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The American West

  • By the end of the 19th century, it seemed as if there were 2 nations: one that was industrial and one that was the “frontier” country
  • The 2 are interrelated: the final settlement across the Great Plains & the Far West was a result of the spread of American industrialism movement
  • The building of the railroads that really grew in the Civil War era with the help of federal government subsidies, but after the war, they expanded rapidly, and by 1869 the transcontinental railroad was built.
  • “Indian country” became a bridge to the Pacific and RR’s would help in the process of building that bridge, and about 100,000 Native Americans lived on the Great Plains during the mid-19th century.
  • Euro-Americans began to have their eyes on Oregon & CA so thousands traveled the Oregon Trail
  • Cattle raising became popular but the bison had to go (the herds almost vanished within 10 years). Buffalo hunters were hired to kill off bison.
  • The Gold Rush of 1949 spurred a massive migration to California; mostly men flocked to the gold fields to strike it rich. Many Chinese came to CA as well to work on “gold mountain” but most ended up working on the railroad.

The American West

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  1. Intro
    • Overview
      • The U.S. Frontier and Industrialism
      • The Great Plains and The West
      • Map of the U.S.
        • Native American Tribes and Lands Ceded
          • The Sioux
          • Westward Migration Into “Indian Country”
          • Farming and Railroads in the West
          • Promontory Point, UT
            • Gold Rush in 1849
            • Gold Rush and Cattle Ranching
            • Cowboys and Buffalo Bill's Wild West
            • The Wild West Show
              • Homesteaders and Homestead Act of 1862
              • Farming and the Grange
              • Oliver Kelley, Founder of the Grange
                • Native Americans and the West
                • Reservations
                • Chief Joseph of the Nez Perce
                  • Battle of Little Big Horn
                  • Assimilation Polices
                  • Helen Hunt Jackson and Dawes Severalty Act
                  • The Ghost Dance
                  • Wounded Knee, 1890
                  • Railroad Workers, Miners and Cowboys
                    • The Diverse West and California
                    • Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882
                    • Biased Anti-Chinese Imagery
                      • Golden California
                      • Public Parks Established
                      • Example 1
                        • Example 2
                          • Intro 0:00
                          • Overview 0:05
                          • The U.S. Frontier and Industrialism 2:47
                            • Post Civil War Republican Vision
                            • Laissez-Faire Approach
                            • Spread of American Industrialism Movement
                          • The Great Plains and The West 7:05
                            • Semiarid Great Plains
                            • Arid West
                            • Small Pox and Measles
                          • Map of the U.S. 8:13
                          • Native American Tribes and Lands Ceded 9:26
                          • The Sioux 10:48
                            • Antelope and Buffalo
                            • Pawnees, Mandans and Euro-Americans
                          • Westward Migration Into “Indian Country” 11:42
                            • American Fever
                            • Exodusters and Kansas
                            • Union Pacific and Central Pacific
                            • Telegraph Lines
                          • Farming and Railroads in the West 14:05
                            • Cattle Raising
                            • New Technologies
                            • Settlement of the Great Plains
                            • The Transcontinental Railroad
                          • Promontory Point, UT 17:18
                          • Gold Rush in 1849 17:36
                            • The Increase of Non-Native American Population
                            • Hit the Trails
                            • Chinese
                          • Gold Rush and Cattle Ranching 19:18
                            • Silver Mining and Other Industries
                            • Open-Range Ranching
                            • Long Drive
                          • Cowboys and Buffalo Bill's Wild West 22:57
                            • Buffalo Bill
                            • The Wild West Show
                            • Little Annie Oakley
                          • The Wild West Show 25:59
                          • Homesteaders and Homestead Act of 1862 27:24
                            • Homestead Act of 1862
                            • The U.S. Geological Survey
                            • Department of the Interior
                          • Farming and the Grange 29:23
                            • Meat Packing Industry
                            • National Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry
                            • Oliver H. Kelley
                            • Montgomery Ward
                          • Oliver Kelley, Founder of the Grange 32:13
                          • Native Americans and the West 32:36
                            • A Peace Commission in 1867
                            • Bureau of Indian Affairs
                          • Reservations 34:03
                            • SW Dakota Territory
                            • Apaches, Navajos and Utes
                            • Fort Laramie Treaty
                          • Chief Joseph of the Nez Perce 36:16
                          • Battle of Little Big Horn 37:45
                            • The Nez Perce
                            • George Custer
                            • Little Big Horn
                          • Assimilation Polices 39:49
                            • Education and Religious Indoctrination of American Indians
                            • The Carlisle Boarding School
                            • Helen Hunt Jackson
                            • A Century of Dishonor
                          • Helen Hunt Jackson and Dawes Severalty Act 42:03
                            • Private Property and Severalty
                            • The Dawes Act
                            • Indian Education
                          • The Ghost Dance 44:11
                            • Native American Civilization
                            • Wovoka
                          • Wounded Knee, 1890 45:21
                            • The Long War of Suppression of the Plains Indians
                            • The End of Indian Wars
                          • Railroad Workers, Miners and Cowboys 46:56
                          • The Diverse West and California 47:12
                            • The High Sierras
                            • Asian Migration
                            • The Six Companies
                          • Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 48:10
                            • Chinese Exclusion Act
                            • Japanese Immigrants
                          • Biased Anti-Chinese Imagery 49:34
                          • Golden California 50:25
                            • Mark Twain and Bret Harte
                            • Southern Pacific Railroad
                            • John Muir
                            • Sierra Club
                          • Public Parks Established 52:03
                            • Rampant Overdevelopment
                            • Yosemite Valley
                            • Yellowstone Valley
                          • Example 1 53:20
                          • Example 2 55:48

                          Transcription: The American West

                          Welcome back to www.educator.com.0000

                          This lesson focuses on the American west.0002

                          In this lesson, we are going to talk about the importance of the U.S. frontier during the late 19th century.0007

                          We are going to see how there is a divide between industrial America and agricultural America.0016

                          Two different societies are living side by side, and there is obviously tension as well, as industrialization continues to spread.0024

                          Yet, the settling of the west by European Americans will also involve creating agricultural societies,0035

                          and farming, and so forth, and cattle ranching.0045

                          That is going to eventually lead to many major battles against Native Americans, who throughout U.S. history had been pushed farther and father to the west.0049

                          All these things are interconnected.0060

                          As Americans continue to reach their goal of manifest destiny in reaching the Pacific Ocean, 0062

                          they are going to be building infrastructure to help settle the west, to tame the west.0074

                          Railroads will be built, we talked about the completion of the transcontinental railroad in 1869.0080

                          And then, we will talk about how the west and the frontier captured Americans' imagination0089

                          and become central to entertainment.0096

                          The idea of the Wild West is something that many people are pulled into and entertained by, 0100

                          and it becomes part of American culture and still resonates today.0106

                          We will talk about relations with Native Americans.0114

                          Some of the last major battles in the 19th century.0117

                          The reservation and assimilation policies that were advocated by the U.S. government.0122

                          Then, we will talk about some of the different groups in the west in the 19th century,0129

                          miners, cowboys, farmers, and explore how diverse these different groups of people were.0136

                          We will focus also on the Chinese immigrants in the United States, and how they will help to contribute 0144

                          not only during the gold rush but also on the railroads, and the different struggles that they also faced.0151

                          Then, we will also talk about how the environment was affected by this widespread settlement, and the birth of the conservation movement.0158

                          A lot to cover here.0168

                          One thing to definitely keep in mind when we talk about the history of the American west, 0171

                          is that the idea of the frontier of wide open spaces, if you will.0176

                          It is central to the American identity.0181

                          This is something that I think is part of U.S. culture.0187

                          This will tie into manifest destiny, the idea that it was the Americans destiny to expand into the west.0194

                          There is obviously a bias here that European American culture is superior, 0204

                          that they are expanding their republican institutions into the west.0212

                          And they are helping to civilize the west and build the economy.0217

                          This at all ties in all of these different ideas that work well together to help justify the expansion into the west.0223

                          Obviously, Native Americans are going to be at the short end of the stick with this type of relationship with the European Americans.0233

                          During the post Civil War era, the republican vision at the time was to integrate the national economy.0247

                          And yes, there was a need for the government to help fund internal improvements to connect the country.0253

                          Whereas the early Republican vision was extremely laissez-faire, especially post Civil War era, 0260

                          we are going to see Republicans advocating for more and more, the government helping to fund, 0271

                          especially railroads and to cooperate with certain land policies, like the Homestead Act that we would be talking about.0280

                          Railroads will be important to help connect the country, unify it, and this will help businesses, this will help industrialize.0289

                          It will help move people to the west.0298

                          Protective tariffs will be very important and a turning away from the laissez-faire approach,0302

                          to a certain extent, will be part of this Republican vision.0308

                          But we do see increasingly a public-private partnership emerging more and more.0314

                          With big business, in fact, will work hand and hand with the U.S. government for quite a time period. 0321

                          And this will eventually lead to what becomes known as the gilded age, where there are some big business that will abuse this relationship0329

                          and try to make huge profits, and take advantage of the laissez-faire approach, that the government was actually participating in,0337

                          in terms of not regulating and not breaking up a lot of the monopolies, which we will be talking about more in the next lesson.0349

                          But it does tie into this lesson as well.0358

                          Again, laissez-faire to a certain extent, because we do see protective tariffs being put into place by the Federal government 0364

                          that are meant to protect the American industries.0372

                          We will see a lot of subsidies, federal monies going into the building of railroads, which would be very important.0377

                          The income fund tariffs will help to address the debt from the Civil War.0385

                          They need the funding to help build this infrastructure which will be a long-term investment to help the economy.0390

                          By the end of the 19th century, we see this divide.0398

                          It seemed as if there are two nations.0401

                          One that was industrial and one that was the frontier.0403

                          These are very much interrelated.0408

                          The final settlement across the Great Plains in the far west was a result of the spread of American industrialism.0410

                          Very much important point.0419

                          The Great Plains and the West.0426

                          These are the two regions that we will be focusing on primarily in this lesson.0430

                          These are two major ecological regions, east of the Rockies and the Semiarid Great Plains and Arid West, which is west of the Rockies.0434

                          These two regions became the site of the final stage of the European American occupation of the continental U.S.0444

                          And ultimately, domination of the U.S.0451

                          As we will see, about 100,000 Native Americans lived on the Great Plains during the mid 19th century.0455

                          Smallpox, measles ravaged many of the southeastern tribes previously, but many of the Midwestern and Western tribes were less vulnerable.0464

                          And were very migratory, and lived off of the buffalo in the plains, especially.0474

                          That is going to become a huge target and a huge area that the European Americans are going to look to expand into.0483

                          And therefore, the Native Americans are going to have to go according to the expansionists vision.0491

                          You can have a visual here to see how this breaks down.0502

                          This is the area of the Great Plains.0506

                          This is what we would call the Far West, and then the West, and the Rocky Mountains are right here.0510

                          Again, westward expansion will continue throughout the late 1800’s.0517

                          The United States had reached its manifest destiny but people were continuing to settle, and states were continuing to be formed.0524

                          That is going to be a major development.0534

                          The other major thing that is going to happen is that we are going to see cattle ranching becoming extremely popular,0538

                          as many of the longhorn cattle will come from Texas and other southern states, southwestern states, what we call today.0544

                          They are to receive major drives up into the plains which mean that the buffalo are going to have to go.0555

                          We will see efforts by buffalo hunters and the U.S. government to kill the buffalo.0563

                          They actually almost went extinct.0572

                          One of the goals was to expand farming but also to starve out the Native Americans, which was the mindset in the late 19th century, 0576

                          that became much more aggressive toward Native Americans, for the most part.0589

                          Speaking of Native Americans, here is a map of the Great Plains and West, and Far West.0594

                          You can see all of the different tribes scattered across the map here.0601

                          In blue, the major regions where there were reservations that were established.0607

                          We talked about previously the five civilized tribes that were resettled in what is today mostly Oklahoma.0612

                          Today, we are also going to talk about some of the other reservations that were created for the Sioux Indians in the Dakotas, 0621

                          and some other regions as well, for instance, around Montana.0629

                          Those are the main ones we are going to focus on in this lesson, just to give you a few examples.0638

                          There are several others but those are the ones we are going to focus on here.0641

                          The Sioux are one of the major tribal groups that we are going to focus on.0650

                          They are also known as the Lakota people, originally from Minnesota.0655

                          They were an eastern prairie people who moved westward and depended on the Great Plains for survival.0661

                          The antelope and buffalo, in particular.0668

                          They hunted wild game, they became nomadic and hunted.0670

                          Their religious life was tied to the natural world.0675

                          God was not a supreme being but instead throughout the universe.0679

                          There were various spirits tied to nature, and animals were extremely important in a lot of their different myths and traditions.0683

                          They traded historically with the Pawnees, the Mandans, as well as European Americans.0695

                          For many years, relations were somewhat peaceful with the European Americans.0702

                          But as more and more European Americans migrate westward, 0707

                          we are going to see increasing clashes with the Sioux and other Great Plains tribes.0712

                          European Americans began to have their eyes on Oregon and California.0720

                          And as you may remember that, California became a state in 1850.0725

                          In the 1850’s, we are going to see major migrations deep into the west.0733

                          They are going to travel on the Oregon Trail, many by covered wagon.0740

                          And American fever took hold as Norwegians and Swedes came to the United States in search of a better life.0744

                          We will also see in northeastern cities, immigrants coming into the industrialized regions to work in factories.0753

                          But we will also see immigrant groups looking to farm and start anew.0761

                          There was tons of land that they viewed for the taking and it was cheap and accessible.0767

                          Even though it was a hard life being out on the frontier, many were looking to have a new opportunity.0774

                          We will also see many southern blacks known as exodusters came to Kansas to resettle 0781

                          and escaped the racist south to have farms and have a new life.0793

                          Then, we will also see Indian country, what was known as Indian country,0801

                          became the bridge to the Pacific and railroads would help in the process of building that bridge.0804

                          As railroads were built by the help of Federal government, awarding huge land grants, subsidies,0810

                          and loans to two major companies that will establish railroad lines.0817

                          Those being the Union Pacific and the Central Pacific railroads.0823

                          Also keep in mind that building communications system was all hand in hand with building this infrastructure.0828

                          Telegraph lines are also important and brought into San Francisco by 1861.0837

                          Cattle raising became popular.0846

                          But as I mentioned, the bison had to go.0848

                          Yes, the herds almost vanished within 10 years.0852

                          It was particularly gruesome the manner and recklessness in which European Americans, especially, other groups as well,0855

                          but primarily European American hunters slaughtered the bison.0864

                          Just for sport, and in some cases, they could make money if they were hired to actually kill the buffalo.0873

                          Buffalo hunters eliminated the buffalo, in order to make room for cattle and to starve American Indians, as horrible as it sounds.0882

                          That was the mindset back then, that they have to clear out this region and they felt justified that they were helping to civilize this region.0892

                          Today’s, rational minded people would say this was very cruel and very shortsighted, just immoral on so many different levels.0902

                          But this was the tactic, in order to expand into the west, and how the west was won.0915

                          New technologies were also incorporated and encouraged to be used to help promote farming.0922

                          Steel plows, barbed wire, and strains of hardened kernel wheat.0929

                          If you may remember that the Great Plains region, what today we would call, not so much to the east but,0937

                          the Midwest and to the Great Plains, good chunk of the Midwest where there is a lot of farming.0945

                          Many people thought that there were a lot of opportunities there,0954

                          so they had to find new ways to work with the hostile environment and dry land.0957

                          These pioneers, these trail blazers, those who were looking to develop the Great Plains had to come up with new techniques, 0968

                          dry farming techniques, to make the most of the grim situation and make the land productive, so they could subsist and survive.0976

                          All these different companies, as well as individuals, and government policy, will all come together to help develop the west.0989

                          Railroads, land speculators, there were all kinds of opportunities for land investors to make a quick buck, 0998

                          to sell land and to buy up land really quickly.1006

                          Steamship lines in the western states and territories did all they could to encourage settlement of the Great Plains,1009

                          and do it quickly, so that this would help the United States to become a stronger country.1016

                          And as I was saying before, the transcontinental railroad will be instrumental in unifying the nation and will finally be complete by 1869, 1022

                          where the two major railroad lines, the Central Pacific and Union Pacific will meet in Utah, promontory point.1033

                          This is a symbolic picture when they finally complete the railroad and meet at this point.1041

                          A major historic event that called for a celebration.1050

                          As a reminder, this is supposed to be 1949, no this is 1849.1058

                          In 1849 was the Gold Rush.1068

                          As you may recall that James Marshall found traces of gold in the foothills of the Sierra Nevadas.1073

                          This is going to lead to a huge gold rush, as miners are going to flock to this region, in particular, in California but also in Oregon too.1079

                          This is going to help the population grow tremendously.1091

                          The non-Native American population increased almost 20 times in four years.1095

                          As you could see here, from 14,000 to about 220,000 in 1852.1101

                          Forty-niners, those California migrants abandoned their homes and jobs and hit the trails to mine gold.1107

                          Now, if we do see as far as demographics were concerned, most of the miners and most of the settlements were made up of men.1115

                          There was a huge lack of women and children and families.1125

                          And then, we will also see many Chinese migrants coming to California and to the Pacific Northwest, as well, in search of gold mountain.1129

                          For the gold rush, for economic opportunities, many poor Chinese, in particular, came as indentured servants.1139

                          They would loan money for their passage to California.1147

                          Here is a picture where you could see Chinese laborers in the mines.1151

                          You may also recall that, eventually, many of the Chinese workers will be pushed out of the mining 1157

                          because a lot of euro-centric American miners, workers feel that they should have first dibs to those working opportunities.1164

                          Chinese migrants will have to find work elsewhere.1178

                          There are definitely ardous work, especially in the railroad building business, that was a laborious, a very difficult type of job to take on.1182

                          But there were tons of opportunities there, backbreaking work.1193

                          Actually, many of the Chinese ended up working on the railroad throughout the Sierra Nevada.1198

                          By the late 1850s, the California gold panned out and other minimal discoveries will eventually help develop the far west.1207

                          These sometimes were not as emphasized just the gold, silver mining and other industries like copper, lead, and zinc.1217

                          Remote areas turned into mob scenes of prospectors, traders, gamblers, and prostitutes.1225

                          Yes, because there were not a lot of women around, as well as saloon keepers.1231

                          Prospectors made their own codes and often discriminated against different minority groups such as Mexicans, Chinese, and blacks.1235

                          However, do keep in mind that California, especially, always has a long history of being diverse.1242

                          Despite these examples of discrimination, we are also seeing people blend and mix, and coexist.1250

                          But there certainly was discrimination, both are part of the history.1259

                          Open ranching became popular.1266

                          Cattle towns capture the nation's imagination as symbols of the Wild West.1268

                          And again, this will continue and even be glorified even more, 1274

                          when we get to later on in history with the westerns and movies and Hollywood, and so forth.1279

                          That will kind of take on another life of its own that will draw from this history.1286

                          The importance of cowboy culture and so forth, in the Wild West.1293

                          There is a lot of mythology that draws from this history and that was dramatized, and became part of the culture.1298

                          As I was mentioning, many cattle were driven to Northern regions in the Great Plains.1308

                          During the long drive, Texas ranchers hired cowboys to herd the longhorn cattle north to the railroads, 1317

                          to push them eventually westward across Kansas.1324

                          That is another reason we want to point out, that Chicago, in fact, will become a major hub for the meat business as well,1329

                          which is interesting to know, because of its location being somewhat in the middle of the United States, to kill and process the meat.1337

                          And also to get it delivered effectively and efficiently throughout the nation via railroad.1352

                          That connects in as well.1360

                          By the late 1880’s, open range ranching did come to an end.1362

                          Sheep raising was also popular in the high country of the Rockies and Sierras.1368

                          Ranching, very important, as well as other forms of agriculture.1373

                          Cowboys and Buffalo Bill's Wild West, kind of back to the western culture.1382

                          Cowboys were a very diverse group and more ordinary than the typical popular image.1391

                          They work long hours under poor working conditions.1398

                          One of the most famous cowboys who took on a life all of his own, was ex-fighter William F. Cody, who became known as Buffalo Bill.1403

                          He was an army scout in 1868 war with Native Americans.1415

                          In 1869, Ned Buntline wrote Buffalo Bill, the King of the Bordermen.1420

                          This is where Cody is going to actually end up taking on this nickname, and in fact,1429

                          he is going to become involved in these Wild West shows, where the mythology of what it meant to be in the Wild West, 1438

                          what it meant to be a cowboy was over-glorified and dramatized.1449

                          Cody was nicknamed Buffalo Bill for hunting buffalo to feed the construction crews of the Kansas Pacific railroad.1456

                          He was like the quintessential western man and the epitome of the Wild West.1466

                          The Wild West show offered displays of Buffalo Bill, and also a lot of these participants will show their horsemanship.1474

                          They were sharpshooters like the famous little Annie Oakley, who was a skilled gunwoman, and real Indians such as Sitting Bull.1485

                          We will talk about him in a little bit.1496

                          Annie Oakley, a famous sharpshooter, became famous for her performances.1498

                          She had a really good shot and she ended up traveling, and even went to the American Exposition in London in 18871504

                          which was pretty phenomenal for a woman, especially as a young woman.1515

                          She was kind of the female frontiers women that was glorified and entertaining, 1521

                          and something to be proud about in the U.S., at this point in history.1530

                          She also performed in vaudeville which is entertainment, kind of specialty shows for working class, 1537

                          middle class people, that included all types of shows, like variety shows, I guess you could say,1546

                          Burlesque, comedy, song, dance, and other types of entertainment.1554

                          Here are some more imagery to tie into that.1562

                          Here you can see Annie Oakley, you could see Sitting Bull.1568

                          I wanted to read a little bit about Sitting Bull.1576

                          Sitting Bull was a Lakota chief and holy man under whom the Lakota tribes united in their struggle for survival on the Northern Plains.1579

                          He was known for being defiant toward American military power and contemptuous of American promises to the end.1590

                          He was from South Dakota, originally, and he ends up being this legendary Native American.1598

                          His people were defeated, and we are going to talk about this a little bit later on.1611

                          He did participate in several wars against the U.S. government but eventually lost.1616

                          Here you can see how sad he looked.1624

                          He ends up getting this job in this Wild West show and having to kind of look like a stereotypical Native American,1628

                          which shows how grim the situation really was.1639

                          Homesteaders also will become very important and the Homestead Act will be passed in 1862.1653

                          This law is important that you should know, that offered 160 acres public land to all settlers.1661

                          This was a great deal, it was a law that offered land for cheap, and in some cases for free1669

                          if they improved the land, if they lived there and resided there for five years.1679

                          This caused a mad rush to the central part of the United States and into the West.1686

                          Many people will come and try to take advantage of this great opportunity.1694

                          Women even filed 10% of the land claims.1698

                          Even though, we did see many families coming out, women will also participate in this mad rush.1702

                          Although again, cowboys, miners, lumber workers, pioneers, tended to be overwhelmingly men, 1711

                          some women accompanied families as homesteaders.1717

                          The value of domesticity was supported, that a man should be devoted to his wife and children,1723

                          and inspire or cause him to work hard, to be thrifty and to be responsible.1729

                          People had to work together in this harsh environment and trying to build a new house, a new home, to establish a farm.1734

                          That is all going to be part of settling the west.1744

                          The U.S. Geological Survey helped in 1879 to open up western lands that were also managed under a new Department of the Interior.1748

                          We are seeing Federal agencies being created that will also help to facilitate the settlement.1758

                          Speaking of farming, we will see organizations also being created to help farmers in their endeavors.1766

                          Although U.S. farmers struggled, modern techniques and equipment were used.1775

                          They were able to sell their goods to world markets.1779

                          Chicago being the railroad hub, facilitated this.1782

                          Yes, the meat packing industry became hugely popular and profitable.1786

                          By 1900, about half of the nation's cattle and sheep, 1/3 of its wheat came from the Great Plains.1795

                          This was a success story.1802

                          There were obviously some concerns, environmental costs certainly were a major issue 1806

                          that we are going to see eventually come to a head as over-farming is going to take place.1812

                          And a lot of farmers do not rotate their crops properly.1819

                          And eventually, this will cause the dust bowl, we will get to that a little bit later, which will be part of the Great Depression.1824

                          When there is a huge drought across the Great Plains and the soil becomes useless, 1835

                          and stripped of its nutrients, and the people are unable to farm.1843

                          Environmental cost will multiply.1851

                          Something to keep in mind, as wasteful anti-biodiversity practices continued, monoculture, growing the same thing over and over,1853

                          not good in the long run, not sustainable.1862

                          But there were organizations in the 19th century that help farmers along.1867

                          One of them being the Grange, this kind of the short name.1872

                          The formal name is the National Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry,1877

                          that was founded in 1867 by Oliver Kelley.1881

                          This and other Grange organizations help to improve the social lives of farm families, by providing social events, bring people together,1885

                          give them the sense of community to establish cooperative programs, insurance programs.1893

                          To help protect them and help their investments.1899

                          And mail order house, catalogs for different department stores, and stores that would sell equipment for farming and that would be useful.1912

                          Montgomery Ward, that is not around anymore, it was around when I was a kid, 1923

                          was one of those companies that was very useful for farmers.1929

                          Some pictures of the famous Grange.1935

                          As you can see here all the different things that the Grange participated in, 1942

                          helping with farming techniques, social events, even education in some cases.1948

                          We are going to go back to Native Americans.1958

                          As European Americans continued to expand, incursions into lands increased from the 1850’s onward, Native Americans will resist the best that they could.1961

                          But the Federal government was relentless and formulated a new policy.1974

                          First of all, Peace Commission was created in 1867 to step up and negotiate an end to the fighting, 1979

                          and negotiate treaties by which the western Indians would cede their lands and move to reservations.1986

                          This is like the final vision to kind of take care of the so called Indian problem.1993

                          Which is really that they were there, that they were here on this land that European Americans wanted to move on to.2002

                          An agency was created, the Bureau of Indian affairs, the Federal Agency that would deal with a Native American policy.2011

                          And American-Indians under its guidance would be wards of the government until Native Americans learn to walk on the white man's road.2022

                          In other words, assimilate and adapt to mainstream American culture.2033

                          Some will, but many want to also live or just completely live the way of Native Americans.2043

                          That is obviously going to be a huge conflict, as the idea of cultural pluralism was not truly embraced at this time.2055

                          It was more of a social Darwinism and competition and survival of the fittest, 2067

                          and a eurocentric vision, for the most part.2071

                          Here in the map, you could see how the amount of land that the Sioux actually had in 1868, 2078

                          ends up shrinking more and more as time passes by 1877.2087

                          And then by 1889, it is even scattered into the smaller regions.2091

                          Reservations were created.2097

                          We have talk about some of these before, like in Oklahoma, for the five civilized tribes.2099

                          In the Dakota, the southwest Dakota territory, for the Lakota Sioux.2105

                          Oklahoma to the southern plains Indians and five other major southern tribes, the Choctaw, Chickasaw, Creek, Cherokee, and Seminole.2112

                          Others went to the Apaches, Navajos, I believed that is Utes, in the southwest, and to the mountain Indians in Rockies and beyond.2122

                          There were famous series and engagements that was known as the Red Cloud War in 1868.2135

                          This eventually came to an end.2144

                          Chief Red Cloud and General William T. Sherman signed the Fort Laramie treaty, 2146

                          which ends this war that was along the Bozeman Trail in Montana.2152

                          The U.S. agreed to abandon the forts along the trail, and grant enormous parts of the Wyoming,2157

                          Montana, and Dakota territory to Native Americans.2163

                          Reservations will be set up there as well.2167

                          These territories are meant to be reserved for Native Americans where they are to live freely.2170

                          But again, many of these tribes were demoralized and being forced into one certain area, 2179

                          and oftentimes being pushed off their ancestral homelands.2188

                          Here is a famous quotation by Chief Joseph of the Nez Perce.2192

                          I am tired of fighting, our chiefs are killed, Looking Glass is dead.2198

                          Toohulhulsote is dead, the old men are all dead.2204

                          It is the young men who say yes or no.2208

                          He who led the young man is dead, it is cold and we have no blankets.2212

                          The little children are freezing to death.2217

                          My people, some of them, have run away to the hills and have no blankets, no food.2220

                          No one knows where they are, perhaps freezing to death.2226

                          I want to have time to look for my children and see how many of them I can find.2230

                          Maybe I shall find them among the dead.2236

                          Hear me, my chiefs, I am tired.2238

                          My heart is sick and sad, from where the sun now stands, I will fight no more forever.2241

                          Here you can get a sense of feeling defeated and sad for his people who are suffering and cold, 2250

                          and poor and do not have access to a good life, and they are tired of fighting.2259

                          Chief Joseph who was leader of the Nez Perce, who fought off the United States army in a series of several heroic engagements 2269

                          until they were cornered and forced to surrender eventually in Montana, near the Canadian border in 1877.2278

                          Fighting intensified in the mid 1870’s, we will see in the Dakota region, especially.2289

                          Native Americans fought on for years.2299

                          The office of Indian affairs, another Federal Agency, ordered the Sioux to vacate their hunting grounds 2301

                          and to withdraw to the reservation but they resisted.2311

                          On June 25, 1876, George Custer pursued a reckless strategy which led to his troops and him, 2317

                          attempting to surprise attack Sitting Bull, who was leader of the Sioux.2329

                          However, Custer's troops were annihilated by Crazy Horse, who was the leader of the Sioux 2335

                          and his fellow warriors and the Cheyenne at the battle of Little Big Horn.2340

                          This was a win for the Native Americans.2346

                          Custer was extremely bitter from this conflict and starts to plan for revenge.2350

                          And that is what will eventually happen less than 20 years later.2360

                          We will see that eventually the Sioux will give up and move on to the reservation.2366

                          By 1877, Federal agents forced the tribes to cede the western third of their reservation.2371

                          As I showed you previously on the map, where you could see the shrinking of the amount of land that they had occupied previously.2377

                          During the Grant administration, there were Christian reformers who although patronizing,2392

                          were well intentioned, looking to help assist Native Americans.2400

                          Then, they will have an influence to a certain extent over U.S. policy with Native Americans.2406

                          They will help advocate for education.2413

                          You can see the religious influence as well, and religious indoctrination of American Indians, 2418

                          who may not be gung ho or want to embrace these religious beliefs.2423

                          But nonetheless, this is what a lot of these people advocated for.2429

                          One of the great examples to illustrate this was the Carlyle Boarding School that was established in 1879.2433

                          This was an effort to force Native Americans to assimilate, to indoctrinate them with the white ways, 2444

                          with Christian religion, to get Native Americans to dress in European clothing, to learn English, to be educated, in this way.2452

                          But there were problems with the boarding school campaign, whose corruption, racism, 2465

                          denominational infighting, that eventually reduced its effectiveness.2471

                          Some white Americans were sympathetic, but again often patronizing to the cause of American-Indians, such as Helen Hunt Jackson.2477

                          She is one of the most famous advocates.2488

                          She wrote a book called Century of Dishonor which was an influential book, which told the story of an unjust treatment of the Indians.2491

                          A long history of unjust treatment of Native Americans.2502

                          She advocates for assimilation and citizenship into the U.S., that they need to be treated as equals.2506

                          Here is a picture of her famous book, the Century of Dishonor.2525

                          The Bureau of Indian affairs did train children to farm, prepare them for citizenship, 2532

                          advocated for Indians to embrace private property in severalty.2538

                          The idea of private property is very important, and the idea of dividing up tribal lands 2543

                          that were previously communal for the whole tribe.2551

                          This attempt was to say, let us treat them as equals, and maybe if we divide up the land 2556

                          and they followed the path of having nuclear families like the mainstream American family, that this will help them in the long run.2562

                          But in fact, it was not helpful at all, and in fact, many Native Americans ended up, this had a very divisive effect.2572

                          Some sold off their land and they ended up losing more land even more than they had originally, under the reservation system.2580

                          This Dawes act is going to be another major law that will have a huge effect on Native American lands.2588

                          This will carve up tribal lands and declared that family heads would be allotted a 160 acre of lots 2599

                          and individuals will also receive smaller plots.2605

                          Land will be held in the government trust for 25 years, at which time the Indians would become U.S. citizens.2609

                          There is the citizenship element.2615

                          Remaining reservations were sold off and proceeds would go toward Indian education.2617

                          But of course, a very biased Eurocentric, Euro-American type of education that did not respect 2624

                          and incorporate Native American culture and history, and so forth.2635

                          Helen Hunt's efforts although well intentioned, did not have a positive effect on Native Americans.2644

                          Then, the famous Ghost Dance broke out.2653

                          Many Native Americans were devastated by these huge land losses, many Native American peoples encouraged the Ghost Dance,2659

                          which was a ritual to prepare for the regeneration of Native American civilization.2666

                          Wovoka was a famous Paiute holy man who encouraged people to participate in this ghost dance which was this ritual where singing, dancing, 2672

                          just meant for Native Americans to go back to their roots, to celebrate their culture, to have a sense of themselves and to not give up.2685

                          And it had an empowering effect on people.2695

                          But we are going to see that many skeptical, fearful, racist whites who were observing this ghost dance,2698

                          heard about the ghost dance, became frightened, suspicious.2708

                          This is going to also inspire Custer to take a stand.2713

                          This will culminate when Custer tries to regroup, and the U.S. government in fact is going to go in2724

                          to what would become known as Wounded Knee.2734

                          This, sometimes is known as the battle, it is also called the Massacre at Wounded Knee.2738

                          This erupts when soldiers attempt to disarm a group of Wovoka’s followers who are participating in the ghost dance.2743

                          This was a huge slaughter, men, women, children were killed.2752

                          A horrific attack, it definitely was more of a massacre than a two sided battle.2759

                          This is the final chapter in the western Indian wars that occurs in 1890.2767

                          This symbolized the last chapter of all the Indian wars that took place from the Civil War2782

                          until the Massacre in 1890, and left a negative effect.2790

                          Ever since then, there have not been any other major battles.2796

                          The Native Americans were defeated after this.2802

                          Very symbolic and important in U.S. history and in Native American history.2806

                          Although, a bitter legacy, undoubtedly.2812

                          Moving on to different groups that were also helping to build, and settle, and develop the West.2820

                          Railroad workers, miners, and cowboys, in addition to Native Americans too.2829

                          The West was very diverse with Chinese who came into the U.S. between 1850 and 1880.2837

                          In 1868, the Senate approved a treaty permitting unrestricted emigration from China.2843

                          Many Chinese did come into the United States.2852

                          They worked on the railroad, especially in the central railroad, Central Pacific, I should say.2855

                          They eventually were involved in the Sierras, as I was saying previously.2860

                          Worldwide Asian migration began in the mid 19th century because of poverty.2868

                          Many came as indentured servants.2873

                          The Six Companies in San Francisco's Chinatown, steered new arrivals to jobs and provided social and commercial services.2876

                          Many worked in gold fields, then on the transcontinental railroad, and then in other industries.2883

                          A huge amount of Chinese came into the United States.2890

                          But then we saw a backlash that culminated in the passing of a very exclusionary law called the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882.2894

                          It is pretty self explanatory.2906

                          Though the Chinese had a good reputation for their work habits, worked very hard on the railroad, in the goldfields, etc.,2909

                          there were whites who were racist, the Workingman's parties in particular, other nativist groups that were racist toward them, 2916

                          and did not want to compete with these immigrants for jobs, pressured the government to pass this law, the Chinese Exclusion Act.2924

                          That barred, kind of shut the doors to Chinese immigrants from coming into the United States.2933

                          That is going to be in place for quite awhile and would not be changed until the 1950’s.2940

                          Afterwards, Japanese immigrants came to dominate the state's agricultural labor force, 2950

                          until a similar backlash occurred and closed all population flow in 1908.2956

                          Part of the story of how the U.S. government tweaks and controls immigration.2961

                          Just to show you some primary sources here as well, illustrating the biased and anti Chinese sentiment during the 19th century.2976

                          Here you will see Uncle Sam kicking out a Chinese man, Golden Gate of Liberty.2990

                          And then, this also includes other groups, notice, Communist, Nihilist, Socialist, Fenian, and Hoodlum, welcome, 2995

                          but no admittance to Chinamen.3002

                          Industry, order, peace, sobriety, the only one barred out.3005

                          This one is a bit sympathetic.3011

                          Enlightened American statesman, we must draw the line somewhere, you know.3015

                          Just kind of highlighting the anti-Chinese sentiment and the problems with that.3021

                          Onto a more sunny subject, Golden California.3028

                          California has a very unique location, Mediterranean climate, environment, and the history of California definitely set apart.3035

                          Californian's created their own cultural tradition, very diverse.3046

                          Mark Twain and Bret Harte who are traveling throughout the United States, writers, 3051

                          celebrated their make or break optimism of the mining camps.3056

                          While others like Helen Hunt Jackson wrote about the Spanish past and glorified in the book Ramona.3060

                          We will see that railroads will be important in helping to develop California.3068

                          The southern Pacific railroad and good farming conditions will help California grow tremendously.3073

                          Mediterranean climate, long growing season, will eventually lead to a real estate boom.3079

                          Eventually, because of the widespread development, environmental movement formed 3085

                          after the destruction of the environment that resulted.3090

                          This started to strike the interest of several writers that were influenced by transcendentalist ideas and thinkers like John Muir.3095

                          In 1890, California's National Parks were established in an effort to conserve, to protect a lot of the lands, 3106

                          and to set aside lands so that they will be enjoyed by the public but not exploited.3116

                          As many of the redwoods, in fact, were being cut down.3122

                          Some of those trees were thousands of years old and took a very longtime for them to grow.3127

                          And although there were a lot of loggers who were able to make huge profits,3132

                          many environmentalists were very concerned about the negative effects they would have on the environment and its people.3137

                          We will see the first major wave in environmental activism starting to emerge.3145

                          Rampant over-development will lead to a preservation movement by Congress.3153

                          In 1864, Congress gave 10 square miles of the Yosemite Valley to California for public use.3159

                          And further to the north, in 1872, Congress set aside 2 million acres of Wyoming's Yellowstone Valley as a park for tourism.3166

                          These pictures here are from Yellowstone, where you can see the famous geysers.3176

                          Here a picture of John Muir who was very much instrumental in forming the Sierra club and wrote prolifically about the west.3184

                          Here you could see a huge redwood being cut down and how huge this tree was.3195

                          We finally made it into the assessments section.3202

                          This is a long lesson, so let us get to it.3207

                          This one is by Helen Hunt Jackson, writer, activist for American-Indians, A Century of Dishonor.3210

                          Here we go, there is not among these 300 bands of Indians which has not suffered cruelly 3217

                          at the hands of either of the Government or of white settlers.3224

                          It makes little difference, however, where one opens the record of the history of the Indians,3229

                          every page and every year has its dark stain.3234

                          But neither time nor place, makes any difference in the main facts.3239

                          Colorado is as greedy and unjust in 1880, as was Georgia in 1830 and Ohio in 1795.3244

                          President after President has appointed commission after commission to inquire into and report upon Indian affairs.3255

                          These reports are bound up and that is the end of them.3262

                          All judicious plans and measures for their safety and salvation must embody provisions for their becoming citizens, as fast as they are fit.3266

                          Cheating, robbing, breaking promises, these three are clearly things which must cease to be done.3275

                          The actions referred to in Georgia in 1830 are strongly associated with the policies of which of the following? 3287

                          Henry Clay, William Henry Harrison, John Marshall, or Andrew Jackson.3295

                          The answer is Andrew Jackson.3304

                          Which of the following does Helen Hunt Jackson propose as a solution?3307

                          A presidential commission, citizenship for Native Americans, safe reservations, or new legislation.3312

                          The answer is citizenship.3321

                          Partially in response to Jackson’s A Century of Dishonor,3326

                          a new Federal government policy for American-Indians was enacted in which of the following laws?3330

                          The Dawes Act, the Reservation Act, the Indian Removal Act of 1830, or the Assimilation Act. 3336

                          The answer is the Dawes Act.3344

                          Example 2, John Cook, soldier, hunter, author of Buffaloes and Indians.3351

                          That evening, there was a general discussion regard to the main subject in hunters minds.3358

                          Colorado had passed stringent laws that were practically prohibitory against buffalo-hunting.3364

                          The Legislature of Kansas did the same, General Phil Sheridan was then in command of the military department of the Southwest.3372

                          When he heard of the nature of the Texas bill for the protection of the buffaloes, 3379

                          he told them that instead of stopping the hunters, they ought to give them a hearty, unanimous vote of thanks.3385

                          These men will do more in the next year, to settle the vexed Indian question.3391

                          They are destroying the Indians commissary.3396

                          But there are two sides to the question.3400

                          It is simply a case of the survival of the fittest.3402

                          Too late to stop to moralize now, and sentiment must have no part in our thoughts from this time on.3406

                          According to Cook, a strong support for the continued hunting of buffalo in the late 1870’s was made by which of the following?3423

                          Meatpackers, railroads, cattle ranchers, or the U.S. Army.3431

                          The answer is the U.S. Army.3436

                          The efforts to protect the buffalo herds in the 1870’s were directed 3442

                          by which of the following movements that was developing in that decade?3448

                          Grange, Conservationists, Assimilationists, or National Labor Union.3452

                          Conservationist.3460

                          The last question, Cook’s philosophy toward the buffalo hunting in their future of American-Indians shows the influence of the idea of,3462

                          Assimilation, Social Darwinism, Laissez-Faire, or Communalism.3470

                          This one, we are going to get into a little bit more next time.3482

                          But the idea of Social Darwinism and survival of the fittest.3484

                          And that, we are done with our lesson on the American West.3490

                          Thank you for watching www.educator.com.3495