapies 4:49 
    Inflammation and Cancer 4:53 
   Immune Surveillance Theory and Escape 4:59 
    Amount of Antigen Expressed is Too Low 5:51 
    Tumor Sheds Antigens That Block Antibodies and T-Cells from binding to the Tumor 6:01 
    Tumor Does Not Express Immunogenic Antigens 6:15 
    Tumor Does Not Express MHC Antigens 6:32 
    Tumor May Secrete Immunosuppressive 6:51 
    Hallmark of a Cancer Cell is Proliferation That is Dysregulated 7:12 
   Malignant Transformation 7:39 
    One Way to Cause Growth Regulations 8:24 
    Mutations Can Alter the Cellular Machinery Leading to Up Regulation of Oncogenes 8:45 
    Mutations Can Alter the Cellular Machinery Leading to Down Regulation of Tumor Suppressor Genes 9:15 
   Tumor Growth Over Time 9:42 
   Malignant Transformation 10:46 
    Benign 11:20 
    Malignant 11:37 
   Progression of Benign to Malignant 12:35 
   Micro-Induced Carcinogenesis 13:40 
    Initiation Promotion Progression Model 14:28 
   Examples of Malignant Transformation 14:53 
   Tumor Antigens 15:46 
    Tumor Must Express Antigens That the Immune System Recognizes as Foreign 16:16 
    Immune Reactivity to Tumors 16:40 
    Tumor Antigens 17:07 
    Tumor Immunotherapies 17:15 
    Tumorigenesis Secretes Chemical Signals That Change Gene Expression 17:25 
    Gene Expression Leads To The Following 17:30 
   Tumors in an Immunosuppressed Host 18:48 
    HIV and AIDS 19:13 
    Transplant Patients 19:55 
    Epstein-Barr Virus 20:19 
    Malaria 20:27 
   Tumor Immunotherapies 20:45 
    Active Therapy 21:01 
    Passive Therapy 22:02 
   Inflammation and Cancer 24:05 
    Chronic Inflammation 24:18 
    Inflammation as a Response to Cancer 25:23 
    Neoplastic Cells Induce an Inflammatory Immune System 25:34 
   Bacteria, Inflammation, and Cancer 25:59 
   Example 1 27:46 
   Example 2 29:21 
   Example 3 30:25 
   Example 4 31:28 
  Cell Mediated Immunity 57:13
   Intro 0:00 
   Adaptive Immunity 0:43 
   Cell-Mediated Immunity 1:47 
    Lymphocyte T Cell 1:56 
    Antigen-Presenting Cells 2:15 
    Subset of T Cells 2:22 
    Immune Tolerance 2:31 
   Hallmarks of Cell-Mediated Immunity 3:02 
    Primary Actor is the T Lymphocyte 3:06 
    Directed at Pathogens That Survive in Phagocytes 3:12 
    Based on Activation 3:23 
    Induce Apoptosis in Cells Displaying Epitopes of Foreign Antigens 4:25 
    Activates Macrophages and Natural Killer Cells 6:34 
    Stimulates Cells to Secrete Cytokines That Signal Other Cells of the Humoral and Innate Immune Response 6:47 
    Responds to Intracellular Antigens 7:16 
    Requires Direct, Cell-to-Cell Contact 7:24 
   The T-Cell 7:51 
    Mature in the Thymus 7:58 
    Presence of the T-Cell Receptor 8:04 
    Important Components 8:35 
    Antigen-Presenting Cell 9:36 
    Type of Leukocyte 11:17 
    Responsible for the Immune Responses That Lead to the Following 11:25 
   T-Cell Maturation 13:34 
    Thymocyte 13:42 
    Thymopoiesis 13:59 
    Thymus Conducts a Testing Process of Positive and Negative Selection 14:15 
    Somatic Gene Rearrangement 15:49 
    Infinite Number of Configurations That Create TCRs 17:00 
   Cluster of Differentiation (CD) 17:27 
    Function 18:23 
    Immuno-Phenotyping 19:18 
   Cluster of Differentiation (CD) 19:34 
    Nomenclature 19:40 
    Example 20:01 
   Antigen-Presenting Cells 20:50 
    Antigen Presentation 21:24 
    Antigen-Presenting Cells 21:32 
    Direct Presentation 21:52 
    Cross-Presentation 22:37 
    Cross-Dressing 23:04 
    Professional 23:24 
    Others 23:55 
    Contact Between an APC and TCR Stimulates Important Signaling Events 25:20 
   T-Cell Subset: T-Helper Cells 25:51 
    Th1 27:05 
    Th2 28:48 
    Th17 29:43 
   T-Cell Subset: Cytotoxic (Killer) T-Cells 31:26 
    CD8+ Cells 31:28 
    Target Cells with Antigen 31:50 
   T-Cell Subset: Cytotoxic (Killer) T-Cells 32:55 
    Perforin 33:30 
    Granzyme 34:07 
    Pharmaceuticals are Designed to Alter T-Cell Responses 35:00 
   T-Cell Subset: Regulatory T-Cells 37:01 
    Suppress Activation of the Immune System 37:40 
    Functions 38:36 
   T-Cell Subset: Regulatory T-Cells 39:45 
    Commensal Bacteria 39:51 
    Graft/ Transplant 41:02 
    Pregnancy 41:41 
    Tumors 41:47 
   Cytokines 42:46 
    Types of Cytokines 42:57 
    Chemical Messengers 43:19 
    Functional Classes of Cytokines 43:38 
   Chemokines 47:17 
    Chemotaxis 47:20 
    Inflammation 48:54 
    Homeostatic 49:10 
    Antiviral Response 49:23 
    Designation 49:27 
   Pulling It All Together 49:40 
   Example 1 51:40 
   Example 2 52:51 
   Example 3 54:56 

VI. The Bacteria

  Bacterial Cell Wall 18:38
   Intro 0:00 
   Overview 0:45 
    Gram Negative and Positive Bacteria 1:17 
    Bacteria Without Cell Walls 1:38 
   Recall the Prototype Cell 1:52 
    Plasma Membrane 2:15 
    Cytoplasm 2:21 
    Nucleus 2:26 
   Cell Wall Principles 2:41 
    Protects Bacteria 2:50 
    Survive in Fluid Environments 3:08 
    Attack by Antibiotics 4:26 
    Source of Identification 4:40 
   Peptidoglycan 4:47 
    Murein 5:10 
    Protects the Plasma Membrane 5:18 
    Gram Staining 5:42 
   Gram Positive and Gram Negative 5:55 
   Gram Positive Bacterial Cell Wall 8:26 
    Thick Structure 8:45 
    Gram Staining 8:52 
    Teichoic Acids in Cell Wall 9:06 
    Gram Positive Streptococci 9:21 
   Gram Negative Bacterial Cell Wall 9:57 
    Allows More Complexity 10:15 
    Outer Membrane Provides Barrier to Certain Antibiotics 11:00 
    Outer Membrane Contains Lipid A 11:34 
   The Gram Stain 12:36 
    Hans Christian Gram Invented a Stain to Visualize Bacteria 12:52 
    Gram Positive Bacteria 13:51 
    Gram Negative Bacteria 14:27 
   Example 1 14:55 
   Example 2 15:49 
  Bacterial Morphology & Shape 15:04
   Intro 0:00 
   Bacteria Morphology and Shape 0:28 
   Classification of Bacteria 0:50 
    Based on Several Major Properties 0:53 
    Taxonomy Principles Do Not Quite Fit for Bacteria 1:21 
   Variation in Shape and Distribution 3:00 
    Cocci 3:14 
    Bacilli 4:00 
    Budding and Appendaged Bacteria 4:27 
    Others 4:35 
   Bacterial Distribution 4:51 
   Shapes of Bacteria 5:45 
   Bacterial Shapes 6:40 
    Three Basic Shapes 6:41 
    Variation in Shapes 7:12 
    Clusters 7:31 
    Clusters Example 7:50 
   Streptococcus Pneumoniae 8:18 
   Bacterial Shapes 8:56 
    Streptococci 9:00 
    Staphylococci 9:12 
    Comma Shaped 10:28 
    Vibrios 10:37 
    Spirilla 11:04 
    Spirochetes 11:25 
   Example 1 11:38 
   Example 2 12:39 
   Example 3 13:24 
  Bacterial Metabolic Behavior 23:50
   Intro 0:00 
   Energy Metabolism 0:40 
   Classification of Bacteria 1:48 
    Metabolic Behavior 1:51 
    Some Organisms are Anaerobic 1:57 
   Organisms and Carbon 2:07 
    Autotrophs 2:10 
    Heterotrophs 2:43 
   Organisms and Energy 3:28 
   Metabolism 4:13 
    Metabolism 4:14 
    Catabolism 4:50 
    Anabolism 5:04 
   Cellular Respiration 5:49 
    Aerobic Respiration 6:55 
    Anaerobic Respiration 7:13 
   Glucose 7:41 
    Energy-Currency Molecule for Autotrophs and Heterotrophs 7:42 
    Three Major Outcomes 7:56 
   Outcomes of Glucose 8:18 
   Outcomes of Glucose and Pyruvate 9:07 
   Overview of Aerobic Metabolism 11:19 
    Glycolysis 11:25 
    Citric Acid Cycle 11:28 
    Oxidative Phosphorylation 11:30 
   Aerobic Metabolism 11:51 
   Respiration and Fermentation 13:18 
   Carbohydrate Catabolism 14:35 
   Overview of Anaerobic Metabolism 15:37 
    Energy in Glucose is Released Without the Presence of Oxygen 15:48 
    Lactic Acid 15:46 
   Types of Fermentation 16:16 
    Lactic Acid Fermentation 16:20 
    Alcohol Fermentation 16:27 
   Alcohol Fermentation 16:57 
    Any Spoilage of Food by Microorganisms 17:08 
    Any Process that Produces Alcoholic Beverages 17:14 
    Any Large-Scale Microbial Process Occurring With or Without Air 17:25 
    Yeast and Other Microorganisms Ferment Glucose to Ethanol 17:39 
    Two Step Process 18:07 
   Lactic Acid Fermentation 18:34 
    Classic Anaerobic Metabolism 18:35 
    Releases Energy from Oxidation of Organic Molecules 18:44 
   End Products of Fermentation 19:05 
    Ethanol, Acetic Acid, Lactic Acid 19:22 
    Propionin Acid and Carbon Dioxide, Acetone, Glycerol, Citric Acid, Sorbose 20:02 
   Example 1 20:29 
   Example 2 21:43 
   Example 3 22:55 
  Bacterial Infection Patterns 41:12
   Intro 0:00 
   'Hunting the Nightmare Bacteria' 0:42 
   Classification of Bacteria 2:13 
   Bacterial Pathogenesis 2:31 
    First Type of Immunity: Innate Immune System 2:49 
    Complement System 3:00 
    Innate Immune Cells: Phagocytosis 3:10 
    Cytokine Production and Epitopes 3:29 
   Location of Bacteria Infections 4:05 
   Steps of Bacterial Infection 5:25 
    Entry Into Host 5:30 
    Adherence to Host Tissue 5:53 
    Colonization 5:58 
    Overcome a Host's Defense 6:02 
    Hosts' Immune Response 6:10 
    Damage the Host Tissues 6:17 
    Progression or Recovery 6:25 
   Portals of Entry 6:35 
   The Skin 7:18 
   Viral and Bacterial Infection of Respiratory 7:46 
    Bacteria Entry 8:00 
    Some Bacteria Produce Toxins and Enzymes 8:28 
    Immune Response is Disease Causing Part of Bacterial Infection 8:46 
   Infection of Intestinal Epithelium 8:59 
    Shigella 9:00 
    Salmonella 10:16 
   Numbers of Invading Bacteria 11:05 
    Virulence 11:30 
    Potency 12:07 
   Virulence of Bacillus Anthracis 12:33 
   Adherence of Bacteria to Host Tissue 13:49 
    Adhesins or Ligands 14:10 
    Glycocalyx 14:26 
    Fimbriae 14:32 
    M Protein 14:53 
   Adherence 15:07 
    Adhesins or Ligands 15:10 
    E. coli Bacteria 15:53 
    Bacteria Adhering to Human Skin 16:17 
   Group A Beta-Hemolytic Streptococci 16:28 
   Bacterial Penetration of Host Defenses 16:42 
    Capsules 16:57 
    Cell Wall Components 17:03 
    Enzymes 17:18 
    Antigenic Variation 17:27 
    Penetration into Host Cell Cytoskeleton 17:57 
   Capsules 18:06 
    Capsule 18:07 
    Glycocalyx 18:19 
    Functions to Impair Phagocytosis 18:58 
    Host Can However Develop Antibodies Against the Capsule 19:07 
   Streptococcus Pneumoniae 19:28 
   Cell Wall Components 20:06 
    M Protein 20:18 
    Neisseria Gonorrhea 20:49 
    Fimbriae 20:57 
   Bacterial Enzymes 21:23 
    Coagulase 22:08 
    Hyalurpnidase 22:09 
    Collagenase 22:13 
    IgA Proteases 22:19 
   Penetration 22:44 
    Invasins 22:59 
    Invasins Cause Host Cell Membrane to Ruffle 23:12 
    Shigella and Listeria 23:32 
   Bacterial Damage to Host Cells 23:50 
    Production of Toxins 24:11 
    Types of Toxins 24:56 
   Production of Toxins 25:00 
    Toxin 25:08 
    Toxigenicity 25:21 
    Toxemia 25:25 
    Toxoid 25:30 
    Antitoxin 25:38 
   Exotoxin 25:44 
    Produced Inside Some Bacteria 25:55 
    Released When Bacteria Undergoes Lysis 26:06 
    Proteins and Enzymes That Catalyze Certain Biochemical Reactions 26:39 
    Bacteria That Produce Exotoxins Can be Gram + or Gram - 26:53 
    Exotoxins Are Soluble in Body Fluids 27:04 
    Some Diseases Caused by Their Exotoxins 27:13 
   Exotoxin Examples 27:35 
   Action of A-B Exotoxin 28:11 
   Endotoxin 29:12 
    Endotoxin Differ from Extoxin in Several Ways 29:21 
    Endotoxins are Released When Gram - is Liberated 30:24 
    Antibiotics Used to Treat Gem 30:32 
    Endotoxins Stimulate Macrophages to Release High Concentrations of Cytokines 30:59 
   Endotoxins and the Pyrogenic Response 31:17 
   Example Endotoxins 32:08 
    Salmonella Typhi 32:15 
    Neisseria Meningitidis 32:22 
    Proteus Spp 32:35 
   Steps of Bacterial Infection 32:42 
   Bacterial Penetration of Host Defenses 33:59 
   Example 1 34:41 
   Example 2 37:25 
   Example 3 39:39 
  Bacterial Adaptation to Environment 20:50
   Intro 0:00 
   Bacterial Adaptation 0:13 
    Varied Tissues Within Human Host 0:36 
    Variable Levels of Oxygenation Both Inside and Outside of Host 0:54 
    Variable Levels of Moisture Both Inside and Outside Host 1:10 
    Survive Various Antibiotic and Other Types of Treatment 1:23 
   Variable Oxygen Environments 1:58 
   Bacterial Endospores 3:33 
    Clostridium Botulinum 4:40 
    Bacillus Anthracis 4:48 
    Clostridium Tetani 4:50 
   Botulism: Neurotoxin 5:10 
   Clostridium Botulinum 6:29 
    Gram Positive Rod-Shaped Bacteria That are Strictly Anaerobic 6:58 
    Produce Spores 7:10 
    Produces Paralysis 7:49 
    Toxin Can be Destroyed by Heating Food to 80 Degrees Celsius 7:55 
   Bacillus Anthracis 8:47 
    Produce Spores 9:08 
    Anthrax is Mostly a Disease of Herbivores 9:20 
    Weaponized Anthrax is Primarily Inhalation Form 10:11 
   Clostridium Tetani 11:50 
    Spores are Located in Solid and Can Colonize Gastrointestinal Tracts 12:14 
    Disease Uncommon 12:27 
    Toxin Produced During Growth Phase of Bacteria When Cell is Lysed 13:14 
    Toxin Blocks Release of GABA 13:56 
    Results in Paralysis 14:09 
   Example 1 15:38 
   Example 2 16:45 
   Example 3 18:01 
  Antigenic Composition of Bacteria 33:08
   Intro 0:00 
   Bacteria as Antigens 1:04 
    Antigen-antibody Interaction 1:12 
    Bacterial Adaptations as Antigens 1:31 
    Cell Wall Components 1:44 
    Capsules as Antigens 1:50 
    Flagella as Antigens 1:58 
    Antigenic Variation 2:00 
    Bacterial Antigenicity and Vaccines 2:13 
   Antigen-Antibody Interaction 2:20 
    What are Antigens 2:25 
    Examples of Antigens 3:09 
   Bacteria as Antigens 4:33 
    Adaptation to the Human Host Environment 5:09 
    Pathogenic Agent 5:30 
    Criteria for Effective Antigenicity 6:02 
   Bacterial Adaptations That are Antigenic 7:36 
    Pila 7:45 
    Flagella as Antigens 7:57 
    Fimbriae 7:59 
    Capsules as Antigens 8:22 
    Peptidoglycan 8:33 
    S Proteins 8:45 
    M Protein and Lipid A 9:09 
   Cell Wall Components 9:47 
    Neisseria Gonorrhea 9:52 
    Fimbriae and Opa 10:03 
    After Attachment, Host Cell Takes Bacteria 10:22 
    Secretory Antibodies 10:38 
    Circulating Antibodies 10:58 
    Capsule 11:33 
    Neutralize the Virulence 12:39 
   Bacterial Capsules as Antigens 13:20 
    S. Pneumoniae 13:55 
    B. Anthracis 14:09 
    S. Pyogenes 14:38 
   Bacterial Antigenicity 15:30 
    Motility and Vibrio Cholerae 16:11 
    Flagella are Antigenic 16:20 
    Agglutinate or Immobilize Bacterial Cells 17:00 
   Antigenic Variation 17:49 
   Antigenic Variation Over Time 18:54 
   Antigenic Variation by Space and Time 22:12 
   Bacterial Antigenicity and Vaccines 24:02 
   Example 1 27:36 
   Example 2 31:24 

VII. Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases

  Epidemiology of Infectious Disease 15:43
   Intro 0:00 
   Infectious Diseases: Extent of Problem 0:43 
    26% of Deaths Worldwide 1:21 
    Ebola Outbreak in Africa 1:50 
    Cholera in Haiti and South America 2:22 
    West Nile Virus Infections in U.S. 2:39 
   Worldwide Cholera Occurrence 3:03 
   Extent of Research 4:38 
   Importance to National Security 5:42 
   Bioterrorism Key Achievements 7:00 
    Smallpox 7:06 
    Anthrax 7:22 
    Botulinum 7:28 
    Ebola 7:52 
   Importance of Epidemiology 8:38 
    Scientific Study of Causes and Determinants of Disease 8:44 
    Study of Vector and Animal Host Biology 8:56 
    Patterns of Disease Transmission 9:39 
    Determine Disease Causation 10:31 
    Development of Vaccines 11:04 
    Development and Evaluation of Effective Treatments 11:55 
   Example 1 12:28 
  Human Host & Disease Transmission 56:19
   Intro 0:00 
   Human Host and Disease Transmission 0:19 
    Discuss the Basis of Human Disease 0:27 
    Non-random Distribution of Disease 0:34 
    Ways Disease are Transmitted 0:44 
    Occurrence of Disease 1:09 
    Measures of Disease Transmission 1:19 
    Disease Outbreaks 1:23 
   Basis of Human Disease 1:39 
    How Human Disease Arise 1:43 
    Host Must be Susceptible 2:08 
    Capacity to Infect 2:32 
    Environment 2:53 
   Non-Random Distribution of Disease 3:27 
    Genetic Predisposition 3:34 
    Nutrition 4:16 
    Immune Status 4:24 
    Socio-Economic Status 4:40 
   Modes of Disease Transmission 5:46 
    Direct Transmission 5:54 
    Indirect Transmission 6:50 
   Example of Disease Transmission 8:30 
    HIV/ AIDS 8:34 
    Hepatitis A,B,C 10:10 
   Clinical and Subclinical Disease 12:42 
    Clinical Disease 12:49 
    Subclinical Disease 13:10 
    Non Clinical Disease 15:36 
    Carrier Status 17:48 
    Carrier Status Example: Typhoid Mary 18:33 
   Occurrence of Disease 20:18 
    Endemic 20:27 
    Epidemic 21:30 
    Pandemic 21:45 
   Epidemic of Obesity 22:22 
   Measures of Infectious Disease Transmission 23:45 
    Incubation Period 24:23 
    Epidemic Curve 27:44 
   Disease Outbreaks 28:37 
    One Exposure, Common Vehicle 28:43 
    Outbreak Analysis 32:14 
   Food Borne Illness 34:06 
    76 Million Cases of Food Borne Illness Per Year 34:07 
    Known Pathogens 35:08 
    62 Million Cases from Unknown Agents 35:23 
   Example of Food Outbreak: Salmonella Saintpaul, 2008 35:34 
   Distribution of Outbreak Strain of Salmonella Found on Tomatoes and/or Jalapeno Peppers 36:21 
   Number of Persons Infected with Salmonella Saintpaul 38:10 
   Clinical Features of Salmonella Infection 40:47 
    Diarrhea 41:06 
    Abdominal Cramps 41:11 
    Identified by Stool Sample Culture 41:19 
    Severe Infection 41:50 
   Case-Control Studies of Salmonella Saintpaul Infection 42:26 
   Description of Outbreak Source Investigation 45:02 
   Example 1 46:25 
   Example 2 50:43 
   Example 3 53:13 
  Difference Measures of Disease 39:23
   Intro 0:00 
   Introduction 0:16 
    What is the Extent of Disease? 1:00 
    Who is at Risk for the Disease? 1:07 
    How is Disease Transmitted? 1:36 
    How is Disease Defined? 1:52 
   Counts 2:17 
    Assessment 2:32 
    Example of Tuberculosis Count 3:04 
   Counts of Influenza Positive Tests 4:02 
   Counts of AIDS Cases 5:58 
   Example of a Food Outbreak Investigation 8:01 
    Steps Public Health Investigators Follow to Determine Cause of Illness 8:24 
    Identifying the Source 8:39 
    Example 9:04 
   Potential Sources of Contamination 9:44 
    Production 9:55 
    Farms 10:14 
    Distribution 10:31 
    Retail Establishments 10:39 
    Restaurant Example 10:56 
   Food Borne Outbreak Investigation Steps 11:43 
    Determining if an Outbreak is Occurring 11:57 
    Defining Signs and Symptoms 12:07 
    Hypothesis 12:14 
    Collect Data and Test Hypothesis 12:38 
    Not Finding Associations 13:09 
    After Finding Pathogen, You Can Conduct Intervention to Remove Contaminated Food 13:45 
    Determine the Source 14:09 
    Clear Outbreak When All Contamination is Gone 14:30 
   Case Study: Norovirus Outbreak Michigan Jan-Feb, 2006 14:34 
   Norovirus 16:14 
    Infects All Ages 16:40 
    Cause Infection Throughout the Year But There's a Peak in Time 16:44 
    Recognizing Outbreaks of Norovisur Infection 16:51 
   Cases of Norovirus Over Time 18:42 
   Attack Rate 19:24 
    Definition 19:37 
    Restaurant Example 21:11 
   Attack Rate by 3 Hour Time Intervals 22:52 
   Patrons Who Became Ill 23:35 
   Case Control Analysis to Determine Food Source 24:21 
   Attack Rate 25:58 
   Food Outbreak Measures 26:16 
    Compute the Denominator 27:06 
    Compute Attack Rate During Certain Time Period 27:28 
    Construct Possible Hypotheses 28:14 
    Conduct Case-Control Analysis with Odds Ratio 29:37 
   Example 1 29:47 
   Example 2 34:55 
   Example 3 36:51 

VIII. Eukaryotes-structure, Function, Diversity, and Environmental Niche

  Eukaryotic Microbes 20:53
   Intro 0:00 
   Introduction to Eukaryotic Microbes 0:38 
    Helminths 0:57 
    Why are They Called Microorganisms 1:01 
    Parasites 1:25 
   Introduction to Cell Theory 2:03 
   Evolution of Multi-Cellularity 3:30 
    Prokaryotes Can Form into Colonies and Biofilms 3:42 
    Eukaryotic Cells Can Arrange Themselves Into Tissue 3:58 
    Multicellularity Evolved 5:03 
    Fossils of Bangiomorpha Pubescens 5:45 
    Timeline 6:45 
   Endosymbiosis 8:00 
    Ancestral Anaerobic Eukaryote 8:05 
    Aerobic Eukaryote 8:38 
    Photosynthetic Cyanobacterium 8:54 
    Photosynthetic Eukaryote 8:58 
   Phylogeny 9:24 
    Prokaryotes 9:34 
    Eukaryotes 9:39 
   Organization of Eukaryotic Cell 9:50 
    Level 1: Monomeric Units 10:13 
    Level 2: Macromolecules 10:16 
    Level 3: Supramolecular Complexes 10:37 
    Level 4: The Cell and Its Organelles 10:40 
   Eukaryotic Animal Cell 11:01 
    Nuclear Envelope 11:53 
    Plasma Membrane 11:58 
    Mitochondrion 12:15 
    Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum 12:23 
    Ribosomes 12:51 
    Peroxisomes 13:00 
    Cytoskeleton 13:05 
    Lysosome 13:23 
    Golgi Complex Processes 13:27 
    Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum 13:40 
   Eukaryotic Plant Cell 14:01 
    Cell Wall 14:29 
    Chloroplast 14:49 
    Starch Granule 15:06 
    Thylakoids 15:17 
    Golgi Complex, Cytoskeleton, Ribosomes 15:25 
    Nucleus, Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum, Nucleolus 15:33 
    Mitochondrion 15:39 
   Example 1 15:56 
   Example 2 18:44 
  Eukaryotes: Fungi, Part I 19:45
   Intro 0:00 
   Introduction to Fungi 0:15 
    1.5 Million Different Species on Earth 0:17 
    Fungal Diseases 1:10 
    Fungi Live Outdoors and Indoors 1:17 
    Most Fungi Are Not Dangerous 1:30 
   Medically Important Fungi 1:38 
    Contagious Diseases 1:40 
    Commensal Organisms 2:39 
   Fungal Growth 3:14 
    Vegetative Growth 3:36 
    Septate Hypha 3:43 
    Continuous Hyphae 3:52 
    Spore 3:58 
   Fungal Dimorphism 4:06 
   Fungi Life Cycle 4:44 
    Filamentous Fungi 4:49 
    Fungal Spores 5:21 
   Fungal Fragmentation 6:05 
   Fungal Spore Formation 6:29 
   Fungi Sexual Reproduction 6:57 
    Plasmogamy 7:06 
    Karyogamy 7:10 
    Meiosis 7:11 
   Sexual Spores 7:45 
    Ascospore 8:11 
   Life Cycle of Ascomycete 8:21 
   Histoplasmosis Capsulatum (Ascomycete) 9:18 
   Histoplasmosis Distribution 10:54 
   Histoplasmosis Lifecycle 11:28 
   Fungal Diseases 13:06 
    Mycosis 13:08 
    Chronic and Long Term 13:16 
    Five Groups 13:21 
    Systemic 13:30 
    Subcutaneous 13:37 
    Cutaneous 13:40 
    Superficial 13:42 
    Opportunistic 13:45 
   Example 1 14:18 
   Example 2 17:40 
  Eukaryotes: Fungi, Part II 31:55
   Intro 0:00 
   Introduction to Fungi 0:19 
    Recap of Fungi Part One 0:20 
    1.5 Million Species 0:28 
    Focus on Fungi That Cause Human Disease 0:59 
   Medically Important Fungi 1:42 
    Contagious Diseases? 1:44 
    Dermatophytosis Example 2:02 
    Pneumocystis Example 2:22 
    Commensal Organisms: Candida Albicans 2:36 
   Fungal Diseases 3:02 
    Mycosis 3:06 
    Fungal Mycoses 3:12 
    Five Groups 3:22 
   Superficial Fungal Diseases 4:10 
    Fungi That are Localized in Hair Shafts and on Skin Surface 4:20 
    Prevalent in Tropical Climate 4:31 
    Benign 4:38 
    Figures Explanation 4:44 
   Cutaneous Fungal Disease 5:04 
    Infect the Epidermis 5:05 
    Dermatomycoses 5:21 
    Dermatophytes 5:31 
    Dermatophytes Secrete Keratinase 6:04 
    Examples 6:31 
   Subcutaneous Fungal Diseases 6:39 
    Fungal Infections Beneath the Skin 6:42 
    Occur After a Puncture Wound 6:58 
    Infections Occur Among Farmers 8:15 
    Example: Sporotrichosis 8:26 
   Candidiasis Albicans 8:57 
    Most Common in Yeast Infections 8:58 
    Resides on Skin Surfaces 9:16 
    Resistant to Phagocytosis 9:46 
   Opportunistic Fungal Disease 12:25 
    Host is Debilitated or Traumatized 12:52 
    Under Treatment with Broad Spectrum Antibiotics 13:20 
    Immune System is Suppressed by Drugs 14:03 
    Has an Immune Disorder or Lung Disease 14:19 
   Pneumocystis Pneumonia 14:47 
    Caused by Pneumocystis Jirovecii 14:56 
    Most Frequent and Severe Opportunistic Infection 15:05 
    Immunocompetent Adults Have Few or No Symptoms 15:59 
    Example: Pneumocystis Cysts in Lung of Patient with AIDS 16:58 
   Life Cycle of Pheumocystis Jirovecii 17:34 
   Early Incidence of Pneumocystis 18:49 
   Systemic Fungal Disease 21:21 
    Fungal Infections Deep Within the Body 21:24 
    Caused by Fungi Living in the Soil 21:44 
    Infections Begin in Lungs and Spread to Other Tissue 22:13 
    Example: Coccidiodomycosis Infection of Lung Tissue 22:21 
   Life Cycle of Coccidiodes Immitis 23:12 
   Number of Coccidiomycosis Cases 24:10 
   Distribution of Coccidiomycosis Cases 26:06 
   Example 1 27:20 
   Example 2 30:08 
  Parasites 20:01
   Intro 0:00 
   Introduction to Parasites 0:48 
    Live in Human Hosts 1:00 
    Example of Parasites 1:29 
   Extent of Parasitic Diseases 1:47 
    Parasitic Infections Cause a Tremendous Burden of Disease 1:54 
    Malaria Example 2:12 
    Neglected Tropical Diseases 2:38 
   Extent of Malaria 3:22 
   Relationships Between Species 6:51 
   Symbiosis Between Pathogen and Host 7:11 
    Symbiosis 7:29 
    Mutualism 7:58 
    Commensalism 8:05 
    Parasitism 9:10 
   Parasite Definitions 9:28 
    Parasite Definition 9:32 
    Three Major Classes 9:54 
   Ectoparasites 10:15 
   Locations of Parasitic Infection 10:48 
   Parasite Hosts and Vectors 12:21 
    Vectors Convey a Parasite from Host to Host 12:27 
    Anopheles Mosquito and Malaria 12:43 
   Example 1 13:04 
   Example 2 15:34 
  Eukaryotes: Protozoa 24:59
   Intro 0:00 
   Introduction to Protozoa 0:13 
    Protozoa Definition 0:14 
    Intestinal Protozoa 1:19 
    Insect Vectors 1:47 
   Transmission of Enteric Protozoa 2:02 
   Transmission of Blood Borne Protozoa: Leishmaniasis 4:50 
    Leishmaniasis Transmission Chart 5:33 
    Cutaneous Leishmaniasis 7:15 
    Visceral Leishmaniasis 7:37 
   Medically Important Protozoa 8:07 
    Four Classes 8:24 
    Described by the Systems They Infect 8:54 
   Flagellates 9:10 
    Intestinal and Genito-Urinary Flagellates 9:32 
    Blood and Tissue Flagellates 9:42 
   Ambae 10:45 
    Typically Amoeboid 10:49 
    Represented by Entamoeba, Negleria, and Acanthamoeba 11:27 
   Sporozoa 12:38 
    Alternating Sexual and Asexual Reproductive Phases 12:56 
    Cyclospora Life Stage 13:13 
   Lifecycle of Sporozoa: Cryptosporidium 16:16 
   Ciliates 17:20 
    Complex Protozoa Bearing Cilia Distributed in Rows or Patches with Two Kinds of Nuclei in Each Cell 17:24 
    Balantidium Coli 17:54 
   Example 1 20:06 
   Example 2 22:52 
  Eukaryotes: Helminths 32:53
   Intro 0:00 
   Introduction to Helminths 0:30 
    Definition of Helminths 0:31 
    Three Types of Helminths 0:54 
   Biological Properties of Helminths 1:38 
    Biological Life Cycle of Helminths 1:42 
    Adult Helminths May Be Dioecious 3:25 
    Monoecious Helminths 3:58 
   Characteristics of Helminths 4:12 
    May Lack a Digestive System 4:16 
    Nervous System is Reduced 4:41 
   Incidence of Helminth Infections Worldwide 5:50 
   Intestinal Helminths 6:29 
   Soil Transmitted Helminths 8:15 
   Wuchereria Bancrofti 8:35 
    Wuchereria Bancrofti Causes Lymphatic Filariasis 9:01 
    Nematode or Roundword That Inhibits Lymphatic Vessels 9:18 
    Life Cycle 9:43 
   Lifecycle of Wuchereria Bancrofti 10:11 
   Symptoms of Wuchereria Bancrofti 11:41 
    Elephantiasis 11:59 
    People Who Develop Lymphedema 12:39 
   Types of Chronic Tissue Helminth Infection 14:53 
   Distribution of Lymphatic Filariasis in India 18:08 
   Taenia Saginata or Solium 19:19 
    Human Tapeworms 19:20 
    Cestode That Inhabits Intestinal Tracts of Human Hosts 19:36 
    Taenia 20:01 
    Scolex 20:53 
   Tania or Tapeworms 21:39 
   Life Cycle of Taenia Saginata or Solium 22:15 
   Urban Myth of Reality 24:35 
   Example 1 25:41 
   Example 2 28:38 
  Helminths & Immunity 32:50
   Intro 0:00 
   The Immune System 0:45 
    Innate Immune Response 1:04 
    Adaptive Immune Response 1:15 
   Autoimmunity and Helminth Infection 2:20 
    Endemic Type 1 Diabetes 2:26 
    Endemic Helminth Infections 2:47 
   Coevolution of Helminths and Immunity 4:43 
    Helminth Infections are a Driving Force in Shaping 5:53 
    Helminths Do Not Replicate in Human Host 6:37 
    Helminths are Able to Maintain a Co-existence With Immune System 7:18 
    Innate Immunity 7:46 
    Adaptive Immunity 7:52 
   Localized Impact of Helminth Infection 9:05 
   Immune Modulation of Helminth Infection 14:07 
   Helminths and Immune Response 15:55 
    Other Ways Helminths Facilitate Immune Response 17:45 
   Helminth Influence on Immunity 19:07 
   Types of Chronic Tissue Helminth Infection 22:04 
    Infected, Low Pathology - Develop Tolerance 22:35 
    Chronic Pathology 22:50 
   Pathogen Co-Existence and Immunity 23:29 
   Helminths and Autoimmunity in Mice 25:31 
   Summary of Helminths and Immunity 26:39 
    Hygiene Hypothesis 26:42 
    Driving Force in Shaping 27:27 
    Absence of Helminths and the Immune Tolerances 27:46 
   Example 1 28:10 
   Example 2 30:23 

IX. Survey of Important Bacteria

  Gram Positive Bacteria 46:35
   Intro 0:00 
   Introduction 1:01 
    External Peptidoglycan 1:07 
    Stain Purple 1:16 
    Reasons How External Peptidoglycan is Important 1:30 
   Properties of Gram Positive Bacteria 1:51 
   Immune Attack of Gram Positive Bacteria 3:21 
    Process of Opsonization 3:29 
    What is Opsonization 3:39 
    Complement Forms Membrane Attack Complexes 4:38 
    Ways Bacteria Gets Recognized by the System 5:14 
   Properties of Gram Positive Bacteria 6:55 
    Metabolism 7:00 
    Survival Mechanisms 7:11 
    Shapes 7:23 
    Environments 7:39 
   Examples of Gram Positive Bacteria 7:59 
   Shapes of Gram Positive Bacteria 9:13 
    Streptococci vs. Staphylococci 9:26 
    Staphylococci Shape 9:38 
    Streptococci Shape 9:52 
   Staphylococcus Bacteria 10:04 
    Staphylococcus 10:20 
    Salt-Tolerant 11:36 
    Two Main Species 12:24 
    Pathogenicity 12:38 
    Enzymes and Toxins 13:38 
   Staphylococcus Aureus 14:57 
    Food Borne Infection 15:04 
    Skin Infections 15:29 
    Systemic Disease 16:14 
   Staphylococcus Bacteria 17:36 
    Categorized According to Antigens 18:00 
    Streptococcus Group A 18:09 
   Streptococcus Pyogenes 19:09 
    Pathogenicity 19:37 
    Rheumatic Fever 20:00 
    Necrotizing Fasciatis 20:39 
    Glomerulonephritis 21:30 
    Surface M Protein 21:50 
    Hyaluronic Acid Capsule 22:25 
    Enzymes 22:47 
    Pyrogenic Toxins 22:57 
   Bacillus 23:34 
    Has Endospore Stage and Produces Toxins 23:59 
    Bacillus Anthracis 24:16 
    Spores Activated 25:12 
    Toxins Cause Disease 25:40 
   Clostridium Bacteria 26:02 
    Gram Positive, Anaerobic, and Endospore Producing 26:30 
    Different Clostridium Bacteria 26:56 
   Clostridium Difficile 27:34 
    Commonly Found Among the Intestinal Microbiota 27:38 
    Opportunistic Pathogen 27:57 
    Common in Hospital 28:30 
   Age-Adjusted Death Rate for Enterocolitis Due to C. Difficile 29:16 
   Listeria Bacteria 29:54 
   Avoidance of Immune Reaction by Listeria 31:23 
   Multi-State Listeriosis Outbreak from Whole Cantaloupes Grown by Jensen Farms, Colorado 33:04 
   Example 1 36:17 
   Example 2 39:05 
   Example 3 43:47 
  Gram Negative Bacteria 44:38
   Intro 0:00 
   Introduction 0:29 
    Internal Cell Wall 0:45 
    Characteristic Properties 0:54 
   Gram Negative Bacterial Cell Wall 2:01 
    Outer Membrane Provides a Barrier 3:05 
    Outer Membrane Contains Lipid A 3:16 
   Properties of Gram Negative Bacteria 3:20 
    Lipid A Molecule 3:26 
    Lipopolysaccharides 3:40 
    Most Gram Negative Bacteria Do Not Form Spores 3:54 
   Gram Negative Laboratory Algorithm 4:05 
   Properties of Gram Negative Bacteria 6:45 
    Outer Membrane 6:50 
    Genetic Exchange 6:53 
   Immune Reaction to Gram Negative Bacteria 7:49 
   Examples of Gram Negative Bacteria 12:12 
   Endotoxin 12:52 
    Differ from Exotoxin in Several Ways 13:05 
    Released When Gram Negative Bacteria Undergo Lysis and Endotoxin is Liberated 13:50 
    Stimulate Macrophages to Release High Concentrations of Cytokines 14:36 
   E. Coli Bacteria 15:03 
    Escherichia Coli 15:06 
    Pathogenic Strains of E. Coli 15:28 
   Shiga-Toxin E. Coli Outbreak, Germany 2011 16:24 
   Salmonella Bacteria 18:29 
    Pathogenicity 18:36 
    Infection by Salmonella 20:36 
    Another Image of Infection by Salmonella 21:41 
   Bacterial Infections, 2013 23:44 
   Vibrio Bacteria 25:12 
    Vibrio Genus 25:37 
    Most Virulent Species is Vibrio Cholerae 25:50 
   Cholera Life Cycle 26:59 
   Worldwide Cholera Cases 29:44 
   New Cases of Cholera in Haiti During a 2 Year Period 30:24 
   Preventing Cholera Infection with Gut Flora 31:10 
   Bordetella Pertussis 32:55 
    Aerobic Coccobacillus 33:24 
    Tracheal Toxin 33:40 
    Pertussis Toxin 33:50 
   Pertussis Infection Timeline 34:25 
   Pertussis Symptom Timeline 36:10 
   Reported Pertussis Cases in US 1922-2003 37:31 
   Example 1 38:09 
   Example 2 39:36 
   Example 3 41:16 
  Bacteria with Other Cell Walls 24:06
   Intro 0:00 
   Bacteria Classification by Cell Wall 0:21 
    Gram Positive vs. Gram Negative 1:01 
    Gram Stain 1:18 
    Shape 1:24 
   Bacteria Undetectable with Gram Stain 3:07 
    Mycobacteria 3:23 
    Mycoplasma Pneumonia 4:02 
    Chlamydia 4:11 
   Mycoplasma Pneumoniae Bacteria 4:23 
    Atypical Small Bacterium Without A Cell Wall 4:30 
    Lacks Rigid Cell Wall 5:02 
    Extracellular in Respiratory Tract 7:02 
   Acid-Fast Bacteria 7:38 
   Mycobacterium Tuberculosis 8:36 
    Infectious Process 10:31 
   Tuberculosis Incidence in 2005 12:45 
   Chlamydia Trachomatis Bacteria 15:11 
    Obligate Intracellular Human Parasite 15:39 
    Gram Negative 16:01 
    Three Human Biovars 16:15 
   Life Cycle of Chlamydia 17:33 
   Example 1 19:42 
   Example 2 21:01 

X. Microbes and Human Disease

  Tuberculosis 28:00
   Intro 0:00 
   Tuberculosis Introduction 0:47 
    Malaria 0:51 
    Acid-Fast Staining 1:04 
    Tuberculosis Disease 1:42 
    Latent and Active Disease 1:51 
    Strong Man Image Example 2:22 
   Mycobacterium Tuberculosis 2:39 
    Cell Wall 2:48 
   Tuberculosis Incidence in 2012 3:21 
   Worldwide Tuberculosis Incidence 4:19 
   TB Research Center, Chennai, India 5:00 
   Tuberculosis in United States 5:47 
   Estimated HIV Co-Infection Among Individuals Diagnosed with TB in U.S. 6:28 
   Tuberculosis Pathogenesis 7:40 
    Infection 7:50 
    How It's Spread 8:09 
    What Determines Whether or Not an Individual Will be Exposed 8:49 
    Bacilli can Multiply Once Reaching the Alveoli 9:21 
   Mycobacterium Tuberculosis 10:18 
    Inactive Form of TB 10:34 
    Active vs. Inactive Form of TB Depends on If Bacilli Stay in Tissue or Break Out 10:44 
   Tuberculosis Pathogenesis 11:20 
    Bacilli That Reach Alveoli 11:32 
    Those Bacilli are Ingested by Macrophages 12:28 
    No Symptoms of Disease 13:20 
    More Advanced Stage 13:25 
    Multiply in Macrophages 13:45 
    Inflammation 14:24 
    After a Few Weeks Disease Symptoms Appear 15:00 
    Caseous Center 15:30 
    Aerobic Bacilli Do Not Grow Well in the Center 16:18 
    Granuloma Can Reactivate Later 16:46 
    Active Disease: The Granuloma Can Rupture with Liquefaction 17:25 
    Active TB 18:04 
   Tuberculosis Staging 18:12 
    Stage 3 Important Stage 18:40 
    Stage 5 You Have TB 18:55 
   Tuberculosis Testing 19:31 
    Tuberculin Skin Test 19:32 
    Positive Skin Reaction Image Example 20:14 
   Tuberculosis Vaccination 20:32 
    BCG Vaccination in Other Areas Around the World 20:48 
    BCG Protects from the Active Form of Tuberculosis 21:06 
    BCG Does Not Confer Lifelong Protection 22:34 
   Mycobacterium Tuberculosis 22:51 
    Target Different Parts 23:09 
    Regiment 23:32 
   Example 1 24:34 
   Example 2 26:40 
  Malaria, a Protozoan Disease 29:59
   Intro 0:00 
   Protozoa Introduction 1:13 
    One-Celled Organisms 1:14 
    Free Living or Parasitic 1:19 
    Can Multiply in Humans 1:27 
    How Does a Pathogen Get to the Digestive Tract 1:44 
   Worldwide Cases of Malaria 3:06 
    Found Where There a Lot of Mosquitoes 3:14 
   Malaria Introduction 4:00 
    Protozoa 4:03 
    Lives Partially in Human Host, Partially in Mosquito 4:06 
    Four Major Species 4:29 
    Carried by Anopheles Mosquitoes 4:49 
   Lifecycle of Malaria 5:08 
    Two Stages in Human Host and One Stage in Mosquito 5:30 
    Mosquito Bites and Injects Sporozoites 5:49 
    Parasite Goes Into Liver 7:14 
    Blood Supply 7:33 
    Diagnostic Stage 7:55 
    Erythrocytes 8:11 
    Gametocytes 9:04 
    Final Stage: Release of Sporozoites 9:39 
   Sickle Cell Anemia and Moleria 10:16 
    Sickle Cell Anemia is a Genetic Mutation Disease 10:34 
    Function 11:05 
    Hemoglobin Shape and Oxygen Capacity are Slightly Different 11:16 
   Selective Advantages and Disadvantages 12:04 
    Effects at a Cellular Level 12:06 
    Effects at the Organismal Level 12:39 
    Effects at the Population Level 12:54 
   Evolution of Human Malaria 13:31 
    Plasmodium Parasite Has Evolved 13:40 
    Plasmodium Reichenowi 13:56 
    What's Going on in India 14:43 
   Malaria Pathogenicity 15:40 
    Incubation Period 15:41 
    Symptoms 16:05 
    P. vivax and P. ovale 16:41 
    Dormant Liver Stage 16:57 
    Diagnosis 18:33 
   Malaria Treatment 19:30 
    Depends on Many Factors 19:32 
    Medications 20:32 
   Example 1 22:28 
   Example 2 27:38 
  HIV/AIDS 38:07
   Intro 0:00 
   What is HIV / AIDS? 0:31 
    Human Immunodeficiency Virus 0:32 
    Once Infected, the Virus Will Always Be There 1:28 
    Exception 1:45 
    Transmitted Through Body Fluids 2:10 
    Virus 2:15 
   HIV Can be Transmitted Through 3:13 
    Sexual Contact, Injection Drug Use, Occupational Exposure, Pregnancy, Blood Transfusion 3:14 
    Blood Transfusion Used to be Significant for Disease Transmission 3:31 
   Adult HIV Prevalence, 2012 4:30 
    Africa is Highest 4:40 
    North and South America are Also High Prevalence 4:44 
    India 5:02 
   Counts of AIDS Cases 5:22 
   Example of Disease Transmission 7:19 
    Males 7:31 
    Females 7:42 
    HIV/ AIDS Methods of Transmission 8:33 
   HIV Retrovirus 9:10 
    Retrovirus 9:21 
    Replicate the Virus 10:13 
   Life Cycle of HIV Virus 10:55 
    Genome 11:10 
    Reverse Transcription 11:16 
    Host DNA Produces Goes Through Transcription and Translation 11:26 
    Produce Viral RNA 11:36 
    Importance of Figure 12:00 
   Viral Load and Immune Cell 12:45 
    Individual Infected 12:52 
    Plasma Virus Load Increases then Rapidly Declines 12:58 
    CD4+ T Cell 13:34 
    Immune System is Suppressed Enough That AIDs Develops 14:20 
   Evolution of HIV/ AIDS 15:31 
   Immunodeficiency and Development of Opportunistic Infections 17:40 
    Herpes Simplex Virus 18:00 
    Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus 18:10 
    Kaposi Sarcoma and Many More 18:22 
    Disease Emerge at Different Time Depending on Degree of Suppression 18:40 
   Opportunistic Infections with HIV 18:52 
    Early 1900s 19:04 
    Pneumocystis 19:21 
   Opportunistic Fungal Disease 20:15 
    Harmless, Opportunistic Fungi 20:31 
    Can Happen to Individuals Who are Taking Drugs to Suppress Immune System 20:44 
   Pneumocystis Pneumonia 21:13 
    Pathogen 21:32 
    Immunodeficient Adults 21:41 
   Estimated HIV Co-Infection Among Individuals Diagnosed with TB in U.S. 22:00 
   Kaposi Sarcoma 22:42 
    Rare Cancer 22:49 
    Skin Neoplasm 23:14 
    Subtypes All Have Human Herpesvirus-8 23:31 
    How It Looks 23:57 
    Kaposi Sarcoma Spindle Cells 24:29 
    How to Treat Kaposi Sarcoma 25:17 
   HIV Prevalence Among Young Adult Women in India 26:02 
   Example 1 31:24 
   Example 2 33:32 
  Ebola 43:09
   Intro 0:00 
   Ebola Virus Overview 0:22 
   Ebola Virus Outbreak Distribution 0:59 
    1976 Ebola Outbreak First Identified 1:00 
    Recent Outbreak in Zaire 2:15 
    Three Countries Most Affected Today 2:39 
    Amount of Hospitals in Those Countries 3:40 
   Ebola Virus Ecology 4:14 
    Thought to Just Infect Warm Blooded Animals 4:24 
    Epidemic Starts When Virus Infects Humans 4:45 
   Ebola Virus Infection 5:55 
    Virus Comes From Animal and Infects Human 5:57 
    Infected Cells 6:10 
    Endothelial Cell Gaps Causes Leakage of Blood and Virus 6:35 
   Ebola Virus Symptoms 7:37 
    Fever 7:43 
    Early Signs 7:54 
    Big Sign of Being Infected: Travel History 8:18 
    Key About the Symptom Emerging 9:40 
   Timeline of Ebola Virus Symptoms 11:21 
    Day 2: First Symptoms 11:36 
    Day 10: High Fever and Vomiting 12:29 
    Day 11: Brain Damage and Bleeding 13:13 
    Day 12: Loss of Consciousness 13:44 
   Ebola Virus Characteristics 14:14 
    Filovirus 14:27 
    Enveloped, Helical Viruses 14:31 
    Ebola and Marburg Viruses 14:36 
   Morphology of Helical Ebola Virus 14:52 
    Capsid 14:56 
    Nucleic Acid 15:04 
   Ebola Virus Structure 15:38 
    Outside of the Structure 15:42 
    Inside the Envelope 15:56 
    Virus Can Recreate Itself in the Cytoplasm 16:54 
   RNA Viral Replication 18:04 
    Negative and Positive Strand 18:32 
   Ebola Virus Entry 20:26 
    Cell the Virus Penetrates 21:18 
    Inflammatory Reaction 21:45 
    Viruses Released Into Individuals Body 22:23 
   Ebola Virus: Immune Reaction 23:08 
    Survivors 23:20 
    Individuals Who Die From Ebola 23:33 
    Effective Dose 24:03 
   Host Immune Response to Ebola 24:36 
    Monocyte 24:44 
    Cytokines Storm 25:01 
   Ebola Virus Pathogenisis 25:40 
    Infection 25:46 
    Neutrophil 25:56 
    Depletion of Natural Killer Cells 26:06 
    Ebola Virus Can Serve to Surpress the Immune Reaction 26:37 
   How Contagious is Ebola? 27:49 
    Not Very Contagious, But Very Infectious 27:58 
    In Relation to Other Diseases 28:43 
   Ebola Transmission 29:24 
    Patient Zero Thought to be Infected by Animal 29:28 
    Eating Bushmeat In West Africa 29:46 
    Ebola Spreads by Direct Contact 30:16 
   Ebola in Healthcare Settings 31:13 
    Healthcare Workers at Higher Risk Because They Handle Body Fluids 31:22 
    Precautions 32:07 
   Treatment of Ebola 34:13 
    No Vaccine, but There Are Experimental Treatments (ZMAPP) 34:18 
    Basic Interventions When Done Early, Can Improve Chances of Survival 36:27 
   Example 1 37:41 
   Example 2 39:18 
   Example 3 41:05 

Duration: 20 hours, 1 minute

Number of Lessons: 44

This course is essential for college students looking to fully understand Microbiology that will become the foundation for more advanced classes.

Additional Features:

  • Free Sample Lessons
  • Downloadable Lecture Slides
  • Study Guides
  • Instructor Comments

Topics Include:

  • Cell Biology
  • DNA & RNA
  • Viral Structure
  • Classification of Microbes
  • Immune System
  • Bacterial Metabolic Behavior
  • Epidemiology
  • Eukaryotes
  • Gram Positive Bacteria
  • Human Disease

Dr. Carpenter has a Bachelor’s degree in Zoology, and a Master’s degree in Public Health, both from UC Berkeley, and a Ph.D. in Epidemiology from UCLA. She is currently on the faculty at UCLA in Medicine, Nursing, and Public Health. For this course, Dr. Carpenter consulted with her colleague, Jennifer Giovanni, a microbiologist at LSU Veterinary School, to develop evidence-based information sourced from top academic journals, the CDC, and the WHO.

Student Testimonials:

“Thank you!” — Ido M.

“I enjoy all your lectures! Very educational indeed!” — Stefania M.