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Reconstruction, Part 1

  • Reconstruction: a time period & a process between 1865 and 1877 (from the end of the Civil War until the end of military reconstruction when the Union army withdrew from the South)
  • The process was more complicated & complex: readmitting the Southern states, physically reconstructing & rebuilding Southern towns, cities, & property that had been destroyed during the war, and integrating newly freed blacks into U.S. society
  • Lincoln spoke of the need to “bind up the nation’s wounds”
  • The plans for Reconstruction varied between the president and congress (led by Radica Republicans) and led to tensions.
  • Abraham Lincoln was assassinated and Democrat Andrew Johnson become president and blocks efforts made by Radical Republicans.
  • Southerners enacted black codes that were designed to drive the ex-slaves back to plantations; they had moved to restore slavery in all but the name
  • Although some changes were instituted and the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments were passed, many African Americans were voted into office, and the Freedmen’s Bureau was instituted, there was a huge backlash against these reforms in the South.
  • Articles of impeachment were brought up against Johnson for violating the Tenure of Office Act, but he was not impeached.

Reconstruction, Part 1

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  • Intro 0:00
  • Overview 0:06
  • Reconstruction 1:32
    • Readmitting the Southern States
    • Bind Up the Nation's Wounds
    • Freedom Beyond Emancipation
    • Rebellious States
  • Presidential Reconstruction 6:29
    • Separation of Power
    • Ten Percent Plan
    • Lenient Policy
  • Congressional Reconstruction 9:37
    • Wade-Davis Bill
    • An Oath of Allegiance
    • Pocket veto
  • Lincoln Was Assassinated 11:34
    • Ford's Theater
    • The Four Co-conspirators
  • Andrew Johnson's Reconstruction 13:16
    • Andrew Johnson
    • Appointed Provisional Governors
    • Rejoining the Union
  • Black Codes and Backlash 15:34
    • Black Codes
    • Refuse to Admit the Southern Delegations
  • The Black Codes 19:08
  • Freedmen's Bureau 20:08
    • Lyman Trumbull
    • Securing the Civil Rights of the Freedmen
  • What Type of Labor System 22:52
    • Battles in the Sea Islands
    • True Freedom
    • Gang-Labor System
  • White Man's Government 25:33
    • White Supremacy
    • Turned to Washington
  • Congress Versus the President 27:17
    • Freedmen's Bureau Bill
    • Trumbull's Civil Rights Bill
    • 14th Amendment to the Constitution
  • Fourteenth Amendment 29:24
    • All Persons Born or Naturalized in the United States
    • The Equal Protection of the Laws
    • Civil Rights Act
  • Johnson's Response 32:00
    • The Fourteenth Amendment Became a Campaign Issue
    • Waving the Bloody Shirt
    • The Civil Rights of Ex-Slaves
  • Radical Republicans 34:07
    • Party's Abolitionist Strain
    • Remaking Southern Society
    • Thaddeus Stevens and Charles Sumner
  • The Reconstruction Act of 1867 36:54
    • Five Military Districts
    • Prewar Political Class
    • The Tenure of Office
    • Replace Edwin M. Stanton by General Ulysses S. Grant
  • Impeachment of Johnson 38:47
    • Impeachment
    • Tenure of Office Act
    • Horatio Seymour
  • Impeachment of Johnson, 1867 40:49
  • Example 1 41:22
  • Example 2 44:09
  • Example 3 47:15

Transcription: Reconstruction, Part 1

Welcome back to

This lesson is called Reconstruction, Part 1.0003

In this lesson, we are going to talk about, first and foremost, the importance and significance of Reconstruction,0007

and define it as a major time period, as well as a process after the Civil War, 0014

as the United States needs to help rebuild relations between the north and south, as well as restoration of confederate states.0022

We are also going to talk about the various stages of reconstruction that will begin with Presidential Reconstruction.0034

And then, we are going to get into the Congressional response and Congressional Reconstruction, 0042

and their vision for how they would like to see reconstruction be applied.0049

And then, we are going to talk about some of the accomplishments during the reconstruction period.0056

As well as the backlash against reconstruction, particularly from those in the south who did not like the changes that were being implemented.0061

There will be those who were very resentful toward the Federal government's involvement in the south 0074

and the programs that they are putting into place.0082

There will be a huge backlash that will lead to the end of Reconstruction.0086

But let us first get into what Reconstruction refers to, and what it was.0091

Do keep in mind, when we use the term Reconstruction, we are talking about a time period really between, 0100

at the end of the Civil War in 1865 and 1877.0106

When Rutherford B. Hayes is elected President, that will trigger the end of Reconstruction.0114

We refer to it, we can call it the Reconstruction Period, Reconstruction Era, that type of thing.0125

Sometimes it is just called Reconstruction, as well.0132

Time period, as well as the process of actually reconstructing, rebuilding the south.0136

That is also very important to keep in mind, it is also a process that was very complicated and complex,0143

and would involve readmitting the southern states back into the Union with various stipulations that they had to abide by.0150

Physically reconstructing and rebuilding southern towns, as we know there was some major damage because of the Civil War.0161

As well as cities and property.0171

This was actually perhaps the most difficult aspect, integrating newly freed blacks into U.S. society.0175

Now we know that even though the 13th Amendment was passed, slavery was abolished,0183

and new laws were being put into place, attitudes remained.0188

Racism was deeply embedded in the south.0193

The defeated ex-confederates, in many cases were very bitter and unwilling to accept African-Americans as equals in society.0198

This was going to be a very painful process.0211

Ultimately, it is going to take very strong Federal leadership to try to integrate African-Americans, freed blacks, in this case, into U.S. society.0215

At stake again, there will be various tensions, and what was at stake was the north vs. the unconstructed south, or the unreconstructed south.0228

The big question at the time was who is going to run Reconstruction?0244

Will it be the President or will it be Congress?0249

There is also a tension during this time period between freedmen and the old south.0252

Trying to change attitudes was a very difficult process.0258

Laws, you can change overnight, but attitudes you cannot.0262

Lincoln, being the President, will need to show leadership in helping to bring the country back together.0267

He spoke of the need to bind up the nation's wounds.0275

Yes, it would be a process for the country to heal and come back together, 0279

work together, and move forward as a country, and hopefully become a better country, as a result.0282

Obviously, questions surfaced at the end of the Civil War.0291

What system of labor should replace plantation slavery?0298

Did they have to completely revamp the entire system, what decisions needed to be made regarding labor?0304

We are going to get into some of aspects of what is going to happen to the southern economy 0311

and how African-Americans are going to work, and survive, and live.0319

What right should the freedman be accorded beyond emancipation.0326

We will see that it will be necessary for other laws to be put into place to protect African-Americans.0330

They cannot be left on their own because they are certainly very vulnerable in southern society.0337

As many ex-confederates are very bitter and in many ways they want to see slavery reinstated,0345

and they do not want to change their society.0356

That is going to make it necessary for the Federal government to step in and show leadership in that regard.0360

Radical Republicans will have a huge influence in shaping a lot of those policies.0366

But then again, we will also see that the influence of Andrew Johnson is going to also be a major stumbling block.0371

This, we already touched upon already.0384

How should the rebellious states be restored to the Union?0386

Getting into it, the first stage of Reconstruction was Presidential Reconstruction.0391

At this time, Abraham Lincoln was still President.0400

An issue here during the Reconstruction, there was not any mention of secession in the Constitution.0405

They could not foresee this when the Constitution was made.0414

The issue here, based on the separation of power, the Constitution did not address these issues.0419

They had to make up the road map from scratch.0428

It did not say which branch of government was to handle the readmission of rebellious states.0432

Setting that foundation right there and keeping that in mind, you will see that eventually,0439

we are going to see a clash between different branches of government, in particular the executive branch and the legislative branch.0445

The President and the legislative branches will have different agendas and different visions for reconstruction.0454

Lincoln’s plan was called the 10% plan or it has also been known as the Proclamation of Amnesty in Reconstruction.0462

This was established in 1863.0473

As you could see, about halfway through the Civil War.0476

As he was starting to envision how the southern states would be readmitted to the Union at the end of the Civil War.0481

In Lincoln’s plan, he offered general amnesty to all the high ranking confederates who were willing to pledge loyalty to the Union.0491

He wanted 10%, that is where the 10% part comes in, of a state's voters take the oath of allegiance to the Union 0499

and accepted emancipation through the 13th Amendment that abolished slavery.0505

Then, the state would be restored to the Union.0510

Ultimately, this was viewed as pretty lenient policy that was designed to shorten the war 0514

and to compromise and not punish the south for their participation in the Civil War.0521

His job as President was to make this as painless as possible.0533

He also had a political agenda and wanted to add weight to the Emancipation Proclamation, and the end of slavery.0538

But we will see that, unfortunately for Lincoln, and many in the country, he is unable to see this through, 0550

as he will be assassinated, what we will see in April 14, 1865, after his last speech on April 11, 1865.0560

I will come back to that in a little bit.0579

Congress had another vision for Reconstruction.0581

Most confederate states rebuffed the offer, ensuring that the war would have to be fought to the bitter end.0586

That was during the war.0592

We are also going to see that the Republicans are looking to punish the south.0596

They are going to propose the Wade-Davis bill which was a stricter substitute for Lincoln’s plan, which laid down as conditions for the restoration of the rebellious states to the Union, 0603

an oath of allegiance by a majority of each state’s adult white men.0613

Moreover state governments formed only by those who had never carried arms against the Union,0620

which is going to be nearly impossible, and permanent disenfranchisement of the Confederate States of America leaders.0626

This was a much more radical or harsh substitute for Lincoln's 10% plan.0636

The intention was to punish the south and to completely restructure the power structure in the south.0646

But Lincoln, rather than openly challenge Congress, he executed what is known as a pocket veto, by not signing it before Congress adjourned.0654

This is a tool that is used sparingly and does not need to be explained nor is subject to another Congressional vote, and it cannot be overwritten.0667

Presidents used this very selectively during extraordinary occasions.0681

Something that they want to be discreet about, when they do not support a bill.0687

As I was saying that, Lincoln’s life is going to end up getting cut short.0697

He is unable to see this policy through.0702

What happened is, the Lincolns were attending a play at Ford's Theater on April 14 in 1865.0706

Abe Lincoln was shot by John Wilkes Booth, a disaffected confederate soldier who loathed Abraham Lincoln.0712

He ended up leaving the theater and escaped for a few days, and started heading to Bowling Green, Virginia, where he was eventually found,0723

and shot and died on April 26.0734

Another thing to keep in mind is that, another one of Lincoln’s co-politicians was also…A. Seward, 0740

One of his cabinet members was also targeted the same evening.0754

This was a conspiracy, four main co-conspirators were involved in this and were eventually hanged in July of 1865.0759

This was a very dramatic event.0771

The country had already gone through the Civil War.0774

Abraham Lincoln was very well revered in the Union, of course not in the former confederacy.0777

This was adding to the drama and the sadness and loss that many Americans had already experienced.0784

Politically, this would have huge implications as well.0795

You may remember that Abraham Lincoln's vice-president was actually a Jacksonian Democrat.0799

Johnson became President and we are going to see that his leadership is going to be much different than Abraham Lincoln,0806

and his vision for Reconstruction is also going to be much different.0815

Jacksonian Democrats, who championed for whites.0820

He was a slave owner himself and he had little sympathy for formerly enslaved blacks.0824

This was not a good sign for the Republicans and certainly a horrible sign for the radical Republicans, as well as African-Americans.0830

This was going to make the Reconstruction quite challenging.0841

When they had nominated Johnson for Vice President in 1864, 0846

the political strategy at the time was to promote war time political unity and to court southern Unionists.0852

However, they are going to regret that Johnson was actually the Vice President, who becomes President after Lincoln's death, 0859

because his policy is going to be even more lenient to southerners.0869

He offered amnesty to all southerners, except high ranking confederate officials0875

and wealthy property owners which shows his pro-white biases here.0879

He offered amnesty to all southerners with these exceptions here, who took an oath of allegiance to the constitution.0888

Johnson also appointed provisional governors for the southern states and its conditions for the restoration0896

required only that they revoke their ordinances of secession and repudiate their confederate debts and ratify the 13th Amendment.0905

Very lenient like Lincoln, but even perhaps a step further.0915

Within months, all the former confederate states were rejoining the Union throughout the south.0921

All these former confederate states had functioning elected governments.0929

Not very punitive at all.0934

As the 13th Amendment was put into place, and as we start to see efforts being made to protect African-American whites,0939

we see that there is going to be huge backlash, that racist southerners are going to look to circumvent Federal policies,0951

as they want to keep the social order in place.0961

Southerners will hold fast to the antebellum order, and enacted what was known as black codes,0967

that were designed to drive slaves, ex-slaves, I should say.0974

Black codes were designed to drive the ex-slaves or freedmen back to plantations.0981

And ultimately, they had moved to restore slavery in all but name.0988

Some of the ways that these discriminatory laws were enacted,0995

how it would impact the life throughout the south is that… Here are some examples.1002

The thing to keep in mind is that they did vary to a certain extent from state to state.1009

But some examples would be that, in general, these types of laws would deny civil rights to African-Americans in the south,1014

that whites were able to enjoy.1024

African-Americans could not assemble in groups.1027

They could not, it would be vagrant if they were unemployed.1030

There were property limits, sometimes they were unable to buy property.1034

Interracial marriage was prohibited.1039

Just to give you some examples.1043

These black codes, in many ways, grew out of the old slave codes.1046

And do keep in mind that these will eventually be replaced by what is popularly known as the Jim Crow laws.1050

Just completely different laws and separate facilities for African-Americans and whites.1061

Very discriminatory, very unfair, and certainly meant to put pressure on African-Americans1071

to return to the plantations because they were desperate for work and needed to survive, 1077

and ultimately to maintain the status quo.1083

Southerners perceived Johnson's liberal amnesty policy as tacit approval of the black code.1088

He was ultimately on their side, he was a southerner, he was a slave owner, he understood.1095

The ex-confederates filled southern congressional delegations with their old comrades,1100

even including the vice president of the old confederacy, Alexander Stevens.1105

Republicans in both houses refused to admit the southern delegations, when Congress convened in early December of 1865,1112

blocking Johnson's Reconstruction program.1121

They are butting heads, they are not on the same page regarding the vision of Reconstruction.1124

In response, some black codes were replaced with nonracial ordinances, whose effect was the same.1131

Across the south, a wave of violence erupted against the freedman.1138

Ultimately, they will be the scapegoats for all of the ex-confederates anger and frustration, being defeated, 1142

toward the Federal government, because slavery has ended and this is going to hurt them economically.1152

This is a picture depicting an example of the effect of the black code.1161

In this case, African-Americans who are being told that they cannot assemble in public places,1167

which can be viewed as dangerous and threatening.1173

God forbid the African-Americans assemble and organize and communicate,1177

and come together in numbers and strengthen, and speak as a group.1183

They certainly did not want to empower African-Americans.1193

And in fact, wanted to disempower and prevent them from having power.1197

This is an example of the discriminatory policies under the black codes.1203

Nonetheless, we will see that with Republican leadership, that several policies and several bureaus1212

and other agencies are going to be put into place to try to help assist freedmen into their transition into a new country, 1223

into a south that no longer had slavery.1238

Republicans do conclude that the south had embarked on a concerted effort to circumvent the 13th Amendment1242

and that the Federal government had to intervene.1249

They needed to show leadership, they needed to enforce the law, and they had to create new laws to protect African-Americans.1252

Congress voted to extend the light to Freedmen's Bureau which was an agency that helped to assist African-Americans with food, 1259

in some cases, it could help African-Americans get signed up for school, helped them with housing and jobs.1271

Congress ends up giving it direct funding for the first time, and authorized its agents to investigate cases of discrimination against blacks.1280

They are trying to support African-Americans and help them get on their feet.1291

Lyman Trumbull who was chairman of the judiciary committee proposed a civil rights bill, that declared that all persons, 1295

regardless of race, born in the United States, to be citizens, that would give them all equal rights.1304

In many ways, this is the foundation for the 14th Amendment,1312

the language and the concept that all people born in the United States are citizens.1317

They should have equal rights, equal protection of the law.1324

That is how the wording that actually goes.1328

That is going to be a major stepping stone and part of the Republican agenda to protect the African-Americans of the south.1332

Of course, there will be a huge backlash, keep that in mind.1341

Anyway, even the most moderate Republicans demanded that1346

the Federal government assume responsibility for securing the civil rights of the freedmen.1349

They realized this is going to be a painful process.1355

This is going to be process that racist white supremacists in the south were going to fight back against and rebel against.1357

They needed to show leadership and enforce the law, and protect the African-Americans.1368

Across the south, before I get into this, ex-slaves will start to hold mass meetings or form organizations.1384

They demanded equality before the law and the right to vote.1393

And in the months before the end of the war, freedmen had seized control of land where they could.1400

That is going to be very important.1407

They try to hold onto their land.1410

Blacks fought pitched battles in the sea islands and elsewhere, with plantation owners, and bands of ex-confederate soldier.1412

Generally speaking, despite these efforts to rise up, the whites prevailed.1420

But struggle started to take place over the labor system, that which type of system would replace slavery, 1425

because owning land defined true freedom.1433

Because ex-slaves resisted working for wages, as it implied not freedom but dependency.1437

This was also going to be a challenge throughout the south,1443

because the idea of wage labor was something that was very foreign to many ex-slaves.1446

This was going to have to take a lot of support and it is definitely going to take a lot of assistance in transforming the mindset of former slaves.1453

To overcome any vestiges of dependency. Formalizing marriage was actually an urgent matter after emancipation.1467

As was resisting planters' demands that freedwomen go back to work in the fields.1475

Many African-American former ex-slaves are looking to have some type of normal family life.1481

Although there might be a little bit of a patriarchal slant here, this was kind of the mindset of people to try to build a foundation of a family.1488

Many people end up abandoning their old plantations in order to seek better lives and more freedom in the cities of the south.1502

But those who remained refused to work under the hated gang labor system.1509

This was the system that had been in place during times of slavery, 1516

with white overseers or black drivers who supervised gangs of enslaved laborers to enforce work norms and secure greater productivity.1521

Do keep in mind that the efforts of former slaves to control their own lives1537

challenged deeply entrenched white attitudes and resulted oftentimes in racial violence.1543

As this is symbolized here in this cartoon, this is a white man's government.1549

There is a continued backlash in the south, refusal to treat African-Americans as equals, and to protect them.1555

This idea that this is a white man's government and these white supremacist ideas will remain.1568

And even are strengthened in many ways, during the period of Reconstruction.1575

In some ways, we will see some gains during the Reconstruction.1582

But in other ways, we will see that it was a failure.1585

That the Federal government was unable to genuinely change the hearts and minds of the former confederates.1589

This was going to be a process.1599

We will see that it is going to take another 100 years before we get to the Civil Rights movement.1602

When we start to see major change in the south.1608

Anyway, coming back to this history.1613

The government established under Johnson's plan, only we see put the stamp of legality on the pervasive effects of white supremacy.1616

Yes, freedmen are going to look to Washington for help.1627

And in particular, they are going to look to the Republican Congress for help.1631

We know there was huge tension between the two branches.1640

In February 1866, Johnson vetoed the Freedmen's Bureau bill.1645

He did not believe that this was helping the situation and he thought that this would hurt whites.1651

A month later, he also vetoed Trumbull's Civil Rights bill.1660

He was not looking to help African-Americans, calling it discriminatory against whites.1667

He also believed that it was up to the states to protect individual rights, this was his justification.1672

The Civil Rights Act of 1866, again, was designed to nullify the black codes.1685

This was a law that is supposed to protect African-Americans.1693

But again, with every step forward, we are seeing a huge backlash.1696

Not only from the President but also from southern Democrats, in particular.1700

Galvanized by Johnson's attack on the Civil Rights bill, Republicans enacted the Civil Rights Act of 1866.1706

Congress had never before overwritten a veto on a major piece of legislation.1714

But they were able to mobilize and overwrite his veto.1719

As an angry Congress renewed the Freedmen’s Bureau after a second Johnson veto.1724

Republican resolve was reinforced by news of mounting violence in the south.1728

Yes, we are going to see violent acts on African-Americans, and also Republicans who go to the south to help institute reforms.1733

Those who helped to assist African-Americans.1744

But that did not stop the Republicans from pushing for their agenda.1749

They moved to enshrine black civil rights in the 14th Amendment to the Constitution.1753

Again, making Federal law a part of their vision.1759

The 14th Amendment, one of the most important and most significant amendments of the Constitution, that declared that all persons born and naturalized in the United States were citizens,1766

that no state could abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States, 1780

and deprive any person of life, liberty, or property without due process of law or deny anyone the equal protection of the laws.1788

Again, no state could abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States.1799

It establishes citizenship - number one, that all persons born or naturalized, meaning going through the naturalization process.1805

Maybe some of you, your parents or perhaps you, have gone through the naturalization process.1817

If you were born here, you are automatically a citizen.1824

But you can also become a citizen if you go through the proper paperwork and you applied for it, and so forth.1826

Those are the two ways to become a citizen.1836

It establishes who is a citizen.1838

And of course, this is going to end up making the decision, the outcome of the Dred Scott decision, null and void.1841

This makes it very clear that African-Americans, for instance, born here in the United States, are citizens.1851

And that they also have equal protection of the law and that they have notional right to life, liberty, property, and that they are protected.1858

A very important civil rights amendment put in place and viewed as a major accomplishment of the reconstruction period. 1871

Now of course, whether this is going to be enforced is a whole other question.1880

We certainly know that racist southerners in the south are going to look for ways to circumvent these laws.1885

But a little bit more on the 14th Amendment.1896

The language of it was intentionally vague and this will become significant for establishing the constitutionality of the Civil Rights Act,1899

and federally enforced standard of equality before the law and states.1906

This was eventually ratified in 1868 but will ultimately become the basis for many important civil rights decisions throughout U.S. history.1912

And in fact, spoiler alert, the 14th Amendment will be used to justify the decision made in the Brown vs. Board of education,1924

that declares that separate but equal is unconstitutional.1934

And it is not based on equal protection of the law, it is in fact unequal.1940

Coming back to Reconstruction.1947

After the 14th Amendment was ratified, Johnson is going to respond and he is not going to be happy about it.1950

He is going to urge the states during the process not to ratify the amendment and began to maneuver politically against the Republicans.1957

This became politicized and the amendment became a campaign issue for the Democratic Party.1966

Republicans responded furiously by decrying Democrats as traitors, a tactic that became known as waving the bloody shirt.1973

This is a term that was used during this time, you should be familiar with.1983

The idea is that Republicans will wave the bloody shirt, when they are scapegoating, in many ways, 1988

the Democrats for the Civil War, viewing them as traitors.1996

This was meant to smear their reputation and blame them for all the pain and suffering,2001

and divisiveness that the Civil War caused.2008

This feeds into the political tensions between Republicans and Democrats.2013

But Johnson continues on his tour.2018

He embarks on this disastrous railroad tour campaign and made matters worse by engaging in shouting matches2022

and exchanging insults with the hostile crowds.2028

We will see Republicans end up winning the 3 to 1 majority in the 1866 Congressional elections, 2034

which registered overwhelming support for securing the civil rights of ex-slaves.2040

Johnson was not a popular character all in all.2049

Radical Republicans, the Republican Party had a new sense of unity, coalescing around the unending program of the radical minority,2054

which represented the party’s abolitionists strain.2063

If you step back for a minute and think about the Civil War, you may remember, 2067

and even before the Civil War, that Abraham Lincoln was more of a moderate Republican.2073

But they were those who were much more radical, who were much more aggressive in their stance towards abolishing slavery.2078

During the Reconstruction period, the radical Republicans are going to push very strongly for protecting civil rights for all people,2086

and in particular protecting African-Americans.2096

If you are very interested in this topic, if you watched the movie Lincoln, 2100

it focuses actually quite a bit on this aspect of the Civil War, and even into Reconstruction.2106

It focuses, in fact, a lot on, specially Thaddeus Stevens who was a representative from Pennsylvania, 2115

and probably the most famous of the radical Republicans, and Sumner as well.2121

It's a great movie, it is a long movie, but very well done.2127

If you like to have a greater understanding of the complex that took place within the Republican Party, 2132

and having a great understanding of the radical Republican faction.2138

For the radical Republicans, Reconstruction was never primarily about the restoring of the Union, 2146

like it is for the moderates, but rather for remaking and restructuring southern society.2153

Beginning with getting the black man suffrage, his right to vote.2161

Again, 13th Amendment, now we have the abolishment of slavery, the abolition of slavery.2166

14th Amendment, we have clarified law regarding that all people who were born in the United States are citizens2175

and that they are afforded equal protection of the law.2184

And then, we are going to see the push for the 15th Amendment, which will be suffrage rights for all men, which we will get to a little bit later.2189

The two major masterminds behind these rights, and particularly, giving suffrage for African-Americans were the Radical Republicans.2201

Sumner and Stevens were at the forefront.2213

Then, there is another law that was put into place, the Reconstruction Act of 1867.2219

This law led to the occupation of the south that divided the south into five military districts.2227

Each under the command of a Union general.2236

The price for reentering the south was granting the vote to freedmen.2240

This was the punitive part that the radical Republicans wanted, stick it to the south, the Confederacy.2244

Disenfranchise the south’s prewar political class.2253

They are looking to shake things up socially and politically.2258

Congress overrode Johnson’s veto of the Reconstruction Act.2262

And in effect, attempted to reconstruct the presidency with a Tenure of Office Act.2266

By requiring Senate consent for the removal of any official whose appointment had required Senate confirmation, 2273

and the President to issue all orders to the army through its commanding general.2280

This is kind of a back and forth debate and argument between the President and the Congress.2287

After Congress adjourned in August of 1867, Johnson suspended Edwin M. Stanton, and replaced him with General Ulysses S. Grant.2299

He then replaced four of the commanding generals governing the south.2306

This was a no-no according to Congress, and they are looking for any reason to get rid of this guy.2312

They just cannot stand Johnson.2318

He is just blocking every move that they want to make and any legislation that they have on the table that they want to implement.2320

When the Senate reconvened, it overrode Stanton’s suspension, and Grant, by now who was Johnson's enemy, 2331

resigned so that Stanton could resume office.2338

After Johnson dismissed Stanton, the House Republicans introduced Articles of Impeachment.2341

Just to clarify the meaning of this, the process of the President, of when the President or a high official is being brought to trial.2347

And ultimately, there is concern here that they are breaking the law, doing something unconstitutional.2357

Anyway, the Articles of Impeachment were drawn against Johnson for violations of the Tenure of Office Act.2363

They are looking for any reason to get this guy out of office.2376

This required consent for the removal of any official whose appointment had required Senate confirmation2381

and it required President to issue all orders to the army through its commanding officer, at the time was Grant.2388

A vote on impeachment was one vote short of the required 2/3 majority needed to convict.2396

But Johnson, ultimately, in the end of all this, was left powerless to alter the course of Reconstruction.2403

Even though, he was not convicted, he did go through the impeachment process.2412

It is not going to ultimately have an effect on the outcome of Reconstruction, 2417

as Republicans will continue with their agenda, and there was another election within reach.2421

Grant was the Republicans 1868 Presidential nominee.2432

He won out over the Democrats Horatio Seymour.2436

The Republicans retain 2/3 majorities in both Houses of Congress, 2441

which shows that Republicans continue to have a huge influence over government.2445

In this slide, you can just see how the impeachment proceedings were taking place, 2451

when the Senate was acting as a court for impeachment, for the trial of Andrew Johnson in 1867.2459

An undoubtedly, perhaps one of the least favorite of most Americans, the least favorite President for Americans in U.S. history.2467

It would be difficult to fill in the shoes of Abraham Lincoln.2485

We are going to move into the assessment section of the lesson.2490

The first example we have here is based on excerpt from 14th Amendment to the Constitution of the United States.2494

Here we go, all persons born and naturalized in the United States are citizens.2502

No state shall make or enforce any laws which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens.2512

Nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty, or property without due process of the law, nor deny equal protection of the laws.2520

Representatives shall be apportioned among the several states counting the whole number of persons in each state, excluding Indians not taxed.2531

But when the right to vote at any election thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants being 21 years of age,2539

and citizens or in any way abridged except for crime, the bases of representation therein shall be reduced.2545

No person shall hold office who having previously taken oath, shall engage in insurrection or rebellion against the same.2552

But Congress maybe made by a vote of 2/3 of each House that removed such disability.2560

Example 1, in proclaiming that all persons born in the United States were citizens, 2569

the 14th Amendment directly repudiated which of the following?2576

The Wade-Davis bill, the Compromise of 1850, the Dred Scott decision, or Johnson's reconstruction plan.2580

And the answer is the Dred Scott decision.2592

If you remember in the Dred Scott decision, that slaves were not viewed as people, they were viewed as property.2598

This repudiates that decision, and slavery is abolished as well.2606

Number 2, for future Supreme Courts, one of the key points of the 14th Amendment would be which of the following?2614

Nor deny equal protection of the laws.2620

Representative shall be apportioned.2624

The bases of representation therein shall be reduced.2626

Shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion.2630

This one is this, equal protection of the laws.2638

That is one of the key phrases in the 14th Amendment that has the most profound influence in the long run.2643

You will see that as we continue talking about U.S. history throughout the later times.2652

Example 2, Frederick Douglas, you may remember him, important abolitionist.2658

Thou we have had war, reconstruction, and abolition as a nation, we still linger in the shadow and blight of an extinct institution.2665

Though the colored man is no longer subject to be bought and sold, he is still surrounded by an adverse sentiment.2675

In his downward course, he meets no resistance.2681

But his course upward is resented and resisted at every step of his progress.2684

If liberty with us is yet but a name, our citizenship is but a sham and our suffrage thus far only a cruel mockery.2693

We may have to congratulate ourselves upon the fact that the laws and institutions of the country are sound just and liberal, there is hope.2704

But until this nation shall make its practice accord with its Constitution and its righteous laws,2712

it will not dare to reproach the colored people of this country.2718

Which of the following would impart cause to Douglas's view that for African-Americans citizenship is but a sham?2728

The 14th Amendment, the black codes, Freedmen's Bureau, the election of Ulysses S. Grant.2739

The answer.2751

Number 2, which best illustrates an example of how the Constitution 2756

and its righteous laws according to Douglas provide hope for the colored people of this country?2760

Wade-Davis bill, the 10% plan, the Civil Rights Act of 1866, or the black codes.2766

The answer is the Civil Rights Act of 1866.2776

Which of the following developed during Reconstruction to provide direct support and self determination for those freed from slavery?2783

This one is a little tricky.2790

And in fact, I have to give this one to you.2793

Direct support and self determination.2796

With these, Freedmen’s Bureau, black churches, or Amnesty Act of 1872.2800

This one, although this could perhaps be an option, as far as support, self determination not as much.2812

This would actually be a better choice.2821

And I actually get into this in a bit more depth in the next lesson.2823

This one you may not have as much background.2828

But perhaps you could narrow it down.2831

Next example, here this one is a cartoon, asking you to compare two different eras.2837

Slavery is dead? Civil Rights bill, Emancipation Proclamation of January 1, 1863.2846

The land of the free, the home of the brave.2858

If you could see what is happening in here and who this is here.2862

This is supposed to represent Johnson, by the way.2874

State rights.2881

Using the cartoon, answer A, B, and C.2887

Explain the point of view reflected in the cartoon above, regarding one of the following.2890

Johnson's reconstruction plan, Civil Rights Act of 1866, and impeachment.2896

For this one, I’m going to choose Johnson’s reconstruction plan.2902

Here it goes, Johnson's reconstruction plan was similar to Lincoln's, and that it was lenient toward the former confederates.2909

But Johnson saw no reason to help the freemen whom he viewed as inferior.2915

B, explain how one element of the cartoon expresses the point of view you identified in part A.2926

Johnson's reconstruction plan illustrated the southern roots and sympathies, as well as his white supremacist beliefs.2935

On the right side of the cartoon, Johnson is beating an African-American as a slave owner would, for punishing his slave.2942

C, briefly explain one development in the period of 1860’s that challenged or supported the point of view expressed in the cartoon.2953

Johnson's plan was challenged by Radical Republicans, in the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1866, as well as the Reconstruction Act of 1867.2963

You could obviously add other pieces of legislation that challenged his white supremacist perspective.2978

With that, we are done with part one of Reconstruction.2987

Stay tuned and come back for part two, and thank you for watching