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Join Professor Bryan Cardella in his time-saving General Biology online course perfect for both high school and college students. Concepts are explained step-by-step complete with tons of diagrams, drawings, and overviews of common labs.

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I. Introduction to Biology

  Scientific Method 26:23
   Intro 0:00 
   Origins of the Scientific Method 0:04 
   Steps of the Scientific Method 3:08 
    Observe 3:21 
    Ask a Question 4:00 
    State a Hypothesis 4:08 
    Obtain Data (Experiment) 4:25 
    Interpret Data (Result) 5:01 
    Analysis (Form Conclusions) 5:38 
   Scientific Method in Action 6:16 
    Control vs. Experimental Groups 7:24 
    Independent vs. Dependent Variables 9:51 
    Other Factors Remain Constant 11:03 
   Scientific Method Example 13:58 
   Scientific Method Illustration 17:35 
   More on the Scientific Method 22:16 
    Experiments Need to Duplicate 24:07 
    Peer Review 24:46 
    New Discoveries 25:23 
  Molecular Basis of Biology 46:22
   Intro 0:00 
   Building Blocks of Matter 0:06 
    Matter 0:32 
    Mass 1:10 
    Atom 1:48 
    Ions 5:50 
    Bonds 8:29 
   Molecules 9:55 
    Ionic Bonds 9:57 
    Covalent Bonds 11:10 
    Water 12:30 
   Organic Compounds 17:48 
    Carbohydrates 18:04 
    Lipids 19:43 
    Proteins 20:42 
    Nucleic Acids 22:21 
   Carbohydrates 22:54 
    Sugars 22:56 
    Functions 23:42 
    Molecular Representation Formula 26:34 
    Examples 27:15 
   Lipids 28:44 
    Fats 28:46 
    Triglycerides 29:04 
    Functions 32:10 
    Steroids 33:43 
    Saturated Fats 34:18 
    Unsaturated Fats 36:08 
   Proteins 37:26 
    Amino Acids 37:58 
    3D Structure Relates to Their Function 38:54 
    Structural Proteins vs Globular Proteins 39:41 
    Functions 40:41 
   Nucleic Acids 42:53 
    Nucleotides 43:04 
    DNA and RNA 44:34 
    Functions 45:07 

II. Cells: Structure & Function

  Cells: Parts & Characteristics 1:12:12
   Intro 0:00 
   Microscopes 0:06 
    Anton Van Leeuwenhoek 0:58 
    Robert Hooke 1:36 
    Matthias Schleiden 2:52 
    Theodor Schwann 3:19 
    Electron Microscopes 4:16 
    SEM and TEM 4:54 
   The Cell Theory 5:21 
    3 Tenets 5:24 
    All Organisms Are Composed of One Or More Cells 5:46 
    The Cell is the Basic Unit of Structure and Function for Organisms 6:01 
    All Cells Comes from Preexisting Cells 6:34 
   The Characteristics of Life 8:09 
    Display Organization 8:18 
    Grow and Develop 9:12 
    Reproduce 9:33 
    Respond to Stimuli 9:55 
    Maintain Homeostasis 10:23 
    Can Evolve 11:37 
   Prokaryote vs. Eukaryote 11:53 
    Prokaryote 12:13 
    Eukaryote 14:00 
   Cell Parts 16:53 
   Plasma Membrane 18:27 
    Cell Membrane 18:29 
    Protective and Regulatory 18:52 
    Semi-Permeable 19:18 
    Polar Heads with Non-Polar Tails 20:52 
    Proteins are Imbedded in the Layer 22:46 
   Nucleus 25:53 
    Contains the DNA in Nuclear Envelope 26:31 
    Brain on the Cell 28:12 
    Nucleolus 28:26 
   Ribosome 29:02 
    Protein Synthesis Sites 29:25 
    Made of RNA and Protein 29:29 
    Found in Cytoplasm 30:24 
   Endoplasmic Reticulum 31:49 
    Adjacent to Nucleus 32:07 
    Site of Numerous Chemical Reactions 32:37 
    Rough 32:56 
    Smooth 33:48 
   Golgi Apparatus 34:54 
    Flattened Membranous Sacs 35:10 
    Function 35:45 
   Cell Parts Review 37:06 
   Mitochondrion 39:45 
    Mitochondria 39:50 
    Membrane-Bound Organelles 40:07 
    Outer Double Membrane 40:57 
    Produces Energy-Storing Molecules 41:46 
   Chloroplast 43:45 
    In Plant Cells 43:47 
    Membrane-Bound Organelles with Their Own DNA and Ribosomes 44:20 
    Thylakoids 44:59 
    Produces Sugars Through Photosynthesis 45:46 
   Vacuoles/ Vesicles 46:44 
    Vacuoles 47:03 
    Vesicles 47:59 
   Lysosome 50:21 
    Membranous Sac for Breakdown of Molecules 50:34 
    Contains Digestive Enzymes 51:55 
   Centrioles 53:15 
    Found in Pairs 53:18 
    Made of Cylindrical Ring of Microtubules 53:22 
    Contained Within Centrosomes 53:51 
    Functions as Anchors for Spindle Apparatus in Cell Division 54:06 
    Spindle Apparatus 55:27 
   Cytoskeleton 55:55 
    Forms Framework or Scaffolding for Cell 56:05 
    Provides Network of Protein Fibers for Travel 56:24 
    Made of Microtubules, Microfilaments, and Intermediate Filaments 57:18 
   Cilia 59:21 
    Cilium 59:27 
    Made of Ring of Microtubules 60:00 
    How They Move 60:35 
   Flagellum 62:42 
    Flagella 62:51 
    Long, Tail-Like Projection from a Cell 62:59 
    How They Move 63:27 
   Cell Wall 65:21 
    Outside of Plasma Membrane 65:25 
    Extra Protection and Rigidity for a Cell 65:52 
    In Plants 67:19 
    In Bacteria 67:25 
    In Fungi 67:41 
   Cytoplasm 68:07 
    Fluid-Filled Region of a Cell 68:24 
    Sight for Majority of the Cellular Reactions 68:47 
    Cytosol 69:29 
   Animal Cell vs. Plant Cell 69:10 
  Cellular Transport 32:01
   Intro 0:00 
   Passive Transport 0:05 
    Movement of Substances in Nature Without the Input of Energy 0:14 
    High Concentration to Low Concentration 0:36 
    Opposite of Active Transport 1:41 
    No Net Movement 3:20 
   Diffusion 3:55 
    Definition of Diffusion 3:58 
    Examples 4:07 
   Facilitated Diffusion 7:32 
    Definition of Facilitated Diffusion 7:49 
   Osmosis 9:34 
    Definition of Osmosis 9:42 
    Examples 10:50 
   Concentration Gradient 15:55 
    Definition of Concentration Gradient 16:01 
   Relative Concentrations 17:32 
    Hypertonic Solution 17:48 
    Hypotonic Solution 20:07 
    Isotonic Solution 21:27 
   Active Transport 22:49 
    Movement of Molecules Across a Membrane with the Use Energy 22:51 
    Example 23:30 
   Endocytosis 25:53 
    Wrapping Around of Part of the Plasma 26:13 
    Examples 26:26 
    Phagocytosis 28:54 
    Pinocytosis 29:02 
   Exocytosis 29:40 
    Releasing Material From Inside of a Cell 29:43 
    Opposite of Endocytosis 29:50 
  Cellular Energy, Part I 52:11
   Intro 0:00 
   Energy Facts 0:05 
    Law of Thermodynamics 0:16 
    Potential Energy 2:27 
    Kinetic Energy 2:50 
    Chemical Energy 3:01 
    Mechanical Energy 3:20 
    Solar Energy 3:41 
   ATP Structure 4:07 
    Adenosine Triphosphate 4:12 
    Common Energy Source 4:25 
   ATP Function 6:13 
    How It Works 7:18 
    What It Is Used For 7:43 
    GTP 9:36 
   ATP Cycle 10:35 
    ATP Formation 10:49 
    ATP Use 12:12 
   Enzyme Basics 13:51 
    Catalysts 13:59 
    Protein-Based 14:39 
    Reaction Occurs 14:51 
   Enzyme Structure 19:14 
    Active Site 19:23 
    Induced Fit 20:15 
   Enzyme Function 21:22 
    What Enzymes Help With 21:31 
    Inhibition 21:57 
    Ideal Environment to Function Properly 22:57 
   Enzyme Examples 25:26 
    Amylase 25:34 
    Catalase 26:03 
    DNA Polymerase 26:21 
    Rubisco 27:06 
   Photosynthesis 28:19 
    Process To Make Glucose 28:27 
    Photoauthotrophs 28:34 
    Endergonic 30:08 
    Reaction 30:22 
   Chloroplast Structure 31:55 
    Photosynthesis Factories Found in Plant Cells 32:26 
    Thylakoids 32:29 
    Stroma 33:18 
   Chloroplast Micrograph 34:14 
   Photosystems 34:46 
    Thylakoid Membranes Are Filled with These Reaction Centers 34:58 
    Photosystem II and Photosystem I 35:47 
   Light Reactions 37:09 
    Light-Dependent Reactions 37:24 
    Step 1 37:35 
    Step 2 38:31 
    Step 3 39:33 
    Step 4 40:33 
    Step 5 40:51 
    Step 6 41:30 
   Dark Reactions 43:15 
    Light-Independent Reactions or Calvin Cycle 43:19 
   Calvin Cycle 44:54 
  Cellular Energy, Part II 40:50
   Intro 0:00 
   Aerobic Respiration 0:05 
    Process of Breaking Down Carbohydrates to Make ATP 0:45 
    Glycolysis 1:44 
    Krebs Cycle 1:48 
    Oxidative Phosphorylation 2:06 
    Produces About 36 ATP 2:24 
   Glycolysis 3:35 
    Breakdown of Sugar Into Pyruvates 4:16 
    Occurs in the Cytoplasm 4:30 
   Krebs Cycle 11:40 
    Citric Acid Cycle 11:42 
    Acetyl-CoA 12:04 
    How Pyruvate Gets Modified into acetyl-CoA 12:35 
   Oxidative Phosphorylation 22:45 
   Anaerobic Respiration 29:44 
    Lactic Acid Fermentation 31:06 
    Alcohol Fermentation 31:51 
    Produces Only the ATP From Glycolysis 32:09 
   Aerobic Respiration vs. Photosynthesis 36:43 
  Cell Division 1:09:12
   Intro 0:00 
   Purposes of Cell Division 0:05 
    Growth and Development 0:17 
    Tissue Regeneration 0:51 
    Reproduction 1:51 
   Cell Size Limitations 4:01 
    Surface-to-Volume Ratio 5:33 
    Genome-to-Volume Ratio 10:29 
   The Cell Cycle 12:20 
    Interphase 13:23 
    Mitosis 14:08 
    Cytokinesis 14:21 
   Chromosome Structure 16:08 
    Sister Chromatids 19:00 
    Centromere 19:22 
    Chromatin 19:48 
   Interphase 21:38 
    Growth Phase #1 22:25 
    Synthesis of DNA 23:09 
    Growth Phase #2 23:52 
   Mitosis 25:13 
    4 Main Phases 25:21 
    Purpose of Mitosis 26:40 
   Prophase 28:46 
    Condense DNA 28:56 
    Nuclear Envelope Breaks Down 29:44 
    Nucleolus Disappears 30:04 
    Centriole Pairs Move to Poles 30:31 
    Spindle Apparatus Forms 31:22 
   Metaphase 32:36 
    Chromosomes Line Up Along Equator 32:43 
    Metaphase Plate 33:29 
   Anaphase 34:21 
    Sister Chromatids are Separated 34:26 
    Sister Chromatids Migrate Towards Poles 36:59 
   Telophase 37:17 
    Chromatids Become De-Condensed 37:31 
    Nuclear Envelope Reforms 37:59 
    Nucleoli Reappears 38:22 
    Spindle Apparatus Breaks Down 38:32 
   Cytokinesis 39:01 
    In Animal Cells 39:31 
    In Plant Cells 40:38 
   Cancer in Relation to Mitosis 41:59 
    Cancer Can Occur in Multicellular Organism 42:31 
    Particular Genes Control the Pace 43:11 
    Benign vs. Malignant 45:13 
    Metastasis 46:45 
    Natural Killer Cells 47:33 
   Meiosis 48:17 
    Produces 4 Cells with Half the Number of Chromosomes 49:02 
    Produces Genetically Unique Daughter Cells 51:56 
   Meiosis I 52:39 
    Prophase I 53:14 
    Metaphase I 57:44 
    Anaphase I 59:10 
    Telophase I 60:00 
   Meiosis II 61:04 
    Prophase II 61:08 
    Metaphase II 61:32 
    Anaphase II 62:08 
    Telophase II 62:43 
   Meiosis Overview 63:39 
   Products of Meiosis 66:00 
    Gametes 66:10 
    Sperm and Egg 66:17 
    Different Process for Spermatogenesis vs. Oogenesis 66:27 

III. From DNA to Protein

  DNA 51:42
   Intro 0:00 
   DNA: Its Role and Characteristics 0:05 
    Deoxyribonucleic Acid 0:17 
    Double Helix 1:28 
    Nucleotides 2:31 
    Anti-parallel 2:46 
    Self-Replicating 3:36 
    Codons, Genes, Chromosomes 3:56 
   DNA: The Discovery 5:13 
    DNA First Mentioned 5:50 
    Bacterial Transformation with DNA 6:32 
    Base Pairing Rule 8:06 
    DNA is Hereditary Material 9:44 
    X-Ray Crystallography Images 10:46 
    DNA Structure 11:49 
   Nucleotides 12:54 
   The Double Helix 16:34 
    Hydrogen Bonding 16:40 
    Backbone of Phosphates and Sugars 19:25 
    Strands are Anti-Parallel 19:37 
   Nitrogenous Bases 20:52 
    Purines 21:38 
    Pyrimidines 22:46 
   DNA Replication Overview 24:33 
    DNA Must Duplicate Every Time a Cell is Going to Divide 24:34 
    Semiconservative Replication 24:49 
    How Does it Occur? 27:34 
   DNA Replication Steps 28:39 
    DNA Helicase Unzips Double Stranded DNA 28:49 
    RNA Primer is Laid Down 29:10 
    DNA Polymerase Attaches Complementary Bases in Continuous Manner 30:07 
    DNA Polymerase Attaches Complementary Bases in Fragments 31:06 
    DNA Polymerase Replaces RNA Primers 31:22 
    DNA Ligase Connects Fragments Together 31:44 
   DNA Replication Illustration 32:25 
   'Junk' DNA 45:02 
    Only 2% of the Human Genome Codes for Protein 45:11 
    What Does Junk DNA Mean to Us? 46:52 
    DNA Technology Uses These Sequences 49:20 
  RNA 51:59
   Intro 0:00 
   The Central Dogma 0:04 
    Transcription 0:57 
    Translation 1:11 
   RNA: Its Role and Characteristics 2:02 
    Ribonucleic Acid 2:06 
    How It Is Different From DNA 2:59 
   DNA and RNA Differences 5:00 
   Types of RNA 6:01 
    Messenger RNA 6:15 
    Ribosomal RNA 6:49 
    Transfer RNA 7:52 
    Others 8:54 
   Transcription 9:26 
    Process in Which RNA is Made From a Gene in DNA 9:30 
    How It's Done 9:55 
    Summary of Steps 10:35 
   Transcription Steps 11:54 
    Initiation 11:57 
    Elongation 15:57 
    Termination 18:10 
   RNA Processing 21:35 
    Pre-mRNA 21:37 
    Modifications 21:53 
   Translation 27:01 
    Process in Which mRNA Binds with a Ribosome and tRNA and rRNA Assist 27:03 
    Summary of Steps 28:39 
   Translation the mRNA Code 28:59 
    Every Codon in mRNA Gets Translated to an Amino Acid 29:14 
    Chart Providing the Resulting Translation 29:19 
   Translation Steps 32:20 
    Initiation 32:23 
    Elongation 35:31 
    Termination 38:43 
   Mutations 40:22 
    Code in DNA is Subject to Change 41:00 
    Why Mutations Happen 41:23 
    Point Mutation 43:16 
    Insertion / Deletion 47:58 
    Duplications 50:03 
  Genetics, Part I 1:15:17
   Intro 0:00 
   Gregor Mendel 0:05 
    Father of Genetics 0:39 
    Experimented with Crossing Peas 1:02 
    Discovered Consistent Patterns 2:37 
   Mendel's Laws of Genetics 3:10 
    Law of Segregation 3:20 
    Law of Independent Assortment 5:07 
   Genetics Vocabulary #1 6:28 
    Gene 6:42 
    Allele 7:18 
    Homozygous 8:25 
    Heterozygous 9:39 
    Genotype 10:15 
    Phenotype 11:01 
    Hybrid 11:53 
    Pure Breeding 12:28 
   Generation Vocabulary 13:03 
    Parental Generation 13:25 
    1st Filial 13:58 
    2nd Filial 14:06 
   Punnett Squares 15:07 
   Monohybrid Cross 18:52 
    Mating Pure-Breeding Peas in the P Generation 19:09 
    F1 Cross 21:31 
   Dihybrid Cross Introduction 23:42 
    Traced Inheritance of 2 Genes in Pea Plants 23:50 
   Dihybrid Cross Example 26:07 
    Phenotypic Ratio 31:34 
   Incomplete Dominance 32:02 
    Blended Inheritance 32:27 
    Example 32:35 
   Epistasis 35:05 
    Occurs When a Gene Has the Ability to Completely Cancel Out the Expression of Another Gene 35:10 
    Example 35:30 
   Multiple Alleles 40:12 
    More Than Two Forms of Alleles 40:23 
    Example 41:06 
   Polygenic Inheritance 46:50 
    Many Traits Get Phenotype From the Inheritance of Numerous Genes 46:58 
    Example 47:26 
   Test Cross 51:53 
    In Cases of Complete Dominance 52:03 
    Test Cross Demonstrates Which Genotype They Have 52:52 
   Sex-Linked Traits 53:56 
    Autosomes 54:21 
    Sex Chromosomes 54:57 
   Genetic Disorders 59:31 
    Autosomal Recessive 60:00 
    Autosomal Dominant 66:17 
    Sex-Linked Recessive 69:19 
    Sex-Linked Dominant 73:41 
  Genetics, Part II 49:57
   Intro 0:00 
   Karotyping 0:04 
    Process to Check Chromosomes for Abnormal Characteristics 0:08 
    Done with Cells From a Fetus 0:58 
    Amniocentesis 1:02 
   Normal Karotype 2:43 
   Abnormal Karotype 4:20 
   Nondisjunction 5:14 
    Failure of Chromosomes to Properly Separate During Meiosis 5:16 
    Nondisjunction 5:45 
    Typically Causes Chromosomal Disorders Upon Fertilization 6:33 
   Chromosomal Disorders 10:52 
    Autosome Disorders 11:01 
    Sex Chromosome Disorders 14:06 
   Pedigrees 20:29 
    Visual Depiction of an Inheritance Pattern for One Gene in a Family's History 20:30 
    Symbols 20:46 
    Trait Being Traced is Depicted by Coloring in the Individual 21:58 
   Pedigree Example #1 22:26 
   Pedigree Example #2 25:02 
   Pedigree Example #3 27:23 
   Environmental Impact 30:24 
    Gene Expression Is Often Influenced by Environment 30:25 
    Twin Studies 30:35 
    Examples 31:45 
   Genetic Engineering 36:03 
    Genetic Transformation 36:17 
    Restriction Enzymes 39:09 
    Recombinant DNA 40:37 
    Gene Cloning 41:58 
    Polymerase Chain Reaction 43:13 
    Gel Electrophoresis 44:37 
    Transgenic Organisms 48:03 

IV. History of Life

  Evolution 1:47:19
   Intro 0:00 
   The Scientists Behind the Theory 0:04 
    Fossil Study and Catastrophism 0:18 
    Gradualism 1:13 
    Population Growth 2:00 
    Early Evolution Thought 2:37 
    Natural Selection As a Sound Theory 8:05 
   Darwin's Voyage 8:59 
    Galapagos Islands Stop 9:15 
    Theory of Natural Selection 11:24 
   Natural Selection Summary 12:37 
    Populations have Enormous Reproductive Potential 13:45 
    Population Sizes Tend to Remain Relatively Stable 14:55 
    Resources Are Limited 16:51 
    Individuals Compete for Survival 17:16 
    There is Much Variation Among Individuals in a Population 17:36 
    Much Variation is Heritable 18:06 
    Only the Most Fit Individuals Survive 18:27 
    Evolution Occurs As Advantageous Traits Accumulate 19:23 
   Evidence for Evolution 19:47 
    Molecular Biology 19:53 
    Homologous Structures 22:55 
    Analogous Structures 26:20 
    Embryology 29:36 
    Paleontology 34:54 
   Patterns of Evolution 40:14 
    Divergent Evolution 40:37 
    Convergent Evolution 43:15 
    Co-Evolution 46:07 
   Gradualism vs. Punctuated Equilibrium 49:56 
   Modes of Selection 52:25 
    Directional Selection 54:40 
    Disruptive Selection 56:38 
    Stabilizing Selection 58:07 
    Artificial Selection 59:56 
    Sexual Selection 62:13 
   More on Sexual Selection 63:00 
    Sexual Dimorphism 63:26 
    Examples 64:50 
   Notes on Natural Selection 69:41 
    Phenotype 70:01 
    Only Heritable Traits 71:00 
    Mutations Fuel Natural Selection 11:39 
   Reproductive Isolation 72:00 
    Temporal Isolation 72:59 
    Behavioral Isolation 74:17 
    Mechanical Isolation 75:13 
    Gametic Isolation 76:21 
    Geographic Isolation 76:51 
   Reproductive Isolation (Post-Zygotic) 78:37 
    Hybrid Sterility 78:57 
    Hybrid Inviability 80:08 
    Hybrid Breakdown 80:31 
   Speciation 81:02 
    Process in Which New Species Forms From an Ancestral Form 81:13 
    Factors That Can Lead to Development of a New Species 81:19 
   Adaptive Radiation 84:26 
    Radiating of Various New Species 84:28 
    Changes in Appearance 84:56 
    Examples 84:14 
   Hardy-Weinberg Theorem 87:35 
    Five Conditions 88:15 
    Equations 93:55 
   Microevolution 96:59 
    Natural Selection 97:11 
    Genetic Drift 97:34 
    Gene Flow 100:54 
    Nonrandom Mating 101:06 
   Clarifications About Evolution 101:24 
    A Single Organism Cannot Evolve 101:34 
    No Single Missing Link with Human Evolution 103:01 
    Humans Did Not Evolve from Chimpanzees 106:13 
  Human Evolution 47:31
   Intro 0:00 
   Primates 0:04 
    Typical Primate Characteristics 1:12 
    Strepsirrhines 3:26 
    Haplorhines 4:08 
   Anthropoids 5:03 
    New World Monkeys 5:15 
    Old World Moneys 6:20 
    Hominoids 6:51 
    Hominins 7:51 
   Hominins 8:46 
    Larger Brains 8:53 
    Thinner, Flatter Face 9:02 
    High Manual Dexterity 9:30 
    Bipedal 9:41 
   Australopithecines 12:11 
    Earliest Fossil Evidence for Bipedalism 12:24 
    Earliest Australopithecines 13:06 
    Lucy 13:35 
   The Genus 'Homo' 15:20 
    Living and Extinct Humans 16:46 
    Features 16:52 
    Tool Use 17:09 
   Homo Habilis 17:38 
    2.4 - 1.4 mya 18:38 
    Handy Human 19:19 
    Found In Africa 19:33 
   Homo Ergaster 20:11 
    1.8 - 1.2 mya 20:14 
    Features 20:25 
    Found In and Outside of Africa 20:41 
    Most Likely Hunted 21:03 
   Homo Erectus 21:32 
    1.8 - 0.4 mya 22:04 
    Upright Human 22:49 
    Found in Africa, Asia, and Europe 22:52 
    Features 22:57 
    Used Fire 23:07 
   Homo Heidelbergensis 23:45 
    1.3 - 0.2 mya 23:50 
    Transitional Form 24:22 
    Features 24:36 
   Homo Sapiens Neanderthalensis 24:56 
    0.3 - 0.2 mya 25:23 
    Neander Valley 25:31 
    Found in Europe and Asia 21:53 
    Constructed Complex Structures 27:50 
   Modern Human and Neanderthal 28:50 
   Homo Sapiens Sapiens 29:34 
    195,000 Years Ago - Present 29:37 
    Humans Most Likely Evolved Once 29:50 
    Features 30:26 
    Creative and More Control Over the Environment 30:37 
   Homo Floresiensis 31:36 
    18,000 Years Old 31:40 
    The Hobbit 32:09 
    Brain and Body Proportions are Similar to Australopithecines 32:16 
   Human Migration Summary 32:49 
  Origins of Life 40:58
   Intro 0:00 
   Brief History of Earth 0:05 
    About 4.5 Billion Years Old 0:13 
    Started Off as a Fiery Ball of Hot Volcanic Activity 1:12 
   Atmospheric Gas of Early Earth 2:20 
    Gases Expelled Out of Volcanic Vents 3:10 
    Building Blocks to Organic Compounds 4:47 
   Miller-Urey Experiment (1953) 5:41 
    Stanley Miller and Harold Urey 5:48 
    Amino Acids Were Found in the Sterile Water Beneath 7:27 
   Protobionts 8:07 
    Ancestors of Cells as We Know Them 8:19 
    Lipid Bubbles with Organic Compounds Inside 8:32 
   Origin of DNA 12:07 
    First Cells 12:12 
    RNA Originally Coded for Protein 12:44 
    DNA Allows for Retention and a Checking for Errors 12:55 
   Oxygen Surge 14:57 
    Photosynthesis Changes Oxygen Gas in Atmosphere 16:36 
    Cells Absorb Solar Energy with Pigment and Could Make Sugars and Release Oxygen 17:05 
   Endosymbiotic Theory 18:22 
    First Eukaryote was Born 19:54 
    First Proposed by Lynn Margulis 22:43 
   Multicellular Origins 23:08 
    Cells That Kept Close Quarters and Stayed Attached Had Safety in Numbers 23:28 
    Hypothesis 23:45 
   Cambrian Explosion 26:22 
    Explosion of Species 27:10 
    Theory and Snowball Earth 28:24 
   Timeline of Major Events 32:00 
  Biogenesis 27:25
   Intro 0:00 
   Spontaneous Generation 0:04 
    Spontaneous Generation 0:14 
    Pseudoscience 1:45 
    Individuals Who Sought to Disprove This Theory 2:49 
   Francesco Redi's Experiment 3:33 
    17th Century Italian Scientist 3:36 
    Wanted to Debunk the Theory That Maggots Emerge From Rotting Raw Meat 3:48 
   Lazzaro Spallanzani's Experiment 6:33 
    18th Century Italian Scientist 6:36 
    Wanted to Demonstrate That Microbes Could Be Airborne 6:58 
   Louis Pasteur's Experiment 9:47 
    19th Century French Scientist 9:51 
    Disprove Spontaneous Generation 11:17 
   Pasteur's Vaccine Discovery 13:47 
    Motivation to Discover a Way to Immunize People Against Disease 14:00 
    Cholera Bacteria 14:42 
   Vaccine Explanation 16:42 
    Inactive Versions of the Virus are Generated in a Culture 16:47 
    Antigens Injected Into the Person 17:45 
    Common Immunizations 22:00 
    Effectiveness 22:03 
    No Proof That Vaccines Cause Autism 26:33 

V. Diversity of Life

  Taxonomy 35:21
   Intro 0:00 
   Ancient Classification 0:04 
    Start of Classification Systems 0:56 
    How Plants and Animals Were Split Up 2:46 
    Used in Europe Until 1700s 3:27 
   Modern Classification 3:52 
    Carolus Linnaeus 3:58 
    Taxonomy 5:15 
   Taxonomic Groups 6:57 
    Domain 7:14 
    Kingdom 7:29 
    Phylum 7:39 
    Class 7:49 
    Order 8:02 
    Family 8:09 
    Genus 8:25 
    Species 8:45 
   Binomial Nomenclature 12:10 
    Genus Species 12:22 
    Naming System Rules 12:49 
   Advantages and Disadvantages to Taxonomy 14:56 
    Advantages 15:00 
    Disadvantages 17:53 
   Domains 20:31 
    Domain Archaea 21:10 
    Domain Bacteria 21:19 
    Domain Eukarya 21:43 
    Extremophiles 22:48 
   Kingdoms 25:09 
    Kingdom Archaebacteria 25:17 
    Kingdom Eubacteria 25:25 
    Kingdom Protista 25:52 
    Kingdom Plantae, Fungi, Animalia 27:18 
   Cladograms 28:07 
    Relates Evolution to Phylogeny 28:12 
    Characteristics Lead to Splitting Off Groups of Organisms 28:20 
  Viruses 44:25
   Intro 0:00 
   Virus Basics 0:04 
    Non-Living Structures have the Potential to Harm Life on Earth 0:14 
    Made of Nucleic Acids Wrapped in a Protein Coat 2:15 
    5 to 300 nm Wide 3:12 
   Virus Structure 4:29 
    Icosahedral 4:41 
    Spherical 5:33 
    Bacteriophage 6:20 
    Helical 8:56 
   How Do They Invade Cells? 11:24 
    Viruses Can Fool Cells to Let Them In 11:27 
    Viruses Use the Organelles of the Host 12:29 
    Viruses are Host Specific 12:57 
   Viral Cycle 16:18 
    Lytic Cycle 16:34 
    Lysogenic Cycle 18:53 
    Connection Between Lytic/ Lysogenic 23:01 
   Retroviruses 30:04 
    Process is Backwards 30:52 
    Reverse Transcriptase 31:08 
    Example 31:47 
   HIV/ AIDS 32:38 
    Human Immunodeficiency Virus 32:42 
    Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome 36:27 
   Smallpox: A Brief History 37:06 
    One of the Most Harmful Viral Diseases in Human History 37:09 
    History 37:53 
   Prions 41:32 
    Infectious Proteins That Damage the Nervous System 41:33 
    Cause Transmittable Spongiform Encephalopathies 41:51 
    No Known Cure 43:42 
  Bacteria 46:01
   Intro 0:00 
   Archaebacteria 0:04 
    Thermophiles 1:10 
    Halophiles 2:06 
    Acidophiles 2:29 
    Methanogens 2:59 
   Archaea and Bacteria Compared to Eukarya 4:25 
    Archaea and Eukarya 4:36 
    Bacteria and Eukarya 5:37 
   Eubacteria 6:35 
    Nucleoid Region 7:02 
    Peptidoglycan 7:21 
    Binary Fission 8:08 
    No Membrane-Bound Organelles 8:59 
   Bacterial Shapes 10:19 
    Coccus 10:26 
    Bacillus 12:07 
    Spirillum 12:44 
   Bacterial Cell Walls 13:17 
    Gram Positive 13:47 
    Gram Negative 15:09 
   Bacterial Adaptations 16:13 
    Capsule 16:18 
    Fimbriae 17:51 
    Conjugation 18:30 
    Endospore 21:30 
    Flagella 23:49 
    Metabolism 24:36 
   Benefits of Bacteria 27:28 
    Mutualism 27:32 
    Connections to Human Life 30:56 
   Diseases Caused by Bacteria 35:05 
    STDs 35:15 
    Respiratory 36:04 
    Skin 37:15 
    Digestive Tract 38:00 
    Nervous System 38:27 
    Systemic Diseases 39:09 
   Antibiotics 40:26 
    Drugs That Block Protein Synthesis 40:40 
    Drugs That Block Cell Wall Production 41:07 
    Increased Bacterial Resistance 41:36 
  Protists 32:46
   Intro 0:00 
   Kingdom Protista Basics 0:04 
    Unicellular and Multicellular 0:28 
    Asexual and Sexual 0:48 
    Water and Land 1:06 
    Resemble Other Life Forms 1:32 
   Protist Origin 2:04 
    Evolutionary Bridge Between Bacteria and Multicellular Eukaryotes 2:06 
    Protist Ancestors 2:27 
   Protist Debate 4:18 
    One Kingdom 4:30 
    Some Scientists Group Into Separate Kingdoms Based on Genetic Links 4:37 
   Plant-like Protists 6:03 
    Photoautotrophs 6:12 
    Green Algae 6:44 
    Red Algae 7:12 
    Brown Algae 7:57 
    Golden Algae 9:10 
    Dinoflagellates 9:20 
    Diatoms 9:41 
    Euglena 10:17 
   Euglena Structure 10:39 
   Ulva Life Cycle 12:08 
   Fungi-Like Protists 15:39 
    Heterotrophs That Feed on Decaying Organic Matter 15:41 
    Found Anywhere with Moisture and Warmth 16:04 
   Cellular Slime Mold Life Cycle 17:34 
   Animal-like Protists 21:45 
    Heterotrophs That Eat Live Cells 21:50 
    Motile 22:03 
   Amoeba Life Cycle 25:24 
   How Protists Impact Humans 29:09 
    Good 29:16 
    Bad 32:18 
  Plants, Part I 54:22
   Intro 0:00 
   Kingdom Plantae Characteristics 0:05 
    Cuticle 0:38 
    Vascular Bundles 1:18 
    Stomata 2:51 
    Alternation of Generations 4:16 
   Plant Origins 5:58 
    Common Ancestor with Green Algae 6:03 
    Appeared on Earth 400 Million Years Ago 7:28 
   Non-Vascular Plants 8:17 
    Bryophytes 8:45 
    Anthoworts 9:12 
    Hepaticophytes 9:19 
   Bryophyte (Moss) Life Cycle 9:30 
    Dominant Gametophyte 9:38 
    Illustration Explanation 9:58 
   Seedless Vascular Plants 15:26 
    Do Not Reproduce With Seeds 15:33 
    Sori 15:42 
    Lycophytes 15:54 
    Pterophytes 16:30 
   Pterophyte (Fern) Life Cycle 17:05 
    Dominant Generation 17:08 
    Produce Motile Sperm 17:17 
   Seed Plants 23:17 
    Most Vascular Plants Have Seeds 23:25 
    Cotyledons 23:43 
    Gymnosperm vs. Angiosperm 24:50 
    Divisions 25:48 
   Coniferophytes (Cone-Bearing Plants) 27:05 
    Examples 27:07 
    Evergreen or Deciduous 27:44 
    Gymnosperms 28:26 
    Economic Importance 29:28 
   Conifer Life Cycle 30:10 
    Dominant Generation 30:13 
    Cones Contain the Gametophyte 30:25 
    Illustration Explanation 30:31 
   Anthophytes (Flowering Plants) 38:01 
    Every Plant That Has Flowers 38:03 
    Angiosperms 38:28 
    Various Life Spans 38:03 
   Flower Anatomy 40:25 
    Female Parts 40:54 
    Male Parts 42:49 
   Flowering Plant Life Cycle 44:48 
    Dominant Generation 44:56 
    Flowers Contain the Gametophyte 45:05 
  Plants, Part II 44:40
   Intro 0:00 
   Plant Cell Varieties 0:05 
    Parenchyma 0:11 
    Collenchyma 1:37 
    Sclerenchyma 2:03 
    Specialized Tissues 2:56 
   Plant Tissues 3:17 
    Meristematic Tissue 3:21 
    Dermal Tissue 6:46 
    Vascular Tissues 8:45 
    Ground Tissue 13:56 
   Roots 14:24 
    Root Cap 15:59 
    Cortex 16:17 
    Endodermis 17:02 
    Pericycle 17:42 
    Taproot 18:11 
    Fibrous 18:20 
    Modified 18:49 
   Stems 19:49 
    Tuber 21:43 
    Rhizome 21:58 
    Runner 22:12 
    Bulb and Corm 22:49 
   Leaves 23:06 
    Photosynthesis 23:09 
    Leaf Parts 23:32 
    Gas Exchange 25:55 
    Transpiration 26:25 
   Seeds 27:41 
    Cotyledons 28:42 
    Seed Coat 29:29 
    Endosperm 29:37 
    Embryo 30:10 
    Radicle 30:27 
    Epicotyl 31:57 
   Fruit 33:49 
    Fleshy Fruits 34:46 
    Aggregate Fruits 35:17 
    Multiple Fruits 35:50 
    Dry Fruits 36:27 
   Plant Hormones 37:44 
    Definition or Hormones 37:48 
    Examples 38:12 
   Plant Responses 40:42 
    Tropisms 41:00 
    Nastic Responses 43:04 
  Fungi 26:20
   Intro 0:00 
   Fungi Basics 0:03 
    Characteristics 0:09 
    Closely Related to Kingdom Animalia 2:33 
   Fungal Structure 2:58 
    Hypae 3:03 
    Mycelium 5:00 
    Spore 5:24 
   Reproductive Strategies 6:15 
    Fragmentation 6:23 
    Budding 6:35 
    Spore Production 7:03 
   Zygomycota (Molds) 7:50 
    Sexual Reproduction 8:04 
    Dikaryotic 9:47 
    Stolons 10:32 
    Rhizoids 10:53 
   Ascomycota (Sac Fungi) 11:43 
    Largest Phylum of Fungi on Earth 11:47 
    Ascus 12:20 
    Conidia 12:30 
    Example 12:46 
   Basidiomycota (Club Fungi) 14:51 
    Basidium 15:14 
    Common Structures In These Fungi 15:37 
    Examples 16:17 
   Deuteromycota (Imperfect Fungi) 17:25 
    No Known Sexual Life Cycle 17:31 
    Penicillin 18:00 
   Benefits of Fungi 18:51 
    Mutualism 18:56 
    Food 21:41 
    Medicines 22:30 
    Decomposition 23:08 
   Fungal Infections 23:38 
    Athlete's Foot 23:44 
    Ringworm 24:09 
    Yeast Infections 24:27 
    Candidemia 24:56 
    Aspergillus 25:15 
    Fungal Meningitis 25:44 
  Animals, Part I 35:28
   Intro 0:00 
   Animal Basics 0:05 
    Multicellular Eukaryotes 0:12 
    Motility 0:27 
    Heterotrophic 0:47 
    Sexual Reproduction 0:57 
    Symmetry 1:14 
    Gut 1:26 
    Cephalization 1:40 
    Segmentation 1:53 
    Sensory Organs 2:09 
   Reproductive Strategies 3:07 
    Gonads 3:17 
    Fertilization 4:01 
    Asexual 4:53 
   Animal Development 7:27 
    Zygote 7:29 
    Blastula 7:50 
    Gastrula 9:07 
    Embryo 12:57 
   Symmetry 13:17 
    Radial Symmetry 14:14 
    Bilateral Symmetry 15:26 
    Asymmetry 16:34 
   Body Cavities 17:22 
    Coelom 17:24 
    Acoelomates 18:39 
    Pseudocoelomates 19:15 
    Coelomates 19:40 
   Major Animal Phyla 20:47 
    Phylum Porifera 21:15 
    Phylum Cnidaria 21:33 
    Phylum Platyhelmininthes, Nematoda, and Annelida 21:44 
    Phylum Rotifera 21:56 
    Phylum Mollusca 22:13 
    Phylum Arthropoda 22:34 
    Phylum Echinodermata 22:48 
    Phylum Chordata 23:18 
   Phylum Porifera 25:15 
    Sponges 25:23 
    Oceanic or Aquatic 26:07 
    Adults are Sessile 26:26 
    Structure 27:09 
    Sexual or Asexual Reproduction 28:31 
   Phylum Cnidaria 28:49 
    Sea Jellies, Anemonse, Hydrozoans, and Corals 28:57 
    Mostly Oceanic 30:42 
    Body Types 31:32 
    Cnidocytes 33:06 
    Nerve Net 34:55 
  Animals, Part II 48:42
   Intro 0:00 
   Phylum Platyhelminthes 0:04 
    Flatworms 0:14 
    Acoelomates 0:33 
    Terrestrial, Oceanic, or Aquatic 0:46 
    Simple Nervous System 2:46 
    Reproduction 3:38 
   Phylum Nematoda 4:20 
    Unsegmented Roundworms 4:25 
    Pseudocoelomates 4:34 
    Terrestrial, Oceanic, or Aquatic 4:53 
    Full Digestive Tract 5:29 
    Reproduction 7:07 
    C. Elegans 7:24 
   Phylum Annelida 8:11 
    Segmented Roundworms 8:20 
    Terrestrial, Oceanic, or Aquatic 8:42 
    Full Digestive Tract 8:56 
    Accordion-like Movement 11:26 
    Simple Nervous System 12:31 
    Sexual Reproduction 13:40 
    Class Oligochaeta 14:47 
    Class Polychaeta 14:56 
    Class Hirudinea 15:13 
   Phylum Rotifera 16:11 
    Pseudocoelomates 16:26 
    Terrestrial, Aquatic 16:42 
    Digestive Tract 16:56 
   Phylum Mollusca 18:55 
    Snails, Slugs, Clams, Oysters 19:00 
    Terrestrial, Oceanic, or Aquatic 19:14 
    Mantle 19:29 
    Full Digestive Tract with Specialized Organs 21:10 
    Sexual Reproduction 24:29 
    Major Classes 24:58 
   Phylum Arthropoda 28:16 
    Insects, Arachnids, Crustaceans 28:19 
    Terrestrial, Oceanic, or Aquatic 28:41 
    Head, Thorax, Abdomen 28:50 
    Excretion with Malpighian Tubes 32:48 
    Arthropod Groups 34:06 
   Phylum Echinodermata 38:32 
    Sea Stars, Sea Urchins, Sand Dollars, Sea Cucumbers 38:37 
    Oceanic or Aquatic 39:36 
    Water Vascular System 39:43 
    Full Digestive Tract 40:38 
    Sexual Reproduction 42:01 
   Phylum Chordata 42:16 
    All Vertebrates 42:22 
    Terrestrial, Oceanic, or Aquatic 42:40 
    Main Body Parts 42:49 
    Mostly in Subphylum Vertebrata 44:54 
    Examples 45:14 
  Animals, Part III 35:45
   Intro 0:00 
   Characteristics of Subphylum Vertebrata 0:04 
    Vertebral Column 0:16 
    Neural Crest 0:38 
    Internal Organs 1:24 
   Fish Characteristics 2:05 
    Oceanic or Aquatic 2:16 
    Locomotion with Paired Fins 3:15 
    Gills 4:18 
    Fertilization 8:14 
    Movement 8:30 
   Fish Classes 8:58 
    Jawless Fishes 9:06 
    Cartilaginous Fishes 10:07 
    Bony Fishes 10:46 
   Amphibian Characteristics 12:22 
    Tetrapods 12:29 
    Moist Skin 14:22 
    Circulation 14:39 
    Nictitating Membrane 16:36 
    Tympanic Membrane 16:56 
    External Fertilization is Typical 17:34 
   Amphibian Orders 18:20 
    Order Anura 18:27 
    Order Caudata 19:15 
    Order Gymnophiona 19:59 
   Reptile Characteristics 20:31 
    Dry, Scaly Skin 20:37 
    Lungs for Gas Exchange 22:00 
    Terrestrial, Oceanic, Aquatic 22:12 
    Ectothermic 23:07 
    Internal Fertilization 24:13 
   Reptile Orders 26:28 
    Order Squamata 26:33 
    Order Crocodilia 27:32 
    Order Testudinata 27:55 
    Order Sphenodonta 28:30 
   Bird Characteristics 28:43 
    Feathers 29:42 
    Lightweight Bones 31:33 
    Lungs with Air Sacs 32:25 
    Endothermic 33:47 
    Internal Fertilization 34:03 
   Bird Orders 34:13 
    Order Passeriformes 34:29 
    Order Ciconiiformes 34:46 
    Order Sphenisciformes 34:55 
    Order Strigiformes 35:20 
    Order Struthioniformes 35:25 
    Order Anseriformes 35:38 
  Mammals 38:39
   Intro 0:00 
   Mammary Glands and Hair 0:04 
    Class Mammalia Name 0:20 
    Hair Functions 1:53 
   Metabolic Characteristics 3:58 
    Endothermy 4:01 
    Feeding 4:48 
   Mammalian Organs 8:43 
    Respiratory System 8:47 
    Circulation 9:26 
    Brain and Senses 10:29 
    Glands 11:56 
   Mammalian Reproduction 12:55 
    Live Birth 13:03 
    Placental 13:17 
    Marsupial 14:41 
    Gestation Periods 16:07 
   Infraclass Marsupialia 17:42 
    Australia 17:59 
    Uterus/ Pouch 18:33 
    Origins 18:53 
    Examples 19:24 
   Order Monotremata 20:21 
    Egg Layers 20:25 
    Platypus, Echidna 20:55 
    Shoulder Area Has a Reptilian Bone Structure 21:07 
   Order Insectivora 22:21 
    Insectivores 22:23 
    Pointy Snouts 22:32 
    Burrowing 22:53 
    Examples 23:10 
   Order Chiroptera 23:32 
    True Flying Mammalian Order 23:38 
    Wings 23:59 
    Feeding 24:21 
    Examples 25:08 
   Order Xenarthra 25:14 
    Edentata 25:18 
    No Teeth 25:23 
    Location 25:50 
    Examples 25:55 
   Order Rodentia 26:33 
    40% of Mammalian Species 26:38 
    2 Pairs of Incisors 26:45 
    Examples 27:28 
   Order Lagomorpha 28:06 
    Herbivores 28:30 
    Examples 28:41 
   Order Carnivora 29:19 
    Teeth 29:36 
    Examples 29:42 
   Order Proboscidea 30:37 
    Largest Living Terrestrial Mammals 30:40 
    Trunks 30:48 
    Tusks 31:12 
    Examples 31:33 
   Order Sirenia 32:01 
    Large, Slow Moving Aquatic Mammals 32:15 
    Flippers 32:26 
    Herbivores 32:37 
    Examples 32:42 
   Order Cetacea 32:46 
    Large, Mostly Hairless Aquatic Mammals 32:50 
    Flippers 33:06 
    Fluke 33:18 
    Blowhole 33:29 
    Examples 34:10 
   Order Artiodactyla 34:30 
    Even-Toed Hoofed Mammals 34:33 
    Herbivores 34:37 
    Sometimes Grouped with Cetaceans 34:52 
    Examples 35:35 
   Order Perissodactyla 35:57 
    Odd-Toed Hoofed Mammals 36:00 
    Herbivores 36:12 
    Examples 36:27 
   Order Primates 36:30 
    Largest Brain-to-Body Ratio 36:35 
    Arboreal 37:03 
    Nails 37:33 
    Examples 38:29 
  Animal Behavior 29:55
   Intro 0:00 
   Behavior Overview 0:04 
    Behavior 0:08 
    Origin of Behavior 0:36 
    Competitive Advantage 1:26 
   Innate Behaviors 2:05 
    Genetically Based 2:07 
    Instinct 2:13 
    Fixed Action Pattern 3:31 
   Learned Behavior 5:13 
    Habituation 5:26 
    Classical Conditioning 6:31 
    Operant Conditioning 7:51 
   Imprinting 10:17 
    Learned Behavior That Can Only Occur in a Specific Time Period 10:20 
    Sensitive Period 10:28 
   Cognitive Behaviors 11:53 
    Thinking, Reasoning, and Processing Information 12:02 
    Examples 12:22 
   Competitive Behaviors 14:40 
    Agonistic Behavior 14:46 
    Dominance Hierarchies 15:23 
    Territorial Behaviors 16:19 
   More Types of Behavior 17:05 
    Foraging Behaviors 17:08 
    Migratory Behaviors 17:53 
    Biological Rhythms 19:15 
   Communication Behaviors 20:37 
    Pheromones 20:52 
    Auditory Communication 22:18 
   Courting and Nurturing Behaviors 23:42 
    Courting Behaviors 23:45 
    Nurturing Behaviors 26:04 
   Cooperative Behaviors 26:47 
    Benefit All Members of the Group 27:01 
    Example 27:08 

VI. Ecology

  Ecology, Part I 1:07:26
   Intro 0:00 
   Ecology Basics 0:05 
    Ecology 0:18 
    Biotic vs. Abiotic Factors 1:25 
    Population 2:23 
    Community 2:45 
    Ecosystem 3:04 
    Biosphere 3:27 
   Individuals and Survival 4:13 
    Habitat 4:23 
    Niche 4:37 
    Symbiosis 7:07 
   Obtaining Energy 11:14 
    Producers 11:24 
    Consumers 13:31 
   Food Chain 17:11 
    Model to Illustrate How Matter Moves Through Organisms in an Ecosystem 17:15 
    Examples 18:31 
   Food Web 20:29 
   Keystone Species 22:55 
   Three Ecological Pyramids 27:28 
    Pyramid of Energy 27:38 
    Pyramid of Numbers 31:39 
    Pyramid of Biomass 34:09 
   The Water Cycle 37:24 
   The Carbon Cycle 40:19 
   The Nitrogen Cycle 43:34 
   The Phosphorus Cycle 46:42 
   Population Growth 49:35 
   Reproductive Patterns 51:58 
    Life History Patterns Vary 52:10 
    r-Selection 53:30 
    K-Selection 56:55 
   Density Factors 59:02 
    Density-Dependent Factors 59:29 
    Density-Independent Factors 62:21 
   Predator / Prey Relationships 63:59 
  Ecology, Part II 50:50
   Intro 0:00 
   Mimicry 0:05 
    Batesian Mimicry 0:38 
    Müllerian Mimicry 1:53 
   Camouflage 3:23 
    Blend In with Surroundings 3:38 
    Evade Detection by Predators 3:43 
   Succession 5:22 
    Primary Succession 5:40 
    Secondary Succession 7:44 
   Biomes 9:31 
    Terrestrial 10:08 
    Aquatic / Marine 10:05 
   Desert 11:20 
    Annual Rainfall 11:24 
    Flora 13:35 
    Fauna 14:15 
   Tundra 14:49 
    Annual Rainfall 15:00 
    Permafrost 15:50 
    Flora 16:06 
    Fauna 16:40 
   Taiga (Boreal Forest) 16:59 
    Annual Rainfall 17:14 
    Largest Terrestrial Biome 17:33 
    Flora 18:37 
    Fauna 18:49 
   Temperate Grassland 19:07 
    Annual Rainfall 19:28 
    Flora 20:14 
    Fauna 20:18 
   Tropical Grassland (Savanna) 20:41 
    Annual Rainfall 21:01 
    Flora 21:56 
    Fauna 22:00 
   Temperate Deciduous Forest 22:19 
    Annual Rainfall 23:11 
    Flora 23:45 
    Fauna 23:50 
   Tropical Rain Forest 24:11 
    Annual Rainfall 24:16 
    Flora 27:15 
    Fauna 27:49 
   Lakes 28:05 
    Eutrophic 28:21 
    Oligotrophic 28:29 
    Zones 29:34 
   Estuaries 32:56 
    Area Where Freshwater and Salt Water Meet 33:00 
    Mangrove Swamps 33:12 
    Nutrient Traps 33:52 
    Organisms 34:24 
   Marine 34:50 
    Euphotic Zone 35:16 
    Pelagic Zone 37:11 
    Abyssal Plain 38:15 
   Conservation Summary 40:03 
    Biodiversity 40:33 
    Habitat Loss 44:06 
    Pollution 44:55 
   Climate Change 47:03 
    Global Warming 47:06 
    Greenhouse Gases 47:48 
    Polar Ice Caps 49:01 
    Weather Patterns 50:00 

VII. Laboratory

  Laboratory Investigation I: Microscope Lab 24:51
   Intro 0:00 
   Light Microscope Parts 0:06 
   Microscope Use 6:25 
    Mount the Specimen 6:28 
    Place Slide on Stage 7:29 
    Ensure Specimen is Above Light Source 8:11 
    Lowest Objective Lens Faces Downward 8:34 
    Focus on the Image 9:36 
    Adjust the Nosepiece If Needed 9:49 
    Re-Focus 9:57 
   Human Skin Layers 10:42 
   Plants Cells 13:43 
   Human Lung Tissue 15:20 
   Euglena 18:26 
   Plant Stem 20:43 
   Mold 22:57 
  Laboratory Investigation II: Egg Lab 11:26
   Intro 0:00 
   Egg Lab Introduction 0:06 
    Purpose 0:09 
    Materials 0:37 
    Time 1:24 
   Day 1 1:28 
   Day 2 3:59 
   Day 3 6:05 
   Analysis 7:50 
   Osmosis Connection 10:24 
    Hypertonic 10:36 
    Hypotonic 10:49 
  Laboratory Investigation III: Carbon Dioxide Production 14:34
   Intro 0:00 
   Carbon Dioxide Introduction 0:06 
    Purpose 0:09 
    Materials 0:56 
    Time 2:39 
   Part I 2:41 
    Put Water in Large Beaker 3:09 
    Exhale Into the Water 3:15 
    Add a Drop of Phenolphthalein 4:31 
    Add NaOH 5:33 
    Record the Amount of Drops 6:10 
   Part II 6:24 
    Add HCL 6:39 
    Exercise for Five Minutes 7:26 
    Return and Re-Do the Exhaling 7:58 
   Analysis 9:11 
   Aerobic Respiration Connection 13:18 
    As Aerobic Respiration Occurs In Cells, Carbon Dioxide Is Produced 13:21 
    Increase Output of Carbon Dioxide 13:29 
    Number of Exhalations Increase 14:17 
  Laboratory Investigation IV: DNA Extraction Lab 10:38
   Intro 0:00 
   DNA Lab Introduction 0:06 
    Purpose 0:09 
    Materials 0:45 
    Time 2:03 
   Part I 2:06 
    Pour Sports Drink Into the Small Cup 2:08 
    When Time Expires, Spit Into the Cup 2:53 
    Add Cell Lysate Solution 3:21 
    Let it Sit for a Couple Minutes 4:04 
   Part II 4:10 
    Slowly Add Cold Ethanol 4:13 
    DNA Will Creep Up Into the Ethanol Layer 5:01 
   Analysis 5:59 
   DNA Structure Connection 8:49 
    DNA is Microscopic 8:54 
    Visible DNA 9:39 
    Extracted DNA 9:49 
  Laboratory Investigation V: Onion Root Tip Mitosis Lab 13:12
   Intro 0:00 
   Mitosis Lab Introduction 0:06 
    Purpose 0:09 
    Materials 0:57 
    Time 1:42 
   Part I 1:49 
    Mount the Slide and Zoom Into the Root Apical Meristem 1:50 
    Zoom In 3:00 
    Count the Cells in Each Phase 3:09 
    Record Your Results 3:52 
   Microscope View Example 3:58 
   Part II 6:49 
    Move to Another Part of the Root Apical Meristem 6:55 
    Count the Phases in this Second Region 7:02 
   Analysis 9:07 
   Mitosis Connection 11:17 
    Rate of Mitosis Varies from Species to Species 11:21 
    Mitotic Rate Was Higher Since We Used An Actively Dividing Tissue 12:16 
  Laboratory Investigation VI: Inheritance Lab 13:55
   Intro 0:00 
   Inheritance Lab Introduction 0:05 
    Purpose 0:09 
    Materials 0:53 
    Time 2:00 
   Explanation 2:03 
   Basic Procedure 5:03 
   Analysis 8:00 
   Inheritance Laws Connection 11:23 
    Law of Segregation 11:31 
    Law of Independent Assortment 12:49 
  Laboratory Investigation VII: Allele Frequencies 14:11
   Intro 0:00 
   Allele Frequencies Introduction 0:05 
    Purpose 0:08 
    Materials 1:34 
    Time 2:10 
   Part I 2:12 
   Part II 7:05 
   Analysis 7:51 
   Evolution Connection 10:45 
    Meant to Stimulate How a Population's Allele Frequencies Change Over Time 10:47 
    Particular Phenotypes Selected 11:31 
    Recessive Allele Keeps Dropping 12:18 
  Laboratory Investigation VIII: Genetic Transformation 16:42
   Intro 0:00 
   Genetic Transformation Introduction 0:06 
    Purpose 0:09 
    Materials 0:57 
    Time 3:31 
   Set-Up 4:18 
    Starter Culture with E. Coli Colonies 4:21 
    Just E. Coli 5:37 
    Ampicillin with No Plasmid 6:24 
    Ampicillin with Plasmid 7:11 
    Ampicillin with Plasmid and Arabinose 7:33 
   Procedure 8:35 
   Analysis 13:01 
   Genetic Transformation Connection 14:59 
    Easier to Transform Bacteria Than a Multicellular Organism 15:03 
    Desired Trait Can be Expressed from the Bacteria 15:52 
    Numerous Applications in Medicine 16:04 

Duration: 24 hours, 56 minutes

Number of Lessons: 37

This online course covers everything from the microscopic to the macroscopic and is perfect for both high school and college students beginning their journey into biology, or just needing a quick refresher. Common labs are also covered with tons of insights and strategies to maximize your laboratory assignment scores.

Additional Features:

  • Free Sample Lessons
  • Downloadable Lecture Slides
  • Instructor Comments

Topics Include:

  • Scientific Method
  • Cell Structure
  • Cellular Energy
  • DNA & RNA
  • Genetics
  • Evolution
  • Viruses & Bacteria
  • Plants & Animals
  • Ecology
  • Common Labs

Professor Cardella brings both extensive knowledge and engaging delivery with his 10+ years teaching life sciences and stand-up comedy experience.

Student Testimonials:

“You are not only brilliant and a great teacher, but hilarious as well.” — Lilian C.

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“This lab [segment] was awesome, and it really gave me a complete understanding of how osmosis works! Thanks!” — Michelle G.