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Professor Bryan Cardella guides you through Anatomy & Physiology by focusing on both the structures of the human body and how they work with each other. Every major organ system is covered, with tons of pictures, diagrams, and step-by-step explanations.

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I. Anatomy & Physiology

  Introduction to Anatomy & Physiology 25:34
   Intro 0:00 
   Anatomy vs. Physiology 0:06 
    Anatomy 0:17 
    Pericardium 0:24 
    Physiology 0:57 
   Organization of Matter 1:38 
    Atoms 1:49 
    Molecules 2:54 
    Macromolecules 3:28 
    Organelles 4:17 
    Cells 5:01 
    Tissues 5:58 
    Organs 7:15 
    Organ Systems 7:42 
    Organisms 8:26 
   Relative Positions 8:41 
    Anterior vs. Posterior 9:14 
    Ventral vs. Dorsal is the Same as Anterior vs. Posterior for Human Species 11:03 
    Superior vs. Inferior 11:52 
    Examples 12:13 
    Medial vs. Lateral 12:39 
    Examples 13:01 
    Proximal vs. Distal 13:36 
    Examples 13:53 
    Superficial Vs. Deep 14:57 
    Examples 15:17 
   Body Planes 16:07 
    Coronal (Frontal) Plane 16:38 
    Sagittal Plane 17:16 
    Transverse (Horizontal) Plane 17:52 
   Abdominopelvic Regions 18:37 
    4 Quadrants 19:07 
    Right Upper Quadrant 19:47 
    Left Upper Quadrant 19:57 
    Right Lower Quadrant 20:06 
    Left Lower Quadrant 20:16 
    9 Regions 21:09 
    Right Hypochondriac 21:33 
    Left Hypochondriac 22:20 
    Epicastric Region 22:39 
    Lumbar Regions: Right and Left Lumbar 22:59 
    Umbilical Region 23:32 
    Hypogastric (Pubic) Region 23:46 
    Right and Left Inguinal (Iliac) Region 24:10 
  Tissues 38:25
   Intro 0:00 
   Tissue Overview 0:05 
    Epithelial Tissue 0:27 
    Connective Tissue 1:04 
    Muscle Tissue 1:20 
    Neural Tissue 1:49 
    Histology 2:01 
   Epithelial Tissue 2:25 
    Attached to a 'Basal Lamina' 2:42 
    Avascular 3:38 
    Consistently Damaged by Environmental Factors 4:43 
   Types of Epithelium 5:35 
    Cell Structure / Shape 5:40 
    Layers 5:46 
    Example 5:52 
   Simple Squamous Epithelium 6:39 
    Meant for Areas That Need a High Rate of Diffusion / Osmosis 6:50 
    Locations: Alveolar Walls, Capillary Walls 7:15 
   Stratified Squamous Epithelium 9:10 
    Meant for Areas That Deal with a Lot of Friction 9:20 
    Locations: Epidermis of Skin, Esophagus, Vagina 9:27 
   Histological Slide of Esophagus / Stomach Connection 10:46 
   Simple Columnar Epithelium 12:02 
    Meant for Absorption / Secretion Typically 12:09 
    Locations: Lining of the Stomach, Intestines 13:08 
   Stratified Columnar Epithelium 13:29 
    Meant for Protection 14:07 
    Locations: Epiglottis, Anus, Urethra 14:14 
   Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium 14:46 
    Meant for Protection / Secretion 16:06 
    Locations: Lining of the Trachea / Bronchi 16:25 
   Simple Cuboidal Epithelium 16:51 
    Meant for Mainly Secretion / Absorption 16:56 
    Locations: Kidney Tubules, Thyroid Gland 17:14 
   Stratified Cubodial Epithelium 18:18 
    Meant for Protection, Secretion, Absorption 18:52 
    Locations: Lining of Sweat Glands 19:04 
   Transitional Epithelium 19:15 
    Meant for Stretching and Recoil 19:17 
    Locations: Urinary Bladder, Uterus 20:36 
   Glandular Epithelium 20:43 
    Merocrine 21:19 
    Apocrine 22:58 
    Holocrine 24:01 
   Connective Tissues 25:06 
    Most Abundant Tissue 25:11 
    Connect and Bind Together All the Organs 25:20 
   Connective Tissue Fibers 26:13 
    Collagen Fibers 26:30 
    Elastic Fibers 27:55 
    Reticular Fibers 29:58 
   Connective Tissue Cells 30:52 
    Fibroblasts 30:57 
    Macrophages 31:33 
    Mast Cells 32:49 
    Lymphocytes 34:42 
    Adipocytes 35:03 
    Melanocytes 36:08 
   Connective Tissue Examples 36:39 
    Adipose Tissue 36:50 
    Tendons and Ligaments 37:23 
    Blood 38:06 
    Cartilage 38:30 
    Bone 38:51 
    Muscle 39:09 
  Integumentary System (Skin) 51:15
   Intro 0:00 
   Functions of the Skin 0:07 
    Protection 0:13 
    Absorption 0:43 
    Secretion 1:19 
    Heat Regulation 1:52 
    Aesthetics 2:21 
   Major Layers 3:50 
    Epidermis 3:59 
    Dermis 4:45 
    Subcutaneous Layer (Hypodermis) 5:36 
   The Epidermis 5:56 
    Most Superficial Layers of Skin 5:57 
    Epithelial 6:11 
    Cell Types 7:16 
    Cell Type: Melanocytes 7:26 
    Cell Type: Keratinocytes 9:39 
    Stratum Basale 10:54 
    Helps Form Finger Prints 11:11 
   Dermis 11:54 
    Middle Layers of the Skin 12:16 
    Blood Flow 12:20 
    Hair 13:59 
    Glands 15:41 
    Sebaceous Glands 15:46 
    Sweat Glands 16:32 
    Arrector Pili Muscles 19:18 
    Two Main Kinds of Hair: Vellus and Terminal 19:57 
    Nails 21:43 
    Cutaneous Receptors (Nerve Endings) 23:48 
   Subcutaneous Layer 25:00 
    Deepest Part of the Skin 25:01 
    Composed of Connective Tissue 25:04 
    Fat Storage 25:11 
    Blood Flow 25:43 
   Cuts and Healing 26:33 
    Step 1: Inflammation 26:54 
    Step 2: Migration 28:46 
    Step 3: Proliferation 30:39 
    Step 4: Maturation 31:50 
   Burns 32:44 
    1st Degree 33:50 
    2nd Degree 34:38 
    3rd Degree 35:18 
    4th Degree 36:27 
    Rule of Nines 36:49 
   Skin Conditions and Disorders 40:02 
    Scars 40:06 
    Moles 41:11 
    Freckles/ Birthmarks 41:48 
    Melanoma/ Carcinoma 42:44 
    Acne 45:23 
    Warts 47:16 
    Wrinkles 48:14 
    Psoriasis 49:12 
    Eczema/ Rosacea 49:41 
    Vitiligo 50:19 
  Skeletal System 19:30
   Intro 0:00 
   Functions of Bones 0:04 
    Support 0:09 
    Storage 0:24 
    Production of Blood 1:01 
    Protection 1:12 
    Leverage 1:28 
   Bone Anatomy 1:43 
    Spongy Bone 2:02 
    Compact Bone 2:47 
    Epiphysis / Diaphysis 3:01 
    Periosteum 3:38 
    Articular Cartilage 3:59 
    Lacunae 4:23 
    Canaliculi 5:07 
    Matrix 5:53 
    Osteons 6:21 
    Central Canal 7:00 
    Medullary Cavity 7:21 
   Bone Cell Types 7:39 
    Osteocytes 7:44 
    Osteoblasts 8:12 
    Osteoclasts 8:18 
   Bone Movement in Relation to Levers 10:11 
    Fulcrum 10:26 
    Resistance 10:50 
    Force 11:01 
   Factors Affecting Bone Growth 11:24 
    Nutrition 11:28 
    Hormones 12:28 
    Exercise 13:19 
   Bone Marrow 13:58 
    Red Marrow 14:04 
    Yellow Marrow 14:46 
   Bone Conditions / Disorders 15:06 
    Fractures 15:09 
    Osteopenia 17:12 
    Osteoporosis 17:51 
    Osteochondrodysplasia 18:22 
    Rickets 18:43 
  Axial Skeleton 35:02
   Intro 0:00 
   Axial Skeleton 0:05 
    Skull 0:21 
    Hyoid 0:25 
    Vertebral Column 0:29 
    Thoracic Cage 0:32 
   Skull 0:35 
    Cranium 0:42 
    Sphenoid 0:58 
    Ethmoid 1:12 
   Frontal Bone 1:32 
    Sinuses 1:39 
    Sutures 2:50 
   Parietal Bones 3:29 
    Sutures 3:30 
    Most Superior / Lateral Cranial Bones 3:50 
    Fontanelles 4:17 
   Temporal Bones 5:00 
    Zygomatic Process 5:14 
    External Auditory Meatus 5:43 
    Mastoid Process 6:07 
    Styloid Process 6:28 
    Mandibular Fossa 7:04 
    Carotid Canals 7:50 
   Occipital Bone 8:12 
    Foramen Magnum 8:30 
    Occipital Condyle 9:03 
    Jugular Foramina 9:35 
   Sphenoid Bone 10:11 
    Forms Part of the Inferior Portion of the Cranium 10:39 
    Connects Cranium to Facial Bones 10:51 
    Has a Pair of Sinuses 11:06 
    Sella Turcica 11:26 
    Optic Canals 12:02 
    Greater/ Lesser Wings 12:19 
   Superior View of Cranium Interior 12:33 
   Ethmoid Bone 13:09 
    Forms the Superior Portion of Nasal Cavity 13:16 
    Images Contain the Crista Galli, Nasal Conchae, Perpendicular Plate, and 2 Sinuses 13:54 
   Maxillae 15:29 
    Holds the Upper Teeth, Forms the Inferior Portion of the Orbit, and Make Up the Upper Jaw and Hard Palate 15:50 
   Palatine Bones 16:17 
   Nasal Cavity Bones 16:55 
    Nasal Bones 17:07 
    Vomer 17:43 
    Interior Nasal Conchae 18:01 
   Sagittal Cross Section Through the Skull 19:03 
   More Facial Bones 19:45 
    Zygomatic Bones 19:57 
    Lacrimal Bones 20:12 
   Mandible 20:58 
    Lower Jaw Bone 20:59 
    Mandibular Condyles 21:05 
   Hyoid Bone 21:39 
    Supports the Larynx 21:47 
    Does Not Articular with Any Other Bones 22:02 
   Vertebral Column 22:45 
    26 Bones 22:49 
    There Are Cartilage Pads Called 'Intervertebral Discs' Between Each Vertebra 23:00 
   Vertebral Curvatures 24:55 
    Cervical 25:00 
    Thoracic 25:02 
    Lumbar 25:05 
    Atlas 25:28 
    Axis 26:20 
    Pelvic 28:20 
   Vertebral Column Side View 28:33 
   Sacrum/ Coccyx 29:29 
    Sacrum Has 5 Pieces 30:20 
    Coccyx Usually Has 4 Pieces 30:43 
   Thoracic Cage 31:00 
    12 Pairs of Ribs 31:05 
    Sternum 31:30 
    Costal Cartilage 33:22 
  Appendicular Skeleton 13:53
   Intro 0:00 
   Pectoral Girdle 0:05 
    Clavicles 0:25 
    Scapulae 1:06 
   Arms 2:47 
    Humerus 2:50 
    Radius 3:56 
    Ulna 4:11 
    Carpals 4:57 
    Metacarpals 5:48 
    Phalanges 6:09 
   Pelvic Girdle 7:51 
    Coxal Bones / Coxae 7:57 
    Ilium 8:09 
    Ischium 8:16 
    Pubis 8:21 
    Male vs. Female 9:24 
   Legs 10:05 
    Femer 10:11 
    Patella 11:14 
    Tibia 11:34 
    Fibula 11:52 
    Tarsals 12:24 
    Metatarsals 13:03 
    Phalanges 13:21 
  Articulations (Joints) 26:37
   Intro 0:00 
   Types of Joints 0:06 
    Synarthrosis 0:16 
    Amphiarthrosis 0:44 
    Synovial (Diarthrosis) 0:54 
   Kinds of Immovable Joints 1:09 
    Sutures 1:15 
    Gomphosis 2:17 
    Synchondrosis 2:44 
    Synostosis 4:59 
   Types of Amphiarthroses 5:31 
    Syndesmosis 5:36 
    Symphysis 6:07 
   Synovial Joint Anatomy 6:49 
    Articular Cartilage 7:04 
    Joint Capsule 7:49 
    Synovial Membrane 8:27 
    Bursae 8:48 
    Spongy / Compact Bone 9:28 
    Periosteum 10:12 
   Synovial Joint Movements 10:34 
    Flexion / Extension 10:41 
    Abduction / Adduction 10:58 
    Supination / Pronation 11:58 
    Depression / Elevation 13:10 
    Retraction / Protraction 13:21 
    Circumduction 13:35 
   Synovial Joint Types (By Movement) 13:56 
    Hinge 14:04 
    Pivot 14:53 
    Gliding 15:15 
    Ellipsoid 15:57 
    Saddle 16:29 
    Ball & Socket 17:14 
   Knee Joint 17:49 
    Typical Synovial Joint Parts 18:03 
    Menisci 18:32 
    ACL Anterior Cruciate 19:50 
    PCL Posterior Cruciate 20:34 
    Patellar Ligament 20:56 
   Joint Disorders / Conditions 21:45 
    Arthritis 21:48 
    Bunions 23:26 
    Bursitis 24:33 
    Dislocations 25:23 
    Hyperextension 26:01 
  Muscular System 53:07
   Intro 0:00 
   Functions of Muscles 0:06 
    Movement 0:09 
    Maintaining Body Position 1:11 
    Support of Soft Tissues 1:25 
    Regulating Entrances / Exits 1:56 
    Maintaining Body Temperature 2:33 
   3 Major Types of Muscle Cells (Fibers) 2:58 
    Skeletal (Striated) 3:21 
    Smooth 4:11 
    Cardiac 4:54 
   Skeletal Muscle Anatomy 5:49 
    Fascia 6:24 
    Epimysium 6:47 
    Fascicles 7:21 
    Perimysium 7:38 
    Muscle Fibers 8:04 
    Endomysium 8:31 
    Myofibrils 8:49 
    Sarcomeres 9:20 
   Skeletal Muscle Anatomy Images 9:32 
   Sarcomere Structure 12:33 
    Myosin 12:40 
    Actin 12:45 
    Z Line 12:51 
    A Band 13:11 
    I Band 13:39 
    M Line 14:10 
    Another Depiction of Sarcomere Structure 14:34 
   Sliding Filament Theory 15:11 
    Explains How Sarcomeres Contract 15:14 
    Tropomyosin 15:24 
    Troponin 16:02 
    Calcium Binds to Troponin, Causing It to Shift Tropomyosin 17:31 
    Image Examples 18:35 
    Myosin Heads Dock and Make a Power Stroke 19:02 
    Actin Filaments Are Pulled Together 19:49 
    Myosin Heads Let Go of Actin 19:59 
    They 'Re-Cock' Back into Position for Another Docking 20:19 
   Relaxation of Muscles 21:11 
    Ending Stimulation at the Neuromuscular Junction 21:50 
    Getting Calcium Ions Back Into the Sarcophasmic Reticulum 23:59 
    ATP Availability 24:15 
    Rigor Mortis 24:45 
   More on Muscles 26:22 
    Oxygen Debt 26:24 
    Lactic Acid 28:29 
    Creatine Phosphate 28:55 
    Fast vs. Slow Twitch Fibers 29:57 
   Muscle Names 32:24 
    4 Characteristics: Function, Location, Size, Orientation 32:27 
    Examples 32:36 
   Major Muscles 33:51 
    Head 33:52 
    Torso 38:05 
    Arms 40:47 
    Legs 42:01 
   Muscular Disorders 45:02 
    Muscular Dystrophy 45:08 
    Carpel Tunnel 45:56 
    Hernia 47:07 
    Ischemia 47:55 
    Botulism 48:22 
    Polio 48:46 
    Tetanus 49:06 
    Rotator Buff Injury 49:54 
    Mitochondrial Diseases 50:11 
    Compartment Syndrome 50:54 
    Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva 51:44 
  Nervous System Part I: Neurons 40:07
   Intro 0:00 
   Neuron Function 0:06 
    Basic Cell of the Nervous System 0:07 
    Sensory Reception 0:31 
    Motor Stimulation 0:47 
    Processing 1:07 
    Form = Function 1:33 
   Neuron Anatomy 1:47 
    Cell Body 2:17 
    Dendrites 2:34 
    Axon Hillock 3:00 
    Axon 3:17 
    Axolemma 3:38 
    Myelin Sheaths 4:07 
    Nodes of Ranvier 5:08 
    Axon Terminals 5:31 
    Synaptic Vesicles 5:59 
    Synapse 7:08 
   Neuron Varieties 9:04 
    Forms of Neurons Can Vary Greatly 9:08 
    Examples 9:11 
   Action Potentials 10:57 
    Electrical Changes Along a Neuron Membrane That Allow Signaling to Occur 11:17 
    Na+ / K+ Channels 11:24 
    Threshold 12:39 
    Like an 'Electric Wave' 13:50 
   A Neuron At Rest 13:56 
    Average Neuron at Rest Has a Potential of -70 mV 14:00 
    Lots of Na+ Outside 15:44 
    Lots of K+ Inside 16:15 
   Action Potential Steps 16:37 
    Threshold Reached 17:58 
    Depolarization 18:29 
    Repolarization 19:38 
    Hyperpolarization 20:41 
    Back to Resting Potential 21:05 
   Action Potential Depiction 21:38 
    Intracellular Space 21:43 
    Extracellular Space 21:46 
   Saltatory Conduction 22:41 
    Myelinated Neurons 22:49 
    Propagation is Key to Spreading Signal 23:16 
    Leads to the Axon Terminals 24:07 
   Synapses and Neurotransmitters 24:59 
    Definition of Synapse 25:04 
    Definition of Neurotransmitters 12:13 
    Example 26:06 
   Neurotransmitter Function Across a Synapse 27:19 
    Action Potential Depolarizes Synaptic Knob 27:28 
    Calcium Enters Synaptic Cleft to Trigger Vesicles to Fuse with Membrane 27:47 
    Ach Binds to Receptors on the Postsynaptic Membrane 29:08 
    Inevitable the Ach is Broken Down by Acetylcholinesterase 30:20 
   Inhibition vs. Excitation 30:44 
    Neurotransmitters Have an Inhibitory or Excitatory Effect 31:03 
    Sum of Two or More Neurotransmitters in an Area Dictates Result 31:13 
    Example 31:18 
   Neurotransmitter Examples 34:18 
    Norepinephrine 34:25 
    Dopamine 34:52 
    Serotonin 37:34 
    Endorphins 38:00 
  Nervous System Part 2: Brain 1:07:43
   Intro 0:00 
   The Brain 0:07 
    Part of the Central Nervous System 1:06 
    Contains Neurons and Neuroglia 1:22 
   Brain Development 4:34 
    Neural Tube 4:39 
    At 3 Weeks 5:03 
    At 6 Weeks 6:21 
    At Birth 8:05 
   Superficial Brain Structure 10:08 
    Grey vs. White Matter 10:43 
    Convolution 11:29 
    Gyrus 12:26 
    Lobe 13:16 
    Sulcus 13:39 
    Fissure 14:09 
    Cerebral Cortex 14:31 
   The Cerebrum 14:57 
    The 'Higher Brain' 15:00 
    Corpus Callosum 15:53 
    Divided Into Lobes 16:16 
   Frontal Lobe 16:41 
    Involved in Intelligent Thought, Planning, Sense of Consequence, and Rationalization 16:50 
    Prefrontal Cortex 17:09 
    Phineas Gage Example 17:21 
    Primary Motor Cortex 19:05 
    Broca's Area 20:38 
   Parietal Lobe 21:34 
    Primary Somatosensory Cortex 21:50 
    Wernicke Area 24:06 
    Imagination and Dreaming 25:21 
    Gives A Sense of Where Your Body Is in Space 25:44 
   Temporal Lobe 26:18 
    Auditory Cortex 26:24 
    Auditory Association Area 27:00 
    Olfactory Cortex 27:35 
    Hippocampi 27:58 
   Occipital Lobe 28:39 
    Visual Cortex 28:42 
    Visual Association Area 28:51 
   Corpus Callosum 30:07 
    Strip of White Matter That Connects the Hemispheres of the Cerebrum 30:09 
    Cutting This Will Help Minimize Harmful Seizures in Epileptics 30:41 
    Example 31:34 
   Limbic System 33:22 
    Establish Emotion, Link Higher and Lower Brain Functions, and Helps with Memory Storage 33:32 
    Amygdala 33:40 
    Cingulate Gyrus 34:50 
   Hippocampus 35:57 
    Located Within the Temporal Lobes 36:21 
    Allows Consolidation of Long Term memories 36:33 
    Patient 'H.M.' 39:03 
   Basal Nuclei 42:30 
    Coordination of Learned Movements 42:34 
    Inhibited by Dopamine 43:14 
   Olfactory Bulbs / Tracts 43:36 
    The Only Nerves That Go Directly Into the Cerebrum 44:11 
    Lie Just Inferior to Prefrontal Cortex of the Frontal Lobe 44:31 
   Ventricles 44:41 
    Cavities Deep Within the Cerebrum 44:43 
    Generate CSF 45:47 
    Importance of CSF 46:17 
   Diencephalon 46:39 
    Thalamus 46:55 
    Hypothalamus 47:14 
    Pineal Gland 49:30 
   Mesencephalon 50:17 
    Process Visual / Auditory Data 50:38 
    Reflexive Somatic Motor Responses Generated Here 50:44 
    Maintains Consciousness 51:07 
   Pons 51:15 
    Links Cerebellum With Other Parts of the Brain and Spinal Cord 51:33 
    Significant Role in Dreaming 51:52 
   Medulla Oblongata 51:57 
    Interior Part of Brain Stem 52:02 
    Contains the Cardiovascular, vasomotor, and Respiratory Centers 52:16 
    Reticular Formation 53:17 
    Numerous Nerves Ascend Into the Brain Through Here 53:35 
   Cerebellum 54:02 
    'Little Brain' in Latin 54:04 
    Inferior to Occipital Lobe, Posterior to Pons / Medulla 54:06 
    Arbor Vitae 54:29 
    Coordinates Motor Function and Balance 54:51 
   Meninges 55:39 
    Membranes That Wrap Around the Superficial Portion of the Brain and Spinal Cord 55:41 
    Helps Insulate the Central Nervous System and Regulate Blood Flow 55:55 
   Brain Disorders / Conditions 58:35 
    Seizures 58:39 
    Concussions 60:11 
    Meningitis 61:01 
    Stroke 61:42 
    Hemorrhage 62:44 
    Aphasia 63:08 
    Dyslexia 63:22 
    Disconnection Syndrome 64:11 
    Hydrocephalus 64:41 
    Parkinson Disease 65:17 
    Alzheimer Disease 65:50 
  Nervous System Part 3: Spinal Cord & Nerves 32:06
   Intro 0:00 
   Nervous System Flowchart 0:08 
   Spinal Cord 3:59 
    Connect the Body to the Brain 4:01 
    Central Canal Contains CSF 4:59 
    Becomes the Cauda Equina 5:17 
    Motor vs. Sensory Tracts 6:07 
    Afferent vs. Efferent Neurons 7:01 
    Motor-Inter-Sensory 8:11 
    Dorsal Root vs. Ventral Root 9:07 
    Spinal Meninges 9:21 
   Sympathetic vs. Parasympathetic 10:28 
    Fight or Flight 10:51 
    Rest and Digest 13:01 
   Reflexes 15:07 
    'Reflex Arc' 15:20 
    Types of Reflexes 17:00 
   Nerve Anatomy 19:49 
    Epineurium 20:19 
    Fascicles 20:27 
    Perineurium 20:51 
    Neuron 20:58 
    Endoneurium 21:06 
   Nerve Examples 21:43 
    Vagus Nerve 21:48 
    Sciatic Nerve 23:18 
    Radial Nerve 24:04 
    Facial Nerves 24:14 
    Optic Nerves 24:28 
   Spinal Cord Medical Terms 24:42 
    Lumbar Puncture 24:49 
    Epidural Block 25:57 
   Spinal Cord/ Nerve Disorders and Conditions 26:50 
    Meningitis 26:56 
    Shingles 27:12 
    Cerebral / Nerve Palsy 28:18 
    Hypesthesia 28:45 
    Multiple Sclerosis 29:46 
    Paraplegia/ Quadriplegia 30:48 
  Vision 58:38
   Intro 0:00 
   Accessory Structures of the Eye 0:04 
    Eyebrows 0:15 
    Eyelids 1:22 
    Eyelashes 2:11 
    Skeletal Muscles 3:33 
    Conjunctiva 3:56 
    Lacrimal Glands 4:50 
    Orbital Fat 6:45 
   Outer (Fibrous) Tunic 7:24 
    Sclera 8:01 
    Cornea 8:46 
   Middle (Vascular) Tunic 10:27 
    Choroid 10:37 
    Iris 12:25 
    Pupil 14:54 
    Lens 15:18 
    Ciliary Bodies 16:51 
    Suspensory Ligaments 17:45 
    Vitreous Humor 18:13 
   Inner (Neural)Tunic 19:31 
    Retina 19:40 
    Photoreceptors 20:38 
    Macula 21:32 
    Optic Disc 22:48 
   Blind Spot Demonstration 23:34 
   Lens Function 25:28 
    Concave 25:48 
    Convex 26:58 
    Clear Image 28:11 
   Accommodation Problems 28:31 
    Emmetropia 28:32 
    Myopia 30:46 
    Hyperopia 32:00 
   Photoreceptor Structure 34:15 
    Rods 34:32 
    Cones 35:06 
    Bipolar Cells 37:32 
    Inner Segment 38:28 
    Outer Segment 38:43 
    Pigment Epithelium 41:11 
   Visual Pathways to the Occipital Lobe 41:58 
    Stereoscopic Vision 42:02 
    Optic Nerves 43:32 
    Optic Chiasm 44:25 
    Optic Tract 46:28 
    Occipital Lobe 46:58 
   Vision Disorders / Conditions 48:03 
    Myopia / Hyperopia 48:10 
    Cataracts 49:11 
    Glaucoma 50:22 
    Astigmatism 52:14 
    Color Blindness 53:12 
    Night Blindness 54:51 
    Scotomas 55:19 
    Retinitis Pigmentosa 55:46 
    Detached Retina 56:06 
  Hearing 36:57
   Intro 0:00 
   External Ear 0:04 
    Auricle 0:22 
    External Acoustic Meatus 1:49 
    Hair 2:32 
    Ceruminous Glands 3:04 
    Tympanic Membrane 3:53 
   Middle Ear 5:31 
    Tympanic Cavity 5:47 
    Auditory Tube 5:50 
    Auditory Ossicles 7:52 
    Tympanic Muscles 9:19 
   Auditory Ossicles 12:02 
   Inner Ear 13:06 
    Cochlea 13:23 
    Vestibule 13:30 
    Semicircular Canals 13:36 
   Cochlea 13:57 
    Organ of Corti 14:44 
    Vestibular Duct 15:03 
    Cochlear Duct 15:11 
    Tympanic Duct 15:20 
    Basilar Membrane 16:30 
    Tectorial Membrane 17:02 
    Hair Cells 17:17 
    Nerve Fibers 20:54 
   How Sounds Are Heard 21:30 
    Sound Waves Hit the Tympanum 22:10 
    Auditory Ossicles are Vibrated 22:23 
    Stapes Vibrates Oval Window 22:31 
    Basilar Membrane is Vibrated in Turn 22:35 
    Hair Cells are Moved with Respect to Tectorial Membrane 22:46 
    Cochlear Nerve Fibers Take Signals to Temporal Lobes 23:24 
   Frequency and Decibels 23:30 
    Frequency Deals with Pitch 23:36 
    Decibels Deal with Loudness 25:30 
   Vestibule 27:54 
    Contains the Utricle and Saccule 28:22 
    Maculae 29:29 
   Semicircular Canals 31:05 
    3 Semicircular Canals = 3 Dimensions 31:12 
    Movement Gives a Sense of How Your Head is Rotating in 3 Dimensions 31:28 
    Each Contains an Ampulla 31:49 
   Hearing Conditions / Disorders 33:20 
    Conductive Deafness 33:24 
    Tinnitus 34:05 
    Otitis Media 34:51 
    Motion Sickness 35:19 
    Ear Infections 36:31 
  Smell, Taste & Touch 36:41
   Intro 0:00 
   Nasal Anatomy 0:05 
    The Nose 0:11 
    Nasal Cavity 0:58 
   Olfaction 3:27 
    Sense of Smell 3:28 
    Olfactory Epithelium 4:58 
   Olfactory Receptors 7:23 
    Respond to Odorant Molecules 7:24 
    Lots of Turnover of Olfactory Receptor Cells 8:25 
    Smells Noticed in Small Concentrations 9:07 
   Anatomy of Taste 12:41 
    Tongue 12:45 
    Pharynx / Larynx 14:11 
    Salivary Glands 14:31 
   Papilla Structure 16:56 
    Gustatory Cells 17:39 
    Taste Hairs 18:04 
    Transitional Cells 18:28 
    Basal Cells 18:33 
    Nerve Fibers 18:48 
   Taste Sensations 19:06 
    Sweet 19:49 
    Salty 20:16 
    Bitter 20:28 
    Sour 20:46 
    Umami 20:31 
    Water 22:07 
    PTC 23:11 
   Touch 25:00 
    Nociceptors 25:08 
    Mechanoreceptors 25:14 
   Nociceptors 26:30 
    Sensitive To… 26:41 
    Fast vs. Slow Pain 28:12 
   Mechanoreceptors 31:15 
    Tactile Receptors 31:21 
    Baroreceptors 35:20 
    Proprioceptors 36:07 
  The Heart 45:20
   Intro 0:00 
   Heart Anatomy 0:04 
    Pericardium 0:11 
    Epicardium 1:09 
    Myocardium 1:24 
    Endocardium 1:49 
    Atria and Ventricles 2:18 
    Coronary Arteries 3:25 
    Arteries / Veins 4:14 
    Fat 4:31 
   Sequence of Blood Flow #1 5:06 
    Vena Cava 5:24 
    Right Atrium 6:18 
    Tricuspid Valve 6:26 
    Right Ventricle 6:49 
    Pulmonary Valve 7:14 
    Pulmonary Arteries 7:35 
   Sequence of Blood Flow #2 8:22 
    Lungs 8:24 
    Pulmonary Veins 8:26 
    Left Atrium 8:36 
    Left Ventricle 9:00 
    Bicuspid Valve 9:08 
    Aortic Valve 10:15 
    Aorta 10:23 
    Body 11:20 
   Simplified Blood Flow Diagram 11:44 
   Heart Beats and Valves 16:09 
    'Lubb-Dubb' 16:19 
    Atrioventricular (AV) Valves 16:47 
    Semilunar Valves 17:04 
   Systole and Diastole 19:09 
    Systole 19:14 
    Diastole 19:23 
    Valves Respond to Pressure Changes 20:29 
    Cardiac Output 21:36 
   Cardiac Cycle 22:59 
   Cardiac Conduction System 24:52 
    Sinoatrial (SA) Node 25:44 
    Atrioventricular (AV) Node 27:12 
   Electrocardiogram (EKG or ECG) 28:46 
    P Wave 29:10 
    QRS Complex 30:14 
    T Wave 31:23 
    Arrhythmias 32:14 
   Heart Conditions / Treatments 35:12 
    Myocardial Infarction (MI) 35:14 
    Angina Pectoris 36:23 
    Pericarditis 38:07 
    Coronary Artery Disease 38:26 
    Angioplasty 38:47 
    Coronary Artery Bypass Graft 39:53 
    Tachycardia / Bradycardia 40:51 
    Fibrillation 41:54 
    Heart Murmur 43:22 
    Mitral Valve Prolapse 44:53 
  Blood Vessels 39:58
   Intro 0:00 
   Types of Blood Vessels 0:05 
    Arteries 0:09 
    Arterioles 0:19 
    Capillaries 0:38 
    Venules 0:55 
    Veins 1:16 
   Vessel Structure 1:21 
    Tunica Externa 1:39 
    Tunica Media 2:29 
    Tunica Interna 3:18 
   Differences Between Arteries and Veins 4:22 
    Artery Walls are Thicker 4:34 
    Veins Have Valves 6:07 
    From Artery to Capillary 6:38 
    From Capillary to Vein 9:39 
   Capillary Bed 11:11 
    Between Arterioles and Venules 11:23 
    Precapillary Sphincters 11:30 
   Distribution of Blood 12:17 
    Systematic Venous System 12:36 
    Systematic Arterial System 13:23 
    Pulmonary Circuit 13:36 
    Heart 13:46 
    Systematic Capillaries 13:53 
   Blood Pressure 14:35 
    Cardiac Output 15:07 
    Peripheral Resistance 15:24 
    Systolic / Diastolic 16:37 
   Return of Blood Through Veins 20:37 
    Valves 21:00 
    Skeletal Muscle Contractions 21:30 
   Regulation of Blood Vessels 22:50 
    Baroreceptor Reflexes 22:57 
    Antidiuretic Hormone 23:31 
    Angiotensin II 24:40 
    Erythropoietin 24:57 
   Arteries / Vein Examples 26:54 
    Aorta 26:59 
    Carotid 27:13 
    Brachial 27:23 
    Femoral 27:27 
    Vena Cava 27:38 
    Jugular 27:48 
    Brachial 28:04 
    Femoral 28:09 
    Hepatic Veins 29:03 
   Pulse Sounds 29:19 
    Carotid 29:27 
    Radial 29:53 
    Femoral 30:39 
    Popliteal 30:47 
    Temporal 30:52 
    Dorsalis Pedis 31:10 
   Blood Vessel Conditions / Disorders 31:29 
    Hyper / Hypotension 31:33 
    Arteriosclerosis 33:05 
    Atherosclerosis 33:35 
    Edema 33:58 
    Aneurysm 33:34 
    Hemorrhage 35:38 
    Thrombus 35:50 
    Pulmonary Embolism 36:44 
    Varicose Veins 36:54 
    Hemorrhoids 37:46 
    Angiogenesis 39:06 
  Blood 41:25
   Intro 0:00 
   Blood Functions 0:04 
    Transport Nutrients, Gases, Wastes, Hormones 0:09 
    Regulate pH 0:30 
    Restrict Fluid Loss During Injury 1:02 
    Defend Against Pathogens and Toxins 1:12 
    Regulate Body Temperature 1:21 
   Blood Components 1:59 
    Erythrocytes 2:34 
    Thrombocytes 2:50 
    Leukocytes 3:07 
    Plasma 3:17 
   Blood Cell Formation 6:55 
   Red Blood Cells 8:16 
    Shaped Like Biconcave Discs 8:25 
    Enucleated 9:08 
    Hemoglobin is the Main Protein at Work 10:03 
    Oxyhemoglobin vs. Deoxyhemoglobin 10:32 
   Breakdown and Renewal of RBCs 12:03 
    RBCs are Engulfed and Rupture 12:15 
    Hemoglobin is Broken Down 12:23 
    Erythropoiesis Makes New RBCs 14:38 
   Blood Transfusions #1 15:02 
    A Blood 15:29 
    B Blood 17:28 
    AB Blood 19:27 
    O Blood 20:53 
    Rh Factor 21:54 
   Blood Transfusions #2 24:31 
   White Blood Cells 25:33 
    Can Migrate Out of Blood Stream 25:46 
    Amoeboid Movement 26:06 
    Most Do Phagocytosis 26:57 
   Granulocytes 27:25 
    Neutrophils 27:44 
    Eosinophils 28:11 
    Basophils 29:20 
   Agranulocytes 29:37 
    Monocytes 29:49 
    Lymphocytes 30:30 
   Platelets 32:42 
    Release Chemicals to Help Clots Occur 33:04 
    Temporary Patch on Walls of Damaged Vessels 33:11 
    Contraction to Reduce Clot Size 33:22 
   Hemostasis 33:40 
    Vascular Phase 33:53 
    Platelet Phase 34:30 
    Coagulation Phase 35:15 
    Fibrinolysis 36:12 
   Blood Conditions / Disorders 36:29 
    Hemorrhage 36:41 
    Thrombus 36:48 
    Embolism 36:59 
    Anemia 37:14 
    Sickle Cell Disease 38:04 
    Hemophilia 39:19 
    Leukemia 40:47 
  Respiratory System 1:02:59
   Intro 0:00 
   Functions of the Respiratory System 0:05 
    Moves Air In and Out of Body 0:37 
    Protects the Body from Dehydration 0:50 
    Produce Sounds 2:00 
   Upper Respiratory Tract #1 2:15 
    External Nares 2:34 
    Vestibule 2:42 
    Nasal Septum 3:02 
    Nasal Conchae 4:06 
   Upper Respiratory Tract #2 4:43 
    Nasal Mucosa 4:53 
    Pharynx 6:01 
   Larynx 8:34 
    Epiglottis 8:48 
    Glottis 9:03 
    Cartilage 9:27 
    Hyoid Bone 12:09 
    Ligaments 13:04 
    Vocal Cords 13:15 
   Sound Production 13:41 
    Air Passing Through the Glottis Vibrates the Vocal Folds 13:43 
    Males Have Longer Cords 15:32 
    Speech =Phonation + Articulation 15:41 
   Trachea 16:42 
    'Windpipe' 17:42 
    Respiratory Epithelium 18:45 
   Bronchi and Bronchioles 20:56 
    Primary - Secondary - Tertiary 21:41 
    Smooth Muscles 22:29 
    Bronchioles 22:46 
    Bronchodilation vs. Bronchoconstriction 23:42 
   Alveoli 24:30 
    Air Sacks Within the Lungs 24:39 
    Alveolar Bundle is Surrounded by a Capillary Network 27:24 
    Surfactant 28:47 
   Lungs 30:40 
    Lobes 30:48 
    Right Lung is Broader; Left Lung is Longer 31:35 
    Spongy Appearance 32:11 
    Surrounded by Membrane 32:28 
   Pleura 32:52 
    Parietal Pleura 32:59 
    Visceral Pleura 33:38 
   Breathing Mechanism 35:27 
    Diaphragm 35:32 
    Intercostal Muscles 38:21 
    Diaphragmatic vs. Costal Breathing 39:10 
    Forced Breathing 39:44 
   Respiratory Volumes 41:33 
   Partial Pressures of Gases 46:02 
    Major Atmospheric Gases 46:14 
    Diffusion 47:00 
    Oxygen Moves Out of Alveoli and Carbon Dioxide Moves In 48:37 
   Respiratory Conditions / Disorders 51:21 
    Asthma 51:25 
    Emphysema 52:57 
    Lung Cancer 53:45 
    Laryngitis / Bronchitis 54:25 
    Cystic Fibrosis 55:38 
    Decompression Sickness 56:29 
    Tuberculosis 57:31 
    SIDS 59:10 
    Pneumonia 60:00 
    Pneumothorax 61:07 
    Carbon Monoxide Poisoning 61:21 
  Digestive System 59:28
   Intro 0:00 
   Functions of the Digestive System 0:05 
    Ingestion 0:09 
    Mechanical Breakdown 0:15 
    Digestion 0:33 
    Secretion 0:59 
    Absorption 1:22 
    Excretion 1:33 
   Alimentary Canal (GI Tract) 1:38 
    Mouth 2:13 
    Pharynx 2:18 
    Esophagus 2:20 
    Stomach 2:29 
    Small Intestine 2:33 
    Large Intestine 2:41 
    Rectum 2:49 
    Anus 2:51 
   Oral Cavity (Mouth) 2:53 
    Salivary Glands 2:58 
    Saliva 3:59 
    Tongue 5:04 
    Teeth 5:28 
    Hard Palate / Soft Palate 5:42 
   Teeth 6:19 
    Deciduous Teeth 9:27 
    Adult Teeth 9:56 
    Incisors 10:14 
    Cuspids 10:42 
    Bicuspids 11:07 
    Molars 11:27 
   Swallowing 14:06 
    Tongue 14:19 
    Pharyngeal Muscles 14:57 
    Soft Palate 15:05 
    Epiglottis 15:23 
   Esophagus 16:41 
    Moves Food Into the Stomach Through 'Peristalsis' 16:54 
    Mucosa 18:28 
    Submucosa 18:30 
    Muscular Layers 18:54 
   Stomach #1 19:58 
    Food Storage, Mechanical / Chemical Breakdown, and Emptying of Chyme 20:42 
    4 Layers: Mucosa, Submuscoa, Muscular Layers, Serosa 21:27 
    4 Regions: Cardia, Fundus, Body, Pylorus 22:51 
   Stomach #2 24:43 
    Rugae 25:20 
    Gastric Pits 25:54 
    Gastric Glands 26:04 
    Gastric Juice 26:24 
    Gastrin, Ghrelin 28:18 
   Small Intestine 29:07 
    Digestion and Absorption 29:09 
    Duodenum, Jejunum, Ileum 29:46 
    Peristalsis 29:57 
    Intestinal Villi 30:22 
   Vermiform Appendix 32:53 
    Vestigial Structure! 33:40 
    Appendicitis / Appendectomy 35:40 
   Large Intestine 36:04 
    Reabsorption of Water and Formation of Solid Feces 36:20 
    Ascending Colon 37:10 
    Transverse Colon 37:16 
    Descending Colon 37:22 
    Sigmoid Colon 37:36 
   Rectum and Anus 37:48 
    Rectum 37:51 
    Anus 38:38 
    Hemorrhoids 39:24 
   Accessory Organs 41:13 
    Liver 41:26 
    Gall Bladder 41:28 
    Pancreas 41:30 
   Liver 41:40 
    Metabolism 43:21 
    Glycogen Storage 43:34 
    Waste Product Removal 44:42 
    Bile Production 44:50 
    Vitamin Storage 45:04 
    Breakdown of Drugs 45:25 
    Phagocytosis, Antigen Presentation 46:24 
    Synthesis of Plasma Proteins 47:05 
    Removal of Hormones 47:19 
    Removal of Antibodies 47:31 
    Removal of RBCs 48:07 
    Removal / Storage of Toxins 48:21 
   Gall Bladder 48:50 
    Stores Bile Made by Liver 48:53 
    Common Hepatic Duct 49:24 
    Common Bile Duct Connects to the Duodenum 49:31 
   Pancreas 51:28 
    Pinkish-Gray Organ 51:45 
    Produces Digestive Enzymes and Buffers 52:05 
   Digestive Conditions / Disorders 52:50 
    Gastritis 52:54 
    Ulcers 53:03 
    Gallstones 54:09 
    Cholera 54:51 
    Hepatitis 55:14 
    Jaundice 55:31 
    Cirrhosis 56:34 
    Constipation 56:52 
    Diarrhea 57:23 
    Lactose Intolerance 57:37 
    Gingivitis 58:24 
  Metabolism & Nutrition 1:17:02
   Intro 0:00 
   Metabolism Basics 0:06 
    Metabolism 0:10 
    Catabolism 0:58 
    Anabolism 1:12 
   Nutrients 2:45 
    Carbohydrates 2:57 
    Lipids 3:01 
    Proteins 3:04 
    Nucleic Acids 3:23 
    Vitamins 3:54 
    Minerals 4:32 
   Carbohydrate Structure 5:13 
    Basic Sugar Structure 5:42 
    Monosaccharides 7:48 
    Disaccharides 7:54 
    Glycosidic Linkages 8:07 
    Polysaccharides 9:17 
    Dehydration Synthesis vs. Hydrolysis 10:27 
    Water Soluble 10:55 
    Energy Source 11:18 
   Aerobic Respiration 11:39 
    Glycolysis 13:25 
    Krebs Cycle 13:34 
    Oxidative Phosphorylation 13:44 
   ATP Structure and Function 14:08 
    Adenosine Triphosphate 14:11 
    ATP is Broken Down Into ADP + P 16:26 
    ADP + P are Put Together to Make ATP 16:39 
   Glycolysis 17:18 
    Breakdown of Sugar Into Pyruvate 17:42 
    Occurs in the Cytoplasm 17:55 
    Phase I 18:13 
    Phase II 19:01 
    Phase III 20:27 
   Krebs Cycle 21:54 
    Citric Acid Cycle 21:57 
    Pyruvates Modify Into 'acetyl-CoA' 22:23 
   Oxidative Phosphorylation 29:36 
   Anaerobic Respiration 34:33 
    Lactic Acid Fermentation 34:52 
    Produces Only the ATP From Glycolysis 36:05 
   Gluconeogenesis 37:36 
    Glycogenesis 39:16 
    Glycogenolysis 39:27 
   Lipid Structure and Function 39:58 
    Fats 40:00 
    Non-Polar 41:42 
    Energy Source, Insulation, Hormone Synthesis 42:02 
   Saturated vs. Unsaturated Fats 43:18 
    Saturated Fats 43:22 
    Unsaturated Fats 44:30 
   Lipid Catabolism 46:11 
    Lipolysis 46:17 
    Beta-Oxidation 46:56 
   Lipid Synthesis 48:17 
    Lipogenesis 48:21 
    Lipoproteins 48:51 
   Protein Structure and Function 51:48 
    Made of Amino Acids 51:59 
    Water-Soluble 52:23 
    Support 53:03 
    Movement 53:23 
    Transport 53:34 
    Buffering 53:49 
    Enzymatic Action 54:01 
    Hormone Synthesis 54:13 
    Defense 54:24 
   Amino Acids 54:56 
    20 Different 'R Groups' 54:59 
    Essential Amino Acids 55:19 
   Protein Structure 56:54 
    Primary Structure 56:59 
    Secondary Structure 57:29 
    Tertiary Structure 58:28 
    Quaternary Structure 59:20 
   Vitamins 59:40 
    Fat-Soluble 61:46 
    Water-Soluble 62:15 
   Minerals 64:01 
    Functions 64:14 
    Examples 64:51 
   Balanced Diet 65:39 
    Grains 65:52 
    Vegetables and Fruits 66:00 
    Dairy 66:36 
    Meat/ Beans 66:54 
    Oils 67:52 
   Nutrition Facts 68:44 
    Serving Size 68:55 
    Calories 69:50 
    Fat-Soluble 70:45 
    Cholesterol 73:04 
    Sodium 73:58 
    Carbohydrates 74:26 
    Protein 76:01 
  Endocrine System 44:37
   Intro 0:00 
   Hormone Basics 0:05 
    Hormones 0:38 
    Classes of Hormones 2:22 
   Negative vs. Positive Feedback 3:22 
    Negative Feedback 3:25 
    Positive Feedback 5:16 
   Hypothalamus 6:20 
    Secretes Regulatory Hormones 7:18 
    Produces ADH and Oxycotin 7:44 
    Controls Endocrine Action of Adrenal Glands 7:57 
   Anterior Pituitary Gland 8:27 
    Prolactin 9:16 
    Corticotropin 9:39 
    Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone 9:47 
    Gonadotropins 9:52 
    Growth Hormone 11:04 
   Posterior Pituitary Gland 12:29 
    Antidiuretic Hormone 12:38 
    Oxytocin 13:37 
   Thyroid Gland Anatomy 15:16 
    Two Lobes United by an Isthmus 15:44 
    Contains Follicles 16:04 
   Thyroid Gland Physiology 16:50 
    Thyroxine 17:04 
    Triiodothyroine 17:36 
   Parathyroid Anatomy / Physiology 18:52 
    Secrete Parathyroid Hormone (PTH) 19:13 
   Adrenal Gland Anatomy 20:09 
    Contains Cortex and Medulla 21:00 
   Adrenal Cortex Physiology 21:40 
    Aldosterone 22:12 
    Glucocorticoids 22:35 
    Androgens 23:18 
   Adrenal Medulla Physiology 23:53 
    Epinephrine 24:06 
    Norepinephrine 24:12 
    Fight or Flight 24:22 
    Contribute to… 24:32 
   Kidney Hormones 26:11 
    Calcitriol 26:20 
    Erythropoietin 27:00 
    Renin 27:45 
   Pancreas Anatomy 28:18 
    Exocrine Pancreas 29:07 
    Endocrine Pancreas 29:22 
   Pancreas Physiology 29:50 
    Glucagon 29:57 
    Insulin 30:54 
    Somatostatin 31:50 
   Pineal Gland Anatomy / Physiology 32:10 
    Contains Pinealocytes 32:33 
    Produces Melatonin 32:59 
   Thymus Anatomy / Physiology 34:17 
    Max Size Before Puberty 34:49 
    Secrete Thymosins 35:18 
   Gonad Hormones 35:45 
    Testes 35:51 
    Ovaries 36:20 
   Endocrine Conditions / Disorders 37:28 
    Diabetes Type I and II 37:32 
    Diabetes Type Insipidus 39:25 
    Hyper / Hypoglycemia 40:01 
    Addison Disease 40:28 
    Hyper / Hypothyroidism 41:00 
    Cretinism 41:30 
    Goiter 41:59 
    Pituitary Gigantism / Dwarfism 42:39 
    IDD Iodized Salt 43:30 
  Urinary System 35:08
   Intro 0:00 
   Functions of the Urinary System 0:05 
    Removes Metabolic Waste 0:14 
    Regulates Blood Volume and Blood Pressure 0:31 
    Regulates Plasma Concentrations 0:49 
    Stabilize Blood pH 1:04 
    Conserves Nutrients 1:42 
   Organs / Tissues of the Urinary System 1:51 
    Kidneys 1:58 
    Ureters 2:17 
    Urinary Bladder 2:25 
    Urethra 2:34 
   Kidney Anatomy 2:47 
    Renal Cortex 4:21 
    Renal Medulla 4:41 
    Renal Pyramid 5:00 
    Major / Minor Calyx 5:36 
    Renal Pelvis 6:07 
    Hilum 6:18 
   Blood Flow to Kidneys 6:41 
    Receive Through Renal Arteries 7:11 
    Leaves Through Renal Veins 9:08 
    Regulated by Renal Nerves 9:21 
   Nephrons 9:27 
    Glomerulus 10:21 
    Bowman's Capsule 10:42 
    Proximal Convoluted Tubule (PCT) 11:31 
    Loop of Henle 11:42 
    Distal Convoluted Tubule (DCT) 12:01 
   Glomerular Filtration 12:40 
    Glomerular Capillaries are Fenestrated 12:47 
    Blood Pressure Forces Water Into the Capsular Space 13:47 
    Important Nutrients 13:57 
   Proximal Convoluted Tubule (PCT) 14:25 
    Lining is Simple Cubodial Epithelium with Microvilli 14:47 
    Reabsorption of Nutrients, Ions, Water and Plasma 15:26 
   Loop of Henle 16:28 
    Pumps Out Sodium and Chloride Ions 17:09 
    Concentrate Tubular Fluid 17:20 
   Distal Convoluted Tubule (DCT) 17:28 
    Differs From the PCT 17:39 
    Three Basic Processes 17:59 
   Collecting System 18:35 
    Final Filtration, Secretion, and Reabsorption 18:52 
    Concentrated Urine Passes through the Collecting Duct 19:04 
    Fluid Empties Into Minor Calyx 19:20 
    Major Calyx Leads to Renal Pelvis 19:26 
   Summary of Urine Formation 19:35 
    Filtration 19:40 
    Reabsorption 20:04 
    Secretion 20:35 
   Urine 21:15 
    Urea 21:31 
    Creatinine 21:55 
    Uric Acid 22:09 
    Urobilin 22:23 
    It's Sterile! 23:43 
   Ureters 24:55 
    Connects Kidneys to Urinary Bladder 25:00 
    Three Tissue Layers 25:17 
    Peristalsis 25:38 
   Urinary Bladder 26:08 
    Temporary Reservoir for Urine 26:12 
    Rugae 26:44 
    Trigone 26:59 
    Internal Urethral Sphincter 27:10 
   Urethra 27:48 
    Longer in Males than Females 28:00 
    External Urethral Sphincter 28:46 
    Micturition 29:14 
   Urinary Conditions / Disorders 29:47 
    Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) 29:50 
    Kidney Stones (Renal Calculi) 30:26 
    Kidney Dialysis 31:47 
    Glomerulonephritis 33:29 
    Incontinence 34:25 
  Lymphatic System 44:23
   Intro 0:00 
   Lymphatic Functions 0:05 
    Production, Maintenance, and Distribution of Lymphocytes 0:08 
    Lymphoid System / Immune System 1:26 
   Lymph Network 1:34 
    Lymph 1:40 
    Lymphatic Vessels 2:26 
    Lymph Nodes 2:37 
    Lymphoid Organs 2:54 
    Lymphocytes 3:11 
    Nonspecific Defenses 3:25 
    Specific Defenses 3:47 
   Lymphatic Vessels 4:06 
    Larger Lymphatic Vessels 4:40 
    Lymphatic Capillaries 5:17 
    Differ From Blood Capillaries 5:47 
   Lymph Nodes 6:51 
    Concentrated in Neck, Armpits, and Groin 7:05 
    Functions Like a Kitchen Water Filter 7:52 
   Thymus 8:58 
    Contains Lobules with a Cortex and Medulla 9:18 
    Promote Maturation of Lymphocytes 10:36 
   Spleen 10:43 
    Pulp 12:04 
    Red Pulp 12:19 
    White Pulp 12:25 
   Nonspecific Defenses 13:00 
    Physical Barriers 13:18 
    Phagocyte Cells 14:17 
    Immunological Surveillance 14:55 
    Interferons 16:05 
    Inflammation 16:37 
    Fever 17:07 
   Specific Defenses 18:16 
    Immunity 18:31 
    Innate Immunity 18:41 
    Acquired Immunity 19:04 
   T Cells 23:58 
    Cytotoxic T Cells 24:14 
    Helper T Cells 24:52 
    Suppressor T Cells 25:09 
    Activate T Cells 25:40 
    Major Histocompatibility Complex Proteins (MHC) 26:37 
   Antigen Presentation 27:58 
   B Cells 29:44 
    Responsible for Antibody-Mediated Immunity 29:50 
    Memory B Cells 30:44 
   Antibody Structure 32:46 
    Five Types of Constant Segments 33:45 
    Primary vs. Secondary Response 34:51 
   Immune Conditions / Disorders 35:35 
    Allergy 35:38 
    Anaphylactic Shock 37:17 
    Autoimmune Disease 38:34 
    HIV / AIDS 39:06 
    Cancer 40:51 
    Lymphomas 42:02 
    Lymphedema 42:21 
    Graft Rejection 42:48 
    Tonsillitis 43:23 
  Female Reproductive System 47:19
   Intro 0:00 
   External Genitalia 0:05 
    Mons Pubis 0:12 
    Vulva 0:29 
    Vagina 0:51 
    Clitoris 1:23 
    Prepuce 2:10 
    Labia Minora 2:29 
    Labia Majora 2:35 
    Urethra 3:09 
    Vestibular Glands 3:30 
   Internal Reproductive Organs 3:47 
    Vagina 3:51 
    Uterus 3:57 
    Fallopian Tubes 4:13 
    Ovaries 4:19 
   Vagina 4:28 
    Passageway for Elimination of Menstrual Fluids 5:13 
    Receives Penis During Sexual Intercourse 5:31 
    Forms the Inferior Portion of the Birth Canal 5:34 
    Hymen 5:42 
   Uterus 7:21 
    Provides Protection, Nutritional Support, and Waste Removal for Embryo 7:25 
    Anteflexion 8:30 
    Anchored by Ligaments 9:18 
    Uterine Regions 9:57 
    Perimetrium 10:56 
    Myometrium 11:19 
    Endometrium 11:44 
   Fallopian Tubes 13:03 
    Oviducts / Uterine Tubes 13:04 
    Infundibulum 13:49 
    Ampulla 15:07 
    Isthmus 15:12 
    Peristalsis 15:21 
   Ovaries 16:06 
    Produce Female Gametes 16:37 
    Secrete Sex Hormones 16:47 
    Ligaments, Artery / Vein 17:18 
    Mesovarium 17:45 
   Oogenesis Explanation 17:59 
    Ovum Production 18:08 
    Oogonia Undergo Mitosis 18:44 
   Oogenesis Picture 22:22 
   Ovarian / Menstrual Cycle 25:48 
   Menstruation 33:05 
    Thickened Endometrial Lining Sheds 33:08 
    1-7 Days 33:37 
   Ovarian Cycle 33:48 
    Formation of Primary Follicles 34:20 
    Formation of Secondary Follicles 34:28 
    Formation of Tertiary Follicles 34:30 
    Ovulation 34:37 
    Formation / Degeneration of Corpus Luteum 34:52 
   Menarche and Menopause 35:28 
    Menarche 35:30 
    Menopause 36:24 
   Mammaries 38:16 
    Breast Tissue 38:18 
    Mammary Gland 39:19 
   Female Reproductive Conditions / Disorders 41:32 
    Amenorrhea 41:35 
    Dysmenorrhea 42:29 
    Endometriosis 42:40 
    STDs 43:11 
    Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) 43:37 
    Premature Menopause 43:55 
    Ovarian, Cervical, Breast Cancers 44:20 
    Hysterectomy 45:37 
    Tubal Ligation 46:12 
  Male Reproductive System 36:35
   Intro 0:00 
   External Genitalia 0:06 
    Penis 0:09 
    Corpora Cavernosa 3:10 
    Corpus Spongiosum 3:57 
    Scrotum 4:15 
    Testes 4:21 
   Gubernaculum Testis 4:54 
    Contracts in Male Babies 5:34 
    Cryptorchidism 5:50 
   Inside the Scrotal Sac 7:01 
    Scrotum 7:08 
    Cremaster Muscle 7:54 
    Epididymis 8:43 
   Testis Anatomy 9:50 
    Lobules 10:03 
    Septa 11:35 
    Efferent Ductule 11:39 
    Epididymis 11:50 
    Vas Deferens 11:53 
   Spermatogenesis 12:02 
    Mitosis 12:14 
    Meiosis 12:37 
    Spermiogenesis 12:48 
   Sperm Anatomy 15:14 
    Head 15:19 
    Centrioles 17:01 
    Mitochondria 17:37 
    Flagellum 18:29 
   The Path of Sperm 18:50 
    Testis 18:58 
    Epididymis 19:05 
    Vas Deferens 19:16 
    Accessory Glands 19:57 
    Urethra 21:33 
   Vas Deferens 21:45 
    Takes Sperm from Epididymides to the Ejaculatory Duct 21:53 
    Peristalsis 22:35 
   Seminal Vesicles 23:45 
    Fructose 24:25 
    Prostaglandins 24:51 
    Fibrinogen 25:13 
    Alkaline Secretions 25:45 
   Prostate Gland 26:12 
    Secretes Fluid and Smooth Muscles 26:49 
    Produces Prostatic Fluid 27:02 
   Bulbo-Urethral Gland 27:43 
    Cowper Glands 27:48 
    Secretes a Thick, Alkaline Mucus 28:13 
   Semen 28:45 
    Typical Ejaculation Releases 2-5mL 28:48 
    Contains Spermatozoa, Seminal Fluid, Enzymes 28:58 
   Male Reproductive Conditions / Disorders 29:59 
    Impotence 30:02 
    Low Sperm Count 30:24 
    Erectile Dysfunction 31:36 
    Priapism 32:11 
    Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy 32:58 
    Prostatectomy 33:39 
    Prostate Cancer 33:59 
    STDs 34:30 
    Orchiectomy 34:47 
    Vasectomy 35:10 
  Embryological & Fetal Development 49:15
   Intro 0:00 
   Development Overview 0:05 
    Fertilization 0:13 
    Embryological Development 0:23 
    Fetal Development 1:14 
    Postnatal Development 1:25 
    Maturity 1:36 
   Fertilization Overview 1:39 
    23 Chromosomes 2:23 
    Occurs a Day After Ovulation 3:44 
    Forms a Zygote 4:16 
   Oocyte Activation 4:33 
    Block of Polyspermy 4:51 
    Completion of Meiosis II 6:05 
    Activation of Enzymes That Increase Metabolism 6:26 
    Only Nucleus of Sperm Moves Into Oocyte Center 7:04 
   Cleavage 8:14 
    Day 0 8:25 
    Day 1 8:35 
    Day 2 9:10 
    Day 3 9:12 
    Day 4 9:21 
    Day 6 9:29 
   Implantation 11:03 
    Day 8 11:10 
    Initial Implantation 11:15 
    Lacunae 11:27 
    Fingerlike Villi 11:38 
   Gastrulation 12:39 
    Day 12 12:48 
    Ectoderm 14:06 
    Mesoderm 14:17 
    Endoderm 14:44 
   Extraembryonic Membranes 16:17 
    Yolk Sac 16:28 
    Amnion 17:28 
    Allantois 18:05 
    Chorion 18:27 
   Placenta 19:28 
    Week 5 19:50 
    Decidua Basalis 20:08 
    Cavity 21:20 
    Umbilical Cord 22:20 
   Week 4 Embryo 23:01 
    Forebrain 23:35 
    Eye 23:46 
    Heart 23:54 
    Pharyngeal Arches 24:02 
    Arm and Leg Buds 24:53 
    Tail 25:56 
   Week 8 Embryo 26:33 
   Week 12 Fetus 27:36 
   Ultrasound 28:26 
    Image of the Fetus 28:28 
    Sex Can Be Detected 28:54 
   Week 40 Fetus 29:46 
   Labor 31:10 
    False Labor 31:16 
    True Labor 31:38 
    Dilation 32:02 
    Expulsion 33:21 
    Delivery 33:49 
   Delivery Problems 33:57 
    Episiotomy 34:02 
    Breech Birth 34:39 
    Caesarian Section 35:41 
    Premature Delivery 36:12 
    Conjoined Twins 37:34 
   Embryological Conditions / Disorders 40:00 
    Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasia 40:07 
    Miscarriage 41:04 
    Induced Abortions 41:37 
    Ectopic Pregnancy 41:47 
    In Vitro Fertilization 43:03 
    Amniocentesis 44:01 
    Birth Defects 45:15 
  Alcohol: Effects & Dangers 27:47
   Intro 0:00 
   Ethanol 0:06 
    Made from Alcohol Fermentation 0:20 
    Human Liver Can Break Down Ethyl Alcohol 1:40 
    Other Alcohols 3:06 
   Ethanol Metabolism 3:33 
    Alcohol Dehydrogenase Converts Ethanol to Acetaldehyde 3:38 
    Acetaldehyde is Converted to Acetate 4:01 
    Factors Affecting the Pace 4:24 
    Sex and Sex Hormones 4:33 
    Body Mass 5:30 
    Medications 5:59 
   Types of Alcoholic Beverages 6:07 
    Hard Alcohol 6:14 
    Wine 6:51 
    Beer 6:56 
    Mixed Drinks 8:17 
   Alcohol's Immediate Effects 8:55 
    Depressant 9:12 
    Blood Alcohol Concentration 9:31 
    100 mg/ dL = 0.1% 10:19 
    0.05 10:48 
    0.1 11:29 
    0.2 11:56 
    0.3 12:52 
   Alcohol's Effects on Organs 13:45 
    Brain 13:59 
    Heart 14:09 
    Stomach 14:20 
    Liver 14:31 
    Reproductive System 14:37 
   Misconceptions on Alcohol Intoxication 14:54 
    Cannot Speed Up the Liver's Breakdown of Alcohol 14:57 
    Passing Out 16:27 
    Binge Drinking 17:50 
   Hangovers 18:40 
    Alcohol Tolerance 18:51 
    Acetaldehyde 19:10 
    Dehydration 19:40 
    Congeners 20:34 
    Ethanol is Still in Bloodstream 21:26 
   Alarming Statistics 22:26 
    Alcoholism Affects 10+ Million People in U.S. Alone 22:33 
    Society's Most Expensive Health Problem 22:40 
    Affects All Physiological Tissues 22:15 
    Women Drinking While Pregnant 23:57 
    Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) 24:06 
    Genetics 24:26 
   Health Problems Related to Alcohol 24:57 
    Alcohol Abuse 25:01 
    Alcohol Poisoning 25:20 
    Alcoholism 26:14 
    Fatty Liver 26:46 
    Cirrhosis 27:13 

Duration: 19 hours, 1 minutes

Number of Lessons: 27

This Anatomy & Physiology course is perfect for both high school and college students, and is more in-depth than standard introductory courses. Professor Cardella brings his years of experience teaching students and standup comedy experience to making learning easy and even entertaining.

Additional Features:

  • Free Sample Lessons
  • Closed Captioning (CC)
  • Downloadable Lecture Slides
  • Study Guides
  • Instructor Comments

Topics Include:

  • Tissues
  • Skeletal System
  • Nervous System
  • 5 Senses
  • Blood
  • Digestive System
  • Urinary System
  • Reproductive System
  • Fetal Development
  • Alcohol: Effects & Dangers

Professor Cardella brings both extensive knowledge and engaging delivery with his 10+ years teaching high school life sciences and stand-up comedy experience.

Student Testimonials:

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