I. Mechanics 

Introduction to Physics (Basic Math) 
77:37 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
What is Physics? 
1:35  
 
 Physicists and Philosophers 
1:57  
 
 Differences Between 
2:48  
 
 Experimental Observations 
3:20  
 
 Laws (Mathematical) 
3:48  
 
 Modification of Laws/Experiments 
4:24  
 
 Example: Newton's Laws of Mechanics 
5:38  
 
 Example: Einstein's Relativity 
6:18  
 
Units 
8:50  
 
 Various Units 
9:37  
 
 SI Units 
10:02  
 
 Length (meter) 
10:18  
 
 Mass (kilogram) 
10:35  
 
 Time (second) 
10:51  
 
 MKS Units (meter kilogram second) 
11:04  
 
 Definition of Second 
11:55  
 
 Definition of Meter 
14:06  
 
 Definition of Kilogram 
15:21  
 
 Multiplying/Dividing Units 
19:10  
 
Trigonometry Overview 
21:24  
 
 Sine and Cosine 
21:31  
 
 Pythagorean Theorem 
23:44  
 
 Tangent 
24:15  
 
 Sine and Cosine of Angles 
24:35  
 
 Similar Triangles 
25:54  
 
 Right Triangle (Opposite, Adjacent, Hypotenuse) 
28:16  
 
 Other Angles (306090) 
29:16  
 
Law of Cosines 
31:38  
 
 Proof of Law of Cosines 
33:03  
 
Law of Sines 
37:03  
 
 Proof of Law of Sines 
38:03  
 
Scalars and Vectors 
41:00  
 
 Scalar: Magnitude 
41:22  
 
 Vector: Magnitude and Direction 
41:52  
 
 Examples 
42:31  
 
Extra Example 1: Unit Conversion 
2:47  
 
Extra Example 2: Law of Cosines 
12:52  
 
Extra Example 3: Dimensional Analysis 
11:43  

Vector Addition 
70:31 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Graphical Method 
0:10  
 
 Magnitude and Direction of Two Vectors 
0:40  
 
Analytical Method or Algebraic Method 
8:45  
 
 Example: Addition of Vectors 
9:12  
 
 Parallelogram Rule 
11:42  
 
 Law of Cosines 
14:22  
 
 Law of Sines 
18:32  
 
Components of a Vector 
21:35  
 
 Example: Vector Components 
23:30  
 
 Introducing Third Dimension 
31:14  
 
 Right Handed System 
33:06  
 
Specifying a Vector 
34:44  
 
 Example: Calculate the Components of Vector 
36:33  
 
Vector Addition by Means of Components 
41:23  
 
Equality of Vectors 
47:11  
 
Dot Product 
48:39  
 
Extra Example 1: Vector Addition 
9:57  
 
Extra Example 2: Angle Between Vectors 
4:10  
 
Extra Example 3: Vector Addition 
4:51  

Motion in One Dimension 
79:35 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
 Position, Distance, and Displacement 
0:12  
 
 Position of the Object 
0:30  
 
 Distance Traveled by The Object 
5:34  
 
 Displacement of The Object 
9:05  
 
Average Speed Over a Certain Time Interval 
14:46  
 
 Example Of an Object 
15:15  
 
 Example: Calculating Average Speed 
20:19  
 
Average Velocity Over a Time Interval 
22:22  
 
 Example Calculating Average Velocity of an Object 
22:45  
 
Instantaneous Velocity 
30:45  
 
Average Acceleration Over a Time Interval 
40:50  
 
 Example: Average Acceleration of an Object 
42:01  
 
Instantaneous Acceleration 
47:17  
 
 Example: Acceleration of Time 'T' 
47:33  
 
 Example with Realistic Equation 
49:52  
 
Motion With Constant Acceleration: Kinematics Equation 
53:39  
 
 Example: Motion of an Object with Constant Acceleration 
53:55  
 
Extra Example 1: Uniformly Accelerated Motion 
6:14  
 
Extra Example 2: Catching up with a Car 
8:33  
 
Extra Example 3: Velocity and Acceleration 
6:41  

Kinematics Equation Of Calculus 
59:00 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
The Derivative 
0:12  
 
 Idea of a Derivative 
0:27  
 
 Derivative of a function X= df/dx 
6:55  
 
 Example: F(x)=Constant 'c' 
7:22  
 
 Example: F(x)= X 
9:37  
 
 Example: F(x)= AX 
11:29  
 
 Example: F(x)= X squared 
12:30  
 
 Example: F(x)= X cubed 
15:23  
 
 Example: F(x) =SinX 
16:24  
 
 Example: F(x) =CosX 
16:30  
 
Product of Functions 
16:56  
 
 Example: F(x) = X (squared) Sin X 
17:15  
 
Quotient Rule 
23:03  
 
 Example: F(x)=uVvU/V2 
23:48  
 
Kinematics of Equation 
25:10  
 
 First Kinematic Equation : V=Vo+aT 
31:13  
 
Extra Example 1: Particle on XAxis 
8:49  
 
Extra Example 2: Graphical Analysis 
10:16  

Freely Falling Objects 
88:59 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Acceleration Due to Gravity 
0:11  
 
 Dropping an Object at Certain Height 
0:25  
 
Signs : V , A , D 
7:07  
 
 Example: Shooting an Object Upwards 
7:34  
 
Example: Ground To Ground 
12:13  
 
 Velocity at Maximum Height 
14:30  
 
 Time From Ground to Ground 
23:10  
 
 Shortcut: Calculate Time Spent in Air 
24:07  
 
Example: Object Short Downwards 
30:19  
 
 Object Short Downwards From a Height H 
30:30  
 
 Use of Quadratic Formula 
36:23  
 
Example: Bouncing Ball 
41:00  
 
 Ball Released From Certain Height 
41:22  
 
 Time Until Stationary 
43:10  
 
 Coefficient of Restitution 
46:40  
 
Example: Bouncing Ball. Continued 
53:02  
 
Extra Example 1: Object Shot Off Cliff 
13:30  
 
Extra Example 2: Object Released Off Roof 
7:13  
 
Extra Example 3: Rubber Ball (Coefficient of Restitution) 
13:50  

Motion in Two Dimensions, Part 1 
68:38 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
 Position, Displacement, Velocity, Acceleration 
0:10  
 
 Position of an Object in XY Plane 
0:19  
 
 Displacement of an Object 
2:48  
 
 Average Velocity 
4:30  
 
 Instantaneous Velocity at Time T 
5:22  
 
 Acceleration of Object 
8:49  
 
Projectile Motion 
9:57  
 
 Object Shooting at Angle 
10:15  
 
 Object Falling Vertically 
14:48  
 
 Velocity of an Object 
18:17  
 
 Displacement of an Object 
19:20  
 
 Initial Velocity Remains Constant 
21:24  
 
 Deriving Equation of a Parabola 
25:23  
 
Example: Shooting a Soccer Ball 
25:25  
 
 Time Ball Spent in Air (Ignoring Air Resistance) 
27:48  
 
 Range of Projectile 
34:49  
 
 Maximum Height Reached by the Projectile 
36:25  
 
Example: Shooting an Object Horizontally 
40:38  
 
 Time Taken for Shooting 
42:34  
 
 Range 
46:01  
 
 Velocity Hitting Ground 
46:30  
 
Extra Example 1: Projectile Shot with an Angle 
12:37  
 
Extra Example 2: What Angle 
6:55  

Motion in Two Dimensions, Part 2: Circular Dimension 
61:54 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Uniform Circular Motion 
0:15  
 
 Object Moving in a Circle at Constant Speed 
0:26  
 
 Calculation Acceleration 
3:30  
 
 Change in Velocity 
3:45  
 
 Magnitude of Acceleration 
14:21  
 
 Centripetal Acceleration 
18:15  
 
Example: Earth Rotating Around The Sun 
18:42  
 
 Center of the Earth 
20:45  
 
 Distance Traveled in Making One Revolution 
21:34  
 
 Acceleration of the Revolution 
23:37  
 
Tangential Acceleration and Radial Acceleration 
25:35  
 
 If Magnitude and Direction Change During Travel 
26:22  
 
 Tangential Acceleration 
27:45  
 
Example: Car on a Curved Road 
29:50  
 
 Finding Total Acceleration at Time T if Car is at Rest 
31:13  
 
Extra Example 1: Centripetal Acceleration on Earth 
8:11  
 
Extra Example 2: Pendulum Acceleration 
7:12  
 
Extra Example 3: Radius of Curvature 
9:08  

Newton's Laws of Motion 
89:51 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Force 
0:21  
 
 Contact Force (Push or Pull) 
1:02  
 
 Field Forces 
1:49  
 
 Gravity 
2:06  
 
 Electromagnetic Force 
2:43  
 
 Strong Force 
4:12  
 
 Weak Force 
5:17  
 
 Contact Force as Electromagnetic Force 
6:08  
 
 Focus on Contact Force and Gravitational Force 
6:50  
 
Newton's First Law 
7:37  
 
 Statement of First Law of Motion 
7:50  
 
 Uniform Motion (Velocity is Constant) 
9:38  
 
 Inertia 
10:39  
 
Newton's Second Law 
11:19  
 
 Force as a Vector 
11:35  
 
 Statement of Second Law of Motion 
12:02  
 
 Force (Formula) 
12:22  
 
 Example: 1 Force 
13:04  
 
 Newton (Unit of Force) 
13:31  
 
 Example: 2 Forces 
14:09  
 
Newton's Third Law 
19:38  
 
 Action and Reaction Law 
19:46  
 
 Statement of Third Law of Motion 
19:58  
 
 Example: 2 Objects 
20:15  
 
 Example: Objects in Contact 
21:54  
 
 Example: Person on Earth 
22:54  
 
Gravitational Force and the Weight of an Object 
24:01  
 
 Force of Attraction Formula 
24:42  
 
 Point Mass and Spherical Objects 
26:56  
 
 Example: Gravity on Earth 
28:37  
 
 Example: 1 kg on Earth 
35:31  
 
Friction 
37:09  
 
 Normal Force 
37:14  
 
 Example: Small Force 
40:01  
 
 Force of Static Friction 
43:09  
 
 Maximum Force of Static Friction 
46:03  
 
 Values of Coefficient of Static Friction 
47:37  
 
 Coefficient of Kinetic Friction 
47:53  
 
 Force of Kinetic Friction 
48:27  
 
 Example: Horizontal Force 
49:36  
 
 Example: Angled Force 
52:36  
 
Extra Example 1: Wire Tension 
10:37  
 
Extra Example 2: Car Friction 
11:43  
 
Extra Example 3: Big Block and Small Block 
9:17  

Applications of Newton's Laws, Part 1: Inclines 
84:35 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Acceleration on a Frictionless Incline 
0:35  
 
 Force Action on the Object(mg) 
1:31  
 
 Net Force Acting on the Object 
2:20  
 
 Acceleration Perpendicular to Incline 
8:45  
 
 Incline is Horizontal Surface 
11:30  
 
 Example: Object on an Inclined Surface 
13:40  
 
Rough Inclines and Static Friction 
20:23  
 
 Box Sitting on a Rough Incline 
20:49  
 
 Maximum Values of Static Friction 
25:20  
 
 Coefficient of Static Friction 
27:53  
 
Acceleration on a Rough Incline 
29:00  
 
 Kinetic Friction on Rough Incline 
29:15  
 
 Object Moving up the Incline 
33:20  
 
 Net force on the Object 
36:36  
 
Example: Time to Reach the Bottom of an Incline 
41:50  
 
 Displacement is 5m Down the Incline 
45:26  
 
 Velocity of the Object Down the Incline 
47:49  
 
Extra Example 1: Bottom of Incline 
12:23  
 
Extra Example 2: Incline with Initial Velocity 
15:31  
 
Extra Example 3: Moving Down an Incline 
8:09  

Applications of Newton's Laws, Part 2: Strings and Pulleys 
70:03 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Atwood's Machine 
0:19  
 
 Object Attached to a String 
0:39  
 
 Tension on a String 
2:15  
 
 Two Objects Attached to a String 
2:23  
 
 Pulley Fixed to the Ceiling, With Mass M1 , M2 
4:53  
 
 Applying Newton's 2nd Law to Calculate Acceleration on M1, M2 
9:21  
 
One Object on a Horizontal Surface: Frictionless Case 
17:36  
 
 Connecting Two Unknowns, Tension and Acceleration 
20:27  
 
One Object on a Horizontal Surface: Friction Case 
23:57  
 
 Two Objects Attached to a String with a Pulley 
24:14  
 
 Applying Newton's 2nd Law 
26:04  
 
 Tension of an Object Pulls to the Right 
27:31  
 
One of the Object is Incline : Frictionless Case 
32:59  
 
 Sum of Two Forces on Mass M2 
34:39  
 
 If M1g is Larger Than M2g 
36:29  
 
One of the Object is Incline : Friction Case 
40:29  
 
 Coefficient of Kinetic Friction 
41:18  
 
 Net Force Acting on M2 
45:12  
 
Extra Example 1: Two Masses on Two Strings 
5:28  
 
Extra Example 2: Three Objects on Rough Surface 
7:11  
 
Extra Example 3: Acceleration of a Block 
8:52  

Accelerating Frames 
73:28 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
What Does a Scale Measure 
0:11  
 
 Example: Elevator on a Scale 
0:22  
 
 Normal Force 
4:57  
 
Apparent Weight in an Elevator 
7:42  
 
 Example: Elevator Starts Moving Upwards 
9:05  
 
 Net Force (Newton's Second Law) 
11:34  
 
 Apparent Weight 
14:36  
 
Pendulum in an Accelerating Train 
15:58  
 
 Example: Object Hanging on the Ceiling of a Train 
16:15  
 
 Angle In terms of Increased Acceleration 
22:04  
 
Mass and Spring in an Accelerating Truck 
23:40  
 
 Example: Spring on a Stationary Truck 
23:55  
 
 Surface of Truck is Frictionless 
27:38  
 
 Spring is Stretched by distance 'X' 
28:40  
 
Cup of Coffee 
29:55  
 
 Example: Moving Train and Stationary Objects inside Train 
30:05  
 
 Train Moving With Acceleration 'A' 
32:45  
 
 Force of Static Friction Acting on Cup 
36:30  
 
Extra Example 1: Train Slows with Pendulum 
11:54  
 
Extra Example 2: Person in Elevator Releases Object 
13:06  
 
Extra Example 3: Hanging Object in Elevator 
10:26  

Circular Motion, Part 1 
61:15 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Object Attached to a String Moving in a Horizontal Circle 
0:09  
 
 Net Force on Object (Newton's Second Law) 
1:51  
 
 Force on an Object 
3:03  
 
 Tension of a String 
4:40  
 
Conical Pendulum 
5:40  
 
 Example: Object Attached to a String in a Horizontal Circle 
5:50  
 
 Weight of an Object Vertically Down 
8:05  
 
 Velocity And Acceleration in Vertical Direction 
11:20  
 
 Net Force on an Object 
13:02  
 
Car on a Horizontal Road 
16:09  
 
 Net Force on Car (Net Vertical Force) 
18:03  
 
 Frictionless Road 
18:43  
 
 Road with Friction 
22:41  
 
 Maximum Speed of Car Without Skidding 
26:05  
 
Banked Road 
28:13  
 
 Road Inclined at an Angle 'ø' 
28:32  
 
 Force on Car 
29:50  
 
 Frictionless Road 
30:45  
 
 Road with Friction 
36:22  
 
Extra Example 1: Object Attached to Rod with Two Strings 
11:27  
 
Extra Example 2: Car on Banked Road 
9:29  
 
Extra Example 3: Person Held Up in Spinning Cylinder 
3:05  

Circular Motion, Part 2 
50:29 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Normal Force by a Pilot Seat 
0:14  
 
 Example : Pilot Rotating in a Circle 'r' and Speed 's' 
0:33  
 
 Pilot at Vertical Position in a Circle of Radius 'R' 
4:18  
 
 Net Force on Pilot Towards Center (At Bottom) 
5:53  
 
 Net Force on Pilot Towards Center (At Top) 
7:55  
 
Object Attached to a String in Vertical Motion 
10:46  
 
 Example: Object in a Circle Attached to String 
10:59  
 
 Case 1: Object with speed 'v' and Object is at Bottom 
11:30  
 
 Case 2: Object at Top in Vertical Motion 
15:24  
 
 Object at Angle 'ø' (General Position) 
17:48  
 
 2 Radial Forces (Inward & Outward) 
20:32  
 
 Tension of String 
23:44  
 
Extra Example 1: Pail of Water in Vertical Circle 
5:16  
 
Extra Example 2: Roller Coaster Vertical Circle 
3:57  
 
Extra Example 3: Bead in Frictionless Loop 
16:56  

Work 
87:50 
 
Work Done by a Constant Force 
0:09  
 
 Example: Force 'f' on Object Moved a Displacement 'd' in Same Direction 
0:24  
 
 Force Applied on Object at Angle 'ø' and Displacement 'd' 
2:00  
 
 Work Done 
3:59  
 
 Force Perpendicular to Displacement (No Work) 
5:40  
 
 Example: Lifting an Object from the Surface of Earth to Height 'h' 
5:58  
 
 Total Work Done 
7:39  
 
 Example: Object on an Inclined Surface 
8:08  
 
 Example: Object on Truck 
10:18  
 
 Work Done on a Box with No Friction 
11:05  
 
 Work Done with Static Friction 
14:38  
 
Stretching or Compressing a Spring 
14:50  
 
 Example: Stretching a Spring 
15:20  
 
 Work Done in Stretching a Spring 
15:51  
 
 Spring Stretched Amount 'A' 
17:00  
 
 Spring Stretched Amount 'B' With Constant Velocity 
17:59  
 
 Force at Starting 
19:29  
 
 Force at End 
19:51  
 
 Total Displacement 
20:43  
 
 Average Force 
21:20  
 
 Work Done 
21:51  
 
 Compressing a Spring 
23:32  
 
Work Kinetic Energy Theorem 
24:02  
 
 Object Mass 'M' on Frictionless Surface 
24:32  
 
 Object Moved a Displacement 'd' With Acceleration 'a' 
26:20  
 
 Work Done on an Object by Net Force (Kinetic Energy Theorem) 
28:41  
 
 Example: Object at Height 
30:39  
 
 Force on Object 
32:25  
 
 Work Energy Theorem 
34:14  
 
Block Pulled on a Rough Horizontal Surface 
35:14  
 
 Object on a Surface with Friction 
35:26  
 
 Coefficient of Kinetic Friction 
35:50  
 
 Work Done by Net Force = Change in K.E 
38:09  
 
 Applying a Force on an Object at an Angle 'ø' and Displacement 'd' 
39:40  
 
 Net Force 
43:30  
 
 Work Done 
44:03  
 
Potential Energy of a System 
44:39  
 
 Potential Energy of Two or More Objects 
45:28  
 
 Example: Object of Mass 'm' at Height 'h' 
46:15  
 
 Earth and Object in Position 
46:56  
 
 Potential Energy, u=mgh 
49:05  
 
 Absolute Value of Potential Energy 
49:55  
 
 Example: Two Objects at Different Heights 
50:47  
 
Elastic Potential Energy in a Spring Block System 
52:03  
 
 Example: Spring of Mass 'm' Stretching 
52:30  
 
 Work Done Stretching a Spring 
54:29  
 
Power 
55:24  
 
 Work Done by an Object 
56:13  
 
 Rate of Doing Work 
56:41  
 
Extra Example 1: Work Done, Block on Horizontal Surface 
12:41  
 
Extra Example 2: Object and Compressed Spring 
12:33  
 
Extra Example 3: Person Running 
4:47  

Conservation of Energy, Part 1 
84:49 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Total Energy of an Isolated System 
0:13  
 
 Example: Object in an Empty Space 
2:22  
 
 Force Applied on an Object 
3:25  
 
 Hot Object 't' in Vacuum 
4:09  
 
 Hot Object Placed in Cold Water 
5:32  
 
 Isolated System (Conservation of Energy) 
7:15  
 
 Example: Earth and Object (Isolated System) 
8:29  
 
Energy May be Transformed from One Form to Another 
13:05  
 
 Forms of Energy 
13:30  
 
 Example: Earth Object System 
14:17  
 
 Example: Object Falls from Height 'h' (Transform of Energy) 
16:12  
 
 Example: Object Moving on a Rough Surface 
17:54  
 
SpringBlock System: Horizontal System 
20:52  
 
 Example: System of Block & Spring 
21:03  
 
 Conservation of Energy 
26:49  
 
 Velocity of Object at Any Point 
27:39  
 
SpringLoaded Gun Shot Upwards 
29:02  
 
 Example: Spring on a Surface Being Compressed 
29:19  
 
Speed of Pendulum 
37:43  
 
 Example: Object Suspended from Ceiling with String 
38:07  
 
 Swinging the Pendulum at Angle 'ø' From Rest 
39:00  
 
Cart on a Circular Track: Losing Contact 
45:47  
 
 Example: Cart on Circular Track (Frictionless) 
46:13  
 
 When Does the Cart Lose Contact 
49:16  
 
 Setting Fn=0 When an Object Loses Contact 
52:51  
 
 Velocity of an Object at Angle 'ø' (Conservation of Energy) 
53:47  
 
Extra Example 1: Mass on Track to Loop 
10:29  
 
Extra Example 2: Pendulum Released from Rest 
7:33  
 
Extra Example 3: Object Dropped onto Spring 
8:15  

Conservation of Energy, Part 2 
62:52 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Block Spring Collision 
0:16  
 
 Spring Attached to Mass 
0:31  
 
 Frictionless Surface 
0:51  
 
 Object Collides with a Spring and Stops 
1:51  
 
 Amount of Compression in a Spring 
3:39  
 
 Surface with Friction 
4:17  
 
 Object Collides with Spring (Object Stops at Collision) 
4:51  
 
 Force of Friction 
9:18  
 
Object Sliding Down an Incline 
10:58  
 
 Example: Object on Inclined Surface 
11:15  
 
 Frictionless Case to Find Velocity of an Object 
12:08  
 
 Object at Rough Inclined Surface(Friction Case) 
14:52  
 
 Heat Produced 
16:30  
 
 Object Arrives at Lesser Speed with Friction 
21:11  
 
Connected Object in Motion 
22:35  
 
 Two Objects Connected Over a Pulley ,Spring Connected to One Object 
22:47  
 
 Coefficient of Friction (Initial & Final Configuration at Rest) 
25:27  
 
 Object of m1 at Height 'h' 
27:40  
 
 If No Friction 
29:51  
 
 Amount of Heat Produced In Presence of Friction 
30:31  
 
Extra Example 1: Objects and Springs 
14:17  
 
Extra Example 2: Mass against Horizontal Spring 
12:09  

Collisions, Part 1 
91:19 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Linear Momentum 
0:10  
 
 Example: Object of Mass 'm' with Velocity 'v' 
0:25  
 
 Example: Object Bounced on a Wall 
1:08  
 
 Momentum of Object Hitting a Wall 
2:20  
 
 Change in Momentum 
4:10  
 
Force is the Rate of Change of Momentum 
4:30  
 
 Force=Mass*Acceleration (Newton's Second Law) 
4:45  
 
Impulse 
10:24  
 
 Example: Baseball Hitting a Bat 
10:40  
 
 Force Applied for a Certain Time 
11:50  
 
 Magnitude Plot of Force vs Time 
13:35  
 
 Time of Contact of Baseball = 2 milliseconds (Average Force by Bat) 
17:42  
 
Collision Between Two Particles 
22:40  
 
 Two Objects Collide at Time T 
23:00  
 
 Both Object Exerts Force on Each Other (Newton's Third Law) 
24:28  
 
 Collision Time 
25:42  
 
 Total Momentum Before Collision = Total momentums After Collision 
32:52  
 
Collision 
33:58  
 
 Types of Collisions 
34:13  
 
 Elastic Collision ( Mechanical Energy is Conserved) 
34:38  
 
 Collision of Particles in Atoms 
35:50  
 
 Collision Between Billiard Balls 
36:54  
 
 Inelastic Collision (Rubber Ball) 
39:40  
 
 Two Objects Collide and Stick (Completely Inelastic) 
40:35  
 
Completely Inelastic Collision 
41:07  
 
 Example: Two Objects Colliding 
41:23  
 
 Velocity After Collision 
42:14  
 
 Heat Produced=Initial K.EFinal K.E 
47:13  
 
Ballistic Pendulum 
47:37  
 
 Example: Determine the Speed of a Bullet 
47:50  
 
 Mass Swings with Bulled Embedded 
49:20  
 
 Kinetic Energy of Block with the Bullet 
50:28  
 
Extra Example 1: Ball Strikes a Wall 
10:41  
 
Extra Example 2: Clay Hits Block 
8:35  
 
Extra Example 3: Bullet Hits Block 
11:37  
 
Extra Example 4: Child Runs onto Sled 
7:24  

Collisions, Part 2 
78:48 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Elastic Collision: One Object Stationary 
0:28  
 
 Example: Stationary Object and Moving Object 
0:42  
 
 Conservation of Momentum 
2:48  
 
 Mechanical Energy Conservation 
3:43  
 
Elastic Collision: Both Objects Moving 
17:34  
 
 Example: Both Objects Moving Towards Each Other 
17:48  
 
 Kinetic Energy Conservation 
19:20  
 
Collision With a SpringBlock System 
29:17  
 
 Example: Object of Mass Moving with Velocity 
29:30  
 
 Object Attached to Spring of Mass with Velocity 
29:50  
 
 Two Objects Attached to a Spring 
31:30  
 
 Compression of Spring after Collision 
33:41  
 
 Before Collision: Total Energy (Conservation of Energy) 
37:25  
 
 After Collision: Total Energy 
38:49  
 
Collision in Two Dimensions 
42:29  
 
 Object Stationary and Other Object is Moving 
42:46  
 
 Head on Collision (In 1 Dimension) 
44:07  
 
 Momentum Before Collision 
45:45  
 
 Momentum After Collision 
46:06  
 
 If Collision is Elastic (Conservation of Kinetic Energy) Before Collision 
50:29  
 
Example 
51:58  
 
 Objects Moving in Two Directions 
52:33  
 
 Objects Collide and Stick Together (Inelastic Collision) 
53:28  
 
 Conservation of Momentum 
54:17  
 
 Momentum in XDirection 
54:27  
 
 Momentum in YDirection 
56:15  
 
Maximum Height after Collision 
10:34  
 
Extra Example 2: Two Objects Hitting a Spring 
7:05  
 
Extra Example 3: Mass Hits and Sticks 
2:58  

Rotation of a Rigid Body About a Fixed Axis 
73:20 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Particle in Circular Motion 
0:11  
 
 Specify a Position of a Particle 
0:55  
 
 Radian 
3:02  
 
 Angular Displacement 
8:50  
 
Rotation of a Rigid Body 
15:36  
 
 Example: Rotating Disc 
16:17  
 
 Disk at 5 Revolution/Sec 
17:24  
 
 Different Points on a Disk Have Different Speeds 
21:56  
 
 Angular Velocity 
23:03  
 
Constant Angular Acceleration: Kinematics 
31:11  
 
 Rotating Disc 
31:42  
 
 Object Moving Along xAxis (Linear Case) 
33:05  
 
 If Alpha= Constant 
35:15  
 
Rotational Kinetic Energy 
42:11  
 
 Rod in XY Plane, Fixed at Center 
42:43  
 
 Kinetic Energy 
46:45  
 
 Moment of Inertia 
52:46  
 
Moment of Inertia for Certain Shapes 
54:06  
 
 Rod at Center 
54:47  
 
 Ring 
55:45  
 
 Disc 
56:35  
 
 Cylinder 
56:56  
 
 Sphere 
57:20  
 
Extra Example 1: Rotating Wheel 
6:44  
 
Extra Example 2: Two Spheres Attached to Rotating Rod 
8:45  

Static Equilibrium 
98:57 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Torque 
0:09  
 
 Introduction to Torque 
0:16  
 
 Rod in XY Direction 
0:30  
 
Particle in Equilibrium 
18:15  
 
 Particle in Equilibrium, Net Force=0 
18:30  
 
 Extended Object Like a Rod 
19:13  
 
 Conditions of Equilibrium 
26:34  
 
 Forces Acting on Object (Proof of Torque) 
31:46  
 
The Lever 
35:38  
 
 Rod on Lever with Two Masses 
35:51  
 
Standing on a Supported Beam 
40:53  
 
 Example : Wall and Beam Rope Connect Beam and Wall 
41:00  
 
 Net Force 
45:38  
 
 Net Torque 
48:33  
 
 Finding 'ø' 
52:50  
 
Ladder About to Slip 
53:38  
 
 Example: Finding Angle 'ø' Where Ladder Doesn't slip 
53:44  
 
Extra Example 1: Bear Retrieving Basket 
19:42  
 
Extra Example 2: Sliding Cabinet 
20:09  

Simple Harmonic Motion 
93:39 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
(Six x)/x 
0:09  
 
 (Sin x)/x Lim>0 
0:17  
 
 Definition of Sine 
5:57  
 
 Sine Expressed in Radians 
8:09  
 
 Example: Sin(5.73) 
9:26  
 
Derivative Sin(Ax+b) 
12:14  
 
 f(x)=Sin(ax+b) 
13:11  
 
 Sin(α+β) 
14:56  
 
Derivative Cos(Ax+b) 
20:05  
 
 F(x)=Cos(Ax+b) 
20:10  
 
Harmonic Oscillation: Equation of Motion 
26:00  
 
 Example: Object Attached to Spring 
26:25  
 
 Object is Oscillating 
27:04  
 
 Force Acting on Object F=m*a 
31:21  
 
 Equation of Motion 
34:41  
 
Solution to The Equation of Motion 
36:40  
 
 x(t) Function of time 
38:50  
 
 x=Cos(ωt+ø) Taking Derivative 
41:33  
 
Period 
50:37  
 
 Pull The Spring With Mass and Time 't' Released 
50:54  
 
 Calculating Time Period =A cos(ωt  φ) 
52:53  
 
Energy of Harmonic Oscillator 
55:59  
 
 Energy of The Oscillator 
56:58  
 
Pendulum 
58:10  
 
 Mass Attached to String and Swing 
58:20  
 
Extra Example 1: Two Springs Attached to Wall 
20:46  
 
Extra Example 2: Simple Pendulum 
5:29  
 
Extra Example 3: Block and Spring Oscillation 
8:21  

Universal Gravitation 
69:20 
 
Intro(Universal Gravitation) 
0:00  
 
Newton's Law of Gravity 
0:09  
 
 Two Particles of Mass m1,m2 
1:22  
 
 Force of Attraction 
3:02  
 
 Sphere and Small Particle of Mass 'm' 
4:39  
 
 Two Spheres 
5:35  
 
Variation of g With Altitude 
7:24  
 
 Consider Earth as an Object 
7:33  
 
 Force Applied To Object 
9:27  
 
 At or Near Surface of Earth 
11:51  
 
Satellites 
15:39  
 
 Earth and Satellite 
15:45  
 
 Geosynchronous Satellite 
21:25  
 
Gravitational Potential Energy 
27:32  
 
 Object and Earth Potential Energy=mgh 
24:45  
 
 P.E=0 When Objects are Infinitely Separated 
30:32  
 
 Total Energy 
38:28  
 
 If Object is Very Far From Earth, R=Infinity 
40:25  
 
Escape 
42:33  
 
 Shoot an Object Which Should Not Come Back Down 
43:06  
 
 Conservation of Energy 
48:48  
 
 Object at Maximum Height (K.E=0) 
45:22  
 
 Escape Velocity (Rmax = Infinity) 
46:50  
 
Extra Example 1: Density of Earth and Moon 
7:09  
 
Extra Example 2: Satellite Orbiting Earth 
11:54  

Fluids: Statics 
101:00 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Mass Density 
0:23  
 
 Density of Mass Solid 
0:33  
 
 Density of Liquid 
1:06  
 
 Density of Gas 
1:22  
 
 Density of Aluminum 
2:03  
 
 Density of Water 
2:34  
 
 Density of Air 
2:45  
 
 Example: Room 
3:11  
 
Pressure 
4:59  
 
 Pressure at Different Points in Liquid 
5:09  
 
 Force on Face of Cube 
6:40  
 
 Molecules Collide on Face of Cube 
9:34  
 
 Newton's Third Law 
10:20  
 
Variation of Pressure With Depth 
15:12  
 
 Atmospheric Pressure 
16:08  
 
 Cylinder in a Fluid of Height H 
19:40  
 
Hydraulic Press 
29:50  
 
 Fluid Cylinder 
30:12  
 
 Hydraulics 
35:56  
 
Archimedes Principle 
40:23  
 
 Object in a Fluid (Submerged) 
40:55  
 
 Volume of a Cylinder 
45:24  
 
 Mass of Displaced Fluid 
45:48  
 
 Buoyant Force 
47:30  
 
Weighing a Crown 
51:03  
 
 Crown Suspended on Scale in Air 
51:24  
 
 Crown Weighed in Water 
51:42  
 
 Density of Gold 
57:20  
 
Extra Example 1: Aluminum Ball in Water 
11:59  
 
Extra Example 2: Swimming Pool 
10:11  
 
Extra Example 3: Helium Balloon 
10:24  
 
Extra Example 4: Ball in Water 
10:16  

Fluids in Motion 
68:43 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Ideal Fluid Flow 
0:15  
 
 Fluid Flow is Steady 
0:57  
 
 Fluid is Incompressible (Density is Uniform) 
2:50  
 
 Fluid Flow is NonViscous 
3:49  
 
 Honey 
4:10  
 
 Water 
4:32  
 
 Fluid Flow (Rotational) 
6:15  
 
Equation of Continuity 
9:05  
 
 Fluid Flowing in a Pipe 
9:20  
 
 Fluid Entering Pipe 
11:00  
 
 Fluid Leaving Pipe 
15:26  
 
Garden Hose 
21:20  
 
 Filling a Bucket 
22:30  
 
 Speed of Water 
24:05  
 
Bernoulli's Equation 
28:45  
 
 Pipe Varying with Height and Cross Section 
29:18  
 
 Net Work Done 
35:37  
 
Venturi Tube 
43:31  
 
 Finding V1, V2 with Two Unknowns 
46:20  
 
 Equation of Continuity 
46:55  
 
Extra Example 1: Water in a Pipe 
6:56  
 
Extra Example 2: Water Tank with Hole 
8:51  
II. Thermodynamics 

Temperature 
76:17 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Celsius and Fahrenheit 
0:20  
 
 Thermometer in Ice Water 
1:03  
 
 Thermometer in Boiling Water 
3:03  
 
 Celsius to Fahrenheit Conversion 
10:30  
 
Kelvin Temperature Scale 
11:15  
 
 Constant Volume Gas Thermometer 
11:57  
 
 Measuring Temperature of Liquid 
12:25  
 
 Temperature Increase, Pressure Increase 
14:56  
 
 Absolute Zero 273.15 Degree/Celsius 
22:34  
 
Thermometers 
25:44  
 
 Thermometric Property 
26:14  
 
 Constant Volume Gas Thermometer 
27:53  
 
 Example: Electrical Resistance 
29:05  
 
Linear Thermal Expansion 
31:40  
 
 Heated Metal Rod 
31:58  
 
Expansion of Holes 
41:05  
 
 Sheet of Some Substance and Heat it 
41:16  
 
 Sheet with Hole 
42:04  
 
 As Temperature Increases, Hole Expands 
46:42  
 
Volume Thermal Expansion 
47:02  
 
 Cube of Aluminum 
47:14  
 
 Water Expands More than Glass 
53:44  
 
Behavior of Water Near 4c 
54:33  
 
 Plotting the Density of Water 
54:55  
 
Extra Example 1: Volume of Diesel Fuel 
6:54  
 
Extra Example 2: Brass Pendulum 
9:40  

Heat 
82:01 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Heat and Internal Energy 
0:09  
 
 Cup of Hot Tea, Object is Hot 
0:50  
 
 Heat Flows From Hot Object to Cold Object 
3:06  
 
 Internal Energy , Kinetic+Potential Energy of All Atoms 
5:50  
 
Specific Heat 
9:01  
 
 Object of Substance 
9:18  
 
 Temperature Change by Delta T 
10:03  
 
 Mass of Water 
17:29  
 
Calorimeter 
21:35  
 
 CalorimeterThermal Insulated Container 
22:23  
 
Latent Heat 
30:23  
 
 Ice at 0 degrees 
30:52  
 
 Heating the Ice 
31:15  
 
 WaterLatent Heat of Fusion 
33:50  
 
 Converting Ice from 20 to 0 Degree 
38:35  
 
Example: Ice Water 
42:10  
 
 Water of Mass 0.2 Kg 
42:23  
 
 Mass of Ice that is Melted 
48:23  
 
Transfer Of Heat 
48:27  
 
 Convection Mass Moment 
49:00  
 
 Conduction 
53:14  
 
 Radiation 
57:42  
 
Extra Example 1: Electric Heater with Water 
5:40  
 
Extra Example 2: Mass of Steam 
7:11  
 
Extra Example 3: Water in Pool 
8:32  

Kinetic Theory of Gases 
74:37 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Ideal Gas Law 
0:08  
 
 Ideal Gas Definition 
0:24  
 
 1 Mole of Gas 
1:49  
 
 Avogadro's Number 
2:21  
 
 Gas in a Container, Pressure Increases with Temperature 
6:22  
 
 Ideal Gas law 
10:30  
 
 Boltzmann's Constant 
12:49  
 
Example 
13:30  
 
 Conceptual Example 
13:48  
 
 Shake and Open the Coke Bottle 
14:36  
 
 Quantitative Example: Container with Gas 
19:50  
 
 Heat the Gas to 127 Degrees 
20:23  
 
Kinetic Theory 
24:06  
 
 Container in a Cube Shape 
24:16  
 
 Molecules Traveling with Velocity v 
26:01  
 
 Change in Momentum of Molecule Per Second 
30:38  
 
 Newton's Third law 
31:58  
 
Example 
45:40  
 
 5 Moles of Helium in Container 
45:50  
 
 Finding Number of Atoms 
47:23  
 
 Calculating Pressure 
48:46  
 
Distribution of Molecules 
49:45  
 
 Root Mean Square 
53:10  
 
Extra Example 1: Helium Gas in Balloon 
6:14  
 
Extra Example 2: Oxygen Molecules 
8:57  

First Law of Thermodynamics 
91:27 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics 
0:09  
 
 Two Objects in Contact 
0:29  
 
 Thermometer in Thermal Equilibrium (Exchanged Energy) 
5:20  
 
First Law of Thermodynamics 
6:06  
 
 Monatomic Ideal Gas 
6:20  
 
 Internal Energy 
9:59  
 
 Change in Internal Energy of System 
18:35  
 
Work Done on a Gas 
22:29  
 
 Cylinder with Frictionless Piston 
22:50  
 
 Displacement of Piston 
25:11  
 
 Under Constant Pressure 
27:37  
 
 Work Done by Gas 
34:24  
 
Example 
35:29  
 
 Ideal gas, Monatomic Expands Isobarically 
35:48  
 
 Isobaric: Process at Constant Atmospheric Pressure 
37:33  
 
 Work Done By Gas 
40:21  
 
Example 2 
47:19  
 
 Steam 
47:30  
 
 Cylinder with Steam 
49:20  
 
 Work Done By Gas 
51:20  
 
 Change in Internal Energy of System 
52:53  
 
Extra Example 1: Gas Expanding Isobarically 
10:26  
 
Extra Example 2: Block of Aluminum 
12:25  
 
Extra Example 3: Gas in Piston 
11:30  

Thermal Process in an Ideal Gas 
107:16 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Isobaric and Isovolumetric Process 
0:13  
 
 Isobaric Definition 
0:24  
 
 PV Diagram 
0:54  
 
 Isovolumetric Process 
1:37  
 
 Total work done By gas 
8:08  
 
Isothermal Expansion 
11:20  
 
 Isothermal Definition 
11:42  
 
 Piston on a Container 
12:57  
 
 Work Done by Gas 
22:01  
 
Example 
22:09  
 
 5 Moles of Helium gas 
22:20  
 
 Determining T 
26:20  
 
Molar Specific Heat 
27:11  
 
 Heating a Substance 
27:30  
 
 Ideal Monoatomics Gas 
35:15  
 
 Temperature Change in Constant Volume 
35:31  
 
 Temperature Change in Constant Pressure 
39:10  
 
Adiabatic Process 
48:44  
 
 IsoVolumetric Process V=0 
48:57  
 
 Isobaric Process at P=0 
49:15  
 
 Isothermal C=0 
49:36  
 
 Adiabatic Process: Definition 
50:33  
 
Extra Example 1: Gas in Cycle 
14:06  
 
Extra Example 2: Gas Compressed Isothermally 
13:45  
 
Extra Example 3: Two Compartments of Gas 
18:22  

Heat Engines and Second Law of Thermodynamics 
63:37 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Introduction 
0:13  
 
 Statement of Conservation of Energy 
0:44  
 
 Flow of Heat from Hot to Cold 
3:31  
 
Heat Engines: KelvinPlank Statement 
4:36  
 
 Steam Engine 
4:55  
 
 Efficiency of Engine 
10:49  
 
 Kelvin Plank Statement of Second Law 
13:25  
 
Example 
17:01  
 
 Heat Engine with Efficiency 25% 
17:10  
 
 Work Done During 1 cycle 
18:03  
 
 Power 
20:15  
 
Heat Pump: Clausius Statement 
20:47  
 
 Refrigerator 
26:35  
 
 Coefficient of Performance (COP) 
27:48  
 
 Clausius Statement 
34:03  
 
 Impossible Engine 
35:15  
 
Equivalence of Two Statements 
36:51  
 
 Suppose KelvinPlank Statement is False 
38:16  
 
 Clausius Statement is False 
43:46  
 
Extra Example 1: Heat Engine Cycle 
6:02  
 
Extra Example 2: Refrigerator 
6:34  

Carnot Engine 
96:57 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Reversible Process 
0:55  
 
 All Real Processes are Irreversible 
3:20  
 
 Ball Falls Onto Sand 
3:49  
 
 Heat Flow from Hot to Cold 
7:30  
 
 Container with Gas and Piston (Frictionless) 
9:20  
 
Carnot Engine 
15:29  
 
 Cylinder With Piston 
16:01  
 
 Isothermal Expansion 
19:15  
 
 Insulate Base of Cylinder 
19:39  
 
Efficiency 
32:40  
 
 Work Done by Gas 
34:42  
 
Carnot Principle 
46:44  
 
 Heat Taken From Hot Reservoir 
54:40  
 
Example 
56:53  
 
 Steam Engine with Two Temperatures 
57:12  
 
 Work Done 
59:21  
 
Extra Example 1: Carnot Isothermal Expansion 
5:22  
 
Extra Example 2: Energy In Out as Heat 
6:07  
 
Extra Example 3: Gas through Cycle 
24:32  

Entropy and Second Law of Thermodynamics 
53:32 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
One Way Process 
0:40  
 
 Hot to Cold (Conserved Energy) 
1:12  
 
 Gas in a Insulated Container 
2:03  
 
 Entropy 
9:05  
 
Change in Entropy 
16:13  
 
 System at Constant Temperature 
16:35  
 
 Insulated Container 
19:51  
 
 Work Done by Gas 
26:40  
 
Second Law of Thermodynamics: Entropy Statement 
29:30  
 
 Irreversible Process 
30:10  
 
 Gas Reservoir 
33:02  
 
Extra Example 1: Ice Melting 
4:25  
 
Extra Example 2: Partition with Two Gases 
7:33  
 
Extra Example 3: Radiation from Sun 
5:45  
III. Waves 

Traveling Waves 
81:27 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
What is a Wave? 
0:19  
 
 Example: Rod and Swinging Balls 
0:55  
 
 Huge Number of Atoms 
2:35  
 
 Disturbance Propagates 
5:51  
 
 Source of Disturbance 
8:25  
 
 Wave Propagation 
8:50  
 
 Mechanism of Medium 
10:18  
 
 Disturbance Moves 
12:19  
 
Types of Waves 
12:52  
 
 Transverse Wave 
13:11  
 
 Longitudinal Wave 
17:30  
 
Sinusoidal Waves 
26:47  
 
 Every Cycle has 1 Wavelength 
35:15  
 
 Time for Each Cycle 
36:32  
 
 Speed of Wave 
37:10  
 
Speed of Wave on Strings 
42:24  
 
 Formula for Wave Speed 
51:11  
 
Example 
51:25  
 
 String with Blade Generate Pulse 
51:35  
 
Reflection of Waves 
55:18  
 
 String Fixed at End 
55:37  
 
 Wave Inverted 
58:31  
 
 Wave on a Frictionless Ring 
58:52  
 
 Free End: No Inverted Reflection 
60:18  
 
Extra Example 1: Tension in Cord 
3:50  
 
Extra Example 2: Waves on String 
7:17  
 
Extra Example 3: Mass on Cord with Pulse 
9:53  

Sound 
80:56 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Longitudinal Sound Wave 
0:12  
 
 Tube Filled With Gas and Piston at One End 
1:07  
 
 Compression or Condensation 
5:01  
 
 Moving the Piston Back 
6:16  
 
 Rarefaction 
7:06  
 
 Wavelength 
11:57  
 
Frequency 
13:07  
 
 Diaphragm of a Large Speaker 
13:20  
 
 Audible Wave Human Being 
14:50  
 
 Frequency Less Than 20 Khz Infrasonic Wave 
15:40  
 
 Larger Than 20 Khz Ultrasonic Wave 
16:15  
 
Pressure as a Sound Wave 
18:30  
 
 Sound Wave Propagation in Tube 
19:13  
 
Speed of Sound 
25:10  
 
 Speed of Sound in Gas 
32:50  
 
 Speed of Sound at 0 Degrees 
36:50  
 
 Speed of Sound in Liquid 
41:48  
 
 Speed of Sound in Solid 
46:00  
 
Sound Intensity 
46:29  
 
 Energy Produced/Sec 
49:12  
 
Decibels 
51:10  
 
 Sound Level or Intensity Level 
54:30  
 
 Threshold of Hearing 
54:52  
 
Extra Example 1: Eardrum 
5:11  
 
Extra Example 2: Sound Detector 
7:50  
 
Extra Example 3: Lightning and Thunder 
7:33  

Doppler Effect 
93:51 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Observer Moving, Source Stationary 
0:10  
 
 Observer Intercepts the Wave Front 
1:47  
 
 Number of Waves Intercepted 
5:25  
 
 Wave Fronts Integrated 
6:05  
 
 Towards the Source 
11:15  
 
 Moving Away from Source 
15:02  
 
 Example: Rain 
19:42  
 
Observer Stationary Source Moving 
20:40  
 
 During Time 
27:43  
 
 Wavelength Measured by Observed 
28:38  
 
General Case 
33:27  
 
 Source and Observer Moving 
33:40  
 
 Observer is Moving 
33:50  
 
 Observer is Stationary 
34:24  
 
Supersonic Speed 
43:30  
 
 Airplane 
44:03  
 
Extra Example 1: Oscillating Spring 
18:25  
 
Extra Example 2: Police Siren 
11:05  
 
Extra Example 3: Sonic Jet 
6:14  

Interference 
78:44 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Principle of Linear Superposition 
0:10  
 
 Example: String Sending Two Pulses 
1:26  
 
 Sum of Two Pulses 
3:38  
 
Interference 
11:56  
 
 Two Speakers Driven By Same Frequency 
12:29  
 
 Constructive Interference 
22:09  
 
 Destructive Interference 
33:06  
 
Example 
37:25  
 
 Two Speakers 
37:42  
 
 Speed of Sound 
38:25  
 
Diffraction 
43:53  
 
 Circular Aperture 
49:59  
 
Beats 
52:15  
 
 Two Frequency 
53:02  
 
 Time Separated by 1 sec 
59:55  
 
Extra Example 1: Two Speakers 
11:38  
 
Extra Example 2: Tube and Sound Detector 
6:30  

Standing Waves 
94:34 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Standing Wave on String 
0:09  
 
 Propagation Waves 
0:59  
 
 String with Both Ends Fixed 
1:06  
 
 Sine Wave 
5:43  
 
 Placing Two Nodes and Vibrating String 
7:26  
 
 Fundamental Frequency 
13:50  
 
 First Overtone 
14:05  
 
Example 
20:49  
 
 Spring 
21:08  
 
 Hanging a Weight with a Pulley 
21:26  
 
Air Columns 
26:22  
 
 Pipe Open at Both Ends 
27:13  
 
 Pipe Open at One End 
36:55  
 
Example 
41:56  
 
 Container with Water 
42:05  
 
 Tuning Fork 
43:00  
 
 Resonance 
44:07  
 
 Length of Pipe Producing Wavelength 
51:51  
 
Extra Example 1: String Sound Wave 
10:50  
 
Extra Example 2: Block with Wire is Plucked 
14:47  
 
Extra Example 3: Pipe Natural Frequencies 
13:15  
IV. Electricity and Magnetism 

Electric Force 
56:18 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Electric Charge 
0:18  
 
 Matter Consists of Atom 
1:01  
 
 Two Types of Particles: Protons & Neutrons 
1:48  
 
 Object with Excess Electrons: Negatively Charged 
7:58  
 
 Carbon Atom 
8:30  
 
 Positively Charged Object 
9:55  
 
Electric Charge 
10:07  
 
 Rubber Rod Rubs Against Fur (Negative Charge) 
10:16  
 
 Glass Rod Rub Against Silk (Positive Charge) 
11:48  
 
 Hanging Rubber Rod 
12:44  
 
Conductors and Insulators 
16:00  
 
 Electrons Close to Nucleus 
18:34  
 
 Conductors Have Mobile Charge 
21:30  
 
 Insulators: No Moving Electrons 
23:06  
 
 Copper Wire Connected to Excess Negative charge 
23:22  
 
 Other End Connected to Excess Positive Charge 
24:09  
 
Charging a Metal Object 
27:25  
 
 By Contact 
28:05  
 
 Metal Sphere on an Insulating Stand 
28:16  
 
 Charging by Induction 
30:59  
 
 Negative Rubber Rod 
31:26  
 
 Size of Atom 
36:08  
 
Extra Example 1: Three Metallic Objects 
7:32  
 
Extra Example 2: Rubber Rod and Two Metal Spheres 
6:25  

Coulomb's Law 
87:18 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Coulomb's Law 
0:59  
 
 Two Point Charges by Distance R 
1:11  
 
 Permittivity of Free Space 
5:28  
 
Charges on the Vertices of a Triangle 
8:00  
 
 3 Charges on Vertices of Right Triangle 
8:29  
 
 Charge of 4, 5 and 2 microCoulombs 
10:00  
 
 Force Acting on Each Charge 
10:58  
 
Charges on a Line 
21:29  
 
 2 Charges on XAxis 
22:40  
 
 Where Should Q should be Placed, Net Force =0 
23:23  
 
Two Small Spheres Attached to String 
31:08  
 
 Adding Some Charge 
32:03  
 
 Equilibrium Net Force on Each Sphere = 0 
33:38  
 
Simple Harmonic Motion of Point Charge 
37:40  
 
 Two Charges on YAxis 
37:55  
 
 Charge is Attracted 
39:52  
 
 Magnitude of Net Force on Q 
42:23  
 
Extra Example 1: Vertices of Triangle 
9:39  
 
Extra Example 2: Tension in String 
11:46  
 
Extra Example 3: Two Conducting Spheres 
6:29  
 
Extra Example 4: Force on Charge 
9:21  

Electric Field 
97:24 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Definition of Electric Field 
0:11  
 
 Q1 Produces Electric Field 
3:23  
 
 Charges on a Conductor 
4:26  
 
Field of a Point Charge 
13:10  
 
 Charge Point Between Two Fields 
13:20  
 
 Electric Field E=kq/r2 
14:29  
 
 Direction of the Charge Field 
15:10  
 
 Positive Charge, Field is Radially Out 
15:45  
 
Field of a Collection of a Point Charge 
19:40  
 
 Two Charges Q1,Q2 
19:56  
 
 Q1 Positive, Electric Field is Radially Out 
20:32  
 
 Q2 is Negative, Electric Field is Radially Inward 
20:46  
 
 4 Charges are Equal 
23:54  
 
Parallel Plate Capacitor 
25:42  
 
 Two Plates ,Separated by a Distance 
26:44  
 
 Fringe Effect 
30:26  
 
 E=Constant Between the Parallel Plate Capacitor 
30:40  
 
Electric Field Lines 
35:16  
 
 Pictorial Representation of Electric Field 
35:30  
 
 Electric Lines are Tangent to the Vector 
35:57  
 
 Lines Start at Positive Charge, End on Negative Charge 
41:24  
 
 Parallel Line Proportional to Charge 
45:51  
 
 Lines Never Cross 
46:00  
 
Conductors and Shielding 
49:33  
 
 Static Equilibrium 
51:09  
 
 No Net Moment of Charge 
53:09  
 
 Electric Field is Perpendicular to the Surface of Conductor 
55:40  
 
Extra Example 1: Plastic Sphere Between Capacitor 
8:46  
 
Extra Example 2: Electron Between Capacitor 
11:52  
 
Extra Example 3: Zero Electric Field 
10:44  
 
Extra Example 4: Dimensional Analysis 
6:01  

Electric Potential 
77:09 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Electric Potential Difference 
0:11  
 
 Example :Earth and Object 
0:36  
 
 Work Done 
2:01  
 
 Work Done Against Field 
5:31  
 
 Difference in Potential, Between Points 
9:08  
 
 Va=Vb+Ed 
11:35  
 
Potential Difference in a Constant Electric Field 
18:03  
 
 Force Applied Along the Path 
18:42  
 
 Work Done Along the Path 
23:28  
 
 Potential Difference is Same 
23:45  
 
Point Charge 
28:50  
 
 Electric Field of Point Charge is Radial 
29:10  
 
 Force Applied is Perpendicular to Displacement 
32:01  
 
 Independent of Path 
41:08  
 
Collection of Point Charge 
43:56  
 
 Electric Potential at Charge Points 
44:15  
 
Equipotential Surface 
46:33  
 
 Plane Perpendicular to Field 
46:49  
 
 Force Perpendicular to Surface 
47:37  
 
Potential Energy: System of a Two Point Charges 
54:17  
 
 Work Done in Moving the Charge to Infinity 
55:53  
 
Potential Energy: System of Point Charges 
57:05  
 
Extra Example 1: Electric Potential of Particle 
10:28  
 
Extra Example 2: Particle Fired at Other Particle 
8:30  

Capacitor 
84:14 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Capacitance 
0:09  
 
 Consider Two Conductor s 
0:25  
 
 Electric Field Passing from Positive to Negative 
1:19  
 
 Potential Difference 
3:31  
 
 Defining Capacitance 
3:51  
 
Parallel Plate Capacitance 
8:30  
 
 Two Metallic Plates of Area 'a' and Distance 'd' 
8:46  
 
 Potential Difference between Plates 
13:12  
 
Capacitance with a Dielectric 
22:14  
 
 Applying Electric Field to a Capacitor 
22:44  
 
 Dielectric 
30:32  
 
Example 
34:56  
 
 Empty Capacitor 
35:12  
 
 Connecting Capacitor to a Battery 
35:26  
 
 Inserting Dielectric Between Plates 
39:02  
 
Energy of a Charged Capacitor 
43:01  
 
 Work Done in Moving a Charge, Difference in Potential 
47:48  
 
Example 
54:10  
 
 Parallel Plate Capacitor 
54:22  
 
 Connect and Disconnect the Battery 
55:27  
 
 Calculating Q=cv 
55:50  
 
 Withdraw Mica Sheet 
56:49  
 
 Word Done in Withdrawing the Mica 
60:23  
 
Extra Example 1: Parallel Plate Capacitor 
8:41  
 
Extra Example 2: Mica Dielectric 
15:01  

Combination of Capacitors 
63:23 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Parallel Combination 
0:20  
 
 Two Capacitors in Parallel With a Battery 
0:40  
 
 Electric Field is Outside 
5:47  
 
 Point A is Directly Connected to Positive Terminal 
7:57  
 
 Point B is Directly Connected to Negative Terminal 
8:10  
 
 Voltage Across Capacitor 
12:54  
 
 Energy Stored 
14:52  
 
Series Combination 
17:58  
 
 Two Capacitors Connected End to End With a Battery 
18:10  
 
 Equivalent Capacitor 
25:20  
 
 A is Same Potential 
26:59  
 
 C is Same Potential 
27:06  
 
 Potential Difference Across First Capacitor (VaVb) 
27:42  
 
 (VbVc) is Potential Difference Across Second Capacitor 
28:10  
 
 Energy Stored in C1,C2 
29:53  
 
Example 
31:07  
 
 Two Capacitor in Series, 2 in Parallel, 3 in Parallel, 1 Capacitor Connected 
31:28  
 
 Final Equivalent Circuit 
37:31  
 
Extra Example 1: Four Capacitors 
16:50  
 
Extra Example 2: Circuit with Switches 
8:25  

Electric Current 
79:17 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Definition 
0:20  
 
 Consider a Wire ,Cylindrical 
0:40  
 
 Cross Sectional Area 
1:06  
 
 Crossing Charges Will be Counted 
2:50  
 
 Amount of Charge Crosses Cross Sectional Area 
3:29  
 
 Current I=q/t 
4:18  
 
 Charges Flowing in Opposite Direction 
5:58  
 
 Current Density 
6:19  
 
 Applying Electric Field 
11:50  
 
Current in a Wire 
15:24  
 
 Wire With a Cross Section Area 'A' 
15:33  
 
 Current Flowing to Right 
18:57  
 
 How Much Charge Crosses Area 'A' 
19:15  
 
 Drift Velocity 
20:02  
 
 Carriers in Cylinder 
22:40  
 
Ohm's Law 
24:58  
 
 VaVb = Electric Field times Length of Wire 
28:27  
 
 Ohm's Law 
28:54  
 
 Consider a Copper Wire of 1m , Cross Sectional Area 1cm/sq 
34:24  
 
Temperature Effect 
37:07  
 
 Heating a Wire 
37:05  
 
 Temperature CoEfficient of Resistivity 
39:57  
 
Battery EMF 
43:00  
 
 Connecting a Resistance to Battery 
44:30  
 
 Potential Difference at Terminal of Battery 
45:15  
 
Power 
53:30  
 
 Battery Connected with a Resistance 
53:47  
 
 Work Done on Charge 
56:55  
 
 Energy Lost Per Second 
60:35  
 
Extra Example 1: Current 
9:46  
 
Extra Example 2: Water Heater 
8:05  

Circuits 
94:08 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Simple Rules 
0:16  
 
 Resistance in Series 
0:33  
 
 Current Passing Per Second is Equal 
1:36  
 
 Potential Difference 
3:10  
 
 Parallel Circuit, R1, R2 
5:08  
 
 Battery, Current Starts From Positive Terminal to Negative Terminal 
10:08  
 
Series Combination of Resistances 
13:06  
 
 R1, R2 Connected to Battery 
13:35  
 
 VaVb=Ir1,VbVc=Ir2 
16:59  
 
 Three Resistance Connected in Series Req=r1+r2+r3 
18:55  
 
Parallel Combination of Resistance 
19:28  
 
 R1 and R2 Combined Parallel 
19:50  
 
 I=i1+i2 (Total Current) 
24:26  
 
 Requ=I/E 
24:51  
 
A Simple Circuit 
27:57  
 
 Intro 
28:40  
 
 Current Splits 
29:15  
 
 Total Resistance 
31:52  
 
 Current I= 6/17.2 
35:10  
 
Another Simple Circuit 
37:46  
 
 Battery has Small Internal Resistance 
38:02  
 
 2 Ohms Internal Resistance, and Two Resistance in Parallel 
38:24  
 
 Drawing Circuit 
48:53  
 
 Finding Current 
52:06  
 
RC Circuit 
55:17  
 
 Battery , Resistance and Capacitance Connected 
55:30  
 
 Current is Function of Time 
58:00  
 
 R, C are Time Constants 
59:25  
 
Extra Example 1: Resistor Current/Power 
4:17  
 
Extra Example 2: Find Current 
6:03  
 
Extra Example 3: Find Current 
10:00  
 
Extra Example 4: Find Current 
13:49  

Kirchhoff's Rules 
102:02 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
First Kirchhoff Rule 
0:19  
 
 Two Resistance Connected With a Battery 
0:29  
 
 Many Resistance 
1:40  
 
 Increase in Potential from A to B 
4:46  
 
 Charge Flowing from Higher Potential to Lower Potential 
5:13  
 
Second Kirchhoff Rule 
9:17  
 
 Current Entering 
9:27  
 
 Total Current Arriving is Equal Current Leaving 
13:20  
 
Example 
14:10  
 
 Battery 6 V, Resistance 20, 30 Ohms and Another Battery 4v 
14:30  
 
 Current Entering I2+I3 
21:18  
 
Example 2 
31:20  
 
 2 Loop circuit with 6v and 12 v and Resistance, Find Current in Each Resistance 
32:29  
 
Example 3 
42:02  
 
 Battery and Resistance in Loops 
42:23  
 
Ammeters and Voltmeters 
56:22  
 
 Measuring Current is Introducing an Ammeter 
56:35  
 
 Connecting Voltmeter, High Resistance 
57:31  
 
Extra Example 1: Find Current 
18:47  
 
Extra Example 2: Find Current 
13:35  
 
Extra Example 3: Find Current 
10:23  

Magnetic Field 
98:19 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Magnets 
0:13  
 
 Compass Will Always Point North 
3:49  
 
 Moving a Compass Needle 
5:50  
 
Force on a Charged Particles 
10:37  
 
 Electric Field and Charge Particle Q 
10:48  
 
 Charge is Positive Force 
11:11  
 
 Charge Particle is At Rest 
13:38  
 
 Taking a Charged Particle and Moving to Right 
16:15  
 
 Using Right Hand Rule 
23:37  
 
 C= Magnitude of A, B 
26:30  
 
 Magnitude of C 
26:55  
 
Motion of Particle in Uniform Magnetic Field 
33:30  
 
 Magnetic Field has Same Direction 
34:02  
 
 Direction of Force 
38:40  
 
 Work Done By Force=0 
41:40  
 
 Force is Perpendicular With Velocity 
42:00  
 
Bending an Electron Beam 
48:09  
 
 Heating a Filament 
48:29  
 
 Kinetic Energy of Battery 
51:54  
 
 Introducing Magnetic Field 
52:10  
 
Velocity Selector 
53:45  
 
 Selecting Particles of Specific Velocity 
54:00  
 
 Parallel Plate Capacitor 
54:30  
 
 Magnetic Force 
56:20  
 
 Magnitude of Force 
56:45  
 
Extra Example 1: Vectors 
19:24  
 
Extra Example 2: Proton in Magnetic Field 
8:33  
 
Extra Example 3: Proton Circular Path 
10:46  

Force on a Current in a Magnetic Field 
76:03 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Effect of Magnetic Field on Current 
0:44  
 
 Conduction Wire, Horse Shoe Magnet 
0:55  
 
 Introducing a Battery to the Wire 
3:10  
 
 Wire Bends Pushing Left 
3:50  
 
 Wire Bends Toward Right 
5:08  
 
 In Absence of Magnetic Field 
5:34  
 
 Magnet and Wire Force Towards Upward 
10:22  
 
Force 
11:55  
 
 Conductor Connected to Battery, Carrying Current to Right 
12:52  
 
 Magnetic Field Oriented into Page 
13:20  
 
 Force on 1 Change 
20:00  
 
 Total Force on Wire 
21:45  
 
 Vector of magnitude 
25:40  
 
 Direction is Scalar 
26:12  
 
 Force on Wire 
31:00  
 
Torque on a Current loop 
35:38  
 
 Square of Rectangle of Wire in Loop 
35:49  
 
 Passing Current 
36:14  
 
 Force on 1 
36:25  
 
 Force on 3 
40:46  
 
 Force on 2 
42:26  
 
 Force on 4 
45:12  
 
Example 
49:33  
 
 Wire of Length 
49:50  
 
 Magnetic Field, Force on Wire 
52:37  
 
Extra Example 1: Lifting a Wire 
5:35  
 
Extra Example 2: Rod on Two Rails 
7:33  
 
Extra Example 3: Rod on Two Rails with Friction 
6:54  

Magnetic Field Produced by Currents 
76:19 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Long Straight Wire 
0:49  
 
 Long Wire Connect to Battery (Imaginary Plane) 
1:07  
 
 Introducing a Compass 
3:15  
 
 Amperes Law/BiotSavart law 
8:01  
 
 Wire With Current I 
8:35  
 
 Magnetic Permeability of Free Space 
11:41  
 
Example 
13:22  
 
 Wire With Current 5 Amps 
13:35  
 
 Calculation Magnetic Field Produced By Wire 
16:42  
 
Magnetic Force Between Parallel Current Carrying Wire 
21:34  
 
 Two Wires Carrying Current 
21:45  
 
 Calculating Force of Attraction 
23:27  
 
 Magnetic Field B Produced by First Wire 
25:14  
 
 Force on Second Wire 
28:33  
 
Example 
33:59  
 
 Wire on Ground 
34:10  
 
 Another Wire 
34:24  
 
 Magnetic Force on Wire 2 
37:35  
 
Coils 
41:16  
 
 Circular Loop 
42:25  
 
 Magnetic Field is Not Uniform 
42:55  
 
 Magnetic Field at Center 
43:11  
 
 Solenoid 
46:20  
 
 Wire of length L in Coil with a Battery 
47:11  
 
Extra Example 1: Two Parallel Wires 
9:14  
 
Extra Example 2: Magnetic Field of Wires 
13:50  

Electromagnetic Induction 
94:15 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Induced EMF 
0:51  
 
 Electro Motive Force 
1:05  
 
 Hang a Wire Loop and Using a Magnet 
3:02  
 
 Magnetic Field is Strong 
7:07  
 
 Induced EMF is Not Related 
9:20  
 
Motional EMF 
11:43  
 
 Conducting Metal 
12:10  
 
 Rod Moves to Right 
12:52  
 
 Force Exerted on Charge Carrier 
15:20  
 
 Potential Difference 
20:05  
 
Example 
25:57  
 
 Rod in Magnetic Field, Connected by Wires 
27:10  
 
 Power Dissipated 
32:18  
 
 In 1 Minute, Total Energy Consumption 
34:53  
 
Where Does the Energy Come From 
37:50  
 
 Magnetic Waves with Conductive Bar 
38:12  
 
 To Keep the Rod Moving With Constant Velocity 
46:33  
 
 Work Done By External Agent in 1 Min 
46:50  
 
Relation to Magnetic Flux 
51:03  
 
 Area Swept by Rod 
54:44  
 
Magnetic Flux 
57:34  
 
 Magnetic Field is Constant 
57:50  
 
 Area Perpendicular To field 
58:02  
 
Extra Example 1: Motional EMF of Rod 
5:04  
 
Extra Example 2: Motional EMF, Current, Power 
8:05  
 
Extra Example 3: Current in Resistor 
20:08  

Faraday's Law 
90:49 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Faraday's Law 
0:57  
 
 Coil Connected to Battery With Switch 
1:14  
 
 Closed Switch Ammeter Reads Current 
3:45  
 
 Current in First Coil Drops to Zero 
8:30  
 
 Change in Flux Generates Current 
8:53  
 
 Induced EMF 
9:13  
 
Example 
13:45  
 
 Coil Has N Turns 
13:55  
 
 Connecting the Ends of Wire to Resistance 
14:40  
 
 Total Flux 
16:55  
 
Motional EMF Revisited 
25:04  
 
 Rod Moving in a Magnetic Field 
25:24  
 
 Magnetic Force Pushes Electrons 
28:01  
 
 Magnetic Field is Perpendicular to Area 
31:50  
 
 Flux in Loop 
32:15  
 
Lenz's Law 
40:03  
 
 Magnetic Field into Page 
40:30  
 
 Current Induced by 'Increased Flux' 
44:35  
 
 Current Induced to Oppose Change in Flux 
49:28  
 
 Flux is Increasing, Opposing Created Magnetic Field In Opposite Direction 
55:01  
 
Extra Example 1: Loop of Wire in Magnetic Field 
9:58  
 
Extra Example 2: Coil in Square 
10:45  
 
Extra Example 3: Decreasing Magnetic Field 
13:43  
V. Optics 

Reflection of Light 
72:22 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Nature of Light 
0:22  
 
 Aristotle: Light Illuminated from Eye 
0:58  
 
Light Rays 
15:50  
 
 Light Source Eliminates Stream Of Light 
16:22  
 
 Wave Fronts and Crests 
16:57  
 
Reflection 
18:50  
 
 Sending Light on Surface 
19:01  
 
 Light Reflects Parallel Out 
19:20  
 
 Specular Reflection 
20:06  
 
 Surface is Not Smooth 
20:16  
 
 Reflected in Different Direction 
20:35  
 
Law of Reflection 
21:47  
 
 Light Ray Hits the Plane Mirror 
22:08  
 
 Drawing Normal Perpendicular to Surface of Mirror 
22:50  
 
 Angle of Incidence 
23:15  
 
 Angle of Reflection 
23:50  
 
 Path of Least Time 
26:43  
 
 Fermat's Principle 
30:14  
 
 Light Takes Path of Shortest Time 
38:49  
 
Formation of Image by Plane Mirror 
40:11  
 
 Plane Mirror and a Source 
40:20  
 
 Looking at first Reflection 
42:30  
 
 S is the Real Object 
48:05  
 
Real and Virtual Object and Image 
50:10  
 
 Optical Instrument 
50:37  
 
 If Rays are Divergent Object is Real 
51:42  
 
 Rays are Convergent, Virtual Object 
52:54  
 
Extra Example 1: Object Between Two Mirrors 
10:08  
 
Extra Example 2: Plane Mirror Polished Side Up 
4:50  

Spherical Mirror 
90:39 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Concave and Convex Mirror 
0:17  
 
 Piece of Mirror From a Spherical Mirror 
1:00  
 
 If Inner face is Polished, Concave Mirror 
2:00  
 
 Principal Axis 
3:41  
 
 Polished Outer Side, Convex Mirror 
4:15  
 
Focal Point 
5:21  
 
 Consider a Concave Mirror 
6:03  
 
 Sending a Ray of Parallel Light 
6:18  
 
 Paraxial Rays 
9:36  
 
Ray Diagrams 
19:10  
 
 Concave Mirror 
19:25  
 
 Principal Axis 
19:40  
 
 Rays Diverging Virtual Image 
29:14  
 
Image Formation in Concave Mirrors: Real Object 
30:20  
 
 Real Object 
30:51  
 
 Draw a Ray to Principal Axis 
31:05  
 
 Put the Object beyond 'F' 
38:13  
 
Image Formation in Concave Mirrors: Virtual Object 
46:44  
 
 Rays Leaving the Image: Diverging 
48:00  
 
Summary of Concave Mirror 
56:17  
 
 Real Object real Image 
56:52  
 
 Real Object Virtual Image 
57:11  
 
 Virtual Object Real Image 
57:24  
 
 Virtual Object Virtual Image 
57:40  
 
Extra Example 1: Concave Mirror Image Location 
9:56  
 
Extra Example 2: Concave Mirror Focal Length 
9:36  
 
Extra Example 3: Concave Mirror Image Location 
10:41  

Convex Mirror 
66:47 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Image Formation: Real Object 
0:21  
 
 Drawing ray Parallel to Principal Axis 
1:15  
 
 Virtual Object Producing real Image 
17:41  
 
Image Formation: Virtual Objects 
18:21  
 
 Ray Going through C and Reflects Back 
18:40  
 
 Real Object Virtual Image 
26:20  
 
 Virtual Object: Real Image 
26:30  
 
 Virtual Object: Virtual Image 
27:00  
 
Summary 
35:30  
 
 Size of Image Over Size of Object 
36:12  
 
 Magnification 
41:47  
 
 Example: Convex Mirror 
42:38  
 
Extra Example 1: Convex Mirror 
8:07  
 
Extra Example 2: Convex or Concave 
12:08  

Refraction of Light, Part 1 
90:58 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Index of Refraction 
0:31  
 
 Speed of Light 
1:15  
 
 Speed of Light in Medium 
3:02  
 
 Index of Refraction of Medium 
3:33  
 
 Index of Refraction of Water 
4:52  
 
 Index of Refraction of Glass 
5:13  
 
Snell's Law 
8:09  
 
 Light is Incident from One Medium to Another 
9:05  
 
 Light Bends Toward the Normal 
10:49  
 
 Example: Air/Water 
12:32  
 
 Light is Incident at Angle of 53 Degrees 
13:09  
 
 Water is more Optically Dense Than Air 
17:20  
 
Apparent Depth 
18:19  
 
 Container of Water 
19:01  
 
 Penny at the Bottom 
19:17  
 
 Light Ray is Perpendicular to the Surface 
19:35  
 
 From Snell's Law 
29:39  
 
Derivation of Snell's Law 
32:38  
 
 Idea of Wave Fronts 
33:05  
 
Second Derivation of Snell's Law 
48:17  
 
 Same as Fermat's Principal 
48:38  
 
 Air and Water 
49:10  
 
Extra Example 1: Light Hits Glass 
7:09  
 
Extra Example 2: Find Theta 
14:42  
 
Extra Example 3: Index of Refraction 
9:56  

Refraction of Light, Part 2 
81:37 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Prism and the Rainbow 
0:13  
 
 Monochromatic Light Through Prism 
1:09  
 
 Sending White Light Through Prism 
7:08  
 
 Violet Bends More Than Red Light 
8:12  
 
 Angle Between Incident Light and Red 
13:25  
 
 Water Drops in the Atmosphere 
14:10  
 
Total Internal Reflection 
18:13  
 
 Surface has Air and Water 
18:30  
 
 Increase Angle 
19:33  
 
 Light Traveling in a Larger Index and Meets Lower Index 
29:30  
 
 Water and Air Angle of Refraction is 90 Degree 
29:57  
 
Optical Fibers 
32:22  
 
 Long Coaxial Cable 
32:40  
 
 Choose Angle for No Light Leakage 
35:03  
 
Thin Lenses 
45:13  
 
 Two Pieces of Transparent Glass 
45:58  
 
 Plano Convex 
47:32  
 
 BiConcave 
47:50  
 
 Plano Concave 
48:05  
 
 Lens Maker Formula 
51:59  
 
Ray Diagrams 
53:44  
 
 Ray Through the Center 
53:06  
 
Extra Example 1: Angle of Incidence 
8:44  
 
Extra Example 2: Block Underwater 
15:30  

Images Formed by Lenses 
85:20 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
 Converging Lenses: Real Objects 
0:25  
 
 Ray Going Through Center 
1:50  
 
Converging Lens: Virtual Objects 
18:30  
 
 Reverse Path 
20:40  
 
 Virtual Object Real Image 
22:47  
 
Diverging Lens 
24:59  
 
Lens Summary 
33:40  
 
 Object, Lens, Image 
34:52  
 
 Object Distance to Lens 
35:21  
 
 Image Distance to Lens 
36:01  
 
 Focal Length 
36:12  
 
 Magnification 
37:21  
 
Example: Converging Lens 
38:07  
 
 Q=50 cm Real Image 
41:52  
 
 Move Object 10 cm From the Lens 
42:30  
 
 Diverging Lens 
45:20  
 
Extra Example 1: Converging Lens 
9:57  
 
Extra Example 2: Diverging Lens 
10:33  
 
Extra Example 3: Two Thing Converging Lenses 
7:40  
 
Extra Example 4: Diverging Lens Final Image 
6:58  

Interference of Light Waves 
87:02 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
 Condition for Interference 
0:24  
 
 Two Light Sources S1, S2 
0:49  
 
 Source are Incoherent 
1:36  
 
 Uniform Intensity on Screen 
6:10  
 
 Source Should be Coherent 
6:31  
 
 Source with Single Wavelength 
7:30  
 
 Two Slits with One Source 
8:37  
 
Young's Double Slit Experiment 
13:33  
 
 Wave Front Looks Planer 
14:15  
 
 Light Propagates Like Waves 
17:58  
 
Constructive and Destructive Interference 
22:39  
 
 Two Slits Separated by 'd' 
23:01  
 
 Consider a Point at Center of Screen 
24:33  
 
 Path Difference 
34:46  
 
 Constructive Interference 
35:59  
 
 Destructive Interference 
36:05  
 
Example 
43:52  
 
 Two Slits Separated 
44:09  
 
 Screen is 2 ms Away 
44:30  
 
 Second Order Maximum 
45:06  
 
 First Maximum 
48:48  
 
Extra Example 1: Double Slit Wavelength 
5:58  
 
Extra Example 2: Two Radio Antennas 
15:32  
 
Extra Example 3: Double Slit Thickness 
13:42  

Thin Film Interference 
64:58 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Change of Phase Due to Reflection 
0:37  
 
 Plane Mirror 
1:28  
 
 Object Produces Virtual Image 
1:48  
 
 Consider a Screen and Point 
2:04  
 
 Path Difference 
3:40  
 
 Constructive Interferences 
5:09  
 
 Destructive Interference 
5:26  
 
 Two Media N1, N2 
15:25  
 
 N2>N1 Changes in Phase 180 Degrees 
15:40  
 
Thin Film Interference 
18:50  
 
 Air and Film and Air Film of Thickness 
19:12  
 
 Angle of Incident is Very Small 
19:40  
 
 Two Waves are Destructive 
22:14  
 
 Path Difference 
22:30  
 
 If Delta=1, 2, 3 No Change in Phase 
27:44  
 
 Destructive Interference 
29:12  
 
 Constructive Interferences 
32:45  
 
Example: Soap Bubbles 
33:34  
 
 Air, Soap, Air 
33:55  
 
 Thickness Results in Constructive Interference 
35:58  
 
Example: NonReflective Coating For Solar Cells 
38:05  
 
 Sending Light 
41:50  
 
 Destructive Interference 
44:08  
 
Extra Example 1: Spaced Plates Separation 
7:27  
 
Extra Example 2: Oil Film 
7:29  
 
Extra Example 3: Dark Bands 
 

Diffraction 
78:22 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Diffraction of Waves 
0:18  
 
 Source of Sound Waves 
0:31  
 
 Huygens' Principle 
1:14  
 
Diffraction of Light from Narrow Slit 
10:57  
 
 Light From a Distant Source 
11:48  
 
 Pick Any Point 
13:55  
 
 Source of Wave Front 
14:36  
 
 Waves Traveling Parallel to Each Other 
15:27  
 
 Franhofer Diffraction 
19:38  
 
 Drawing Perpendicular 
20:12  
 
 First Maximum 
23:12  
 
 Every Wave Has Interference and Diffraction 
27:44  
 
Width of Central Maximum 
32:49  
 
 Width of Slit is 0.2 mm 
33:13  
 
 Monochromatic Light 
33:40  
 
 If Angle is << 1 
36:39  
 
 If W= 2cms 
41:15  
 
Intensity of Diffraction Patterns 
44:21  
 
 Plotting Intensity Versus Light 
44:59  
 
Resolution 
45:35  
 
 Considering Two Source 
45:55  
 
 Two Objects Resolved 
46:41  
 
 Rayleigh Principle 
47:44  
 
Diffraction Grating 
51:18  
 
 First Order Max 
58:00  
 
 Intensity Shown in Figure 
58:21  
 
Extra Example 1: Slit Diffraction 
5:50  
 
Extra Example 2: Minima in Diffraction Pattern 
6:47  
 
Extra Example 3: Diffraction Grating 
6:38  
VI. Modern Physics 

Dual Nature of Light 
79:02 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Photoelectric Effect 
0:13  
 
 Shine Light on Metal Surface 
2:39  
 
 Another Metal Surface Both Enclosed and Connected to Battery 
3:02  
 
 Connecting Ammeter to Read Current 
3:50  
 
 Connecting a Variable Voltage 
4:20  
 
 Negative Voltage Has Stopping Potential 
10:20  
 
Features of Photoelectric Effect 
20:44  
 
 Dependence on Intensity 
21:01  
 
 Energy Carried By Wave Proportional to Intensity 
21:11  
 
 Kinetic Energy 
23:21  
 
 Dependence of Photoemission on Time 
23:40  
 
 Dependence on Frequency 
26:54  
 
 Measuring Maximum Kinetic Energy 
31:11  
 
Einstein and the Photoelectric Effect 
31:21  
 
 Stream of Quantum Particles 
33:00  
 
 Dim Blue Light, Few Photons 
36:42  
 
 Bright Red Light, Many Photons 
37:31  
 
 Electron is Bound to Surface of Metal 
39:33  
 
Example 
44:20  
 
 Incident Light 200 nm 
45:20  
 
Compton Scattering 
50:22  
 
 Shooting XRays at Targets 
50:45  
 
 Photons Colliding with Electrons 
55:48  
 
 Compton Wavelength of Electron 
56:05  
 
Example 
57:25  
 
 Lambda=0.1nm 
57:30  
 
Extra Example 1: Photoelectric Effect 
9:31  
 
Extra Example 2: Different Frequency Radiation 
9:49  

Matter Waves 
90:10 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
 De Broglie Wavelength 
1:42  
 
 Photon of light E=hf 
4:23  
 
 For particles Lambda=hp 
12:20  
 
 Davisson and Germer, Electron Diffraction 
14:06  
 
 Double Slit, Instead of Light Shooting Electrons 
18:25  
 
 Detecting Electrons on Fluorescent Screen 
18:55  
 
 Bright Fringes 
21:37  
 
Example 
26:03  
 
 Electron Moves 
26:18  
 
 Kinetic Energy of Electron 
32:20  
 
 Wavelength of Baseball 
33:59  
 
 Refraction Pattern 
40:00  
 
Uncertainty Principle 
41:44  
 
 Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle 
42:05  
 
 Sending an Electron Through a Hole 
47:54  
 
 In Y Direction the Position is Uncertain 
51:54  
 
 Example 
57:00  
 
 Speed of Electron 
57:09  
 
 Position of Electron 
60:38  
 
Extra Example 1: Kinetic Energy of Electrons 
13:23  
 
Extra Example 2: Uncertainty Principle 
10:49  
 
Extra Example 3: Wavelength of Electron and Photon 
5:10  

Hydrogen Atom 
85:50 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Nuclear Model 
0:12  
 
 J.J. Thomson Discovered Electrons 
1:40  
 
 Rutherford Experiment 
2:52  
 
 Example: Solar System 
13:39  
 
 Planetary Model 
14:40  
 
 Centripetal Acceleration 
16:48  
 
Line Spectra 
18:48  
 
 Low Pressure Gas Connecting to High Voltage 
19:37  
 
 Group of Wavelength 
21:06  
 
 Emission Spectra 
21:28  
 
 Lyman 
22:38  
 
 Balmer Series 
22:52  
 
 Pascen Series 
23:04  
 
Bohr's Model 
27:14  
 
 Electron in Circular Orbit 
27:30  
 
 Stationary Orbits 
28:34  
 
 Radiation is Emitted When Electron Makes Transition 
29:37  
 
 For Each Orbit Mass, Speed, Radius 
33:55  
 
Quantized Energy of the Bohr Model 
35:58  
 
 Electron in Circular Orbit 
36:24  
 
 Total Energy 
45:18  
 
Line Spectra Intercepted 
46:12  
 
 Energy of Orbit 
46:30  
 
 Balmer Series 
53:36  
 
 Paschen Series 
53:56  
 
Example 
54:57  
 
 N=1 and N=2 
55:01  
 
Extra Example 1: Balmer Series for Hydrogen 
9:39  
 
Extra Example 2: Minimum n for Hydrogen 
11:06  
 
Extra Example 3: Energy to Transition Electron 
5:30  

Nuclear Physics 
90:30 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
 Nucleus 
0:33  
 
 Positively Charged Particles 
0:53  
 
 Z=Atomic Mass Number 
2:08  
 
 Example of Carbon, 6 Protons and 6 Neutrons 
5:34  
 
 Nucleus with 27 Protons 
10:48  
 
Binding Energy 
18:56  
 
 Intro 
19:10  
 
 Helium Nucleus 
19:51  
 
 Binding Energy 
24:28  
 
Alpha Decay 
29:08  
 
 Energy of Uranium 
38:04  
 
Beta Decay 
43:03  
 
 Nuclei Emits Negative Particles 
45:00  
 
 Beta Particles are Electrons 
45:24  
 
Gamma Decay 
57:01  
 
 Gamma Ray is Photon of High Energy 
57:13  
 
 Nucleus Emits a Photon 
59:02  
 
Extra Example 1: Radium Alpha Decay 
9:34  
 
Extra Example 2: Binding Energy of Iron 
7:19  
 
Extra Example 3: Missing Particle 
13:35  