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Chemistry explains the world around us. Everything we can see, and many things that we cannot, are made up of chemical elements and molecules. No one knows the ways in which chemistry shapes our world better than Dr. Harold Goldwhite. His experience on the History Channel coupled with over 45+ years teaching transform his lectures into an informative and fascinating journey. Dr. Goldwhite’s comprehensive syllabus is perfect for standard and accelerated one year chemistry courses. He covers everything from Atomic Theory, Chemical Reactions, Bonds, Kinetics, Acids and Bases, and Thermodynamics to Electrochemistry and Radioactivity. Dr. Goldwhite received his Ph.D and B.A. from the University of Cambridge.

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I. Introduction
  Introduction to Chemistry 47:38
   Intro 0:00 
   What is Chemistry? 0:07 
    Experimental Science 0:48 
    Changes in Matter 1:18 
    Energy and its Redistribution 2:20 
    Central Science 2:45 
   Properties of Matter 7:10 
    Physical 7:45 
    Example: Physical Properties 7:58 
    Chemical 9:02 
    Example: Chemical Properties 9:18 
   Physical Changes (Reversible) 11:19 
    Melting 11:39 
    Boiling (Evaporation and Condensation) 13:21 
    Dissolving (Solution) 15:41 
   Chemical Changes 18:04 
    Example: Balanced Chemical Equation 18:37 
   Compositions of Matter 23:15 
    Heterogeneous Mixture 23:27 
    Example: Milk 23:40 
    Example: Dirt 25:07 
    Homogenous Mixture 25:40 
    Example: Air, Gas, Vinegar 26:20 
    Solutions vs Pure Substances 27:06 
    Compounds and Elements 29:13 
   Additional Example 1 8:52 
   Additional Example 2 7:32 
II. Atoms
  Atomic Theory and Measurement 62:38
   Intro 0:00 
   Dalton's Atomic Theory 0:05 
    Law of Multiple Proportions 3:10 
   Current Atomic Theory 5:59 
    Components: Electrons, Protons, Neutrons 6:51 
    Isotopes 8:04 
    Complex Molecules 9:35 
   Fundamental Definition of an Element 11:27 
    Nuclear Charge (Z) 11:35 
    Atomic Number 12:37 
    Isotopes 13:37 
   Atomic Masses 15:53 
    Hydrogen, Carbon, Chlorine 16:33 
   Measurement 22:35 
    SI Units 23:50 
   Basic Units 26:39 
    Meter, Kilogram, Second, Kelvin, Liter 26:52 
   Multiplier Prefixes 33:05 
   Measure Quantity 40:50 
    Number x Unit 41:05 
    Example: Height, Volume 41:16 
   Additional Example 1 8:23 
   Additional Example 2 4:03 
  The Chemist's Atom 22:20
   Intro 0:00 
   JJ Thompson and the Electron 1:11 
    Cathode Ray Tube 1:19 
    Electron Prediction 3:31 
    Millikan, Charge of Electron 3:57 
    Proton 4:45 
   Rutherford and the Nucleus 5:42 
    Alpha Particles 6:06 
    Nucleus 8:05 
   Chadwick and the Neutron 12:35 
    Neutron 13:27 
   Constitutions of Atoms 17:05 
    Example: Hydrogen Isotopes 17:09 
    Example: Iodine 127 20:08 
III. Significant Figures
  Significant Figures and the Mole 51:06
   Intro 0:00 
   Significant Figures: Sphere 0:14 
   Example: Cube 7:11 
    Example: Weight 10:40 
   The Mole 13:36 
    Examples: Number of Entities 14:00 
    Avogadro's Number 15:10 
    Carbon 12 16:16 
    Mass of 1 Mol 17:49 
    Molar Mass of Oxygen 20:01 
   Stoichiometry 25:15 
    Example: Molar Masses 26:25 
   Molar Mass 26:39 
    Example: Cholesterol 27:08 
    Example: Insulin 38:38 
   Additional Example 1 4:46 
   Additional Example 2 5:16 
IV. Equations and Formulas
  Balancing Equations, Limiting Reagents, Percentage Yield 58:17
   Intro 0:00 
   Balancing Chemical Equations 0:49 
    Atoms and Charges 1:50 
    Example: Mercury and Oxygen 2:45 
    Example: Combustion of a Hydrocarbon 6:19 
   Redox: Oxidation and Reduction 12:30 
    Example: Sodium and Chlorine 23:55 
    Electron Transfer 19:34 
   Limiting Reagent 22:25 
    Example: Nuts and Bolts 22:45 
    Example: Mercury and Oxygen 27:24 
   Reaction Formulas 32:03 
    Example: Iron Oxide and Carbon 32:11 
    Example: Benzene and Chlorine 38:28 
   Theoretical Yields, Actual Yields 42:13 
    Percentage Yield 42:53 
    Example 43:08 
    Theoretical Yield from Limiting Reagent 45:11 
    Example: Benzene and Chlorine 45:35 
   Additional Example 1 3:12 
   Additional Example 2 6:02 
  Empirical and Molecular Formulas 61:11
   Intro 0:00 
    Empirical Formula 0:45 
    Molecular Formula 1:22 
   Percentage by Mass 1:40 
    Elements in Compounds 1:48 
    Example: Water 2:44 
    Example: Copper Sulfate 7:29 
   Empirical Formula 13:02 
    Example: Hydrocarbons 13:37 
   Calculating Empirical Formula 20:24 
    Example: C, H, O 20:32 
   Molar Mass and Molecular Formulas 27:54 
   Determining Molar Mass 32:21 
    Mass Spectrometry 32:38 
    Gas Laws 36:28 
    Colligative Properties 39:18 
   Empirical and Molecular Formulas 39:30 
    Example: Ethylene and Chlorine 39:32 
   Additional Example 1 5:23 
   Additional Example 2 6:45 
V. Chemical Reactions
  Classifying Chemical Reactions 42:43
   Intro 0:00 
   Combustion Reactions 0:39 
    Example: Balancing 2:33 
   Exchange Reactions 7:58 
    Example: Silver Nitrate + Sodium Chloride 9:11 
    Precipitate 10:56 
    Example: Sulfuric Acid + Sodium Chloride 13:20 
    Naming Ions With Oxygen 16:10 
    Example: Benzene and Chlorine 17:26 
   Acid Base Reactions 18:50 
    Recognizing Acids 19:18 
    Recognizing Bases 23:48 
    Litmus Test 26:02 
    Common Acids 26:31 
    Common Bases 28:40 
   Redox Reactions 34:13 
    Example: Potassium + Fluorine 35:54 
    Example: Sodium + Oxygen 39:11 
  Energy in Chemical Reactions 63:47
   Intro 0:00 
   Forms of Energy 1:30 
    Potential Energy and Kinetic Energy 1:32 
    Example: Potential 2:53 
    Example: Kinetic 4:07 
   Units of Energy 5:20 
    Example: Kinetic Energy, Joules 6:40 
    Calorie 8:02 
   Conservation of Energy 11:41 
    First Law of Thermodynamics 12:22 
   Heat Capacity and Measurement 17:10 
    Heat Capacity 17:38 
    Calorimeter 19:04 
    Examples: Elements and Compounds 20:37 
   Enthalpy 25:40 
   Enthalpy Changes in Physical/Chemical Processes 31:25 
    Exothermic 32:09 
    Endothermic 34:16 
    Example: Water 36:09 
    Reversing a Process 38:21 
    Example: Hydrogen + Oxygen 39:06 
   Hess's Law 42:38 
    Example: Hydrogen + Oxygen 43:46 
   Enthalpy of Formation 47:05 
    Example: Hydrogen + Oxygen 49:53 
   Enthalpy of Formation: Carbon Disulfide 51:13 
   Additional Example 1 5:42 
VI. Electromagnetic Radiation
  Electromagnetic Radiation Quantum Theory 63:35
   Intro 0:00 
   Waves and Their Characteristics 0:32 
    Amplitude, Trough, Crest 1:01 
    Wavelength 1:40 
    Frequency 2:11 
    Velocity (Speed of Light) 2:58 
   Electromagnetic Radiation 5:10 
    Gamma Rays and X-Rays 5:43 
    Visible Light 6:19 
    Infrared 6:54 
    Radio Waves 7:16 
   Spectra and Spectroscopy 7:58 
   Hydrogen Atom Spectrum 10:13 
    Emission Spectrum vs Absorption Spectrum 14:13 
    Rydberg Formula 14:51 
   Planck's Quantum Theory 16:55 
    Black Body Radiation and Quanta 17:30 
   Photoelectric Effect 23:29 
   Bohr's Theory of the Hydrogen Atom 28:20 
    Ground State 29:17 
    Excited State 29:26 
   Heisenberg and the Uncertainty Principle 34:48 
   De Broglie and the Wave Nature of Particles 40:07 
   Principle Quantum Number 44:05 
   First Quantum Number 45:46 
   m1 Quantum Number 51:00 
   Spin Quantum Number 54:28 
   Pauli Principle 54:58 
   Additional Example 1 5:30 
VII. Periodic Table and Bonding
  Periodic Table, Electronic Configurations, Ionic Bond 73:12
   Intro 0:00 
   Periodic Law of Mendeleev and Meyer 0:43 
   Modern Periodic Table 5:09 
    Atomic Number 5:51 
    Noble Gases 6:46 
    Halogens 7:06 
    Group Number 7:16 
    Metals 8:07 
    Groups and Periods 8:30 
    Transition Metals 9:18 
    Lanthanides 10:23 
    Actinides 11:26 
   Quantum Numbers and the Shape of the Table 12:06 
   Electron Configuration of Atoms 17:59 
   Electron Configuration of Neutral Atoms 19:49 
    Example: Elements 20:23 
    Example: Noble Gases 25:26 
   Electron Configuration of Monatomic Ions 28:40 
    Example: Elements 29:42 
   Atomic Size 37:59 
    Larger as Down a Group 38:44 
    Smaller as Across a Period 39:34 
   Sizes of Monatomic Ions 42:05 
    Example: Elements 43:15 
   Noble Gas Electron Configurations 45:52 
    Example: Elements 46:10 
   Electron Affinity 50:20 
   Ionization Energy 52:32 
    Example: First Ionization Energy 52:43 
    Periodic Table Trend 53:37 
    Example: Boron 54:22 
   Ionic Compounds (NaCl) 57:00 
    Ionic Bond (Electrostatic) 57:57 
   Additional Example 1 9:08 
   Additional Example 2 5:59 
  Covalent Bond, Lewis Structures, Molecular Orbitals 77:27
   Intro 0:00 
   Covalent Bond 1:05 
    Hydrogen Atom 1:38 
    Lewis 2:41 
    Sharing of Electrons 3:14 
   Valence Electrons 4:13 
    Example: Lewis Symbols 5:35 
   Lewis Structures of Atoms and Ions 10:05 
    Example: Ions 10:56 
   Octet Rule 13:34 
    Noble Gases 14:14 
   How to Draw Lewis Structures 17:35 
    Single Bond 21:39 
    Double Bond 21:54 
    Triple Bond 22:02 
    Examples: Compounds 22:23 
   Formal Charges 32:44 
    Example: 3 Structures of FCN 34:01 
   Exceptions to the Octet Rule 40:17 
    Fewer Than 8 Electrons 41:07 
    Example: Boron (Electron Deficiency) 41:53 
    More Than 8 Electrons 44:22 
    Example: Compounds 45:37 
   Electronegativity 48:09 
    Example: Values 49:24 
    Ionic or Polar Covalent Bond 52:02 
   Molecular Orbitals 54:16 
   Sigma and Pi Bonding 55:56 
   Additional Example 1 11:33 
   Additional Example 2 7:14 
  Shapes of Molecules and Hybridization 71:19
   Intro 0:00 
   VSEPR: Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion 0:53 
   Counting Electron Sets 4:20 
    Example: Methane 4:48 
    Example: Ammonia 5:48 
    Example: Formaldehyde 7:06 
    Example: Hydrogen Cyanide 8:48 
   Geometry of 2 and 3 Sets 10:28 
    Two Sets: Linear 11:30 
    Examples 11:57 
    Three Sets: Trigonal and Planar 14:29 
    Examples 15:48 
   Geometry of 4 Sets 19:46 
    Four Sets: Tetrahedral 20:08 
    Examples 22:03 
   Geometry of 5 and 6 Sets 27:50 
    Five Sets: Trigonal Bipyramid 28:12 
    Six Sets: Octahedron 30:28 
   Hybridization and Hybrid Orbitals 32:07 
    Linus Pauling 33:27 
    Example: Carbon 33:46 
   Orbital Phases 40:14 
    Wave Function Phases 40:20 
    Example: 2p Orbital 41:09 
   Sigma Bonds 42:51 
    Example: Ethane 46:37 
   Pi Bonds 49:04 
    Example: Ethylene 50:15 
   Additional Example 1 10:31 
   Additional Example 2 5:45 
VIII. States of Matter
  States of Matter, Intermolecular Forces, Gases and Gas laws 61:12
   Intro 0:00 
   States of Matter: Solid, Liquid, Gas 0:43 
    Solid 1:10 
    Liquid 2:14 
    Gas 3:10 
   Phase Transitions 4:36 
    Melting, Freezing, Boiling, Condensing 5:09 
    Sublimation, Condensation 6:49 
    Example: Dry Ice 7:25 
   Ionic Forces and Ion Dipole Forces 8:42 
    Example: Ionic Forces 11:04 
    Example: Ion Dipole Forces (Polar) 12:44 
   Dipole-Dipole Forces and Hydrogen Bonding 15:51 
    Example: Water Molecules 16:06 
    Example: Liquid Hydrogen Chloride 16:46 
    Strong Dipole-Dipole, Hydrogen Bonds 17:43 
    Boiling Points 19:30 
   Dispersion or London Forces 22:36 
    Boiling Points of Noble Gases 26:39 
   Hydrogen Bonding in Water and Biological Systems 28:17 
    Example: Crystalline Water (Open Structure) 28:28 
    Example: Protein 29:34 
    Example: DNA Double Helix 30:31 
   Gaseous State: Kinetic Molecular Model 31:00 
   Gases of the Atmosphere 33:31 
    Percentage by Volume 33:59 
   Pressure 33:15 
    Mercury Barometer 36:14 
   Units of Pressure 38:33 
    Pascal 39:23 
    Bar, Torr, Atm 39:49 
   Gas Laws and the Ideal Gas Law 41:47 
    Boyle's Law 42:01 
    Charles' Law 42:45 
    Ideal Gas Law (Combined Law) 43:25 
    Gas Constant R 44:11 
   Example: Gas Law Calculations 45:02 
   Molar Mass from Gas Law Calculations 47:21 
    Example: Experimental Gas 48:21 
   Additional Example 1 5:29 
   Additional Example 2 4:03 
IX. Gases
  Partial Pressure, Real Gases, Atmospheric Pollution 61:12
   Intro 0:00 
   Partial Pressure and Mole Fraction 1:08 
    Example: Gases A, B, C 3:00 
    Example: Mole Fraction of A, B, C 4:28 
   Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures 6:29 
    Example: Gases A, B, C 8:14 
    Example: Air 11:27 
   Applications of Dalton's Law 12:23 
    Example: Potassium Chlorate 12:39 
   Real Gases 20:16 
    Example: Hydrogen and Nitrogen 21:05 
    Departure from Ideal Gas Law 23:42 
   Van der Waals' Equation 28:52 
    Corrective Equation 31:18 
   Ozone and the Ozone Hole 34:01 
    How Ozone is Formed 35:56 
   Effects of Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) 40:49 
    Example: Freon 52:59 
   Oxides of Nitrogen 47:15 
   Sulfur Dioxide 51:32 
   Acid Rain 54:19 
   Additional Example 1 3:11 
X. Phases
  Vapor Pressure, Boiling Point, Phase Diagrams 56:58
   Intro 0:00 
   Vapor Pressure: An Equilibrium Phenomenon 0:55 
    Thought Experiment: Water Equilibrium 1:06 
   Boiling Point and Normal Boiling Point 6:19 
    Reducing Boiling Point 3:10 
    Example: Water 9:51 
   Surface Tension 14:12 
    Example: Water 15:55 
   Viscosity 19:53 
    Intermolecular Forces 22:22 
    Example: Ethanol, Antifreeze, Glycerol 22:52 
   Enthalpies of Phase Changes 28:08 
    Example: Water 28:22 
   Phase Diagrams (Water) 32:22 
    Vapor Pressure Curve 35:30 
    Melting Point Line 35:54 
    Triple Point 36:36 
    Critical Point 37:50 
   Phase Diagrams (Carbon Dioxide) 38:42 
    Sublimation 40:11 
    Critical Point 42:56 
   Triple Point and Critical Point 44:54 
    Example: Carbon Dioxide 46:11 
XI. Solids
  Types of Solids, X-Ray Diffraction, Unit Cells 57:30
   Intro 0:00 
   Solids: Crystalline and Amorphous 0:59 
    X-Ray Diffraction 4:30 
   Types of Crystalline Solids: Atomic 5:39 
    Example: Metallic Copper 5:50 
   Types of Crystalline Solids: Ionic Crystal 7:20 
    Example: NaCl 7:37 
   Types of Crystalline Solids: Molecular Crystal 11:30 
    Example: Ice 11:42 
   Types of Crystalline Solids: Network Solid 13:22 
    Example: Carbon Allotropes (Diamond and Graphite) 13:36 
   X-Ray Diffraction and Bragg's Law 18:26 
    Bragg's Law Equation 23:53 
   Unit Cell 26:55 
    Simple Cubic Unit Cell 27:47 
   Face-Centered and Body-Centered Unit Cells 31:06 
    Body-Centered Cubic 31:22 
    Face-Centered Cubic 32:53 
   Unit Cell and Densities of Crystalline Solids 36:13 
    Example: Platinum 36:39 
   First Law of Thermodynamics and Lattice Energy 42:14 
    Example: NaCl 42:33 
   Lattice Energies and Constitutions of Ionic Solids 47:33 
   Additional Example 1 7:09 
XII. Carbon
  Carbon Allotropes, Band Theory of Solids 52:34
   Intro 0:00 
   Diamond and Graphite 0:55 
    Diamond 1:32 
    Graphite 3:25 
   C-60: An Unexpected Allotrope 6:59 
    Buckyball (R. Buckminster Fuller) 9:30 
   Carbon Nanotubes 11:42 
    Possible Uses 13:51 
   Metals, Semiconductors, and Insulators 15:34 
    3 Classes of Conductors 15:41 
   Conductivity and Band Theory 20:30 
    Example: Valence Band 22:46 
   P-Type and N-Type Semiconductors 27:21 
    Phosphorus to Silicon 29:21 
    Boron to Silicon 31:38 
   P/N Junctions 33:48 
    Integrated Circuit 38:49 
   Glasses and Ceramics 40:26 
    Glasses 41:02 
    Example: Common Window Glass 44:49 
    Ceramics 47:16 
XIII. Solutions
  Solutions, Henry's Law, Concentration Equations 65:40
   Intro 0:00 
   Types of Solutions 1:43 
    Examples: Homogeneous Mixtures 2:37 
    Examples: Solid Solutions 6:59 
   Saturation Solubility 8:47 
    Example: Solvent and Soluten (Salt and Water) 9:15 
    Solubility Dependencies 14:54 
   Henry's Law 15:36 
    Values for Henry's Law Constant (Water) 18:01 
    Example: Soda Can 19:27 
    Example: SCUBA 21:10 
   Solution Concentration Expressions 26:02 
    Percentage by Mass 26:16 
    Example: Salt and Water 26:52 
    Molarity 28:18 
    Molality 31:26 
   Calculation of Solution Concentrations 32:42 
    Example: Sodium Chloride Solution 32:49 
   Dilution of Solutions 37:35 
    Example: Hydrochloric Acid 38:54 
   Effects of Temperature on Solubility (Gases in Liquids) 42:01 
    Example: Water 42:40 
   Effects of Temperature on Solubility (Solids in Liquids) 45:42 
    Examples: Various Salts 46:47 
   Entropy: Qualitative Introduction 52:25 
   Temperature Effects: Enthalpy, Entropy 55:39 
   Additional Example 1 7:20 
XIV. Colligative Properties
  Colligative Properties, Colloids, Surfactants 70:42
   Intro 0:00 
   Colligative Properties and Raoult's Law 0:43 
    Colligative (Collective) 0:46 
    Raoult's Law 1:55 
    Uses of Raoult's Law (Mole Fraction and Molar Mass) 4:34 
   Boiling Point Elevation, Freezing Point Depression 5:47 
    Pure Water and Solution in Water 6:17 
    Lower Vapor Pressure 6:53 
    Higher Boiling Point (Elevation) 7:04 
    Lower Freezing Point (Depression) 7:52 
    Example: Antifreeze 8:37 
    Change in Boiling Point (Molality) 10:55 
   Molar Mass from Elevation and Depression 12:49 
    Example: Water and Cystine 13:20 
   Van der Waals' Alpha Factor 18:59 
    Alpha Factor Equation 20:15 
    Example: Salt Ions 21:11 
   Osmosis 23:02 
    Blood (Isotonic, Hypertonic, Hypotonic) 23:47 
   Osmotic Pressure 27:40 
    Osmotic Pressure Definition (Pi) 30:14 
    Van der Waals' 30:57 
   Molar Mass from Osmotic Pressure 33:29 
    Example: Peptide in Water 34:20 
   Colloids and the Tyndall Effect 38:33 
    Light Beam (Solution and Colloidal Suspension) 41:05 
   Surfactants 44:11 
    Example: Sodium Stearate (Soap) 45:10 
   Soaps and Detergents 49:24 
    Ordinary Soaps Problem 52:36 
    Synthetic Soaps 53:57 
   Additional Example 1 5:57 
   Additional Example 2 6:41 
XV. Kinetics
  Kinetics, Rate Laws, Reaction Mechanism 68:48
   Intro 0:00 
   Reaction Rate 1:30 
    Chemical Reaction Rate 2:36 
    Example: Methyl Bromide and Sodium Hydroxide 4:04 
   Reaction Rates: Changing Concentrations 10:28 
    Example: Double Initial Concentrations 11:33 
   Order of Reaction 17:05 
    Experimental Rate Law 17:47 
    Overall Rate 21:27 
   Initial Rate Measurement 23:24 
    Example: Methyl Bromide and Sodium Hydroxide 23:44 
   Integrated Rate Laws: First Order Reaction 29:54 
    Integrated Rate Equation 31:12 
    Example: Transitional Metal Complex 33:48 
   Integrated Rate Laws: Second Order Reaction 38:12 
    Integrated Rate Equation 38:37 
   Experimental Rate Laws 39:41 
    Example: Transitional Metal Complex 39:55 
   Experimental Rate Laws, cont. 42:45 
    Example: Nitramide 43:00 
   Reaction Mechanism 46:12 
    Hypothetical Aspect 47:38 
    Predict Outcomes 48:02 
   Elementary Reactions and Reaction Mechanisms 49:43 
    Example: Methyl Bromide and Hydroxide Ion 51:02 
   Rate Limiting Step 54:47 
    Example: Rate Limiting Step 55:41 
   Additional Example 1 3:00 
   Additional Example 2 7:07 
XVI. Temperature Effects
  Temperature Effects, Reaction Rate Theory, Catalysis 62:56
   Intro 0:00 
   Effects of Temperature on Reaction Rates 1:05 
    Common Examples 4:30 
   Arrhenius' Equation 6:40 
    Activation Energy 9:09 
    Example: Nitrogen Pentoxide 11:52 
   Reaction Rate Theory 15:20 
    Activated Complex and Transition State 17:05 
    Example: Methyl Bromide and Hydroxide Ion 19:58 
   Calculating Activation Energy 22:32 
    Plotting ln K and Inverse T 23:38 
   Catalysis in Practice 25:33 
    Example: Catalytic Converter 26:43 
    Example: Oil Refinery 29:30 
   Acid Catalysis of Ehtyl Acetate Hydrolysis 31:48 
    Example 32:03 
   Industrial Production of Ammonia 35:54 
    Haber Bosch Process 36:06 
   Industrial Production of Sulfuric Acid 41:02 
    Series of Processes 41:38 
   Enzymes as Catalysts 45:59 
    Example: Amino Acid 47:04 
    Example: Protein 47:18 
   Additional Example 1 4:15 
XVII. Equilibrium
  Physical and Chemical Equilibrium, Equilibrium Law, Le Chatelier's Principle 70:47
   Intro 0:00 
   Equilibrium in Physical Processes 1:13 
    Example: Water Equilibrium (Vapor Pressure) 1:30 
    Example: Water Equilibrium (Melting ) 1:58 
   Equilibrium in Chemical Processes 3:37 
    Example: Acetic Acid and Ethanol 3:51 
   The Equilibrium Law and Equilibrium Constant 9:11 
    Equilibrium Law 11:32 
    Equilibrium Constant K 12:47 
   Equilibrium Expressions and Constants 14:11 
    Example: Acetic Acid and Ethanol 14:24 
    Example: Calcium Carbonate (Lime Burning) 17:23 
   Standard Concentration and Activities 21:13 
   Kp and Kr 23:56 
    Example: Nitric Oxide 24:26 
   Calculations of Equilibria 29:06 
    Example: Acetic Acid and Ethanol 29:17 
   Le Chatelier's Principle 40:47 
    Stressors 42:55 
    Example: Haber Bosch 49:26 
   Additional Example 1 6:48 
   Additional Example 2 6:29 
XVIII. Acids and Bases
  Acids and Bases: Strong and Weak, pH 60:41
   Intro 0:00 
   Acids 0:36 
    React with Some Metals 2:25 
    Litmus Test (Red) 3:04 
   Bases 4:33 
    Litmus Test (Blue) 5:52 
    Acids and Base Neutralize 6:43 
   Classification: Arrhenius and Bronsted-Lowry 8:52 
    Arrhenius Classification 9:11 
    Example: HCl (Hydronium) and NaOH (Hydroxide) 11:08 
    Bronsted-Lowry Classification 12:42 
    Example: HCl 13:30 
    Conjugate Acid, Conjugate Base 14:08 
   Lewis Acids and Bases 16:23 
    Lewis Base: Electron Pair Donor 17:24 
    Lewis Acid: Electron Pair Acceptor 18:24 
    Example: Lewis Acid Base Reaction 20:03 
   Common Strong Acids 22:02 
   Common Strong Bases 24:39 
   Common Weak Acids 26:24 
   Common Weak Bases 31:14 
   Water as an Acid and Base: Kw 34:01 
    K of Water 35:21 
   Ionization Constants for Weak Acids 38:11 
    Examples: Constants 38:20 
   Ionization Constants for Weak Bases 40:30 
    Examples: Constants 40:44 
   pH and the pH Scale 43:12 
    Sorenson pH 43:46 
    Neutral Water 44:48 
    Acid and Base pH 46:24 
    pH Scale (Acid and Alkaline) 47:30 
   Additional Example 1 5:53 
  pH Calculations, Polyprotic Acids 60:09
   Intro 0:00 
   pH in a Solution of a Weak Acid 0:45 
    Vinegar (Acetic Acid) 1:00 
    Example: pH of Acetic Acid Solution 2:34 
   pH in a Solution of a Weak Base 9:42 
    Ammonia 9:48 
    Example: pH of Pyridine Solution 11:46 
   Salts of Weak Acids with Strong Bases 17:15 
    Example: Acetic Acid and Sodium Hydroxide 17:55 
   Salts of Weak Bases with Strong Acids 20:55 
    Example: Ammonia and Hydrochloric Acid 21:13 
   Conjugate Acid Base Pairs: Ka and Kb 22:58 
    Example: Acetic Acid Ionization 23:06 
   Polyprotic Acids: Successive Ka Values 28:50 
    Example: Diprotic Acid (Sulfuric Acid) 29:13 
    Example: Tripotic Acid (Phosphoric Acid) 29:28 
   pH in a Polyprotic Acid Solution 41:02 
    Example: Phosphoric Acid Solution pH 41:21 
   Salts of Polyprotic Acids 47:32 
    Examples: TSP, Tartaric Acid 47:45 
   Additional Example 1 6:15 
  Titrations, Indicators, Buffers 66:19
   Intro 0:00 
   Titration and Analysis 0:43 
    Equipment: Burets, Pipet, Stopcock, Volumetric Flask 1:38 
    Molarity 4:04 
   Strong Acid-Strong Base Titration 6:16 
    Example: Sodium Hydroxide and Hydrochloric Acid 7:04 
   Weak Acid-Strong Base Titration 16:45 
    Example: Acetic Acid and Sodium Hydroxide 17:06 
   pH Meter 28:48 
    pH Electrode: Logarithmic Change to Hydronium 29:19 
   Indicators 32:10 
    Example: Indicator and Hydronium 33:21 
    Phenolphthalein 34:07 
    Methyl Orange 35:12 
   Theory and Choice of Indicators 39:19 
    Indicator Visibility if Factor of 10 40:45 
   Buffers 42:47 
    What is a Buffer Solution? 46:08 
    Acetate Buffer and Ammonium Buffer 47:16 
    Example: Buffer Effects 48:26 
   Buffer Regions in Titrations 51:38 
    Example: Acetic Acid and Sodium Hydroxide 51:48 
   Practical Buffers 55:17 
    Example: Acetic Acid and Acetate Ion (pH Range) 55:27 
   Additional Example 1 7:51 
XIX. Solubility
  Solubility Product Constant, Precipitation 59:36
   Intro 0:00 
   Equilibrium in Saturated Salt Solution 1:12 
    Example: Silver Chloride 1:50 
    Ksp (Solubility Product Constant) 4:12 
   Solubility Product Constant 6:19 
    Example : Lead Iodide 6:31 
   Limitations of the Solubility Product 9:06 
    Low Solubility 9:23 
    Complexes that are Soluble 11:31 
   Ksp Values and Ion Concentrations 13:28 
    Example: Silver Chloride 16:06 
    Example: Lead Chloride 19:22 
   Precipitation of Salts 23:56 
    Example: Silver Bromide and Copper Bromide 25:31 
   Common Ion Effect 31:52 
    Example: Lead Sulfate 32:11 
    Le Chatelier's Principle 39:30 
   Common Ion Solubility 42:37 
    Example: Lead Chloride in Sodium Chloride Solution 42:46 
   Acids, Bases, and Solubility Equilibria 48:32 
    Example: Lead Carbonate 48:46 
    Lle Chatelier's Principle 54:26 
   Group Separation and Qualitative Analysis of Metal Ions 55:09 
    Examples 56:25 
   Additional Example 1 5:42 
XX. Enthalpy and Entropy
  Enthalpy, Entropy, Second Law of Thermodynamics 53:51
   Intro 0:00 
   Factors Affecting Equilibrium Constants 1:15 
    Spontaneous Reaction 2:17 
    Temperature Effects 4:50 
   State Functions: Enthalpy and Entropy 6:17 
    Example: Methane and Chlorine 8:32 
    Hess's Law 10:36 
    Entropy 10:55 
   Statistical Interpretation of Entropy 13:24 
    Boltzmann Entropy Equation 13:33 
    Reversible Change 16:24 
    Example: Water and Ice 16:55 
   Third Law of Thermodynamics 20:06 
    Nernst 20:31 
   Entropies of Gases, Liquids, and Solids 23:16 
    Example: Entropy Values 25:17 
   Entropy Values from Enthalpy/Temperature 28:55 
    Example: Water (Graph) 29:34 
   Entropy Changes in Phase Changes 32:33 
    Melting (Fusion) 32:41 
    Example: Water Melting 33:15 
   Second Law of Thermodynamics 34:21 
    Example: Hydrogen and Oxygen 37:20 
    Statement of Second Law (Spontaneous/Reversible) 39:28 
   Reactant Favored and Product Favored Equilibria 41:10 
    Reactant or Product Favored 41:48 
    Converse 45:15 
   Limitations of Applying the Second Law to Equilibria 46:57 
    Delta S 47:30 
XXI. Gibbs' Function
  Gibbs' Function, Equilibrium 61:10
   Intro 0:00 
   The Gibbs' Function 0:35 
    Values of Delta G 4:57 
   The Gibbs' Function and K 9:11 
    Gibbs' Function Change (Free Energy) 11:06 
    Values of Gibbs' Function Standard Change 14:17 
   Calculation of K from ThermoDynamic Data 15:46 
    Example: Nitrogen Dioxide to Dinitrogen Tetroxide 16:01 
   Calculation of K 24:32 
    Example: Diamond to Graphite 24:46 
   Calculation of K 31:33 
    Example: Ammonia 31:38 
   Temperature Changes: Gibbs' Function and K 38:12 
    Estimating Gibbs' Function Values at Temperatures 40:04 
   Temperature Changes 42:29 
    Example: Oxide of Iron and Carbon 42:49 
   Additional Example 1 8:26 
XXII. Redox Reactions
  Balancing Redox Reactions, Half Reactions 67:26
   Intro 0:00 
   Oxidation and Reduction Review 0:58 
    Example: Sodium and Chlorine 1:05 
   Determining Oxidation Numbers 5:43 
    Rules for Assigning Oxidation Numbers 8:02 
   Oxidation Number Assignment 11:25 
    Examples: Various 11:42 
   Balancing Half Reactions 18:26 
    Example: Half Reactions 21:22 
    Example: Zinc in Hydrochloric Acid 22:34 
   Combining Half Reactions Into Complete Reactions 24:32 
    Example: Zinc 24:40 
    Spectator Ions 26:10 
   Half Reactions in Acidic and Basic Solutions 28:38 
    Example: Permanganate 29:18 
   Balancing Redox Reactions 36:34 
    Example: Determination of Iron 37:22 
   Balancing Redox Reactions 45:54 
    Example: Lead Dioxide and Chloride Ion 46:12 
   Additional Example 1 5:14 
   Additional Example 2 9:28 
XXIII. Electrochemistry
  Electrochemical Cells, Half-Cell Potentials 67:52
   Intro 0:00 
   Electricity from Chemical Reactions 0:29 
    Galvani Volta: Current Electricity 0:40 
    Voltaic Pile (Battery) 3:33 
    Potato Clock 4:35 
   Daniell Cell 5:56 
    Oxidation of Zinc, Reduction of Copper 6:46 
    Spontaneous Overall Reaction 8:25 
    Anode and Cathode 9:20 
   Current Electricity Fundamentals 11:34 
    Electric Charge: Coulomb 11:46 
    Electric Current: Ampere 12:33 
    Volt 14:43 
    Ohm's Law 16:16 
   Galvanic Cell 17:41 
    Salt Bridge 19:35 
   Cell Potential and Work 20:56 
    Joules 21:40 
    Coulombs 22:27 
   Hydrogen Electrode 22:53 
    Breakdown 24:12 
   Half-Cell Potentials 29:24 
    Example: Zinc and Standard Hydrogen Electrode (SHE) 30:50 
   Electrochemical Series 35:04 
    Example: Aluminum Reducing Iron Ion 38:26 
   Nernst Equation 41:46 
    Faraday 42:09 
    Example: Concentration Cell (Copper Ions) 46:39 
   Nernst Equation: pH Meter 52:24 
    Example: Potential and pH 53:21 
   Nernst Equation: Ion Concentrations 56:11 
   Additional Example 1 5:19 
   Additional Example 2 5:12 
  Practical Batteries, Electrolysis 62:06
   Intro 0:00 
   Primary Batteries 0:54 
    Leclanche Dry Cell 1:03 
    Alkaline Cell 4:34 
   Fuel Cell 6:53 
    Overall Reaction 8:24 
   Secondary Batteries 13:47 
    Car Battery 14:04 
   Electrolysis 18:41 
    Aluminum Plant 19:14 
    Chromium Plating 22:42 
   Sodium Chloride 24:08 
    Example: Metallic Na 24:20 
    Example: Bleach 28:38 
   Faraday's Laws 32:22 
    Example: Aluminum Electrolysis 34:54 
   Corrosion of Iron 41:24 
    Example: Iron Galvanic Cell 44:34 
   Protection of Iron Against Corrosion 46:55 
    Coating of Tin Cans 47:18 
   Additional Example 1 4:45 
XXIV. Radioactivity
  Radioactivity, Nuclear Equations, Mass Energy Equivalence 40:35
   Intro 0:00 
   Radioactivity Pioneers 0:36 
    Becquerel 2:20 
    Curie 1:53 
    Rutherford 2:38 
    Soddy 2:55 
   Alpha, Beta, and Gamma Radiation 3:46 
    Three Types of Emission 4:28 
   Transmutation and Nuclear Equations 7:01 
    Decay of Uranium 8:07 
   Balancing Nuclear Equations 13:08 
    Example: Chromium 13:19 
    Example: Radium 15:56 
   Synthesis of New Isotopes and Elements 18:47 
    Example: Nitrogen and Alpha Particles 19:44 
    Example: Uranium and Carbon Nuclei 21:41 
   Mass Changes in Nuclear Transformations 23:55 
    Mass and Energy Equivalence (e=mc2, Einstein) 24:39 
   Mass-Energy Transformations 28:35 
    Example: Uranium 28:38 
   Stability of Nuclei and Binding Energy 33:11 
    Nucleons 33:34 
    Example: Deuterium and Helium 33:51 
   Curve of Binding Energy; Fission and Fusion 35:53 
  Radioactive Decay, Half-Life, Nuclear Reactions 56:12
   Intro 0:00 
   First Order Nuclear Decay 0:41 
    Example: Uranium 2:01 
    Rate Constant 3:42 
    Integrated Rate Equation 3:52 
    Half-Life 5:14 
   Half-Lives and Rate Constants 6:09 
    Examples: Various 6:14 
   Radioactive Dating: Rocks 9:18 
    Example: Rock with Uranium and Lead 10:53 
   Radioactive Dating: Carbon-14 17:27 
    Example: Shroud of Turin 20:54 
    Example: Wooden Staff 22:31 
   Nuclear Fusion in Stars 27:22 
    Example: Reaction in Sun 29:21 
   Nuclear Weapons 32:24 
    Example: Uranium Isotope 34:14 
   Nuclear Power 38:52 
    Nuclear Power Usage 42:30 
   Nuclear Wastes and Their Disposal 45:03 
   Additional Example 1 5:33 
XXV. Miscellaneous
  Organic Structures, Isomers, Functional Groups 68:32
   Intro 0:00 
   Saturated Hydrocarbons C-1 to C-4 1:41 
    Acyclic 2:38 
    Example: Methane, Ethane, Propane 3:28 
    Isomers 7:19 
   Acyclic Saturated Hydrocarbons C-5 Isomers 10:27 
    Example: Pentanes 10:40 
   Alkenes and Ring Compounds 14:56 
    Alkenes 15:34 
    Example: Ethene, Ethylene 16:25 
    Example: Propene Isomers 19:19 
   Geometric Isomers of Alkenes 24:13 
    Example: 2-Butene 24:34 
    Trans and Cis 26:27 
   Optical Isomers 28:45 
    Example: Carbon Atom 33:49 
   Functional Groups: Alcohols and Caboxylic Acids 39:11 
    Alcohols 39:27 
    Carboxylic Acids 41:41 
   Functional Groups: Esters and Ethers 44:10 
    Esters (Ethyl Acetate) 44:27 
    Ethers (Diethylether) 46:14 
   Functional Groups: Aldehydes and Ketones 47:48 
    Examples 47:59 
   Amines 51:01 
   Amide Group 54:24 
   Peptides and Proteins 56:02 
   Additional Example 1 9:41 
  Chemistry and the Environment 50:13
   Intro 0:00 
   Global Climate Change 1:41 
    Greenhouse Gases 3:49 
   Greenhouse Gases and Climate Change 6:53 
    Last 100 Years 9:11 
   Water Pollution: Eutrophication 12:59 
    Example: Fertilizers 15:41 
   Water Pollution: Organic Pollutants 9:15 
    Chlorinated Hydrocarbons (DDT) 19:30 
    Dioxins and Phthalates 20:58 
   Water Pollution: Heavy Metal Pollutants 23:58 
    Examples: Lead, Chromium, Arsenic 24:17 
   Radiation in the Environment 24:35 
    Thresholds 39:20