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Professor Bryan Cardella covers everything in biology from the microscopic to the macroscopic. This course is perfect for both high school and college students beginning their journey into biology, or just needing a quick refresher. Bryan explains all concepts in easy to understand chunks complete with tons of diagrams and drawings. The course covers everything from Cells and DNA, through Evolution, Plants, Ecology, and even in-depth overviews of common Labs. Professor Cardella brings both extensive knowledge and engaging delivery with his 5+ years teaching life sciences and stand-up comedy experience.

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I. Introduction to Biology
  Scientific Method 26:23
   Intro 0:00 
   Origins of the Scientific Method 0:04 
   Steps of the Scientific Method 3:08 
    Observe 3:21 
    Ask a Question 4:00 
    State a Hypothesis 4:08 
    Obtain Data (Experiment) 4:25 
    Interpret Data (Result) 5:01 
    Analysis (Form Conclusions) 5:38 
   Scientific Method in Action 6:16 
    Control vs. Experimental Groups 7:24 
    Independent vs. Dependent Variables 9:51 
    Other Factors Remain Constant 11:03 
   Scientific Method Example 13:58 
   Scientific Method Illustration 17:35 
   More on the Scientific Method 22:16 
    Experiments Need to Duplicate 24:07 
    Peer Review 24:46 
    New Discoveries 25:23 
  Molecular Basis of Biology 46:22
   Intro 0:00 
   Building Blocks of Matter 0:06 
    Matter 0:32 
    Mass 1:10 
    Atom 1:48 
    Ions 5:50 
    Bonds 8:29 
   Molecules 9:55 
    Ionic Bonds 9:57 
    Covalent Bonds 11:10 
    Water 12:30 
   Organic Compounds 17:48 
    Carbohydrates 18:04 
    Lipids 19:43 
    Proteins 20:42 
    Nucleic Acids 22:21 
   Carbohydrates 22:54 
    Sugars 22:56 
    Functions 23:42 
    Molecular Representation Formula 26:34 
    Examples 27:15 
   Lipids 28:44 
    Fats 28:46 
    Triglycerides 29:04 
    Functions 32:10 
    Steroids 33:43 
    Saturated Fats 34:18 
    Unsaturated Fats 36:08 
   Proteins 37:26 
    Amino Acids 37:58 
    3D Structure Relates to Their Function 38:54 
    Structural Proteins vs Globular Proteins 39:41 
    Functions 40:41 
   Nucleic Acids 42:53 
    Nucleotides 43:04 
    DNA and RNA 44:34 
    Functions 45:07 
II. Cells: Structure & Function
  Cells: Parts & Characteristics 1:12:12
   Intro 0:00 
   Microscopes 0:06 
    Anton Van Leeuwenhoek 0:58 
    Robert Hooke 1:36 
    Matthias Schleiden 2:52 
    Theodor Schwann 3:19 
    Electron Microscopes 4:16 
    SEM and TEM 4:54 
   The Cell Theory 5:21 
    3 Tenets 5:24 
    All Organisms Are Composed of One Or More Cells 5:46 
    The Cell is the Basic Unit of Structure and Function for Organisms 6:01 
    All Cells Comes from Preexisting Cells 6:34 
   The Characteristics of Life 8:09 
    Display Organization 8:18 
    Grow and Develop 9:12 
    Reproduce 9:33 
    Respond to Stimuli 9:55 
    Maintain Homeostasis 10:23 
    Can Evolve 11:37 
   Prokaryote vs. Eukaryote 11:53 
    Prokaryote 12:13 
    Eukaryote 14:00 
   Cell Parts 16:53 
   Plasma Membrane 18:27 
    Cell Membrane 18:29 
    Protective and Regulatory 18:52 
    Semi-Permeable 19:18 
    Polar Heads with Non-Polar Tails 20:52 
    Proteins are Imbedded in the Layer 22:46 
   Nucleus 25:53 
    Contains the DNA in Nuclear Envelope 26:31 
    Brain on the Cell 28:12 
    Nucleolus 28:26 
   Ribosome 29:02 
    Protein Synthesis Sites 29:25 
    Made of RNA and Protein 29:29 
    Found in Cytoplasm 30:24 
   Endoplasmic Reticulum 31:49 
    Adjacent to Nucleus 32:07 
    Site of Numerous Chemical Reactions 32:37 
    Rough 32:56 
    Smooth 33:48 
   Golgi Apparatus 34:54 
    Flattened Membranous Sacs 35:10 
    Function 35:45 
   Cell Parts Review 37:06 
   Mitochondrion 39:45 
    Mitochondria 39:50 
    Membrane-Bound Organelles 40:07 
    Outer Double Membrane 40:57 
    Produces Energy-Storing Molecules 41:46 
   Chloroplast 43:45 
    In Plant Cells 43:47 
    Membrane-Bound Organelles with Their Own DNA and Ribosomes 44:20 
    Thylakoids 44:59 
    Produces Sugars Through Photosynthesis 45:46 
   Vacuoles/ Vesicles 46:44 
    Vacuoles 47:03 
    Vesicles 47:59 
   Lysosome 50:21 
    Membranous Sac for Breakdown of Molecules 50:34 
    Contains Digestive Enzymes 51:55 
   Centrioles 53:15 
    Found in Pairs 53:18 
    Made of Cylindrical Ring of Microtubules 53:22 
    Contained Within Centrosomes 53:51 
    Functions as Anchors for Spindle Apparatus in Cell Division 54:06 
    Spindle Apparatus 55:27 
   Cytoskeleton 55:55 
    Forms Framework or Scaffolding for Cell 56:05 
    Provides Network of Protein Fibers for Travel 56:24 
    Made of Microtubules, Microfilaments, and Intermediate Filaments 57:18 
   Cilia 59:21 
    Cilium 59:27 
    Made of Ring of Microtubules 60:00 
    How They Move 60:35 
   Flagellum 62:42 
    Flagella 62:51 
    Long, Tail-Like Projection from a Cell 62:59 
    How They Move 63:27 
   Cell Wall 65:21 
    Outside of Plasma Membrane 65:25 
    Extra Protection and Rigidity for a Cell 65:52 
    In Plants 67:19 
    In Bacteria 67:25 
    In Fungi 67:41 
   Cytoplasm 68:07 
    Fluid-Filled Region of a Cell 68:24 
    Sight for Majority of the Cellular Reactions 68:47 
    Cytosol 69:29 
   Animal Cell vs. Plant Cell 69:10 
  Cellular Transport 32:01
   Intro 0:00 
   Passive Transport 0:05 
    Movement of Substances in Nature Without the Input of Energy 0:14 
    High Concentration to Low Concentration 0:36 
    Opposite of Active Transport 1:41 
    No Net Movement 3:20 
   Diffusion 3:55 
    Definition of Diffusion 3:58 
    Examples 4:07 
   Facilitated Diffusion 7:32 
    Definition of Facilitated Diffusion 7:49 
   Osmosis 9:34 
    Definition of Osmosis 9:42 
    Examples 10:50 
   Concentration Gradient 15:55 
    Definition of Concentration Gradient 16:01 
   Relative Concentrations 17:32 
    Hypertonic Solution 17:48 
    Hypotonic Solution 20:07 
    Isotonic Solution 21:27 
   Active Transport 22:49 
    Movement of Molecules Across a Membrane with the Use Energy 22:51 
    Example 23:30 
   Endocytosis 25:53 
    Wrapping Around of Part of the Plasma 26:13 
    Examples 26:26 
    Phagocytosis 28:54 
    Pinocytosis 29:02 
   Exocytosis 29:40 
    Releasing Material From Inside of a Cell 29:43 
    Opposite of Endocytosis 29:50 
  Cellular Energy, Part I 52:11
   Intro 0:00 
   Energy Facts 0:05 
    Law of Thermodynamics 0:16 
    Potential Energy 2:27 
    Kinetic Energy 2:50 
    Chemical Energy 3:01 
    Mechanical Energy 3:20 
    Solar Energy 3:41 
   ATP Structure 4:07 
    Adenosine Triphosphate 4:12 
    Common Energy Source 4:25 
   ATP Function 6:13 
    How It Works 7:18 
    What It Is Used For 7:43 
    GTP 9:36 
   ATP Cycle 10:35 
    ATP Formation 10:49 
    ATP Use 12:12 
   Enzyme Basics 13:51 
    Catalysts 13:59 
    Protein-Based 14:39 
    Reaction Occurs 14:51 
   Enzyme Structure 19:14 
    Active Site 19:23 
    Induced Fit 20:15 
   Enzyme Function 21:22 
    What Enzymes Help With 21:31 
    Inhibition 21:57 
    Ideal Environment to Function Properly 22:57 
   Enzyme Examples 25:26 
    Amylase 25:34 
    Catalase 26:03 
    DNA Polymerase 26:21 
    Rubisco 27:06 
   Photosynthesis 28:19 
    Process To Make Glucose 28:27 
    Photoauthotrophs 28:34 
    Endergonic 30:08 
    Reaction 30:22 
   Chloroplast Structure 31:55 
    Photosynthesis Factories Found in Plant Cells 32:26 
    Thylakoids 32:29 
    Stroma 33:18 
   Chloroplast Micrograph 34:14 
   Photosystems 34:46 
    Thylakoid Membranes Are Filled with These Reaction Centers 34:58 
    Photosystem II and Photosystem I 35:47 
   Light Reactions 37:09 
    Light-Dependent Reactions 37:24 
    Step 1 37:35 
    Step 2 38:31 
    Step 3 39:33 
    Step 4 40:33 
    Step 5 40:51 
    Step 6 41:30 
   Dark Reactions 43:15 
    Light-Independent Reactions or Calvin Cycle 43:19 
   Calvin Cycle 44:54 
  Cellular Energy, Part II 40:50
   Intro 0:00 
   Aerobic Respiration 0:05 
    Process of Breaking Down Carbohydrates to Make ATP 0:45 
    Glycolysis 1:44 
    Krebs Cycle 1:48 
    Oxidative Phosphorylation 2:06 
    Produces About 36 ATP 2:24 
   Glycolysis 3:35 
    Breakdown of Sugar Into Pyruvates 4:16 
    Occurs in the Cytoplasm 4:30 
   Krebs Cycle 11:40 
    Citric Acid Cycle 11:42 
    Acetyl-CoA 12:04 
    How Pyruvate Gets Modified into acetyl-CoA 12:35 
   Oxidative Phosphorylation 22:45 
   Anaerobic Respiration 29:44 
    Lactic Acid Fermentation 31:06 
    Alcohol Fermentation 31:51 
    Produces Only the ATP From Glycolysis 32:09 
   Aerobic Respiration vs. Photosynthesis 36:43 
  Cell Division 1:09:12
   Intro 0:00 
   Purposes of Cell Division 0:05 
    Growth and Development 0:17 
    Tissue Regeneration 0:51 
    Reproduction 1:51 
   Cell Size Limitations 4:01 
    Surface-to-Volume Ratio 5:33 
    Genome-to-Volume Ratio 10:29 
   The Cell Cycle 12:20 
    Interphase 13:23 
    Mitosis 14:08 
    Cytokinesis 14:21 
   Chromosome Structure 16:08 
    Sister Chromatids 19:00 
    Centromere 19:22 
    Chromatin 19:48 
   Interphase 21:38 
    Growth Phase #1 22:25 
    Synthesis of DNA 23:09 
    Growth Phase #2 23:52 
   Mitosis 25:13 
    4 Main Phases 25:21 
    Purpose of Mitosis 26:40 
   Prophase 28:46 
    Condense DNA 28:56 
    Nuclear Envelope Breaks Down 29:44 
    Nucleolus Disappears 30:04 
    Centriole Pairs Move to Poles 30:31 
    Spindle Apparatus Forms 31:22 
   Metaphase 32:36 
    Chromosomes Line Up Along Equator 32:43 
    Metaphase Plate 33:29 
   Anaphase 34:21 
    Sister Chromatids are Separated 34:26 
    Sister Chromatids Migrate Towards Poles 36:59 
   Telophase 37:17 
    Chromatids Become De-Condensed 37:31 
    Nuclear Envelope Reforms 37:59 
    Nucleoli Reappears 38:22 
    Spindle Apparatus Breaks Down 38:32 
   Cytokinesis 39:01 
    In Animal Cells 39:31 
    In Plant Cells 40:38 
   Cancer in Relation to Mitosis 41:59 
    Cancer Can Occur in Multicellular Organism 42:31 
    Particular Genes Control the Pace 43:11 
    Benign vs. Malignant 45:13 
    Metastasis 46:45 
    Natural Killer Cells 47:33 
   Meiosis 48:17 
    Produces 4 Cells with Half the Number of Chromosomes 49:02 
    Produces Genetically Unique Daughter Cells 51:56 
   Meiosis I 52:39 
    Prophase I 53:14 
    Metaphase I 57:44 
    Anaphase I 59:10 
    Telophase I 60:00 
   Meiosis II 61:04 
    Prophase II 61:08 
    Metaphase II 61:32 
    Anaphase II 62:08 
    Telophase II 62:43 
   Meiosis Overview 63:39 
   Products of Meiosis 66:00 
    Gametes 66:10 
    Sperm and Egg 66:17 
    Different Process for Spermatogenesis vs. Oogenesis 66:27 
III. From DNA to Protein
  DNA 51:42
   Intro 0:00 
   DNA: Its Role and Characteristics 0:05 
    Deoxyribonucleic Acid 0:17 
    Double Helix 1:28 
    Nucleotides 2:31 
    Anti-parallel 2:46 
    Self-Replicating 3:36 
    Codons, Genes, Chromosomes 3:56 
   DNA: The Discovery 5:13 
    DNA First Mentioned 5:50 
    Bacterial Transformation with DNA 6:32 
    Base Pairing Rule 8:06 
    DNA is Hereditary Material 9:44 
    X-Ray Crystallography Images 10:46 
    DNA Structure 11:49 
   Nucleotides 12:54 
   The Double Helix 16:34 
    Hydrogen Bonding 16:40 
    Backbone of Phosphates and Sugars 19:25 
    Strands are Anti-Parallel 19:37 
   Nitrogenous Bases 20:52 
    Purines 21:38 
    Pyrimidines 22:46 
   DNA Replication Overview 24:33 
    DNA Must Duplicate Every Time a Cell is Going to Divide 24:34 
    Semiconservative Replication 24:49 
    How Does it Occur? 27:34 
   DNA Replication Steps 28:39 
    DNA Helicase Unzips Double Stranded DNA 28:49 
    RNA Primer is Laid Down 29:10 
    DNA Polymerase Attaches Complementary Bases in Continuous Manner 30:07 
    DNA Polymerase Attaches Complementary Bases in Fragments 31:06 
    DNA Polymerase Replaces RNA Primers 31:22 
    DNA Ligase Connects Fragments Together 31:44 
   DNA Replication Illustration 32:25 
   'Junk' DNA 45:02 
    Only 2% of the Human Genome Codes for Protein 45:11 
    What Does Junk DNA Mean to Us? 46:52 
    DNA Technology Uses These Sequences 49:20 
  RNA 51:59
   Intro 0:00 
   The Central Dogma 0:04 
    Transcription 0:57 
    Translation 1:11 
   RNA: Its Role and Characteristics 2:02 
    Ribonucleic Acid 2:06 
    How It Is Different From DNA 2:59 
   DNA and RNA Differences 5:00 
   Types of RNA 6:01 
    Messenger RNA 6:15 
    Ribosomal RNA 6:49 
    Transfer RNA 7:52 
    Others 8:54 
   Transcription 9:26 
    Process in Which RNA is Made From a Gene in DNA 9:30 
    How It's Done 9:55 
    Summary of Steps 10:35 
   Transcription Steps 11:54 
    Initiation 11:57 
    Elongation 15:57 
    Termination 18:10 
   RNA Processing 21:35 
    Pre-mRNA 21:37 
    Modifications 21:53 
   Translation 27:01 
    Process in Which mRNA Binds with a Ribosome and tRNA and rRNA Assist 27:03 
    Summary of Steps 28:39 
   Translation the mRNA Code 28:59 
    Every Codon in mRNA Gets Translated to an Amino Acid 29:14 
    Chart Providing the Resulting Translation 29:19 
   Translation Steps 32:20 
    Initiation 32:23 
    Elongation 35:31 
    Termination 38:43 
   Mutations 40:22 
    Code in DNA is Subject to Change 41:00 
    Why Mutations Happen 41:23 
    Point Mutation 43:16 
    Insertion / Deletion 47:58 
    Duplications 50:03 
  Genetics, Part I 1:15:17
   Intro 0:00 
   Gregor Mendel 0:05 
    Father of Genetics 0:39 
    Experimented with Crossing Peas 1:02 
    Discovered Consistent Patterns 2:37 
   Mendel's Laws of Genetics 3:10 
    Law of Segregation 3:20 
    Law of Independent Assortment 5:07 
   Genetics Vocabulary #1 6:28 
    Gene 6:42 
    Allele 7:18 
    Homozygous 8:25 
    Heterozygous 9:39 
    Genotype 10:15 
    Phenotype 11:01 
    Hybrid 11:53 
    Pure Breeding 12:28 
   Generation Vocabulary 13:03 
    Parental Generation 13:25 
    1st Filial 13:58 
    2nd Filial 14:06 
   Punnett Squares 15:07 
   Monohybrid Cross 18:52 
    Mating Pure-Breeding Peas in the P Generation 19:09 
    F1 Cross 21:31 
   Dihybrid Cross Introduction 23:42 
    Traced Inheritance of 2 Genes in Pea Plants 23:50 
   Dihybrid Cross Example 26:07 
    Phenotypic Ratio 31:34 
   Incomplete Dominance 32:02 
    Blended Inheritance 32:27 
    Example 32:35 
   Epistasis 35:05 
    Occurs When a Gene Has the Ability to Completely Cancel Out the Expression of Another Gene 35:10 
    Example 35:30 
   Multiple Alleles 40:12 
    More Than Two Forms of Alleles 40:23 
    Example 41:06 
   Polygenic Inheritance 46:50 
    Many Traits Get Phenotype From the Inheritance of Numerous Genes 46:58 
    Example 47:26 
   Test Cross 51:53 
    In Cases of Complete Dominance 52:03 
    Test Cross Demonstrates Which Genotype They Have 52:52 
   Sex-Linked Traits 53:56 
    Autosomes 54:21 
    Sex Chromosomes 54:57 
   Genetic Disorders 59:31 
    Autosomal Recessive 60:00 
    Autosomal Dominant 66:17 
    Sex-Linked Recessive 69:19 
    Sex-Linked Dominant 73:41 
  Genetics, Part II 53:22
   Intro 0:00 
   Karotyping 0:05 
    Process to Check Chromosomes for Abnormal Characteristics 1:05 
    Done with Cells From a Fetus 1:22 
    Amniocentesis 1:26 
   Normal Karotype 2:48 
   Abnormal Karotype 5:10 
   Nondisjunction 6:04 
    Failure of Chromosomes to Properly Separate During Meiosis 6:07 
    Nondisjunction 9:52 
    Typically Causes Chromosomal Disorders Upon Fertilization 10:11 
   Chromosomal Disorders 10:17 
    Autosome Disorders 10:20 
    Sex Chromosome Disorders 13:13 
   Pedigrees 18:43 
    Visual Depiction of an Inheritance Pattern for One Gene in a Family's History 18:56 
    Symbols 19:11 
    Trait Being Traced is Depicted by Coloring in the Individual 20:27 
   Pedigree Example #1 22:47 
   Pedigree Example #2 26:10 
   Pedigree Example #3 28:31 
   Environmental Impact 30:49 
    Gene Expression Is Often Influenced by Environment 31:06 
    Twin Studies 31:10 
    Examples 32:08 
   Genetic Engineering 37:38 
    Genetic Transformation 37:50 
    Restriction Enzymes 41:19 
    Recombinant DNA 43:44 
    Gene Cloning 45:22 
    Polymerase Chain Reaction 45:57 
    Gel Electrophoresis 48:01 
    Transgenic Organisms 50:34 
IV. History of Life
  Evolution 1:47:19
   Intro 0:00 
   The Scientists Behind the Theory 0:04 
    Fossil Study and Catastrophism 0:18 
    Gradualism 1:13 
    Population Growth 2:00 
    Early Evolution Thought 2:37 
    Natural Selection As a Sound Theory 8:05 
   Darwin's Voyage 8:59 
    Galapagos Islands Stop 9:15 
    Theory of Natural Selection 11:24 
   Natural Selection Summary 12:37 
    Populations have Enormous Reproductive Potential 13:45 
    Population Sizes Tend to Remain Relatively Stable 14:55 
    Resources Are Limited 16:51 
    Individuals Compete for Survival 17:16 
    There is Much Variation Among Individuals in a Population 17:36 
    Much Variation is Heritable 18:06 
    Only the Most Fit Individuals Survive 18:27 
    Evolution Occurs As Advantageous Traits Accumulate 19:23 
   Evidence for Evolution 19:47 
    Molecular Biology 19:53 
    Homologous Structures 22:55 
    Analogous Structures 26:20 
    Embryology 29:36 
    Paleontology 34:54 
   Patterns of Evolution 40:14 
    Divergent Evolution 40:37 
    Convergent Evolution 43:15 
    Co-Evolution 46:07 
   Gradualism vs. Punctuated Equilibrium 49:56 
   Modes of Selection 52:25 
    Directional Selection 54:40 
    Disruptive Selection 56:38 
    Stabilizing Selection 58:07 
    Artificial Selection 59:56 
    Sexual Selection 62:13 
   More on Sexual Selection 63:00 
    Sexual Dimorphism 63:26 
    Examples 64:50 
   Notes on Natural Selection 69:41 
    Phenotype 70:01 
    Only Heritable Traits 71:00 
    Mutations Fuel Natural Selection 11:39 
   Reproductive Isolation 72:00 
    Temporal Isolation 72:59 
    Behavioral Isolation 74:17 
    Mechanical Isolation 75:13 
    Gametic Isolation 76:21 
    Geographic Isolation 76:51 
   Reproductive Isolation (Post-Zygotic) 78:37 
    Hybrid Sterility 78:57 
    Hybrid Inviability 80:08 
    Hybrid Breakdown 80:31 
   Speciation 81:02 
    Process in Which New Species Forms From an Ancestral Form 81:13 
    Factors That Can Lead to Development of a New Species 81:19 
   Adaptive Radiation 84:26 
    Radiating of Various New Species 84:28 
    Changes in Appearance 84:56 
    Examples 84:14 
   Hardy-Weinberg Theorem 87:35 
    Five Conditions 88:15 
    Equations 93:55 
   Microevolution 96:59 
    Natural Selection 97:11 
    Genetic Drift 97:34 
    Gene Flow 100:54 
    Nonrandom Mating 101:06 
   Clarifications About Evolution 101:24 
    A Single Organism Cannot Evolve 101:34 
    No Single Missing Link with Human Evolution 103:01 
    Humans Did Not Evolve from Chimpanzees 106:13 
  Human Evolution 47:31
   Intro 0:00 
   Primates 0:04 
    Typical Primate Characteristics 1:12 
    Strepsirrhines 3:26 
    Haplorhines 4:08 
   Anthropoids 5:03 
    New World Monkeys 5:15 
    Old World Moneys 6:20 
    Hominoids 6:51 
    Hominins 7:51 
   Hominins 8:46 
    Larger Brains 8:53 
    Thinner, Flatter Face 9:02 
    High Manual Dexterity 9:30 
    Bipedal 9:41 
   Australopithecines 12:11 
    Earliest Fossil Evidence for Bipedalism 12:24 
    Earliest Australopithecines 13:06 
    Lucy 13:35 
   The Genus 'Homo' 15:20 
    Living and Extinct Humans 16:46 
    Features 16:52 
    Tool Use 17:09 
   Homo Habilis 17:38 
    2.4 - 1.4 mya 18:38 
    Handy Human 19:19 
    Found In Africa 19:33 
   Homo Ergaster 20:11 
    1.8 - 1.2 mya 20:14 
    Features 20:25 
    Found In and Outside of Africa 20:41 
    Most Likely Hunted 21:03 
   Homo Erectus 21:32 
    1.8 - 0.4 mya 22:04 
    Upright Human 22:49 
    Found in Africa, Asia, and Europe 22:52 
    Features 22:57 
    Used Fire 23:07 
   Homo Heidelbergensis 23:45 
    1.3 - 0.2 mya 23:50 
    Transitional Form 24:22 
    Features 24:36 
   Homo Sapiens Neanderthalensis 24:56 
    0.3 - 0.2 mya 25:23 
    Neander Valley 25:31 
    Found in Europe and Asia 21:53 
    Constructed Complex Structures 27:50 
   Modern Human and Neanderthal 28:50 
   Homo Sapiens Sapiens 29:34 
    195,000 Years Ago - Present 29:37 
    Humans Most Likely Evolved Once 29:50 
    Features 30:26 
    Creative and More Control Over the Environment 30:37 
   Homo Floresiensis 31:36 
    18,000 Years Old 31:40 
    The Hobbit 32:09 
    Brain and Body Proportions are Similar to Australopithecines 32:16 
   Human Migration Summary 32:49 
  Origins of Life 40:58
   Intro 0:00 
   Brief History of Earth 0:05 
    About 4.5 Billion Years Old 0:13 
    Started Off as a Fiery Ball of Hot Volcanic Activity 1:12 
   Atmospheric Gas of Early Earth 2:20 
    Gases Expelled Out of Volcanic Vents 3:10 
    Building Blocks to Organic Compounds 4:47 
   Miller-Urey Experiment (1953) 5:41 
    Stanley Miller and Harold Urey 5:48 
    Amino Acids Were Found in the Sterile Water Beneath 7:27 
   Protobionts 8:07 
    Ancestors of Cells as We Know Them 8:19 
    Lipid Bubbles with Organic Compounds Inside 8:32 
   Origin of DNA 12:07 
    First Cells 12:12 
    RNA Originally Coded for Protein 12:44 
    DNA Allows for Retention and a Checking for Errors 12:55 
   Oxygen Surge 14:57 
    Photosynthesis Changes Oxygen Gas in Atmosphere 16:36 
    Cells Absorb Solar Energy with Pigment and Could Make Sugars and Release Oxygen 17:05 
   Endosymbiotic Theory 18:22 
    First Eukaryote was Born 19:54 
    First Proposed by Lynn Margulis 22:43 
   Multicellular Origins 23:08 
    Cells That Kept Close Quarters and Stayed Attached Had Safety in Numbers 23:28 
    Hypothesis 23:45 
   Cambrian Explosion 26:22 
    Explosion of Species 27:10 
    Theory and Snowball Earth 28:24 
   Timeline of Major Events 32:00 
  Biogenesis 27:25
   Intro 0:00 
   Spontaneous Generation 0:04 
    Spontaneous Generation 0:14 
    Pseudoscience 1:45 
    Individuals Who Sought to Disprove This Theory 2:49 
   Francesco Redi's Experiment 3:33 
    17th Century Italian Scientist 3:36 
    Wanted to Debunk the Theory That Maggots Emerge From Rotting Raw Meat 3:48 
   Lazzaro Spallanzani's Experiment 6:33 
    18th Century Italian Scientist 6:36 
    Wanted to Demonstrate That Microbes Could Be Airborne 6:58 
   Louis Pasteur's Experiment 9:47 
    19th Century French Scientist 9:51 
    Disprove Spontaneous Generation 11:17 
   Pasteur's Vaccine Discovery 13:47 
    Motivation to Discover a Way to Immunize People Against Disease 14:00 
    Cholera Bacteria 14:42 
   Vaccine Explanation 16:42 
    Inactive Versions of the Virus are Generated in a Culture 16:47 
    Antigens Injected Into the Person 17:45 
    Common Immunizations 22:00 
    Effectiveness 22:03 
    No Proof That Vaccines Cause Autism 26:33 
V. Diversity of Life
  Taxonomy 35:21
   Intro 0:00 
   Ancient Classification 0:04 
    Start of Classification Systems 0:56 
    How Plants and Animals Were Split Up 2:46 
    Used in Europe Until 1700s 3:27 
   Modern Classification 3:52 
    Carolus Linnaeus 3:58 
    Taxonomy 5:15 
   Taxonomic Groups 6:57 
    Domain 7:14 
    Kingdom 7:29 
    Phylum 7:39 
    Class 7:49 
    Order 8:02 
    Family 8:09 
    Genus 8:25 
    Species 8:45 
   Binomial Nomenclature 12:10 
    Genus Species 12:22 
    Naming System Rules 12:49 
   Advantages and Disadvantages to Taxonomy 14:56 
    Advantages 15:00 
    Disadvantages 17:53 
   Domains 20:31 
    Domain Archaea 21:10 
    Domain Bacteria 21:19 
    Domain Eukarya 21:43 
    Extremophiles 22:48 
   Kingdoms 25:09 
    Kingdom Archaebacteria 25:17 
    Kingdom Eubacteria 25:25 
    Kingdom Protista 25:52 
    Kingdom Plantae, Fungi, Animalia 27:18 
   Cladograms 28:07 
    Relates Evolution to Phylogeny 28:12 
    Characteristics Lead to Splitting Off Groups of Organisms 28:20 
  Viruses 44:25
   Intro 0:00 
   Virus Basics 0:04 
    Non-Living Structures have the Potential to Harm Life on Earth 0:14 
    Made of Nucleic Acids Wrapped in a Protein Coat 2:15 
    5 to 300 nm Wide 3:12 
   Virus Structure 4:29 
    Icosahedral 4:41 
    Spherical 5:33 
    Bacteriophage 6:20 
    Helical 8:56 
   How Do They Invade Cells? 11:24 
    Viruses Can Fool Cells to Let Them In 11:27 
    Viruses Use the Organelles of the Host 12:29 
    Viruses are Host Specific 12:57 
   Viral Cycle 16:18 
    Lytic Cycle 16:34 
    Lysogenic Cycle 18:53 
    Connection Between Lytic/ Lysogenic 23:01 
   Retroviruses 30:04 
    Process is Backwards 30:52 
    Reverse Transcriptase 31:08 
    Example 31:47 
   HIV/ AIDS 32:38 
    Human Immunodeficiency Virus 32:42 
    Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome 36:27 
   Smallpox: A Brief History 37:06 
    One of the Most Harmful Viral Diseases in Human History 37:09 
    History 37:53 
   Prions 41:32 
    Infectious Proteins That Damage the Nervous System 41:33 
    Cause Transmittable Spongiform Encephalopathies 41:51 
    No Known Cure 43:42 
  Bacteria 46:01
   Intro 0:00 
   Archaebacteria 0:04 
    Thermophiles 1:10 
    Halophiles 2:06 
    Acidophiles 2:29 
    Methanogens 2:59 
   Archaea and Bacteria Compared to Eukarya 4:25 
    Archaea and Eukarya 4:36 
    Bacteria and Eukarya 5:37 
   Eubacteria 6:35 
    Nucleoid Region 7:02 
    Peptidoglycan 7:21 
    Binary Fission 8:08 
    No Membrane-Bound Organelles 8:59 
   Bacterial Shapes 10:19 
    Coccus 10:26 
    Bacillus 12:07 
    Spirillum 12:44 
   Bacterial Cell Walls 13:17 
    Gram Positive 13:47 
    Gram Negative 15:09 
   Bacterial Adaptations 16:13 
    Capsule 16:18 
    Fimbriae 17:51 
    Conjugation 18:30 
    Endospore 21:30 
    Flagella 23:49 
    Metabolism 24:36 
   Benefits of Bacteria 27:28 
    Mutualism 27:32 
    Connections to Human Life 30:56 
   Diseases Caused by Bacteria 35:05 
    STDs 35:15 
    Respiratory 36:04 
    Skin 37:15 
    Digestive Tract 38:00 
    Nervous System 38:27 
    Systemic Diseases 39:09 
   Antibiotics 40:26 
    Drugs That Block Protein Synthesis 40:40 
    Drugs That Block Cell Wall Production 41:07 
    Increased Bacterial Resistance 41:36 
  Protists 32:46
   Intro 0:00 
   Kingdom Protista Basics 0:04 
    Unicellular and Multicellular 0:28 
    Asexual and Sexual 0:48 
    Water and Land 1:06 
    Resemble Other Life Forms 1:32 
   Protist Origin 2:04 
    Evolutionary Bridge Between Bacteria and Multicellular Eukaryotes 2:06 
    Protist Ancestors 2:27 
   Protist Debate 4:18 
    One Kingdom 4:30 
    Some Scientists Group Into Separate Kingdoms Based on Genetic Links 4:37 
   Plant-like Protists 6:03 
    Photoautotrophs 6:12 
    Green Algae 6:44 
    Red Algae 7:12 
    Brown Algae 7:57 
    Golden Algae 9:10 
    Dinoflagellates 9:20 
    Diatoms 9:41 
    Euglena 10:17 
   Euglena Structure 10:39 
   Ulva Life Cycle 12:08 
   Fungi-Like Protists 15:39 
    Heterotrophs That Feed on Decaying Organic Matter 15:41 
    Found Anywhere with Moisture and Warmth 16:04 
   Cellular Slime Mold Life Cycle 17:34 
   Animal-like Protists 21:45 
    Heterotrophs That Eat Live Cells 21:50 
    Motile 22:03 
   Amoeba Life Cycle 25:24 
   How Protists Impact Humans 29:09 
    Good 29:16 
    Bad 32:18 
  Plants, Part I 54:22
   Intro 0:00 
   Kingdom Plantae Characteristics 0:05 
    Cuticle 0:38 
    Vascular Bundles 1:18 
    Stomata 2:51 
    Alternation of Generations 4:16 
   Plant Origins 5:58 
    Common Ancestor with Green Algae 6:03 
    Appeared on Earth 400 Million Years Ago 7:28 
   Non-Vascular Plants 8:17 
    Bryophytes 8:45 
    Anthoworts 9:12 
    Hepaticophytes 9:19 
   Bryophyte (Moss) Life Cycle 9:30 
    Dominant Gametophyte 9:38 
    Illustration Explanation 9:58 
   Seedless Vascular Plants 15:26 
    Do Not Reproduce With Seeds 15:33 
    Sori 15:42 
    Lycophytes 15:54 
    Pterophytes 16:30 
   Pterophyte (Fern) Life Cycle 17:05 
    Dominant Generation 17:08 
    Produce Motile Sperm 17:17 
   Seed Plants 23:17 
    Most Vascular Plants Have Seeds 23:25 
    Cotyledons 23:43 
    Gymnosperm vs. Angiosperm 24:50 
    Divisions 25:48 
   Coniferophytes (Cone-Bearing Plants) 27:05 
    Examples 27:07 
    Evergreen or Deciduous 27:44 
    Gymnosperms 28:26 
    Economic Importance 29:28 
   Conifer Life Cycle 30:10 
    Dominant Generation 30:13 
    Cones Contain the Gametophyte 30:25 
    Illustration Explanation 30:31 
   Anthophytes (Flowering Plants) 38:01 
    Every Plant That Has Flowers 38:03 
    Angiosperms 38:28 
    Various Life Spans 38:03 
   Flower Anatomy 40:25 
    Female Parts 40:54 
    Male Parts 42:49 
   Flowering Plant Life Cycle 44:48 
    Dominant Generation 44:56 
    Flowers Contain the Gametophyte 45:05 
  Plants, Part II 44:40
   Intro 0:00 
   Plant Cell Varieties 0:05 
    Parenchyma 0:11 
    Collenchyma 1:37 
    Sclerenchyma 2:03 
    Specialized Tissues 2:56 
   Plant Tissues 3:17 
    Meristematic Tissue 3:21 
    Dermal Tissue 6:46 
    Vascular Tissues 8:45 
    Ground Tissue 13:56 
   Roots 14:24 
    Root Cap 15:59 
    Cortex 16:17 
    Endodermis 17:02 
    Pericycle 17:42 
    Taproot 18:11 
    Fibrous 18:20 
    Modified 18:49 
   Stems 19:49 
    Tuber 21:43 
    Rhizome 21:58 
    Runner 22:12 
    Bulb and Corm 22:49 
   Leaves 23:06 
    Photosynthesis 23:09 
    Leaf Parts 23:32 
    Gas Exchange 25:55 
    Transpiration 26:25 
   Seeds 27:41 
    Cotyledons 28:42 
    Seed Coat 29:29 
    Endosperm 29:37 
    Embryo 30:10 
    Radicle 30:27 
    Epicotyl 31:57 
   Fruit 33:49 
    Fleshy Fruits 34:46 
    Aggregate Fruits 35:17 
    Multiple Fruits 35:50 
    Dry Fruits 36:27 
   Plant Hormones 37:44 
    Definition or Hormones 37:48 
    Examples 38:12 
   Plant Responses 40:42 
    Tropisms 41:00 
    Nastic Responses 43:04 
  Fungi 26:20
   Intro 0:00 
   Fungi Basics 0:03 
    Characteristics 0:09 
    Closely Related to Kingdom Animalia 2:33 
   Fungal Structure 2:58 
    Hypae 3:03 
    Mycelium 5:00 
    Spore 5:24 
   Reproductive Strategies 6:15 
    Fragmentation 6:23 
    Budding 6:35 
    Spore Production 7:03 
   Zygomycota (Molds) 7:50 
    Sexual Reproduction 8:04 
    Dikaryotic 9:47 
    Stolons 10:32 
    Rhizoids 10:53 
   Ascomycota (Sac Fungi) 11:43 
    Largest Phylum of Fungi on Earth 11:47 
    Ascus 12:20 
    Conidia 12:30 
    Example 12:46 
   Basidiomycota (Club Fungi) 14:51 
    Basidium 15:14 
    Common Structures In These Fungi 15:37 
    Examples 16:17 
   Deuteromycota (Imperfect Fungi) 17:25 
    No Known Sexual Life Cycle 17:31 
    Penicillin 18:00 
   Benefits of Fungi 18:51 
    Mutualism 18:56 
    Food 21:41 
    Medicines 22:30 
    Decomposition 23:08 
   Fungal Infections 23:38 
    Athlete's Foot 23:44 
    Ringworm 24:09 
    Yeast Infections 24:27 
    Candidemia 24:56 
    Aspergillus 25:15 
    Fungal Meningitis 25:44 
  Animals, Part I 35:28
   Intro 0:00 
   Animal Basics 0:05 
    Multicellular Eukaryotes 0:12 
    Motility 0:27 
    Heterotrophic 0:47 
    Sexual Reproduction 0:57 
    Symmetry 1:14 
    Gut 1:26 
    Cephalization 1:40 
    Segmentation 1:53 
    Sensory Organs 2:09 
   Reproductive Strategies 3:07 
    Gonads 3:17 
    Fertilization 4:01 
    Asexual 4:53 
   Animal Development 7:27 
    Zygote 7:29 
    Blastula 7:50 
    Gastrula 9:07 
    Embryo 12:57 
   Symmetry 13:17 
    Radial Symmetry 14:14 
    Bilateral Symmetry 15:26 
    Asymmetry 16:34 
   Body Cavities 17:22 
    Coelom 17:24 
    Acoelomates 18:39 
    Pseudocoelomates 19:15 
    Coelomates 19:40 
   Major Animal Phyla 20:47 
    Phylum Porifera 21:15 
    Phylum Cnidaria 21:33 
    Phylum Platyhelmininthes, Nematoda, and Annelida 21:44 
    Phylum Rotifera 21:56 
    Phylum Mollusca 22:13 
    Phylum Arthropoda 22:34 
    Phylum Echinodermata 22:48 
    Phylum Chordata 23:18 
   Phylum Porifera 25:15 
    Sponges 25:23 
    Oceanic or Aquatic 26:07 
    Adults are Sessile 26:26 
    Structure 27:09 
    Sexual or Asexual Reproduction 28:31 
   Phylum Cnidaria 28:49 
    Sea Jellies, Anemonse, Hydrozoans, and Corals 28:57 
    Mostly Oceanic 30:42 
    Body Types 31:32 
    Cnidocytes 33:06 
    Nerve Net 34:55 
  Animals, Part II 48:42
   Intro 0:00 
   Phylum Platyhelminthes 0:04 
    Flatworms 0:14 
    Acoelomates 0:33 
    Terrestrial, Oceanic, or Aquatic 0:46 
    Simple Nervous System 2:46 
    Reproduction 3:38 
   Phylum Nematoda 4:20 
    Unsegmented Roundworms 4:25 
    Pseudocoelomates 4:34 
    Terrestrial, Oceanic, or Aquatic 4:53 
    Full Digestive Tract 5:29 
    Reproduction 7:07 
    C. Elegans 7:24 
   Phylum Annelida 8:11 
    Segmented Roundworms 8:20 
    Terrestrial, Oceanic, or Aquatic 8:42 
    Full Digestive Tract 8:56 
    Accordion-like Movement 11:26 
    Simple Nervous System 12:31 
    Sexual Reproduction 13:40 
    Class Oligochaeta 14:47 
    Class Polychaeta 14:56 
    Class Hirudinea 15:13 
   Phylum Rotifera 16:11 
    Pseudocoelomates 16:26 
    Terrestrial, Aquatic 16:42 
    Digestive Tract 16:56 
   Phylum Mollusca 18:55 
    Snails, Slugs, Clams, Oysters 19:00 
    Terrestrial, Oceanic, or Aquatic 19:14 
    Mantle 19:29 
    Full Digestive Tract with Specialized Organs 21:10 
    Sexual Reproduction 24:29 
    Major Classes 24:58 
   Phylum Arthropoda 28:16 
    Insects, Arachnids, Crustaceans 28:19 
    Terrestrial, Oceanic, or Aquatic 28:41 
    Head, Thorax, Abdomen 28:50 
    Excretion with Malpighian Tubes 32:48 
    Arthropod Groups 34:06 
   Phylum Echinodermata 38:32 
    Sea Stars, Sea Urchins, Sand Dollars, Sea Cucumbers 38:37 
    Oceanic or Aquatic 39:36 
    Water Vascular System 39:43 
    Full Digestive Tract 40:38 
    Sexual Reproduction 42:01 
   Phylum Chordata 42:16 
    All Vertebrates 42:22 
    Terrestrial, Oceanic, or Aquatic 42:40 
    Main Body Parts 42:49 
    Mostly in Subphylum Vertebrata 44:54 
    Examples 45:14 
  Animals, Part III 35:45
   Intro 0:00 
   Characteristics of Subphylum Vertebrata 0:04 
    Vertebral Column 0:16 
    Neural Crest 0:38 
    Internal Organs 1:24 
   Fish Characteristics 2:05 
    Oceanic or Aquatic 2:16 
    Locomotion with Paired Fins 3:15 
    Gills 4:18 
    Fertilization 8:14 
    Movement 8:30 
   Fish Classes 8:58 
    Jawless Fishes 9:06 
    Cartilaginous Fishes 10:07 
    Bony Fishes 10:46 
   Amphibian Characteristics 12:22 
    Tetrapods 12:29 
    Moist Skin 14:22 
    Circulation 14:39 
    Nictitating Membrane 16:36 
    Tympanic Membrane 16:56 
    External Fertilization is Typical 17:34 
   Amphibian Orders 18:20 
    Order Anura 18:27 
    Order Caudata 19:15 
    Order Gymnophiona 19:59 
   Reptile Characteristics 20:31 
    Dry, Scaly Skin 20:37 
    Lungs for Gas Exchange 22:00 
    Terrestrial, Oceanic, Aquatic 22:12 
    Ectothermic 23:07 
    Internal Fertilization 24:13 
   Reptile Orders 26:28 
    Order Squamata 26:33 
    Order Crocodilia 27:32 
    Order Testudinata 27:55 
    Order Sphenodonta 28:30 
   Bird Characteristics 28:43 
    Feathers 29:42 
    Lightweight Bones 31:33 
    Lungs with Air Sacs 32:25 
    Endothermic 33:47 
    Internal Fertilization 34:03 
   Bird Orders 34:13 
    Order Passeriformes 34:29 
    Order Ciconiiformes 34:46 
    Order Sphenisciformes 34:55 
    Order Strigiformes 35:20 
    Order Struthioniformes 35:25 
    Order Anseriformes 35:38 
  Mammals 38:39
   Intro 0:00 
   Mammary Glands and Hair 0:04 
    Class Mammalia Name 0:20 
    Hair Functions 1:53 
   Metabolic Characteristics 3:58 
    Endothermy 4:01 
    Feeding 4:48 
   Mammalian Organs 8:43 
    Respiratory System 8:47 
    Circulation 9:26 
    Brain and Senses 10:29 
    Glands 11:56 
   Mammalian Reproduction 12:55 
    Live Birth 13:03 
    Placental 13:17 
    Marsupial 14:41 
    Gestation Periods 16:07 
   Infraclass Marsupialia 17:42 
    Australia 17:59 
    Uterus/ Pouch 18:33 
    Origins 18:53 
    Examples 19:24 
   Order Monotremata 20:21 
    Egg Layers 20:25 
    Platypus, Echidna 20:55 
    Shoulder Area Has a Reptilian Bone Structure 21:07 
   Order Insectivora 22:21 
    Insectivores 22:23 
    Pointy Snouts 22:32 
    Burrowing 22:53 
    Examples 23:10 
   Order Chiroptera 23:32 
    True Flying Mammalian Order 23:38 
    Wings 23:59 
    Feeding 24:21 
    Examples 25:08 
   Order Xenarthra 25:14 
    Edentata 25:18 
    No Teeth 25:23 
    Location 25:50 
    Examples 25:55 
   Order Rodentia 26:33 
    40% of Mammalian Species 26:38 
    2 Pairs of Incisors 26:45 
    Examples 27:28 
   Order Lagomorpha 28:06 
    Herbivores 28:30 
    Examples 28:41 
   Order Carnivora 29:19 
    Teeth 29:36 
    Examples 29:42 
   Order Proboscidea 30:37 
    Largest Living Terrestrial Mammals 30:40 
    Trunks 30:48 
    Tusks 31:12 
    Examples 31:33 
   Order Sirenia 32:01 
    Large, Slow Moving Aquatic Mammals 32:15 
    Flippers 32:26 
    Herbivores 32:37 
    Examples 32:42 
   Order Cetacea 32:46 
    Large, Mostly Hairless Aquatic Mammals 32:50 
    Flippers 33:06 
    Fluke 33:18 
    Blowhole 33:29 
    Examples 34:10 
   Order Artiodactyla 34:30 
    Even-Toed Hoofed Mammals 34:33 
    Herbivores 34:37 
    Sometimes Grouped with Cetaceans 34:52 
    Examples 35:35 
   Order Perissodactyla 35:57 
    Odd-Toed Hoofed Mammals 36:00 
    Herbivores 36:12 
    Examples 36:27 
   Order Primates 36:30 
    Largest Brain-to-Body Ratio 36:35 
    Arboreal 37:03 
    Nails 37:33 
    Examples 38:29 
  Animal Behavior 29:55
   Intro 0:00 
   Behavior Overview 0:04 
    Behavior 0:08 
    Origin of Behavior 0:36 
    Competitive Advantage 1:26 
   Innate Behaviors 2:05 
    Genetically Based 2:07 
    Instinct 2:13 
    Fixed Action Pattern 3:31 
   Learned Behavior 5:13 
    Habituation 5:26 
    Classical Conditioning 6:31 
    Operant Conditioning 7:51 
   Imprinting 10:17 
    Learned Behavior That Can Only Occur in a Specific Time Period 10:20 
    Sensitive Period 10:28 
   Cognitive Behaviors 11:53 
    Thinking, Reasoning, and Processing Information 12:02 
    Examples 12:22 
   Competitive Behaviors 14:40 
    Agonistic Behavior 14:46 
    Dominance Hierarchies 15:23 
    Territorial Behaviors 16:19 
   More Types of Behavior 17:05 
    Foraging Behaviors 17:08 
    Migratory Behaviors 17:53 
    Biological Rhythms 19:15 
   Communication Behaviors 20:37 
    Pheromones 20:52 
    Auditory Communication 22:18 
   Courting and Nurturing Behaviors 23:42 
    Courting Behaviors 23:45 
    Nurturing Behaviors 26:04 
   Cooperative Behaviors 26:47 
    Benefit All Members of the Group 27:01 
    Example 27:08 
VI. Ecology
  Ecology, Part I 1:07:26
   Intro 0:00 
   Ecology Basics 0:05 
    Ecology 0:18 
    Biotic vs. Abiotic Factors 1:25 
    Population 2:23 
    Community 2:45 
    Ecosystem 3:04 
    Biosphere 3:27 
   Individuals and Survival 4:13 
    Habitat 4:23 
    Niche 4:37 
    Symbiosis 7:07 
   Obtaining Energy 11:14 
    Producers 11:24 
    Consumers 13:31 
   Food Chain 17:11 
    Model to Illustrate How Matter Moves Through Organisms in an Ecosystem 17:15 
    Examples 18:31 
   Food Web 20:29 
   Keystone Species 22:55 
   Three Ecological Pyramids 27:28 
    Pyramid of Energy 27:38 
    Pyramid of Numbers 31:39 
    Pyramid of Biomass 34:09 
   The Water Cycle 37:24 
   The Carbon Cycle 40:19 
   The Nitrogen Cycle 43:34 
   The Phosphorus Cycle 46:42 
   Population Growth 49:35 
   Reproductive Patterns 51:58 
    Life History Patterns Vary 52:10 
    r-Selection 53:30 
    K-Selection 56:55 
   Density Factors 59:02 
    Density-Dependent Factors 59:29 
    Density-Independent Factors 62:21 
   Predator / Prey Relationships 63:59 
  Ecology, Part II 50:50
   Intro 0:00 
   Mimicry 0:05 
    Batesian Mimicry 0:38 
    Müllerian Mimicry 1:53 
   Camouflage 3:23 
    Blend In with Surroundings 3:38 
    Evade Detection by Predators 3:43 
   Succession 5:22 
    Primary Succession 5:40 
    Secondary Succession 7:44 
   Biomes 9:31 
    Terrestrial 10:08 
    Aquatic / Marine 10:05 
   Desert 11:20 
    Annual Rainfall 11:24 
    Flora 13:35 
    Fauna 14:15 
   Tundra 14:49 
    Annual Rainfall 15:00 
    Permafrost 15:50 
    Flora 16:06 
    Fauna 16:40 
   Taiga (Boreal Forest) 16:59 
    Annual Rainfall 17:14 
    Largest Terrestrial Biome 17:33 
    Flora 18:37 
    Fauna 18:49 
   Temperate Grassland 19:07 
    Annual Rainfall 19:28 
    Flora 20:14 
    Fauna 20:18 
   Tropical Grassland (Savanna) 20:41 
    Annual Rainfall 21:01 
    Flora 21:56 
    Fauna 22:00 
   Temperate Deciduous Forest 22:19 
    Annual Rainfall 23:11 
    Flora 23:45 
    Fauna 23:50 
   Tropical Rain Forest 24:11 
    Annual Rainfall 24:16 
    Flora 27:15 
    Fauna 27:49 
   Lakes 28:05 
    Eutrophic 28:21 
    Oligotrophic 28:29 
    Zones 29:34 
   Estuaries 32:56 
    Area Where Freshwater and Salt Water Meet 33:00 
    Mangrove Swamps 33:12 
    Nutrient Traps 33:52 
    Organisms 34:24 
   Marine 34:50 
    Euphotic Zone 35:16 
    Pelagic Zone 37:11 
    Abyssal Plain 38:15 
   Conservation Summary 40:03 
    Biodiversity 40:33 
    Habitat Loss 44:06 
    Pollution 44:55 
   Climate Change 47:03 
    Global Warming 47:06 
    Greenhouse Gases 47:48 
    Polar Ice Caps 49:01 
    Weather Patterns 50:00 
VII. Laboratory
  Laboratory Investigation I: Microscope Lab 24:51
   Intro 0:00 
   Light Microscope Parts 0:06 
   Microscope Use 6:25 
    Mount the Specimen 6:28 
    Place Slide on Stage 7:29 
    Ensure Specimen is Above Light Source 8:11 
    Lowest Objective Lens Faces Downward 8:34 
    Focus on the Image 9:36 
    Adjust the Nosepiece If Needed 9:49 
    Re-Focus 9:57 
   Human Skin Layers 10:42 
   Plants Cells 13:43 
   Human Lung Tissue 15:20 
   Euglena 18:26 
   Plant Stem 20:43 
   Mold 22:57 
  Laboratory Investigation II: Egg Lab 11:26
   Intro 0:00 
   Egg Lab Introduction 0:06 
    Purpose 0:09 
    Materials 0:37 
    Time 1:24 
   Day 1 1:28 
   Day 2 3:59 
   Day 3 6:05 
   Analysis 7:50 
   Osmosis Connection 10:24 
    Hypertonic 10:36 
    Hypotonic 10:49 
  Laboratory Investigation III: Carbon Dioxide Production 14:34
   Intro 0:00 
   Carbon Dioxide Introduction 0:06 
    Purpose 0:09 
    Materials 0:56 
    Time 2:39 
   Part I 2:41 
    Put Water in Large Beaker 3:09 
    Exhale Into the Water 3:15 
    Add a Drop of Phenolphthalein 4:31 
    Add NaOH 5:33 
    Record the Amount of Drops 6:10 
   Part II 6:24 
    Add HCL 6:39 
    Exercise for Five Minutes 7:26 
    Return and Re-Do the Exhaling 7:58 
   Analysis 9:11 
   Aerobic Respiration Connection 13:18 
    As Aerobic Respiration Occurs In Cells, Carbon Dioxide Is Produced 13:21 
    Increase Output of Carbon Dioxide 13:29 
    Number of Exhalations Increase 14:17 
  Laboratory Investigation IV: DNA Extraction Lab 10:38
   Intro 0:00 
   DNA Lab Introduction 0:06 
    Purpose 0:09 
    Materials 0:45 
    Time 2:03 
   Part I 2:06 
    Pour Sports Drink Into the Small Cup 2:08 
    When Time Expires, Spit Into the Cup 2:53 
    Add Cell Lysate Solution 3:21 
    Let it Sit for a Couple Minutes 4:04 
   Part II 4:10 
    Slowly Add Cold Ethanol 4:13 
    DNA Will Creep Up Into the Ethanol Layer 5:01 
   Analysis 5:59 
   DNA Structure Connection 8:49 
    DNA is Microscopic 8:54 
    Visible DNA 9:39 
    Extracted DNA 9:49 
  Laboratory Investigation V: Onion Root Tip Mitosis Lab 13:12
   Intro 0:00 
   Mitosis Lab Introduction 0:06 
    Purpose 0:09 
    Materials 0:57 
    Time 1:42 
   Part I 1:49 
    Mount the Slide and Zoom Into the Root Apical Meristem 1:50 
    Zoom In 3:00 
    Count the Cells in Each Phase 3:09 
    Record Your Results 3:52 
   Microscope View Example 3:58 
   Part II 6:49 
    Move to Another Part of the Root Apical Meristem 6:55 
    Count the Phases in this Second Region 7:02 
   Analysis 9:07 
   Mitosis Connection 11:17 
    Rate of Mitosis Varies from Species to Species 11:21 
    Mitotic Rate Was Higher Since We Used An Actively Dividing Tissue 12:16 
  Laboratory Investigation VI: Inheritance Lab 13:55
   Intro 0:00 
   Inheritance Lab Introduction 0:05 
    Purpose 0:09 
    Materials 0:53 
    Time 2:00 
   Explanation 2:03 
   Basic Procedure 5:03 
   Analysis 8:00 
   Inheritance Laws Connection 11:23 
    Law of Segregation 11:31 
    Law of Independent Assortment 12:49 
  Laboratory Investigation VII: Allele Frequencies 14:11
   Intro 0:00 
   Allele Frequencies Introduction 0:05 
    Purpose 0:08 
    Materials 1:34 
    Time 2:10 
   Part I 2:12 
   Part II 7:05 
   Analysis 7:51 
   Evolution Connection 10:45 
    Meant to Stimulate How a Population's Allele Frequencies Change Over Time 10:47 
    Particular Phenotypes Selected 11:31 
    Recessive Allele Keeps Dropping 12:18 
  Laboratory Investigation VIII: Genetic Transformation 16:42
   Intro 0:00 
   Genetic Transformation Introduction 0:06 
    Purpose 0:09 
    Materials 0:57 
    Time 3:31 
   Set-Up 4:18 
    Starter Culture with E. Coli Colonies 4:21 
    Just E. Coli 5:37 
    Ampicillin with No Plasmid 6:24 
    Ampicillin with Plasmid 7:11 
    Ampicillin with Plasmid and Arabinose 7:33 
   Procedure 8:35 
   Analysis 13:01 
   Genetic Transformation Connection 14:59 
    Easier to Transform Bacteria Than a Multicellular Organism 15:03 
    Desired Trait Can be Expressed from the Bacteria 15:52 
    Numerous Applications in Medicine 16:04