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British Reorganization After the French and Indian War and Colonial Protest

  • As Britain’s debt soared, higher import duties were imposed at home on tobacco & sugar & excise levies (a kind of sales tax) increased along with the size of the bureaucracy that was needed to collect taxes & the smugglers were arrested & cargo was seized
  • After living under a policy of salutary neglect, Americans felt that the new British policies were discriminatory & challenged the existing constitutional practices & understandings
  • Patriots (politicians and colonists) protest and the crowd rebels & creates an ideology of resistance based on Enlightenment ideas, moderate & radical approaches, & the Whig political tradition.
  • Stamp Act Congress of 1765: when 9 colonies sent delegates & issued a set of Resolves challenging the acts’ constitutionality & they declared colonists’ rights and liberties (like trial by jury) were being abused via taxation without representation. Most delegates were moderate.
  • The Sons of Liberty, an underground revolutionary movement, was created & they intimidated royal officials.

British Reorganization After the French and Indian War and Colonial Protest

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  • Intro 0:00
  • Overview 0:10
  • British Shift in Policy Toward Colonists 1:00
    • Higher Import Duties
    • Discriminatory British Policies
  • British Expenditures and Revenue 4:04
  • British Law and Imperial Reform 4:57
    • The Supremacy of Parliamentary Laws
    • Second-Class Subjects
    • Currency Act
  • The Sugar Act 6:46
    • Navigation Act Loophole
    • Vice-Admiralty Court
  • The Stamp Act and Quartering Act Passed 8:28
    • Stamp Act
    • First Direct Tax
    • Quartering Act
  • Declaratory Act 10:33
  • Colonists Begin to Rebel 11:21
    • Virtual Representation
    • Patriots
    • Enlightenment Ideas
  • The Colonial Response 15:06
    • James Otis of MA
    • Stamp Act Congress
    • The Sons of Liberty
  • The Bostonians Paying the Exciseman or Tarring and Feathering 17:08
    • Extreme Measures
    • A British View
  • The Repeal or the Funeral Procession of Miss Ame-Stamp 19:49
  • Stamp Act Repealed 22:01
    • Declaratory Act
    • The Townshend Acts
    • Refuse to Drink Tea
  • More Acts, More Restrictions 23:30
    • The Revenue Act
    • Quartering Act
  • More Forms of Resistance 24:56
    • Daughters of Liberty, Boycotts and Homespuns
    • Boycotts of British Goods
  • Trade as a Political Weapon 27:26
  • Some Notable Patriots 27:57
    • Patrick Henry
    • John Adams
  • The Boston Massacre 30:11
    • The Boston Massacre
    • Paul Revere
  • Committees of Correspondence 32:11
    • The Rights and Grievances of the Colonists
    • More Organized Attempt
  • The Boston Tea Party: Reaction to Tea Act 33:07
    • Mohawk Indians
    • Crates of Tea
    • Sons of Liberty
  • British Reaction to Boston Tea Party 34:43
    • Closing Down the Port
    • Coercive Acts
  • Example 1 36:06
  • Example 2 38:47

Transcription: British Reorganization After the French and Indian War and Colonial Protest

Welcome back to www.educator.com.0000

This lesson is about British reorganization after the French and Indian war and colonial protest.0003

We are going to talk about how Great Britain is going to reorganize its strategy because it is in huge debt after spending tons of money,0012

not only in the French and Indian war but also other imperial wars that we mentioned in the last lesson.0022

They will come up with new actions, new laws, in order to gain more revenue to pay off their war debts.0029

In response, we will see the colonists, for the most part, not going to approve of these new laws, 0038

as they are going to have to pay more taxes on several goods.0044

And they are going to see more restrictions on their everyday life.0048

That is going to eventually lead to the revolutionary war which we are going to be talking about in this lesson.0052

1763, this is the time right after the French and Indian war.0064

This ministry deployed a peacetime army in North America, indicating its willingness to use force,0069

in order to preserve its authority over the colonies.0076

That is going to take a whole new idea onto itself, is that we are going to see that Britain's attitude is going to be more authoritative, more militaristic.0084

And that is going to offend many of the colonists.0098

That is going to change the relationship between Great Britain and the colonists.0102

As Britain’s debt soared, higher import duties would be imposed at home on tobacco, sugar, and excise levies were also increased.0107

Excise levies are a kind of sales tax.0120

They are also going to expand the size of the bureaucracy that needed to collect these taxes.0124

There were government jobs but it is going to look like they are government heavy, if you will, during this time period.0132

We are going to see that kind of hands up approach, let us say a fairer approach, that salutary neglect policy is going to be abandoned.0144

The British are going to start cracking down and squeezing the colonists for every cent they can get, because they need to pay off those debts.0160

The traders, the smugglers, who were able to participate in trade, 0169

for instance, like sugar traders who were doing a lot of business with the French in the West Indies,0177

they were not supposed to be trading with French or Spaniards, or Dutch.0184

But again, a lot of these businessmen wanted to make money.0191

They did not care who they were trading with.0194

The British wanted to restrict that trade relationship and only allow the colonists to trade with Great Britain.0199

They are going to crackdown on this during this reorganization period.0208

Smugglers were arrested and cargo was seized.0213

People are going to start losing money and rebelling against this crackdown.0217

After living under a policy of salutary neglect, Americans felt that the new British policies were discriminatory, 0225

and challenged the existing constitutional practices and understandings.0234

That is going to change the relationship with the British.0242

This graph shows you the economic impact of the various wars that England was involved in.0247

Here you could see throughout the 1700’s, the war of Spanish succession, the military expenditures that were rising.0258

Yes, we do gradually see the other important piece of data here.0266

Tax collectors are on the rise, there are civil expenditures.0272

But in terms of military expenditures, we see that this continues to increase, 0279

and certainly, by the time of the American war of independence.0285

They need to get the revenue from somewhere.0289

At the time, we are going see that the British are going to start off putting pressure on the colonists to make up that difference.0291

British officials insist on the supremacy of parliamentary laws and denied that colonists were entitled to the same legal rights of Englishmen.0303

It is a little bit hypocritical. They do support parliamentary laws but they do not view colonists as equals.0314

Essentially, they are seen as second class subjects to the king.0323

The right of no taxation without representation was confined to inhabitants of Great Britain only.0330

That idea as well, is something that seems very unfair and that the law is not inclusive.0340

That is going to enrage a lot of the colonists and it justifies their uprising.0352

Prime Minister George Grenville, however, will continue with his reforms and looking to pay off these debts.0363

He ends up winning approval of the Currency Act of 1764.0372

More acts, more laws, disband use of paper money as legal tender,0378

thereby, protecting the British merchants from colonial currency that was not worth face value.0384

Again, the British are expressing their self interest,0393

and continue in those mercantilist policies that benefit the mother country but not its children colonies.0397

They are at the short end of the stick.0406

We will see that they do not like it.0409

More laws will be passed, like the Sugar Act.0412

This was a new Navigation Act replaced the widely evaded Molasses Act of 1733.0415

This was a Molasses Act petite.0422

It was a little stronger, they closed loopholes by extending the jurisdictions of vice admiralty courts to all customs offices.0425

This was viewed by the colonists as antidemocratic.0437

Instead of what they previously had in place, common law tribunals, where a jury decides guilt or innocence.0444

We are not seeing the democratic rights being applied to the colonists.0452

Yes, this vice admiralty court was not popular at all.0459

Tribunal presided over by a judge who, oftentimes, was pro-royalist, was no jury.0463

Something that was very controversial and disliked in the colonies.0474

This provision of the act provoked protests from merchant smugglers accustomed to acquittal by sympathetic local juries.0481

They were used to having that power and that is going to become a huge problem.0490

In fact, the famous John Hancock will be in the situation.0496

He is a trader, he is in the sugar trade, and he is caught up in this as well.0502

That is going to motivate him to get involved in the patriotic revolutionary cause.0510

More laws, the Stamp Act was passed in 1765.0519

This requires small printed markings on all court documents, paper goods.0524

It placed a tax on printed paper, newspapers, pamphlets, advertisements.0531

Also dice, I did not include that.0537

This will be a means of revenue to fund British troops in America.0540

This was offensive to the colonists.0546

It was the first direct tax that was collected on all paper goods.0550

Ordinary people were being nickeled and dimed.0557

They were being targeted, they had to pay the cost.0562

Previously, the indirect taxes the people, the merchants, would have to pay those taxes 0570

but the cost was not passed on to the actual consumer.0576

This was a major shift and this caused major backlash.0581

We will see Franklin, he is always an advocate of trying to unify people and have representation.0588

He is going to propose record representation in parliament but was rejected at this point.0598

He will not give up.0604

Another law was passed at this time, the Quartering Act.0606

This requires colonists to provide living quarters or barracks and food for British troops, which often felt invasive.0610

People's privacy was being invaded.0620

Sometimes in some cases, British troops were rude or demeaning to the colonists, and felt that they were above the colonists.0624

This was something that was not liked.0638

People were struggling financially,0640

to be able to provide extra food for the British soldiers was also something that put a strain on the economy and on people's private lives.0642

There is another law that was passed, the Declaratory Act that will actually be passed a little bit later, 0659

that asserted that parliament had the right to tax and make laws for the colonies, in all cases, whatsoever.0671

This will feed into the conflict between the colonists and the British.0678

We are going to see that the colonists begin to rebel during this time period, between 1765, 0686

after the Stamp Act up to the early 1770’s.0693

The British reject American representation in parliament and argued that American colonists received what they called virtual representation0698

through merchants who traded with the colonies, and by absentee landlords, or mostly sugar planters from the West Indies in parliament.0708

Through these other people they have representation.0719

The American colonists do not buy the argument and they start to mobilize.0724

This is why we will start to hear language like patriots, those who are revolutionaries.0731

I will start using that language to point out that there were all different types of patriots, 0739

who are really advocating for the colonists, and seeing themselves as an independent entity.0746

There are all different types of patriots, if you will, politicians, as well as ordinary people, ordinary colonists.0756

They will protest and the crowd will begin to rebel.0768

They create an ideology of resistance, based on those enlightenment ideas like John Locke.0773

The idea that if a government was unjust that the people had the right, and the duty to overthrow, or change that government.0784

That revolutionary enlightenment idea is going to be very influential, the idea of popular sovereignty,0793

government that is based on the consent of the governed, very important,0802

the idea of free speech.0808

All of these ideas are going to have a huge influence during this time period, to motivate and provide rationale against the British.0812

There were all different types of patriots.0830

Somewhere on the moderate side who are looking to use reason, and try to use the establish means through government meetings,0832

and trying to create some type of representative government, and communicating, really diplomacy, 0848

to try to come to some type of agreement with the British.0857

They will make a reform.0862

Then, there are more radical approaches where large crowds, 0864

specially, those who are less educated, who perhaps was not as well versed in enlightenment ideas.0869

But they were just plain angry at the economic situation and from being abused by the British, 0875

but they are willing to take matters into their own hands.0884

If they needed to use violence, then they would.0887

Then, there were certainly those who follow along in the whig political tradition.0896

Some methods were more peaceful than others but all of them are going to play a role in this mobilization against the British.0902

This is in response to the Stamp Act mainly, but this is a combination of all the acts had been passed up to this point.0913

The Stamp Act was the tipping point.0922

James Otis of Massachusetts called for a cooperative action among the colonists to protest the Act.0925

They eventually are successful in bringing people together.0934

Remember that Albany plan.0939

We are going to see this being put into action.0941

The Stamp Act congress was established in 1765.0945

Nine colonies sent delegates and issued a set of resolutions challenging the acts constitutionality.0950

They declared colonists rights and liberties like trial by jury.0958

They also expressed their grievances about taxation abuse, without representation.0967

Most of the delegates were moderate.0976

They were rational minded, educated delegates.0979

That is going to be one piece of the response, one approach.0985

The other radical approach, we are going to see an underground group being formed, the famous Sons of Liberty.0991

This was a revolutionary group that took matters into their own hands, and they would intimidate royal officials, and mobilize the masses.1000

Sometimes this would involve angry mobs and they were viewed as angry groups of people1013

who did not flip violence on British tax collectors, for instance, and even British soldiers who would be around, specially, in Boston.1030

Boston was the epicenter for more of the radical activity.1035

A lot of it was because of the major restrictions in the Port city.1039

Here is a famous image here for you to look at,1047

the Bostonians paying the excisemen or tarring and feathering.1052

I will discuss this first. Some colonists like the Sons of Liberty were very angry at the Stamp Act.1060

They will use extreme measures like tarring and feathering which was an extremely cruel act.1067

They would get hot boiling tar and pour it on these various tax collectors.1076

In this case, this was Boston Stamp Act commissioner.1085

If you could imagine what this was like, in the John Adams HBO, they have a powerful reenactment of this.1089

When they pour this hot substance on the people’s skin, it is really painful, if you could even imagine.1097

Sometimes the picture does not do justice but if you can kind of wrap your head around this.1107

They would use feathers that they would get from various pillows that were plentiful, 1113

and parade them around the town, making a mockery out of them.1122

This was actually a British view of what was happening in Boston.1128

I’m not sure if you can see this but on the tree it says liberty tree.1137

You will also see a news hanging from the branch.1142

They are forcefully giving this tax collector hot tea, forcing this tea down his throat, shows this bullying,1152

this abuse that they were partaking in.1165

They look especially goofy, you may also notice their faces.1168

I think the artist is really trying to make this mob look like they are barbaric, and just kind of cruel, and ignorant, and savage like.1174

We are going to see that eventually the Stamp Act Congress will be successful.1193

They will actually repeal the Stamp Act.1201

This was a major win for the colonists and the anti Stamp Act people.1205

This is another famous print of the era, the repeal or the funeral procession of Miss Ame-Stamp.1214

This is one of the most famous and popular of the political satires commenting on the Stamp Act.1230

This print celebrates the end of the tax.1238

This was an instant success and the print became one of the most copied, the satirical prints of the period. 1242

There are few things to point out that maybe hard for you to see.1250

But you could certainly pull up these images on www.google.com images and blow it up, and take a closer look at the image for yourself.1255

But anyway, the dates on the skulls which is a little bit hard to see even on this grade.1265

17, I believe it is 18, and 1745, these dates refer to the uprisings of Jacobites1270

who were supporters of King James after the Glorious Revolution.1280

These were people who believe in divine right not parliament.1287

That is poking fun at those people.1293

The black flags here are being held by people who voted against the repeal of the Stamp Act.1296

This again is supposed to kind of poke fun at those who did not support it, yet, the colonists were successful in getting it repealed.1309

We do see that the parliament eventually compromise, repeals the act.1325

But we are going to see in 1766 , that they end up passing the Declaratory Act.1330

This is the British, asserting its right to make laws binding on the colonies.1340

We see kind of one step forward for the colonists, but this is, put them back in their place.1346

This is kind of another law beans, like a slap in the face, and to kind of make sure they know where they place is, which is inferior.1360

The Townshend acts are also passed in 1767.1373

This included tax on import to the colonies including tea.1378

We are going to see this is going to cause more problems.1383

Colonists, in response, refuse to drink tea, calling it a beverage of traders.1389

They rebel and assert no taxation without representation.1396

That this is really not fair, that they need to have its consistent representation.1403

The British continue to force them to pay all of these taxes.1411

Here we go, he had another one, the Revenue Act of 1767, created the Board of American Customs, of Commissioners.1416

We will see an expansion of these vice admiralty courts.1426

By using parliamentary imposed tax revenues to finance administrative and judicial innovations,1431

towns indirectly threatened the autonomy and authority of American political institutions.1437

The local colonial governments had no power.1446

We are seeing the British are cracking down in imposing their rule more and more, and restricting the colonists.1453

In response, we will see more rebellion.1464

For example, the New York assembly did not comply with the Quartering Act.1468

And as a result, the Restraining Act of 1767 was implemented, suspending the assembly until they submitted to the Quartering Act.1473

The effect of this, further restricted colonial trade and caused even more tensions to heighten.1483

Action, reaction, action, reaction, this is just snowballing and getting worse and worse.1491

People are taking matters into their own hands more and more.1498

Different organizations are formed, different means are employed.1502

The Daughters of Liberty, like the Sons of Liberty, will take action.1507

Women will participate, which in some way will show that there was something changing.1512

And that, American colonists were different, that the women were getting involved.1520

This was kind of viewed as low class by English aristocrats.1529

Yet, American colonial women were getting involved.1536

We will see the boycott will also be important.1544

The purchasing power of the colonists will become a really important tool against the British, as it will hurt British businesses.1549

And ultimately, they are looking to change their behavior to repeal these laws.1556

And then, homespun will also be important.1562

During this time, we see there is a surge in domestic production.1566

Local colonists were encouraged to make their own goods, and 1572

colonists were expected and encouraged to buy local goods, and should not buy British goods.1576

That is going to be really important.1586

Homespun, clothe spun, and woven, and traditionally worn by poor colonists.1589

People were able to transcend that lower stigma and turned that on its head, 1594

and use this action to empower themselves and rebel against the British.1604

During the boycotts, a British goods in the 1760’s, wearing homespun clothes to go to a political meaning.1611

Even those who can easily afford finer clothing began wearing clothes made of homespun fabrics, just to support the locals.1619

That was a very empowering practice.1628

Newspaper articles were published that expressed antimonarchy sentiments.1632

They were also actual uprisings such as on Guy Fawkes Day in New York, where there is actually some violent outbreak.1638

Here you can see the effect of these policies and actions.1651

There is a major credit crisis that occurs in 1772.1658

We are going to see by 1773, the Tea Act is also going to impact the economy, and the imports and exports.1664

A few notable patriots that I like to mention, Patrick Henry, 1682

he was the 1st and 5th governor of Virginia and member of the House of Burgesses.1687

This was an early example of an important legislative body that we will certainly use as a main model later on.1695

Anyway, Henry was one of the most influential radical advocates of the American Revolution, 1704

who is remembered for his famous phrase and a long speech, give me liberty or give me death, kind of dramatic.1711

He will be a main player in the revolutionary movement, and certainly during one of the sessions of the continental congress.1719

John Adams is also another leading figure, a Massachusetts lawyer who defended British Preston, Captain Preston,1729

during the Boston massacre, that we will be talking about in a little bit.1741

He was very fair minded, he really believed in the law.1746

He also started to change, he starts to kind of evolve during this time period, 1753

as he really wants to believe and embrace British law.1760

But he is seeing that the British are not acting in a constitutional way.1766

He is starting to question British Authority more and more.1772

He also defended John Hancock who was the smuggler, who was getting arrested for his actions.1777

In the Hancock case, Adams appealed to the jury trial provision in the 29th chapter of the Magna Carta,1787

which was an ancient document from 1215 that discussed Englishmen’s liberties.1794

He went straight to English law to make his argument and to justify his rationale.1800

He is going to be an important voice during the revolution.1810

He later on becomes President of the United States.1814

During the Boston massacre, we are going to see in 1775, American colonists were shot in Boston.1820

This will become known, I shall a backup a minute.1828

You should actually learn a little bit more about the details of the story.1833

There are some discrepancy and different angles regarding this story.1840

Many would actually argue that the colonists were provoking the British colonists, 1844

and that they misfired, and that this really was not an aggressive move.1851

However, the event is going to turn into major propaganda for the patriot cause.1856

Five colonists were shot, that is significant.1866

Any loss of life is horrible but that they are going to call this as a Boston massacre.1869

A massacre usually connotes large scale killing.1875

In this case, they are going to dramatize it and use it as propaganda.1882

This is Paul Revere, he was also an important patriot.1889

He is engraving and he is trying to portray the British, red coats, lobster backs, as they were called in the derogatory way.1893

As these aggressors, these cruel soldiers, who were murdering innocent people1906

who are just exercising their right to speak freely, freedom of speech.1913

It is worthy to know that famous African-American Crispus Attucks was killed in the incident.1923

After this, we are going to see continued political action by the patriots.1933

John Adams’ cousin Sam Adams, he was a Massachusetts revolutionary leader, 1939

is important in organizing the committees of correspondence.1945

This committee stated the rights and grievances of the colonists.1951

And ultimately, this was a means of communicating amongst the different revolutionary groups throughout the colonies.1959

They organized other colonies and they set the stage for more organized attempt by the colonies1968

to express what they were upset about, what they wanted to change.1974

And in some cases, how they were going to implement change and they had to hash about, 1979

and how they were going to approach the British.1987

The Tea Act was put into place and we are going to see a reaction to that.1992

The Tea Act that put a tax on tea, did not go over well.1997

We are going to see that Massachusetts patriots in defiance of this law,2004

trust this Mohawk Indians apparently not too well, were too convincing.2010

And perhaps, they are trying to make a mockery out of this entire situation.2016

They dress up like Mohawk Indians to protest the British Tea Act and they end up dumping lots and lots of crates of tea into Boston Harbor.2021

This is a picture of that here.2033

We could see the feathers here in their hair.2035

They are really destroying property which shows how groups like the Sons of Liberty were willing to use violence, damage property.2038

Use any means necessary to get the point across and to try to force Britain to change its ways.2054

This is another picture, one of the Sons of Liberty who join Sam Adams to destroy British tea, Boston Harbor on December 16, 1773.2065

At the time of this incident, tea ranked fourth among all British exports to America.2074

If you remember the chart that I showed you, we are going to see that this is going to hurt the British economy.2081

Another picture above is what Boston Harbor looked like in the 1770’s.2090

We are going to see in response that the British are going to even remilitarize and show a major military presence,2095

and ultimately close the harbor until the colonists paid taxes on the dumped tea.2107

And ultimately, they institute military rule or martial law where you will literally see British soldiers walking around throughout Boston.2116

They shut down trade.2128

Parliament is not going to be so nice this time.2132

Parliament rejected the proposal to repeal the Tea Act and instead enacted the Coercive Acts, 2135

to force Massachusetts into submission.2142

We are going to delve into what the patriots will call the intolerable acts in the next lesson.2146

Come back for more, we get into the outbreak of the revolutionary war.2158

With that, we are going to move into the multiple choice questions.2167

This one actually includes a photograph of an object, as well as a quotation, an excerpt.2177

Here we go, it is inseparably essential to the freedom of a people and 2188

the undoubted right of Englishmen that no taxes be imposed on them,2194

but with their own consent given personally or by their representatives.2200

That it is the indispensable duty of these colonists, to the best of reason,2209

to procure the repeal of the act for granting and applying certain stamp duties, 2215

of all causes of any other acts of parliament for the restriction of American commerce.2220

This is from the resolutions of the Stamp Act Congress.2228

Left, we have a teapot that was made in Britain in 1766 and purchased by the colonists.2234

But as you could see here, Stamp Act repealed.2243

Questions, which of the following groups was the resolution intended to appease?2251

The British King, leaders in parliament, American Indians, colonial merchants?2258

The answer.2269

Number 2, the Stamp Act angered most colonists because it was the first time,2273

the British imposed an indirect tax on the colonists --2278

imposed a direct tax on the colonists,2282

attempted to regulate trade tax to the colonists.2285

Moving on, which of the following was the most effective moderate colonial response to the Stamp Act that led to its eventual repeal?2295

Boycotts, the destruction of British property by the Sons of Liberty, the Boston tea party, tarring and feathering of British revenue officials.2308

This is your main clue, boycotts.2320

Now we have an image to look at.2329

We see a severed body that says New Eng, New York, Pennsyl, Virg.2337

This is something you probably will not pick up.2348

This is a Latin phrase based on a story that the colonists would have known during this time.2350

But you really have to try to understand the image of what you can gather.2359

This is also an olive branch which really is supposed to connote reaching out in friendship and peace, to try to promote diplomatic relations.2366

The message of the cartoon is that, 2385

A, the 13 British North American colonies should unify so that they can effectively express their grievances against the British.2388

B, the North American colonies, in the aftermath of the French and Indian war 2397

should create a better means of defending themselves against the British.2401

C, British taxation policies could have a negative impact on the British Empire.2405

D, the presence of a British army in North America will have a negative effect on the liberties and rights of British colonists.2412

This one is a little tricky.2422

Ultimately, the answer is C.2427

Moving on, the artist is trying to appeal to blank in the cartoon?2435

This one is like the other one.2452

Let us move on, the famous Bostonians paying the excisemen or tarring and feathering.2464

Short answer, this is our last set of questions here.2477

Explain the British pro Stamp Act point of view of the political cartoon.2481

Here it goes, the British view the colonists as barbaric and unfit to rule themselves,2492

as evidenced by their cruel behavior for the tax collectors.2500

Second one here, explain the colonial anti Stamp Act point of view of the political cartoon.2508

Here it goes, members of the Sons of Liberty would believe that2516

they were justified in taking matters into their own hands concerning the Stamp Act.2521

They were fed up with being overtaxed by the British.2526

Lastly, discuss a specific example of a colonial or British response to the Stamp Act.2533

I'm going to choose colonial.2545

One way that colonists responded to the Stamp Act was forming the Stamp Act congress.2548

And they challenge the constitutionality of the Stamp Act and were successful in getting that repealed.2555

There you go, some practice questions and information leading up to the revolutionary war.2567

And thank you for watching www.educator.com.2577