I. Motion 

Math Review 
16:49 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
The Metric System 
0:26  
 
 Distance, Mass, Volume, and Time 
0:27  
 
Scientific Notation 
1:40  
 
 Examples: 47,000,000,000 and 0.00000002 
1:41  
 
Significant Figures 
3:18  
 
 Significant Figures Overview 
3:19  
 
 Properties of Significant Figures 
4:04  
 
 How Significant Figures Interact 
7:00  
 
Trigonometry Review 
8:57  
 
 Pythagorean Theorem, sine, cosine, and tangent 
8:58  
 
Inverse Trigonometric Functions 
9:48  
 
 Inverse Trigonometric Functions 
9:49  
 
Vectors 
10:44  
 
 Vectors 
10:45  
 
Scalars 
12:10  
 
 Scalars 
12:11  
 
Breaking a Vector into Components 
13:17  
 
 Breaking a Vector into Components 
13:18  
 
Length of a Vector 
13:58  
 
 Length of a Vector 
13:59  
 
 Relationship Between Length, Angle, and Coordinates 
14:45  

One Dimensional Kinematics 
26:02 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Position 
0:06  
 
 Definition and Example of Position 
0:07  
 
Distance 
1:11  
 
 Definition and Example of Distance 
1:12  
 
Displacement 
1:34  
 
 Definition and Example of Displacement 
1:35  
 
Comparison 
2:45  
 
 Distance vs. Displacement 
2:46  
 
Notation 
2:54  
 
 Notation for Location, Distance, and Displacement 
2:55  
 
Speed 
3:32  
 
 Definition and Formula for Speed 
3:33  
 
 Example: Speed 
3:51  
 
Velocity 
4:23  
 
 Definition and Formula for Velocity 
4:24  
 
∆  Greek: 'Delta' 
5:01  
 
 ∆ or 'Change In' 
5:02  
 
Acceleration 
6:02  
 
 Definition and Formula for Acceleration 
6:03  
 
 Example: Acceleration 
6:38  
 
Gravity 
7:31  
 
 Gravity 
7:32  
 
Formulas 
8:44  
 
 Kinematics Formula 1 
8:45  
 
 Kinematics Formula 2 
9:32  
 
 Definitional Formulas 
14:00  
 
Example 1: Speed of a Rock Being Thrown 
14:12  
 
Example 2: How Long Does It Take for the Rock to Hit the Ground? 
15:37  
 
Example 3: Acceleration of a Biker 
21:09  
 
Example 4: Velocity and Displacement of a UFO 
22:43  

MultiDimensional Kinematics 
29:59 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
What's Different About Multiple Dimensions? 
0:07  
 
 Scalars and Vectors 
0:08  
 
A Note on Vectors 
2:12  
 
 Indicating Vectors 
2:13  
 
Position 
3:03  
 
 Position 
3:04  
 
Distance and Displacement 
3:35  
 
 Distance and Displacement: Definitions 
3:36  
 
 Distance and Displacement: Example 
4:39  
 
Speed and Velocity 
8:57  
 
 Speed and Velocity: Definition & Formulas 
8:58  
 
 Speed and Velocity: Example 
10:06  
 
Speed from Velocity 
12:01  
 
 Speed from Velocity 
12:02  
 
Acceleration 
14:09  
 
 Acceleration 
14:10  
 
Gravity 
14:26  
 
 Gravity 
14:27  
 
Formulas 
15:11  
 
 Formulas with Vectors 
15:12  
 
Example 1: Average Acceleration 
16:57  
 
Example 2A: Initial Velocity 
19:14  
 
Example 2B: How Long Does It Take for the Ball to Hit the Ground? 
21:35  
 
Example 2C: Displacement 
26:46  

Frames of Reference 
18:36 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Fundamental Example 
0:25  
 
 Fundamental Example Part 1 
0:26  
 
 Fundamental Example Part 2 
1:20  
 
General Case 
2:36  
 
 Particle P and Two Observers A and B 
2:37  
 
 Speed of P from A's Frame of Reference 
3:05  
 
What About Acceleration? 
3:22  
 
 Acceleration Shows the Change in Velocity 
3:23  
 
 Acceleration when Velocity is Constant 
3:48  
 
MultiDimensional Case 
4:35  
 
 MultiDimensional Case 
4:36  
 
Some Notes 
5:04  
 
 Choosing the Frame of Reference 
5:05  
 
Example 1: What Velocity does the Ball have from the Frame of Reference of a Stationary Observer? 
7:27  
 
Example 2: Velocity, Speed, and Displacement 
9:26  
 
Example 3: Speed and Acceleration in the Reference Frame 
12:44  

Uniform Circular Motion 
16:34 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Centripetal Acceleration 
1:21  
 
 Centripetal Acceleration of a Rock Being Twirled Around on a String 
1:22  
 
 Looking Closer: Instantaneous Velocity and Tangential Velocity 
2:35  
 
 Magnitude of Acceleration 
3:55  
 
 Centripetal Acceleration Formula 
5:14  
 
You Say You Want a Revolution 
6:11  
 
 What is a Revolution? 
6:12  
 
 How Long Does it Take to Complete One Revolution Around the Circle? 
6:51  
 
Example 1: Centripetal Acceleration of a Rock 
7:40  
 
Example 2: Magnitude of a Car's Acceleration While Turning 
9:20  
 
Example 3: Speed of a Point on the Edge of a US Quarter 
13:10  
II. Force 

Newton's 1st Law 
12:37 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Newton's First Law/ Law of Inertia 
2:45  
 
 A Body's Velocity Remains Constant Unless Acted Upon by a Force 
2:46  
 
Mass & Inertia 
4:07  
 
 Mass & Inertia 
4:08  
 
Mass & Volume 
5:49  
 
 Mass & Volume 
5:50  
 
Mass & Weight 
7:08  
 
 Mass & Weight 
7:09  
 
Example 1: The Speed of a Rocket 
8:47  
 
Example 2: Which of the Following Has More Inertia? 
10:06  
 
Example 3: Change in Inertia 
11:51  

Newton's 2nd Law: Introduction 
27:05 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Net Force 
1:42  
 
 Consider a Block That is Pushed On Equally From Both Sides 
1:43  
 
 What if One of the Forces was Greater Than the Other? 
2:29  
 
 The Net Force is All the Forces Put Together 
2:43  
 
Newton's Second Law 
3:14  
 
 Net Force = (Mass) x (Acceleration) 
3:15  
 
Units 
3:48  
 
 The Units of Newton's Second Law 
3:49  
 
FreeBody Diagram 
5:34  
 
 FreeBody Diagram 
5:35  
 
Special Forces: Gravity (Weight) 
8:05  
 
 Force of Gravity 
8:06  
 
Special Forces: Normal Force 
9:22  
 
 Normal Force 
9:23  
 
Special Forces: Tension 
10:34  
 
 Tension 
10:35  
 
Example 1: Force and Acceleration 
12:19  
 
Example 2: A 5kg Block is Pushed by Five Forces 
13:24  
 
Example 3: A 10kg Block Resting On a Table is Tethered Over a Pulley to a FreeHanging 2kg Block 
16:30  

Newton's 2nd Law: Multiple Dimensions 
27:47 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Newton's 2nd Law in Multiple Dimensions 
0:12  
 
 Newton's 2nd Law in Multiple Dimensions 
0:13  
 
Components 
0:52  
 
 Components 
0:53  
 
 Example: Force in Component Form 
1:02  
 
Special Forces 
2:39  
 
 Review of Special Forces: Gravity, Normal Force, and Tension 
2:40  
 
Normal Forces 
3:35  
 
 Why Do We Call It the Normal Forces? 
3:36  
 
 Normal Forces on a Flat Horizontal and Vertical Surface 
5:00  
 
 Normal Forces on an Incline 
6:05  
 
Example 1: A 5kg Block is Pushed By a Force of 3N to the North and a Force of 4N to the East 
10:22  
 
Example 2: A 20kg Block is On an Incline of 50° With a Rope Holding It In Place 
16:08  
 
Example 3: A 10kg Block is On an Incline of 20° Attached By Rope to a Freehanging Block of 5kg 
20:50  

Newton's 2nd Law: Advanced Examples 
42:05 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Block and Tackle Pulley System 
0:30  
 
 A Single Pulley Lifting System 
0:31  
 
 A Double Pulley Lifting System 
1:32  
 
 A Quadruple Pulley Lifting System 
2:59  
 
Example 1: A Freehanging, Massless String is Holding Up Three Objects of Unknown Mass 
4:40  
 
Example 2: An Object is Acted Upon by Three Forces 
10:23  
 
Example 3: A Chandelier is Suspended by a Cable From the Roof of an Elevator 
17:13  
 
Example 4: A 20kg Baboon Climbs a Massless Rope That is Attached to a 22kg Crate 
23:46  
 
Example 5: Two Blocks are Roped Together on Inclines of Different Angles 
33:17  

Newton's Third Law 
16:47 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Newton's Third Law 
0:50  
 
 Newton's Third Law 
0:51  
 
Everyday Examples 
1:24  
 
 Hammer Hitting a Nail 
1:25  
 
 Swimming 
2:08  
 
 Car Driving 
2:35  
 
 Walking 
3:15  
 
Note 
3:57  
 
 Newton's Third Law Sometimes Doesn't Come Into Play When Solving Problems: Reason 1 
3:58  
 
 Newton's Third Law Sometimes Doesn't Come Into Play When Solving Problems: Reason 2 
5:36  
 
Example 1: What Force Does the Moon Pull on Earth? 
7:04  
 
Example 2: An Astronaut in Deep Space Throwing a Wrench 
8:38  
 
Example 3: A Woman Sitting in a Bosun's Chair that is Hanging from a Rope that Runs Over a Frictionless Pulley 
12:51  

Friction 
50:11 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Introduction 
0:04  
 
 Our Intuition  Materials 
0:30  
 
 Our Intuition  Weight 
2:48  
 
 Our Intuition  Normal Force 
3:45  
 
The Normal Force and Friction 
4:11  
 
 Two Scenarios: Same Object, Same Surface, Different Orientations 
4:12  
 
 Friction is Not About Weight 
6:36  
 
Friction as an Equation 
7:23  
 
 Summing Up Friction 
7:24  
 
 Friction as an Equation 
7:36  
 
The Direction of Friction 
10:33  
 
 The Direction of Friction 
10:34  
 
A Quick Example 
11:16  
 
 Which Block Will Accelerate Faster? 
11:17  
 
Static vs. Kinetic 
14:52  
 
 Static vs. Kinetic 
14:53  
 
 Static and Kinetic Coefficient of Friction 
16:31  
 
How to Use Static Friction 
17:40  
 
 How to Use Static Friction 
17:41  
 
Some Examples of μs and μk 
19:51  
 
 Some Examples of μs and μk 
19:52  
 
A Remark on Wheels 
22:19  
 
 A Remark on Wheels 
22:20  
 
Example 1: Calculating μs and μk 
28:02  
 
Example 2: At What Angle Does the Block Begin to Slide? 
31:35  
 
Example 3: A Block is Against a Wall, Sliding Down 
36:30  
 
Example 4: Two Blocks Sitting Atop Each Other 
40:16  

Force & Uniform Circular Motion 
26:45 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Centripetal Force 
0:46  
 
 Equations for Centripetal Force 
0:47  
 
 Centripetal Force in Action 
1:26  
 
Where Does Centripetal Force Come From? 
2:39  
 
 Where Does Centripetal Force Come From? 
2:40  
 
Centrifugal Force 
4:05  
 
 Centrifugal Force Part 1 
4:06  
 
 Centrifugal Force Part 2 
6:16  
 
Example 1: Part A  Centripetal Force On the Car 
8:12  
 
Example 1: Part B  Maximum Speed the Car Can Take the Turn At Without Slipping 
8:56  
 
Example 2: A Bucket Full of Water is Spun Around in a Vertical Circle 
15:13  
 
Example 3: A Rock is Spun Around in a Vertical Circle 
21:36  
III. Energy 

Work 
28:34 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Equivocation 
0:05  
 
 Equivocation 
0:06  
 
Introduction to Work 
0:32  
 
 Scenarios: 10kg Block on a Frictionless Table 
0:33  
 
 Scenario: 2 Block of Different Masses 
2:52  
 
Work 
4:12  
 
 Work and Force 
4:13  
 
 Paralleled vs. Perpendicular 
4:46  
 
 Work: A Formal Definition 
7:33  
 
An Alternate Formula 
9:00  
 
 An Alternate Formula 
9:01  
 
Units 
10:40  
 
 Unit for Work: Joule (J) 
10:41  
 
Example 1: Calculating Work of Force 
11:32  
 
Example 2: Work and the Force of Gravity 
12:48  
 
Example 3: A Moving Box & Force Pushing in the Opposite Direction 
15:11  
 
Example 4: Work and Forces with Directions 
18:06  
 
Example 5: Work and the Force of Gravity 
23:16  

Energy: Kinetic 
39:07 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Types of Energy 
0:04  
 
 Types of Energy 
0:05  
 
Conservation of Energy 
1:12  
 
 Conservation of Energy 
1:13  
 
What is Energy? 
4:23  
 
 Energy 
4:24  
 
What is Work? 
5:01  
 
 Work 
5:02  
 
Circular Definition, Much? 
5:46  
 
 Circular Definition, Much? 
5:47  
 
Derivation of Kinetic Energy (Simplified) 
7:44  
 
 Simplified Picture of Work 
7:45  
 
 Consider the Following Three Formulas 
8:42  
 
Kinetic Energy Formula 
11:01  
 
 Kinetic Energy Formula 
11:02  
 
Units 
11:54  
 
 Units for Kinetic Energy 
11:55  
 
Conservation of Energy 
13:24  
 
 Energy Cannot be Made or Destroyed, Only Transferred 
13:25  
 
Friction 
15:02  
 
 How Does Friction Work? 
15:03  
 
Example 1: Velocity of a Block 
15:59  
 
Example 2: Energy Released During a Collision 
18:28  
 
Example 3: Speed of a Block 
22:22  
 
Example 4: Speed and Position of a Block 
26:22  

Energy: Gravitational Potential 
28:10 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Why Is It Called Potential Energy? 
0:21  
 
 Why Is It Called Potential Energy? 
0:22  
 
Introduction to Gravitational Potential Energy 
1:20  
 
 Consider an Object Dropped from EverIncreasing heights 
1:21  
 
Gravitational Potential Energy 
2:02  
 
 Gravitational Potential Energy: Derivation 
2:03  
 
 Gravitational Potential Energy: Formulas 
2:52  
 
 Gravitational Potential Energy: Notes 
3:48  
 
Conservation of Energy 
5:50  
 
 Conservation of Energy and Formula 
5:51  
 
Example 1: Speed of a Falling Rock 
6:31  
 
Example 2: Energy Lost to Air Drag 
10:58  
 
Example 3: Distance of a Sliding Block 
15:51  
 
Example 4: Swinging Acrobat 
21:32  

Energy: Elastic Potential 
44:16 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Introduction to Elastic Potential 
0:12  
 
 Elastic Object 
0:13  
 
 Spring Example 
1:11  
 
Hooke's Law 
3:27  
 
 Hooke's Law 
3:28  
 
 Example of Hooke's Law 
5:14  
 
Elastic Potential Energy Formula 
8:27  
 
 Elastic Potential Energy Formula 
8:28  
 
Conservation of Energy 
10:17  
 
 Conservation of Energy 
10:18  
 
You Ain't Seen Nothin' Yet 
12:12  
 
 You Ain't Seen Nothin' Yet 
12:13  
 
Example 1: SpringLauncher 
13:10  
 
Example 2: Compressed Spring 
18:34  
 
Example 3: A Block Dangling From a Massless Spring 
24:33  
 
Example 4: Finding the Spring Constant 
36:13  

Power & Simple Machines 
28:54 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Introduction to Power & Simple Machines 
0:06  
 
 What's the Difference Between a GoKart, a Family Van, and a Racecar? 
0:07  
 
 Consider the Idea of Climbing a Flight of Stairs 
1:13  
 
Power 
2:35  
 
 P= W / t 
2:36  
 
Alternate Formulas 
2:59  
 
 Alternate Formulas 
3:00  
 
Units 
4:24  
 
 Units for Power: Watt, Horsepower, and Kilowatthour 
4:25  
 
Block and Tackle, Redux 
5:29  
 
 Block and Tackle Systems 
5:30  
 
Machines in General 
9:44  
 
 Levers 
9:45  
 
 Ramps 
10:51  
 
Example 1: Power of Force 
12:22  
 
Example 2: Power &Lifting a Watermelon 
14:21  
 
Example 3: Work and Instantaneous Power 
16:05  
 
Example 4: Power and Acceleration of a Race car 
25:56  
IV. Momentum 

Center of Mass 
36:55 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Introduction to Center of Mass 
0:04  
 
 Consider a Ball Tossed in the Air 
0:05  
 
Center of Mass 
1:27  
 
 Definition of Center of Mass 
1:28  
 
 Example of center of Mass 
2:13  
 
 Center of Mass: Derivation 
4:21  
 
 Center of Mass: Formula 
6:44  
 
 Center of Mass: Formula, Multiple Dimensions 
8:15  
 
 Center of Mass: Symmetry 
9:07  
 
 Center of Mass: NonHomogeneous 
11:00  
 
Center of Gravity 
12:09  
 
 Center of Mass vs. Center of Gravity 
12:10  
 
Newton's Second Law and the Center of Mass 
14:35  
 
 Newton's Second Law and the Center of Mass 
14:36  
 
Example 1: Finding The Center of Mass 
16:29  
 
Example 2: Finding The Center of Mass 
18:55  
 
Example 3: Finding The Center of Mass 
21:46  
 
Example 4: A Boy and His Mail 
28:31  

Linear Momentum 
22:50 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Introduction to Linear Momentum 
0:04  
 
 Linear Momentum Overview 
0:05  
 
 Consider the Scenarios 
0:45  
 
Linear Momentum 
1:45  
 
 Definition of Linear Momentum 
1:46  
 
Impulse 
3:10  
 
 Impulse 
3:11  
 
Relationship Between Impulse & Momentum 
4:27  
 
 Relationship Between Impulse & Momentum 
4:28  
 
Why is It Linear Momentum? 
6:55  
 
 Why is It Linear Momentum? 
6:56  
 
Example 1: Momentum of a Skateboard 
8:25  
 
Example 2: Impulse and Final Velocity 
8:57  
 
Example 3: Change in Linear Momentum and magnitude of the Impulse 
13:53  
 
Example 4: A Ball of Putty 
17:07  

Collisions & Linear Momentum 
40:55 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Investigating Collisions 
0:45  
 
 Momentum 
0:46  
 
 Center of Mass 
1:26  
 
Derivation 
1:56  
 
 Extending Idea of Momentum to a System 
1:57  
 
 Impulse 
5:10  
 
Conservation of Linear Momentum 
6:14  
 
 Conservation of Linear Momentum 
6:15  
 
Conservation and External Forces 
7:56  
 
 Conservation and External Forces 
7:57  
 
Momentum Vs. Energy 
9:52  
 
 Momentum Vs. Energy 
9:53  
 
Types of Collisions 
12:33  
 
 Elastic 
12:34  
 
 Inelastic 
12:54  
 
 Completely Inelastic 
13:24  
 
 Everyday Collisions and Atomic Collisions 
13:42  
 
Example 1: Impact of Two Cars 
14:07  
 
Example 2: Billiard Balls 
16:59  
 
Example 3: Elastic Collision 
23:52  
 
Example 4: Bullet's Velocity 
33:35  
V. Gravity 

Gravity & Orbits 
34:53 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Law of Universal Gravitation 
1:39  
 
 Law of Universal Gravitation 
1:40  
 
 Force of Gravity Equation 
2:14  
 
Gravitational Field 
5:38  
 
 Gravitational Field Overview 
5:39  
 
 Gravitational Field Equation 
6:32  
 
Orbits 
9:25  
 
 Orbits 
9:26  
 
The 'Falling' Moon 
12:58  
 
 The 'Falling' Moon 
12:59  
 
Example 1: Force of Gravity 
17:05  
 
Example 2: Gravitational Field on the Surface of Earth 
20:35  
 
Example 3: Orbits 
23:15  
 
Example 4: Neutron Star 
28:38  
VI. Waves 

Intro to Waves 
35:35 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Pulse 
1:00  
 
 Introduction to Pulse 
1:01  
 
Wave 
1:59  
 
 Wave Overview 
2:00  
 
Wave Types 
3:16  
 
 Mechanical Waves 
3:17  
 
 Electromagnetic Waves 
4:01  
 
 Matter or Quantum Mechanical Waves 
4:43  
 
 Transverse Waves 
5:12  
 
 Longitudinal Waves 
6:24  
 
Wave Characteristics 
7:24  
 
 Amplitude and Wavelength 
7:25  
 
 Wave Speed (v) 
10:13  
 
 Period (T) 
11:02  
 
 Frequency (f) 
12:33  
 
 v = λf 
14:51  
 
Wave Equation 
16:15  
 
 Wave Equation 
16:16  
 
 Angular Wave Number 
17:34  
 
 Angular Frequency 
19:36  
 
Example 1: CPU Frequency 
24:35  
 
Example 2: Speed of Light, Wavelength, and Frequency 
26:11  
 
Example 3: Spacing of Grooves 
28:35  
 
Example 4: Wave Diagram 
31:21  

Waves, Cont. 
52:57 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Superposition 
0:38  
 
 Superposition 
0:39  
 
Interference 
1:31  
 
 Interference 
1:32  
 
 Visual Example: Two Positive Pulses 
2:33  
 
 Visual Example: Wave 
4:02  
 
 Phase of Cycle 
6:25  
 
Phase Shift 
7:31  
 
 Phase Shift 
7:32  
 
Standing Waves 
9:59  
 
 Introduction to Standing Waves 
10:00  
 
 Visual Examples: Standing Waves, Node, and Antinode 
11:27  
 
 Standing Waves and Wavelengths 
15:37  
 
 Standing Waves and Resonant Frequency 
19:18  
 
Doppler Effect 
20:36  
 
 When Emitter and Receiver are Still 
20:37  
 
 When Emitter is Moving Towards You 
22:31  
 
 When Emitter is Moving Away 
24:12  
 
 Doppler Effect: Formula 
25:58  
 
Example 1: Superposed Waves 
30:00  
 
Example 2: Superposed and Fully Destructive Interference 
35:57  
 
Example 3: Standing Waves on a String 
40:45  
 
Example 4: Police Siren 
43:26  
 
Example Sounds: 800 Hz, 906.7 Hz, 715.8 Hz, and Slide 906.7 to 715.8 Hz 
48:49  

Sound 
36:24 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Speed of Sound 
1:26  
 
 Speed of Sound 
1:27  
 
Pitch 
2:44  
 
 High Pitch & Low Pitch 
2:45  
 
 Normal Hearing 
3:45  
 
 Infrasonic and Ultrasonic 
4:02  
 
Intensity 
4:54  
 
 Intensity: I = P/A 
4:55  
 
 Intensity of Sound as an Outwardly Radiating Sphere 
6:32  
 
Decibels 
9:09  
 
 Human Threshold for Hearing 
9:10  
 
 Decibel (dB) 
10:28  
 
 Sound Level β 
11:53  
 
Loudness Examples 
13:44  
 
 Loudness Examples 
13:45  
 
Beats 
15:41  
 
 Beats & Frequency 
15:42  
 
 Audio Examples of Beats 
17:04  
 
Sonic Boom 
20:21  
 
 Sonic Boom 
20:22  
 
Example 1: Firework 
23:14  
 
Example 2: Intensity and Decibels 
24:48  
 
Example 3: Decibels 
28:24  
 
Example 4: Frequency of a Violin 
34:48  

Light 
19:38 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
The Speed of Light 
0:31  
 
 Speed of Light in a Vacuum 
0:32  
 
 Unique Properties of Light 
1:20  
 
Lightspeed! 
3:24  
 
 Lightyear 
3:25  
 
Medium 
4:34  
 
 Light & Medium 
4:35  
 
Electromagnetic Spectrum 
5:49  
 
 Electromagnetic Spectrum Overview 
5:50  
 
Electromagnetic Wave Classifications 
7:05  
 
 Long Radio Waves & Radio Waves 
7:06  
 
 Microwave 
8:30  
 
 Infrared and Visible Spectrum 
9:02  
 
 Ultraviolet, Xrays, and Gamma Rays 
9:33  
 
So Much Left to Explore 
11:07  
 
 So Much Left to Explore 
11:08  
 
Example 1: How Much Distance is in a Lightyear? 
13:16  
 
Example 2: Electromagnetic Wave 
16:50  
 
Example 3: Radio Station & Wavelength 
17:55  
VII. Thermodynamics 

Fluids 
42:52 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Fluid? 
0:48  
 
 What Does It Mean to be a Fluid? 
0:49  
 
Density 
1:46  
 
 What is Density? 
1:47  
 
 Formula for Density: ρ = m/V 
2:25  
 
Pressure 
3:40  
 
 Consider Two Equal Height Cylinders of Water with Different Areas 
3:41  
 
 Definition and Formula for Pressure: p = F/A 
5:20  
 
Pressure at Depth 
7:02  
 
 Pressure at Depth Overview 
7:03  
 
 Free Body Diagram for Pressure in a Container of Fluid 
8:31  
 
 Equations for Pressure at Depth 
10:29  
 
Absolute Pressure vs. Gauge Pressure 
12:31  
 
 Absolute Pressure vs. Gauge Pressure 
12:32  
 
 Why Does Gauge Pressure Matter? 
13:51  
 
Depth, Not Shape or Direction 
15:22  
 
 Depth, Not Shape or Direction 
15:23  
 
Depth = Height 
18:27  
 
 Depth = Height 
18:28  
 
Buoyancy 
19:44  
 
 Buoyancy and the Buoyant Force 
19:45  
 
Archimedes' Principle 
21:09  
 
 Archimedes' Principle 
21:10  
 
Wait! What About Pressure? 
22:30  
 
 Wait! What About Pressure? 
22:31  
 
Example 1: Rock & Fluid 
23:47  
 
Example 2: Pressure of Water at the Top of the Reservoir 
28:01  
 
Example 3: Wood & Fluid 
31:47  
 
Example 4: Force of Air Inside a Cylinder 
36:20  

Intro to Temperature & Heat 
34:06 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Absolute Zero 
1:50  
 
 Absolute Zero 
1:51  
 
Kelvin 
2:25  
 
 Kelvin 
2:26  
 
Heat vs. Temperature 
4:21  
 
 Heat vs. Temperature 
4:22  
 
Heating Water 
5:32  
 
 Heating Water 
5:33  
 
Specific Heat 
7:44  
 
 Specific Heat: Q = cm(∆T) 
7:45  
 
Heat Transfer 
9:20  
 
 Conduction 
9:24  
 
 Convection 
10:26  
 
 Radiation 
11:35  
 
Example 1: Converting Temperature 
13:21  
 
Example 2: Calories 
14:54  
 
Example 3: Thermal Energy 
19:00  
 
Example 4: Temperature When Mixture Comes to Equilibrium Part 1 
20:45  
 
Example 4: Temperature When Mixture Comes to Equilibrium Part 2 
24:55  

Change Due to Heat 
44:03 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Linear Expansion 
1:06  
 
 Linear Expansion: ∆L = Lα(∆T) 
1:07  
 
Volume Expansion 
2:34  
 
 Volume Expansion: ∆V = Vβ(∆T) 
2:35  
 
Gas Expansion 
3:40  
 
 Gas Expansion 
3:41  
 
The Mole 
5:43  
 
 Conceptual Example 
5:44  
 
 The Mole and Avogadro's Number 
7:30  
 
Ideal Gas Law 
9:22  
 
 Ideal Gas Law: pV = nRT 
9:23  
 
 p = Pressure of the Gas 
10:07  
 
 V = Volume of the Gas 
10:34  
 
 n = Number of Moles of Gas 
10:44  
 
 R = Gas Constant 
10:58  
 
 T = Temperature 
11:58  
 
A Note On Water 
12:21  
 
 A Note On Water 
12:22  
 
Change of Phase 
15:55  
 
 Change of Phase 
15:56  
 
 Change of Phase and Pressure 
17:31  
 
 Phase Diagram 
18:41  
 
Heat of Transformation 
20:38  
 
 Heat of Transformation: Q = Lm 
20:39  
 
Example 1: Linear Expansion 
22:38  
 
Example 2: Explore Why β = 3α 
24:40  
 
Example 3: Ideal Gas Law 
31:38  
 
Example 4: Heat of Transformation 
38:03  

Thermodynamics 
27:30 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
First Law of Thermodynamics 
1:11  
 
 First Law of Thermodynamics 
1:12  
 
Engines 
2:25  
 
 Conceptual Example: Consider a Piston 
2:26  
 
Second Law of Thermodynamics 
4:17  
 
 Second Law of Thermodynamics 
4:18  
 
Entropy 
6:09  
 
 Definition of Entropy 
6:10  
 
 Conceptual Example of Entropy: Stick of Dynamite 
7:00  
 
Order to Disorder 
8:22  
 
 Order and Disorder in a System 
8:23  
 
The Poets Got It Right 
10:20  
 
 The Poets Got It Right 
10:21  
 
Engines in General 
11:21  
 
 Engines in General 
11:22  
 
Efficiency 
12:06  
 
 Measuring the Efficiency of a System 
12:07  
 
Carnot Engine ( A Limit to Efficiency) 
13:20  
 
 Carnot Engine & Maximum Possible Efficiency 
13:21  
 
Example 1: Internal Energy 
15:15  
 
Example 2: Efficiency 
16:13  
 
Example 3: Second Law of Thermodynamics 
17:05  
 
Example 4: Maximum Efficiency 
20:10  
VIII. Electricity 

Electric Force & Charge 
41:35 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Charge 
1:04  
 
 Overview of Charge 
1:05  
 
 Positive and Negative Charges 
1:19  
 
A Simple Model of the Atom 
2:47  
 
 Protons, Electrons, and Neutrons 
2:48  
 
Conservation of Charge 
4:47  
 
 Conservation of Charge 
4:48  
 
Elementary Charge 
5:41  
 
 Elementary Charge and the Unit Coulomb 
5:42  
 
Coulomb's Law 
8:29  
 
 Coulomb's Law & the Electrostatic Force 
8:30  
 
 Coulomb's Law Breakdown 
9:30  
 
Conductors and Insulators 
11:11  
 
 Conductors 
11:12  
 
 Insulators 
12:31  
 
Conduction 
15:08  
 
 Conduction 
15:09  
 
 Conceptual Examples 
15:58  
 
Induction 
17:02  
 
 Induction Overview 
17:01  
 
 Conceptual Examples 
18:18  
 
Example 1: Electroscope 
20:08  
 
Example 2: Positive, Negative, and Net Charge of Iron 
22:15  
 
Example 3: Charge and Mass 
27:52  
 
Example 4: Two Metal Spheres 
31:58  

Electric Fields & Potential 
34:44 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Electric Fields 
0:53  
 
 Electric Fields Overview 
0:54  
 
 Size of q2 (Second Charge) 
1:34  
 
 Size of q1 (First Charge) 
1:53  
 
 Electric Field Strength: Newtons Per Coulomb 
2:55  
 
Electric Field Lines 
4:19  
 
 Electric Field Lines 
4:20  
 
 Conceptual Example 1 
5:17  
 
 Conceptual Example 2 
6:20  
 
 Conceptual Example 3 
6:59  
 
 Conceptual Example 4 
7:28  
 
Faraday Cage 
8:47  
 
 Introduction to Faraday Cage 
8:48  
 
 Why Does It Work? 
9:33  
 
Electric Potential Energy 
11:40  
 
 Electric Potential Energy 
11:41  
 
Electric Potential 
13:44  
 
 Electric Potential 
13:45  
 
 Difference Between Two States 
14:29  
 
 Electric Potential is Measured in Volts 
15:12  
 
Ground Voltage 
16:09  
 
 Potential Differences and Reference Voltage 
16:10  
 
 Ground Voltage 
17:20  
 
Electronvolt 
19:17  
 
 Electronvolt 
19:18  
 
Equipotential Surfaces 
20:29  
 
 Equipotential Surfaces 
20:30  
 
Equipotential Lines 
21:21  
 
 Equipotential Lines 
21:22  
 
Example 1: Electric Field 
22:40  
 
Example 2: Change in Energy 
24:25  
 
Example 3: Constant Electrical Field 
27:06  
 
Example 4: Electrical Field and Change in Voltage 
29:06  
 
Example 5: Voltage and Energy 
32:14  

Electric Current 
29:12 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Electric Current 
0:31  
 
 Electric Current 
0:32  
 
 Amperes 
1:27  
 
Moving Charge 
1:52  
 
 Conceptual Example: Electric Field and a Conductor 
1:53  
 
 Voltage 
3:26  
 
Resistance 
5:05  
 
 Given Some Voltage, How Much Current Will Flow? 
5:06  
 
 Resistance: Definition and Formula 
5:40  
 
Resistivity 
7:31  
 
 Resistivity 
7:32  
 
 Resistance for a Uniform Object 
9:31  
 
Energy and Power 
9:55  
 
 How Much Energy Does It take to Move These Charges Around? 
9:56  
 
 What Do We Call Energy Per Unit Time? 
11:08  
 
 Formulas to Express Electrical Power 
11:53  
 
Voltage Source 
13:38  
 
 Introduction to Voltage Source 
13:39  
 
 Obtaining a Voltage Source: Generator 
15:15  
 
 Obtaining a Voltage Source: Battery 
16:19  
 
Speed of Electricity 
17:17  
 
 Speed of Electricity 
17:18  
 
Example 1: Electric Current & Moving Charge 
19:40  
 
Example 2: Electric Current & Resistance 
20:31  
 
Example 3: Resistivity & Resistance 
21:56  
 
Example 4: Light Bulb 
25:16  

Electric Circuits 
52:02 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Electric Circuits 
0:51  
 
 Current, Voltage, and Circuit 
0:52  
 
Resistor 
5:05  
 
 Definition of Resistor 
5:06  
 
 Conceptual Example: Lamps 
6:18  
 
 Other Fundamental Components 
7:04  
 
Circuit Diagrams 
7:23  
 
 Introduction to Circuit Diagrams 
7:24  
 
 Wire 
7:42  
 
 Resistor 
8:20  
 
 Battery 
8:45  
 
 Power Supply 
9:41  
 
 Switch 
10:02  
 
 Wires: Bypass and Connect 
10:53  
 
 A Special Not in General 
12:04  
 
 Example: Simple vs. Complex Circuit Diagram 
12:45  
 
Kirchoff's Circuit Laws 
15:32  
 
 Kirchoff's Circuit Law 1: Current Law 
15:33  
 
 Kirchoff's Circuit Law 1: Visual Example 
16:57  
 
 Kirchoff's Circuit Law 2: Voltage Law 
17:16  
 
 Kirchoff's Circuit Law 2: Visual Example 
19:23  
 
Resistors in Series 
21:48  
 
 Resistors in Series 
21:49  
 
Resistors in Parallel 
23:33  
 
 Resistors in Parallel 
23:34  
 
Voltmeter and Ammeter 
28:35  
 
 Voltmeter 
28:36  
 
 Ammeter 
30:05  
 
Direct Current vs. Alternating Current 
31:24  
 
 Direct Current vs. Alternating Current 
31:25  
 
 Visual Example: Voltage Graphs 
33:29  
 
Example 1: What Voltage is Read by the Voltmeter in This Diagram? 
33:57  
 
Example 2: What Current Flows Through the Ammeter When the Switch is Open? 
37:42  
 
Example 3: How Much Power is Dissipated by the Highlighted Resistor When the Switch is Open? When Closed? 
41:22  
 
Example 4: Design a Hallway Light Switch 
45:14  
IX. Magnetism 

Magnetism 
25:47 
 
Intro 
0:00  
 
Magnet 
1:27  
 
 Magnet Has Two Poles 
1:28  
 
 Magnetic Field 
1:47  
 
Always a Dipole, Never a Monopole 
2:22  
 
 Always a Dipole, Never a Monopole 
2:23  
 
Magnetic Fields and Moving Charge 
4:01  
 
 Magnetic Fields and Moving Charge 
4:02  
 
Magnets on an Atomic Level 
4:45  
 
 Magnets on an Atomic Level 
4:46  
 
 Evenly Distributed Motions 
5:45  
 
 Unevenly Distributed Motions 
6:22  
 
Current and Magnetic Fields 
9:42  
 
 Current Flow and Magnetic Field 
9:43  
 
 Electromagnet 
11:35  
 
Electric Motor 
13:11  
 
 Electric Motor 
13:12  
 
Generator 
15:38  
 
 A Changing Magnetic Field Induces a Current 
15:39  
 
Example 1: What Kind of Magnetic Pole must the Earth's Geographic North Pole Be? 
19:34  
 
Example 2: Magnetic Field and Generator/Electric Motor 
20:56  
 
Example 3: Destroying the Magnetic Properties of a Permanent Magnet 
23:08  