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Join Professor Bryan Cardella in his time-saving AP Environmental Science online course that will help you get that 5 on the exam. Concepts are explained step-by-step complete with tons of diagrams, real life examples, and walkthroughs of actual AP exams.

Table of Contents

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I. Introduction

  Major Themes in AP Environmental Science 36:44
   Intro 0:00 
   6 Main Themes 0:05 
    Human Population Growth 0:17 
    Sustainability and Carrying Capacity 0:40 
    Global Solutions 1:33 
    Urbanization 2:14 
    People and Nature 2:35 
    Science and Ethics 3:10 
   Human Population Growth 4:03 
    Largest Increase Began in the Last Half of the 20th Century 4:15 
    Famine and Food Crises 6:41 
   Sustainability and Carrying Capacity 9:29 
    Objective is Sustainability 9:33 
    Sustainable Global Economy 10:17 
    Carrying Capacity 13:47 
   Global Issues and Solutions 14:49 
    Global Perspective 14:53 
    Gaia Hypothesis 15:57 
   Urbanization 17:04 
    Trend of Moving Into Cities 17:06 
    Tokyo Currently has the Largest Population in a Single City 18:13 
   People and Nature 20:04 
    Misconceptions 20:19 
    Sustainable Environment and Sustainable Economy 23:05 
   Science and Ethics 24:12 
    Intellectual Standards 24:20 
    Precautionary Principle 29:41 
    Justifications 30:46 
  Scientific Method 35:00
   Intro 0:00 
   Origin of the Scientific Method 0:04 
    Babylonia and Ancient Egypt 0:14 
    Western Tradition 1:35 
    Scientific Revolution 2:30 
    Francis Bacon 3:35 
    Science is About Knowing 3:53 
    Disprovability 5:19 
   Steps of the Scientific Method 5:43 
    Observe 5:47 
    Formulate a Questions 6:26 
    Hypothesize 6:54 
    Design an Experiment 7:26 
    Collect Data 9:48 
    Interpret Data 10:52 
    Draw Conclusions 11:02 
    Future Experiments 11:29 
   Inductive vs. Deductive Reasoning 14:21 
    Inductive Reasoning 14:25 
    Deductive Reasoning 15:39 
    Proof with Inductive Reasoning 17:38 
   Theories and Models 19:00 
    Scientific Theory 19:02 
    Models 20:08 
   Uncertainty and Accuracy 22:08 
    Objectivity is the Goal 22:39 
    Degree of Uncertainty 24:02 
    Accuracy 25:59 
    Precision 26:50 
   Pseudoscience 28:48 
    Pseudo 28:51 
    Examples 28:59 
  The Big Picture of Environmental Science 27:22
   Intro 0:00 
   Types of Systems 0:05 
    Closed Systems 0:12 
    Open Systems 1:09 
    Static System 1:54 
    Dynamic System 3:02 
   Open Systems 3:28 
    Steady State 3:41 
    Nonsteady State 4:08 
    Balance of Nature 4:34 
    Residence Time 5:40 
   Feedback 10:14 
    Negative Feedback 10:49 
    Positive Feedback 12:18 
   Types of Flows 14:18 
    Flow vs. Flux 14:28 
    Linear Flow 15:18 
    Nonlinear Flow 15:46 
    Lag Time 16:40 
    Curves 17:55 
   Overshoots, Collapse, and Consequences 19:35 
    Overshoot 19:46 
    Collapse 20:05 
    Consequences 21:00 
   Earth as a System 23:19 
    Environmental Unity 23:22 
    Uniformitarianism 24:40 
    Gaia Hypothesis 26:47 

II. Populations and the Environment

  The Dynamic Human Population 47:15
   Intro 0:00 
   Populations Introduction 0:05 
    Population Dynamics 0:10 
    Population 0:25 
    Species 1:02 
    Demography 1:47 
    Abundance, Birth and Death Rate, Growth Rate, Age Structure 1:59 
   Human Population Curves 2:28 
    Four Phases 3:46 
    Hunter and Gatherer 3:48 
    Agriculture 4:18 
    Industrial Rev 5:29 
    Modern Era 6:33 
    Paris Example 7:27 
   Population Key Terms 8:26 
    Crude Birth, Death, and Growth Rate 8:31 
    Fertility 9:20 
    General Fertility Rate 9:29 
    Total Fertility Rate 10:05 
    Age-Specific Birth rate 10:37 
    Cause-Specific Death Rate 11:02 
    Morbidity 11:39 
    Incidence 11:46 
    Prevalence 12:10 
    Case Fatality Rate 12:27 
    Rate of Natural Increase 13:16 
    Doubling Time 13:46 
    Infant Mortality Rate 13:58 
    Life Expectancy at Birth 14:43 
    GNP Per Capita 15:34 
   Human Population Growth 15:51 
    Doubling Time 15:53 
    Logistic Growth 17:46 
    Three Possible Futures 18:53 
   Calculating Population Change 20:23 
    Population 20:05 
    Growth Rate 21:57 
    Doubling Time 22:36 
   Age Structure 23:03 
    Proportion of Each Ages Group in the Population 23:04 
    Examples 23:42 
   Demographic Transition 27:31 
    Three Stage Pattern of Change in Birth/ Death rates in Developed Nations 27:33 
    Crude Rate Over Time and Population Size Over Time 27:49 
   Life Expectancy and Death 32:01 
    Maximum Lifetime vs. Life Expectancy 32:08 
    Acute Disease 33:21 
    Chronic Disease 34:00 
    Crude Death Rate Differences 34:35 
   Human Population's Effect on Earth 35:02 
    Factor of the Number of People and Each Person's Effect 35:09 
    Formula 37:07 
    Key Is Improving the Standard of Living 38:24 
   Human Carrying Capacity 39:02 
    Max Number of People That Can Live on Earth 39:07 
    Limited by These Factors 39:51 
    Estimated in Different Ways 42:45 
   Zero Population Growth 45:15 
    Possible? 45:18 
    Several Approaches 45:29 
  Ecosystems 35:50
   Intro 0:00 
   Key Terms 0:05 
    Ecosystem 0:36 
    Community Effect 1:05 
    Cycling of Chemical Elements and Flow of Energy 2:43 
   Food Webs 4:18 
    Network of Food Chains 4:21 
    Trophic Level 4:47 
    Ecosystem Boundaries 6:10 
   Energy Flow 7:20 
    Ecosystem Energy Flow 7:27 
    Laws of Thermodynamics 8:05 
    Chemistry of Energy Flow 9:48 
   Biomass and Biological Production 11:51 
    Biomass 11:57 
    Biological Production 12:17 
    Primary Production vs. Secondary Production 14:01 
    Energy Efficiency 14:30 
   Succession, Part I 17:36 
    Ecological succession 17:42 
    Examples 21:18 
    Commonalities of Succession 27:37 
    Chemical Cycling 29:48 
    Facilitation 32:17 
    Interference 32:26 

III. Earth's Cycles and Environmental Change

  Earth Cycles 42:55
   Intro 0:00 
   Earth History 0:04 
    About 4.5 Billion Years Old 0:07 
    Only Plant in Our Solar System with Liquid Water, Plate Tectonics, and Life 0:56 
    Atmosphere 1:51 
   Thermodynamic Equilibrium 2:17 
    Characteristics of a Living Planet 2:21 
    Thermodynamic Equilibrium 3:18 
    Planet Acts as a Pump to Keep the Atmosphere, Rocks, and Oceans from this Equilibrium 3:28 
   The Rise of Oxygen 4:29 
    Earth Had a Lot Less Oxygen Prior to 2.3 Billion Years Ago 4:47 
    Evidence is in Pyrite 5:01 
    Photosynthesis 7:03 
   Cells: Then and Now 7:55 
    Fermentation 8:15 
    Prokaryotes 9:08 
    Eukaryotes 10:18 
   Molecules of Life 11:19 
    Macronutrients 11:20 
    Micronutrients 12:41 
    Limiting Factors 13:10 
   Geologic Cycles 13:42 
    Includes These Cycles 13:46 
    About the Cycling of Molecules Throughout the Earth 14:00 
   Movement Through a Cycle 14:23 
    Flow 14:26 
    Flux 14:29 
    Residence Time 14:41 
    Source 15:06 
    Sink 15:08 
    Example 15:17 
   Tectonic Cycle 15:36 
    The Lithosphere 15:45 
    Lithosphere is Composed of Plates 16:03 
    Plate Tectonics 16:09 
    Types of Plate Boundaries 17:23 
   Hydrologic Cycle 19:02 
    Transfer of Water 19:10 
    Key Terms 19:20 
    Driven by Solar Energy 20:34 
    97% in Oceans 20:48 
    Drainage Basins 21:20 
   Rock Cycle 21:45 
    Numerous Processes That Produce Rocks and Soils 21:46 
    Rocks are Classified: Igneous, Metamorphic, Sedimentary 22:01 
   Intro to Biogeochemical Cycles 25:05 
    Includes the Complete Path That a Chemical takes on Earth 25:11 
    General Facts 25:30 
   Carbon Cycle 26:29 
    Basic Building Block of Life 26:30 
    Carbon Cycles Through the Biota 26:57 
    Pathways and Reservoirs 27:55 
    Carbon-Silicate Cycle 31:10 
   Nitrogen Cycle 33:22 
    Nitrogen is Converted to an Inorganic Compound 33:32 
    Nitrogen Fixation 34:00 
    Denitrification 35:06 
    Symbioses 35:30 
    Industrial Fertilizer 35:40 
    Pollution 36:06 
   Phosphorus Cycle 36:28 
    One of the 'Big Six' Required for Life 36:30 
    Slow Rate of Transfer 37:39 
    Tale of Guano 38:14 
    Bone Valley 38:36 
    Rising Phosphorus Prices 39:14 
    Potential Solutions 40:44 
  Earthquakes, Volcanoes, and Other Disasters 1:08:31
   Intro 0:00 
   Geologic Overview 0:06 
    Time Scales 0:13 
    Key Principles of Geologic Time Scale 0:39 
   Earth's Crust 7:42 
    Biosphere, Hydrosphere, and Internal Structure 7:50 
    Crust 8:29 
   Moho, Mantle, and Core 9:53 
    Moho 10:00 
    Mantle 11:24 
    Core 11:47 
   Plate Tectonics Summary 12:14 
    Continental Drift Theory 12:17 
    Five Main Factors to This Theory 13:26 
    Seafloor Spreading 16:12 
    Boundary Types 19:18 
   Results of Convergence 22:26 
    Oceanic Continental Convergence 22:36 
    Oceanic Oceanic Convergence 23:38 
   Earthquake Basics 24:47 
    Focus vs. Epicenter 25:24 
    Richter Scale 27:38 
    Seismograph, Seismogram 28:59 
   Earthquake Severity 31:04 
    What It Depends On 31:06 
    Severity Related to the Scale 31:36 
   Hurricanes and Tornadoes 35:56 
    Hurricanes 35:58 
    Tornadoes 38:19 
   Volcano Basics 39:24 
    Active Volcanoes Produce Magma at the Surface 39:25 
    95% Are At Subduction Zones and Mid-Oceanic Ridges 40:21 
    Common Gases Released 40:53 
    Main Types of Volcano 42:40 
   Volcano Structure and Case Studies 47:24 
    Parts of the Volcano 47:27 
    Case Studies 50:03 
   Erosion 51:27 
    Natural and/or Human-caused 51:48 
    3 Common Types 55:01 
    Desertification 55:53 
    Salinization 57:16 
    Waterlogging 58:29 
   Pesticides: Good and Bad 59:52 
    Pest 60:24 
    Positive 60:53 
    Negative 62:11 
   Types of Pesticides and Alternatives 64:36 
    Pesticide Types 64:42 
    Alternatives to Pesticide Use 66:05 
  The Economics of Environmental Issues 35:19
   Intro 0:00 
   Environmental Economics Overview 0:05 
    Policy Instruments 0:35 
    Tangible and Intangible Factors 1:17 
    Public-Service Functions 2:29 
   The Commons 5:16 
    A Common is Land Owned Publicly 5:19 
    Tragedy of the Commons 5:45 
    Requires Cooperation and Unselfish Behavior to Work 6:59 
    Arctic Sea and Most of Antarctica 7:26 
    Atmosphere 8:14 
    National Parks 8:43 
   Resources and Profits 10:12 
    Resource Sustainability 10:17 
    Maximum Profit 10:55 
    Whale Example 13:49 
   Indirect vs. Direct Costs 14:14 
    Indirect Cost 14:20 
    Direct Costs 15:30 
    The Balancing Act 16:18 
   Natural Beauty and Its Cost 17:15 
    Landscape Aesthetics 17:19 
    Unity 19:30 
    Vividness 19:39 
    Variety 19:42 
   Value in the Future 20:18 
    'A Bird in the hand is Worth Two in the Bush' 20:20 
    Future Value is Hard to Calculate 21:34 
    Rule of Thumb 21:39 
   Risk-Benefit Analysis 22:58 
    Riskiness of Present Action is Weighed Against the Benefit of the Action 23:01 
    Risk of Death from Various Causes 24:15 
    Fixing Air Pollution vs. Increased Ambulance Service 26:08 
   Cap, Trade, and Legal Controls 28:15 
    Example 28:18 
    Ways to Control Emissions 29:03 
    Example: Fisheries 31:36 
  Biological Diversity 49:57
   Intro 0:00 
   The Basics 0:05 
    Biological Diversity 0:07 
    Reasons People Value Biodiversity 1:12 
   Kinds of Diversity 3:46 
    Genetic Diversity 3:49 
    Habitat Diversity 4:45 
    Species Diversity 5:13 
   Species Overview 7:01 
    1.5 Million Species named 7:15 
    Relative Abundance 8:48 
   Domains 10:05 
    Archaea 10:45 
    Bacteria 12:20 
    Eukarya 12:42 
   Evolution of Life 13:16 
    Biological Evolution 13:19 
    Mutation 14:35 
    Natural Selection 17:38 
   More on Natural Selection 20:41 
    Inheritance of Genes 20:46 
    Environmental Variability 21:45 
    Differential Reproduction 21:57 
    Influence of the Environment on Survival 22:08 
   Migration and Genetic Drift 22:53 
    Migration 22:59 
    Adaptive Radiation 23:11 
    Genetic Drift 25:43 
    Founder Effect 26:24 
   Competition and Niches 28:05 
    Ecological Niche 28:10 
    Competitive Exclusion Principle 28:34 
    Tale of the Flour Beetles 29:53 
   Symbiosis 31:46 
    Living Together 31:48 
    Symbiont 33:20 
    Examples 33:27 
   Geography's Effect on Biology 36:24 
    Biogeography 36:30 
    Biotic Provinces 36:45 
   Biome Summary 39:22 
    A Kind of Ecosystem 39:26 
    Relationship Between Precipitation and Latitude 39:42 
   Patterns of Evolution 42:18 
    Divergent Evolution 42:19 
    Convergent Evolution 43:48 
   Invasive Species and Biological Invasions 44:47 
    Potential Benefits 47:26 
    Why is This a Serious Problem in Many Cases? 48:31 

IV. Impact of Human Activity

  Ecological Restoration 26:01
   Intro 0:00 
   General Principles 0:05 
    Ecological Restoration 0:07 
    Ecosystems are Dynamic 0:15 
    No Simple Set of Rules 0:57 
    Consideration of Ecosystem Geology 1:12 
    Adaptive Management is Necessary 1:27 
   Goals of Restoration 2:30 
    What is Natural? 2:32 
    Goals Need to Be Reasonable and Realistic 4:22 
   Rivers and Streams 5:23 
    Degraded by Urbanization, Agriculture, Timber Harvesting, and Channelization 5:28 
    Kissimmee River in Florida 6:48 
    Wolves/ Elk/ Streams in Yellowstone 9:12 
   Wetlands 11:16 
    Cradle of Civilization 12:18 
    By 2000, 7% of Wetlands Remained 12:48 
    58% Increase Since 1970s 13:53 
   Prairies 14:08 
    Once the Most Abundant Ecosystem in the U.S. 14:11 
    Restoration Process 14:28 
    Great Plains 15:47 
    Drastic Reduction in Bison 15:54 
    Fires 16:58 
   Island Foxes on Santa Cruz Island 17:55 
    Kept as Pets 18:23 
    1990s: Fox Population Plummeted 19:38 
    Steps to Restoration 21:48 
   Reclamation 22:41 
    Reclamation 22:44 
    Potential to Disrupt Food Webs 22:56 
    Ex: British Peak District National Park 23:35 
    Ex: Butchart Gardens 25:25 
  Pollution & Environmental Health 52:47
   Intro 0:00 
   Disease and Toxicity 0:05 
    Disease 0:10 
    Pollution 2:41 
    Toxin 4:44 
    Point Sources vs. Nonpoint Sources 5:33 
    Mobile Sources 6:24 
   Disease Caused by Microbes 6:41 
    Microbes 6:48 
    Epidemic 10:45 
    Pandemic 11:05 
   Toxic Heavy Metals 11:40 
    Heavy Metals 11:49 
    Found in Soil or Water 11:58 
    Body Burden 12:20 
   Biomagnification 14:45 
    Bioaccumulation 14:52 
    Examples 15:38 
   Organic Compounds, POPs, and HAAs 18:53 
    Organic Compounds 19:00 
    Persistent Organic Pollutant 19:37 
    Hormonally Active Agent 24:33 
   Thermal Pollution 27:19 
    Heat Pollution 27:23 
    Acute or Chronic, Natural or Human-Caused 27:37 
    Example: Electric Power Plants 28:04 
   Particulates 30:08 
    Dust Released into the Atmosphere 30:10 
    Examples 30:39 
   Electromagnetic Fields 32:35 
    EMFs 32:36 
    How Dangerous They Are 32:49 
    Connection Between EMFs and Cancer in Children 32:55 
   Noise Pollution 35:20 
    Unwanted Sounds 35:23 
    How Sound Travels 35:33 
    Examples 37:06 
   Pollutant Exposure and Assessing Risk 41:05 
    Dose, Response, and Dose Response 41:08 
    LD-50 41:59 
    ED-50 43:04 
    TD-50 43:34 
    Threshold 44:09 
    Ecological Gradient 44:54 
    Tolerance 45:57 
    Risk Assessment 47:29 
   Fluoride Example 49:07 
  Agriculture & Aquaculture 1:09:54
   Intro 0:00 
   Agroecosystem Basics 0:06 
    Ways It Differs from Natural Ecosystems 0:26 
    Plowing 4:05 
   Feeding the World 5:13 
    Undernourishment 6:14 
    Malnourishment 6:48 
    Give a Man a Fish 9:55 
   Crops 11:01 
    Crop Data 11:10 
    Small Grain Production 11:44 
    Forage 13:12 
   Livestock 14:45 
    Worldwide 14:47 
    Rangeland 16:19 
    Pasture 16:39 
    Ecological Considerations 20:18 
   Soils 22:29 
    Not Just Dirt 22:31 
    Soil Fertility 28:20 
    Restoring Soils 29:44 
   Fertilizers 31:38 
    Use of Organic Fertilizers 31:39 
    Industrial Fertilizers 32:05 
    Macronutrients and Micronutrients 32:43 
    Limiting Factors 33:48 
    Synergistic Effects 34:50 
   Pests and Pesticides 36:29 
    Total Losses from Pests Can be Huge 36:30 
    Known to Destroy Up to 1/3 of the Potential Harvest and 1/10 of the Harvested Crop 38:41 
    Arrival of Pesticides 39:13 
    Broad-Spectrum Toxins 39:16 
    Petroleum-Based Sprays 40:07 
    Artificial Organic Compounds 41:16 
    Integrated Pest Management and Biological Control 42:43 
   The Future of Agriculture 46:22 
    Increased Production Per Acre 46:32 
    Increased Farmland Area 47:04 
    New Crops and Hybrids 47:51 
    Better Irrigation 48:19 
    Organic Farming 48:57 
    Vegetarianism/ Veganism 49:20 
   GMOs 51:02 
    Genetically Modified Organisms 51:11 
    New Hybrids 53:00 
    Terminator Gene 54:39 
    Gene Transfer 56:06 
   Aquaculture 58:05 
    Popular Animals 58:30 
    Importance on Land 59:52 
    Fish Ponds 61:16 
   Mariculture 61:51 
    Farming of Ocean Fish 62:05 
    Oysters and Mussels 62:19 
    Negatives 63:23 
   The Future of Water Supply 64:06 
    Food Production Must be Doubled by 2025 64:28 
    20% of Water to Sustain Crops and Livestock Worldwide 65:21 
    Potential Solutions 66:15 
    Will Malthus Be Correct…? 68:20 
  Forests, Parks, & the Wilderness 52:12
   Intro 0:00 
   Forests Introduction 0:06 
    Silviculture 0:48 
    Conflict on Forests 1:44 
   Forests in the United States 4:12 
    Commercial Grade Forests 4:17 
    Ownership 5:16 
    Likelihood of Indefinite Production of Timber by Forests 6:14 
   Worldwide Effect of Forests 6:50 
    Changes in the Color of Earth's Surface 8:17 
    Warmth 8:49 
    Increase in the Amount of Water Transpired and Evaporated 9:05 
    Carbon Dioxide Gas Concentration Changes 9:27 
    Change in Surface Roughness on the Earth 9:46 
   Ecology of Forests 10:37 
    Niche 10:40 
    White Birch 11:37 
    Douglas Fir 12:06 
    Determine Which Trees Will Last in Various Areas/ Climates 12:31 
   Forest Management 13:17 
    Stands 13:20 
    Old-Growth Forest 14:44 
    Second Growth Forest 15:22 
   Harvesting Forests 17:20 
    Site Quality 17:24 
    Tree Rings 20:30 
    Harvesting 21:30 
   More on Cutting 24:48 
    Clear-Cutting is Controversial 24:51 
    Clear-Cutting is Neither All Good Nor All Bad 26:25 
   Plantations 27:04 
    Stand of One Species Planted in Straight Rows 27:05 
    Maintained with Fertilization, Often by Helicopter 27:20 
    Could be Used More Readily to Supply the World's Timber 27:40 
   Sustainability and Practices 28:48 
    Sustainability 28:50 
    Certification of Forestry 29:28 
    Banning of Import of Wood From Unsustainable Forests 30:00 
   Deforestation 30:37 
    Estimated Annual Loss 30:43 
    Has Lad to More Erosion, Runoff, Floods, and Sediment Ending Up in Water 31:52 
    Brief History 32:43 
    Causes of Deforestation 33:31 
   Parks vs. Nature Reserves 35:04 
    Park 35:08 
    Nature Preserve 36:05 
    Boundaries 36:32 
   Why Parks and Nature Preserves are Here 38:14 
    Preservation of Nature, Wildlife, and Ecosystems 38:21 
    Conservation of Biological Diversity and a Habitat 38:50 
    Maintenance of Wildlife for Hunting 39:09 
    Aesthetics and the Identity of a Region 39:31 
    Maintenances for Recreation and Tourism 39:49 
    Maintenance for Scientific Research Purposes 40:04 
   Conflicts Related to Parks 41:55 
    Size, Access, Types of Activities 41:59 
    Interactions Between People and Wildlife 43:40 
    How Much Land Should Be Included? 45:27 
   Wilderness 46:55 
    Undisturbed by People 46:56 
    Some Countries Have Non Left 47:06 
    Natural vs. Naturalistic 48:24 
    Managing Wilderness 49:30 
  Wildlife & Endangered Species 39:18
   Intro 0:00 
   Sustainable Yields and Viable Populations 0:06 
    Maximum Sustainable Yield 0:11 
    Minimum Viable Population 0:31 
    Optimum Sustainable Population 1:36 
    Examples 2:10 
   Carrying Capacity 6:47 
    Logistic Carrying Capacity is Reached 6:59 
    Number of Births in Unit Time is Equal to Number of Deaths 8:11 
   Managing Wildlife 8:25 
    IUCN 4 Principle Approach 8:51 
    Time Series 11:12 
   Age Structure and Harvests 13:50 
    Age Structure 13:52 
    Harvests as an Estimate of Numbers 15:09 
   Fisheries 16:41 
    Fish Provide 16% of World's Protein 16:44 
    Fish Harvests Increased Greatly in Mid-20th Century 18:49 
   Can Fisheries Be Sustainable? 20:08 
    World's Fish Catch Went from 39 to 68 Million MT 20:12 
    Fish Harvests Declining 21:08 
   Endangered Species 22:51 
    Why/ How Do We Want to Save These Species? 22:53 
    IUCN's Red List of Endangered Species 25:20 
   Extinction: Kinds and Causes 28:19 
    Local vs. Global Extinction 28:20 
    Causes of Extinction 29:16 
    Recovered Species 33:14 
   Overabundance and Human Fault 34:46 
    Too Many Individuals for a Species 34:50 
    Humans Affect Chances of Extinction 36:54 

V. Energy, Water, and Air

  Energy 34:48
   Intro 0:00 
   Past Struggles with Energy 0:04 
    Ancient Greece 0:28 
    Ancient Rome 2:06 
   Energy Basics 3:44 
    Work 3:45 
    Laws of Thermodynamics 5:51 
    Laws of Efficiency 7:57 
    Thermal Efficiency 10:50 
   U.S. Energy Consumption: Now and Later 12:14 
    1950s 12:21 
    1970s 13:07 
    2009 13:34 
    2030 13:55 
    2050 14:03 
   Energy Sources 14:16 
    U.S. Uses 20% of Energy 14:17 
    Alternative 15:44 
    Renewable 16:46 
   Conservation of Energy 17:37 
    Conservation 17:39 
    Energy Efficiency 19:26 
    Cogeneration 20:34 
    Building Design 21:13 
    Values and Choices 22:31 
   Sustainable-Energy Policy 25:38 
    Not Business as Usual 26:02 
    Energy Sustainability Policy 26:38 
   Micropower 30:08 
    Smaller, Distributed Systems for Electricity Production 30:09 
    Homes Have Their Own Small Power Systems 31:12 
    Distributive Power Systems 32:33 
  Fossil Fuels 1:02:35
   Intro 0:00 
   Fossil Fuel Basics 0:04 
    Matter Is Not Completely Oxidized 0:37 
    Converted Via Chemical Reactions 1:12 
    In a Sense, It's Stored Solar Energy 1:45 
   Fossil Fuel Usage Worldwide 2:33 
    90% of the Energy Used Worldwide 2:36 
    World Energy Consumption Grew 2:52 
    Oil and Natural Gas Make up 70-80% of Primary Energy Usage 4:14 
    China and Coal 4:53 
   Crude Oil and Natural Gas Origins 5:09 
    Petroleum 5:14 
    Elevated Temperature and Pressure Facilitate the Production of the Oil or Natural Gas 5:41 
    Source Rock vs. Reservoir Rock 6:05 
    Upward Migration 7:34 
   Petroleum Production 9:09 
    Primary Production 9:10 
    Enhanced Recovery 9:32 
    Proven Oil Reserves 10:02 
    Overall Oil Resource Estimates 11:06 
   Petroleum Use Now and Later 12:06 
    Scientists Suggest That Proven Oil Reserves Will Only Last Several More Decades 12:10 
    Potential Crisis? 12:55 
   Natural Gas 13:59 
    Search for This Resource Has Not Been Around As Long As Oil 14:02 
    Worldwide Estimate 15:14 
   Coal-Bed Methane 18:32 
    Formation of Coal 18:37 
    Utah and Wyoming Have the Largest Known Coal-Bed Methane Sources in the U.S. 19:04 
    Benefits and Concerns 19:53 
   Black Shale (Tight) Natural Gas 22:47 
    Black Devonian Shale 22:51 
    Recovery is Costly and Controversial 23:27 
   Methane Hydrates 25:14 
    Exist Beneath Ocean Floor 25:17 
    White, Ice-like Compound of CH4 in a Frozen Water 25:30 
    Giant Craters from Methane Eruptions 25:59 
    Potentially Contain 2x the Energy of All the Other Fossil Fuels on Earth 26:29 
   Oil's Effect on the Environment 27:34 
    Use of Land for Wells, Pipes, Storage 27:45 
    Pollution of Surface Waters and Groundwater 27:59 
    Accidental Release of Mass Amounts of Oil 28:17 
    Accidental Release of Air Pollutants 28:56 
    Release of Drilling Muds 29:01 
    Land Subsidence 29:26 
    Loss/ Disruption of Ecosystems 29:42 
   Refining, Delivering and Using Oil 29:57 
    Fractional Distillation Oil Has Its Issues 30:00 
    Creating 'Fine Oil' Can Have its Environmental Costs 30:58 
    Delivery on Land Via Pipelines or in Ocean by Tankers 31:46 
   ANWR: Should We Drill? 32:51 
    Pros of Drilling 33:35 
    Cons of Drilling 35:08 
   Coal Introduction 37:39 
    Partial Decomposed Vegetation, Buried in Sediment, Can Eventually Become Coal 37:45 
    Classified As 38:54 
    Low Sulfur Content is Important 39:50 
   Coal Mining 44:42 
    Thousands of Square Kilometer in the U.S. Disturbed 44:45 
    Strip Mining 45:52 
   Mountaintop Removal of Coal 48:29 
    Growing Concern Over This Practice 48:32 
    Mountaintops are Destroyed, Valleys are Filled with Waste Rock and Mine Waste, Flood Hazard Increased 49:17 
    October 2000, SE Kentucky 49:54 
    Proponents Emphasize $ Value to Local Economy 50:47 
    Experts Claim That Reclamation Success Stories are Few and Far Between 50:56 
   Underground Mining of Coal 51:20 
    Accounts for About 40% of the Coal Mined in the U.S. 51:21 
    Dangers to Miners Are Well Documented 51:34 
    Environmental Issues 52:05 
    Transporting Coal 53:00 
   The Future of Coal 53:51 
    Burning Coal Produces Almost 50% of Electricity Used and 25% of Total Energy Consumed in U.S. 53:52 
    Recent Legislation Has Created a Demand For the Following 54:02 
   Oil Shale and Tar Sands 58:04 
    Oil Shale 58:19 
    Tar Sands 59:43 
  Alternative Energy 41:46
   Intro 0:00 
   Non-renewable vs. Renewable Energy 0:05 
    Alternative Energy 0:06 
    Non-renewables 0:29 
    Renewables 1:03 
   Solar Energy Basics 1:37 
    Worldwide 1:45 
    Passive Solar Energy Systems 2:44 
    Active Solar Energy Systems 4:02 
   Active Solar Energy 4:21 
    Require Mechanical Power to Move Air and/or Water 4:22 
    Solar Collectors 4:32 
    Photovoltaics 7:58 
   Solar Thermal Generators 8:54 
    Solar One 9:17 
    Pros 10:54 
    Cons 12:10 
   Fuel Cells - A Great Alternative for Cars 13:11 
    Fuel Cars 13:32 
    The Only Waste is Water 16:37 
   Water Power Basics 17:13 
    Successful Since the Time of the Roman Empire 17:17 
    Hydroelectric Power Harnesses the Power of Water Stored Behind Dams 17:34 
    Pump Storage System 18:12 
   Small-Scale and Environmental Impact 19:25 
    Large Dam Locations and Use 19:32 
    Environmental Impact 20:49 
   Ocean Energy 21:54 
    Tidal Power 22:07 
    Flood Tide 22:38 
    Ebb Tide 22:57 
    Concerns 23:33 
   Wind Power 25:12 
    In Use with the Ancient Chinese and Persians 25:13 
    18 km/hr Winds on Average 26:24 
    Today's Cheapest Alternative Energy 28:18 
    Pros and Cons 28:36 
   Biofuels 32:13 
    Energy Recovered from Biomass 32:14 
    Oldest Fuel Used by Humans 32:47 
    Pros and Cons 33:46 
   Geothermal Energy 37:13 
    Deep-Earth 37:22 
    Shallow-Earth 38:21 
   Geothermal's Future and the Environment 39:39 
    Geyers Geothermal Field 39:40 
    Deep-Earth and Shallow-Earth in the Future 40:18 
    Environmental Concerns 40:37 
  Nuclear Energy 31:59
   Intro 0:00 
   Nuclear Fission 0:04 
    Atoms Split Into Two or More Smaller Nuclei Along with By-Products 0:13 
    Explosion 0:39 
    Amount of Energy Contained in Nuclear Fuel Is 10 Million Times More Than Coal and Petroleum 1:31 
    1950s-60s Cesium-137 2:36 
   Nuclear Fuel 6:17 
    U-235 6:26 
    U-238 8:42 
    Pu-239 9:11 
   Electricity Production 10:46 
    Reasons for Recent Decline 10:49 
    Currently Provides 15% of Global Electricity 12:49 
    2007 13:20 
    Arguments in Favor of Nuclear Energy for Electricity 13:31 
   Nuclear Reactor Basics 15:18 
    Core 15:33 
    Fuel 16:36 
    Control Rods 16:46 
    Moderator 17:07 
    Coolant 17:22 
   Water Reactors 17:37 
    Light-Water Reactors 17:50 
    Heavy-Water Reactors 20:08 
   Graphite-Moderated and Exotics Reactors 21:40 
    Graphite-Moderated 21:41 
    Exotic Reactors 22:21 
   Overview of Pros and Cons of Nuclear Energy 22:48 
    Pros 22:54 
    Cons 22:36 
   Safety Issues (and Chernobyl) 25:01 
    Up to 50,000 Sites Within the U.S. Have Radioactive Contamination and Require Cleanup 25:05 
    Estimated Nuclear Health Risks Per Year 25:58 
    Chernobyl, Ukraine 26:48 
   Nuclear Fusion 30:12 
    Extremely High Temps Can Force Nuclei of Lightweight Atoms to Fuse Together, Causing Large Amounts of Energy to be Released 30:22 
    For Contrast 30:43 
    The Same Electricity Production from Nuclear Fusion Would Create Only 4 lbs Harmless Helium as Waste 31:19 
  Water Resources & Use 1:05:34
   Intro 0:00 
   Water Basics 0:05 
    Polar Covalently Bonded Molecule 0:22 
    Hydrogen Bonds are Between Neighboring H2Os 0:59 
    High Specific Heat 1:53 
    Universal Solvent 3:04 
    High Surface Tension 3:40 
    Cohesion Adhesion 4:18 
    Solid Form is Less Dense Than the Liquid Form 5:22 
    Filters Out Harmful UV Radiation 6:12 
    Sunlight Penetrates Water to Variable Depths 6:29 
   Hydrologics: A Global Perspective 6:39 
    Earth's Water 8:13 
    Freshwater 8:25 
    Fresh Surface Water 9:16 
    Projection 9:57 
   Water Supply 10:48 
    Water Budget 10:49 
    Missouri River Example 12:27 
    Surface Water Supply Can Never Be As High As Average Annual Runoff 14:08 
   Groundwater and Streams 14:56 
    Groundwater 14:59 
    Recharge Zones vs. Discharge Zones 15:37 
    Aquifer 16:20 
    Streams: Effluent or Influent, Perennial or Ephemeral 18:33 
   Groundwater Use and Problems 20:04 
    Lots of Shallow Groundwater Available in U.S. 20:08 
    Groundwater Withdrawals Exceeds Natural Inflow in Many Areas 20:51 
    Area With the Worst Overdraft Problem 22:01 
   Desalination 23:45 
    More Fresh Water Can be Made Available Through This Process 23:49 
    Expensive 24:57 
    Concerns 25:41 
   Off-Stream and In-Stream Use 26:16 
    Off-Stream 26:26 
    In-Stream 27:23 
   Aral Sea Wake-Up Call 31:16 
    Dying Due to Diverting River Water for Agricultural Use 31:28 
    Environmental Hazards Result 32:45 
    Dam Constructed and Conservation Efforts 33:35 
   Water Transport and Trends in Use 34:43 
    Price Continues to Go Up 34:47 
    CA Dichotomy 35:46 
    Trends in Water Use from 1950-2005 36:45 
   Water Conservation in Agriculture 38:53 
    Careful Use and Protection of Water 38:59 
    Suggestions for Conserving 39:30 
   Water Conservation for Homes/ Cities 43:31 
    Growing Populations in Numerous Cities are Heading for a Situation Where the Water Supply is Exhausted 43:41 
    Suggestions for Conserving 44:23 
   Water Sustainability 49:17 
    Careful Use and Protection of Water 49:18 
    Criteria for Sustainable Water Use 49:33 
    Example: Artificial Recharge 50:42 
   Virtual Water Footprint 51:51 
    Amount of Water Used to Produce a Product 52:00 
    Water Export/ Import Varies by Continent 53:50 
    Use of Water for Making Products is Important to Consider 55:26 
    Footprint: Total Volume Used to Product Services 56:25 
   Wetlands and Their Importance 58:29 
    Natural Sponge 59:05 
    Groundwater Recharge 59:26 
    Endangered Animals Rely on Them 59:45 
    Help Purify Water 60:07 
    Buffer for Storms/Waves 60:24 
    Lots of Carbon Storage 60:38 
    Aesthetically Pleasing 60:58 
   Dams and Their Effects 61:26 
    Environmental Effects of Dams 61:31 
    Three Gorges Dam, China 63:46 
    Marmot Dam Restoration, Oregon 64:57 
  Water Pollution & Treatment 46:39
   Intro 0:00 
   Water Pollution Overview 0:05 
    Degradation of Water Quality 0:09 
    Sources of Pollution 0:37 
    Maximum Contaminant Levels 2:50 
   Biochemical Oxygen Demand 4:08 
    Biochemical Oxygen Demand 4:09 
    Dead Organic Matter Enters Streams From Natural Sources and Agriculture Runoff 4:50 
    Dissolved Oxygen Content of <5 mg/L is Threshold 5:31 
    Three Zones 6:03 
   Waterborne Illnesses 9:34 
    Not Immune to Outbreaks of Waterborne Disease 9:35 
    Fecal Coliform Bacteria 9:53 
    Water Unfit to Swim In 11:02 
   Nutrients in Water 11:49 
    Pollution from Human Sources 12:11 
    Eutrophication 12:28 
    Eutrophic vs. Oligotrophic Lake 13:41 
    Cultural Eutrophication 14:36 
   Oil and Sediment 17:10 
    Oil Has Caused Major Pollution Problems 17:11 
    Sediment Pollution is Also a Major Issue 18:19 
   Acid Mine Drainage 18:57 
    General Equation 19:13 
    Can Occur Near Abandoned Mines 20:35 
    Potential Solutions 21:26 
   Surface-Water Pollution 22:41 
    Point Sources 22:45 
    Urban-Runoff Naturalization 23:43 
   Groundwater Pollution 26:18 
    Groundwater to Drink 26:19 
    Example: Gasoline Pollution 26:52 
    Points to Consider 27:38 
    Different from Surface-Water Pollution 28:21 
   Wastewater Treatment 29:37 
    Sewage Treatment 29:38 
    Septic Tank Disposal Systems 29:58 
    Water Treatment Plant Receives Sewage from Pipes and After Treatment Discharges Water Into Ocean 33:01 
    Primary Water Treatment 33:22 
    Secondary Water Treatment 34:20 
    Advanced Treatment 35:32 
   Land Application of Wastewater 36:28 
    Recycling Wastewater is Becoming More Common 36:69 
    Man-Made Wetlands 36:35 
    Example: Arcata, ca 38:27 
   Water Reuse 39:15 
    Inadvertent Water Reuse 39:24 
    Indirect Water Reuse 40:29 
    Direct Water Reuse 40:41 
   Water Pollution and Environmental Law 41:26 
    Refuse Act 41:40 
    Water Quality Improvement Act 42:07 
    Federal Safe Drinking Water Act 42:28 
    Clean Water Act 42:51 
    Water Quality Act 42:58 
   The Hudson River Story 43:46 
    Flows in 2 Directions 43:56 
    History 44:33 
  Air Pollution 1:27:40
   Intro 0:00 
   Air Pollution Overview 0:05 
    People Have Recognized the Problem for a Long Time Now 0:42 
    Stationary Sources 1:58 
    Mobile Sources 3:22 
   General Effects of Air Pollutants 3:39 
    Affects Vegetation, Animals, Soils, Water Quality, Natural/ Art Structures, Human Health, and Visibility 3:46 
    Major Factor in the Death Rate in Large Cities 5:23 
    Effects on Humans 5:45 
    Synergistic Effects 6:47 
   Major Air Pollutants 7:24 
    Primary Pollutants 7:33 
    Secondary Pollutants 8:15 
    Primary Pollutants That Account for Most of the Problems 9:33 
   Criteria Pollutants 11:08 
    Sulfur Dioxide 11:24 
    Nitrogen Oxides 12:57 
    Carbon Monoxide 16:03 
    Ozone 16:52 
    Particulate Matter 17:10 
    Lead 22:16 
   Acid Rain 23:41 
    Precipitation Lower than 5.6pH 22:44 
    Determining the Effects of Acid Rain 26:49 
    Effects: Forests, Water, Humans 28:12 
    How to Control it 30:46 
   Air Toxics 33:02 
    H2S 33:12 
    HF 34:11 
    Hg 34:55 
    VOCs 36:48 
    C2H3NO 37:30 
    C6H6 38:44 
    CH2CHCHO 39:30 
   Air Pollution Variability 40:11 
    Varies from Place to Place 40:13 
    Varies with Time of Year 42:18 
    Haze from Afar 43:38 
   Urban Air Pollution 44:44 
    Photochemical Smog 44:49 
    Sulfurous Smog 45:23 
    Primary Adverse Effects 46:05 
   Controlling Pollutants and Quality Standards 50:43 
    Preventing Entrance into Atmosphere 50:45 
    Air Pollution Legislation 54:03 
   High Altitude Depletion 56:55 
    Ozone Depletion is a Major Concern 56:59 
    Ozone Shield 57:25 
    Ozone Depletion 60:02 
    Antarctic Ozone Hole 64:30 
    Pole Stratospheric Clouds 65:29 
    Environmental Effects 67:06 
    The Future of Ozone Depletion 69:31 
   Indoor Air Pollution Intro 70:15 
    70-90% Enclosed in Space 70:16 
    Coal Miners' Disease 71:16 
    One of the Biggest Hazards in Modern Workspace 71:50 
    Hurricane Katrina 71:58 
    Sources 73:35 
   Some Sources of Indoor Air Pollution 73:44 
    Heating, Ventilation 73:50 
    Furniture and Carpets 74:07 
    Machines, Computers, Printers 74:21 
    Pesticides 74:49 
    Indoor Smoking 75:13 
    Chemicals Used in Building Construction 75:28 
    Garbage Containers and Vehicle Exhaust 75:40 
    Cleaning Products 76:15 
    Dust Mites and Molds 76:28 
    Pollen 76:37 
   More on Indoor Pollution 76:48 
    Chimney Effect 76:58 
    Heating, Ventilation 77:56 
    Environmental Tobacco Smoke 78:46 
    Radon Gas 80:37 
    'Sick Buildings' 82:24 
   Controlling Indoor Air Pollution 85:04 
    Make Homes/ Buildings Radon Resistant 86:00 
    Building Design 86:33 
  Atmosphere & Climate Change 1:16:03
   Intro 0:00 
   Fundamental Questions on Global Warming 0:06 
   Weather vs. Climate 3:28 
    Weather 3:37 
    Climate 4:10 
    Weather is Affected by Many Factors 5:22 
    Climate is Always Changing 6:12 
   Atmospheric Composition 9:10 
   Factors That Influence Climate 11:12 
    Air Mass and Pressure 11:25 
    Albedo 11:55 
    Altitude and Latitude 12:51 
    Humidity and Clouds 13:58 
    Angle of Sunlight 14:31 
    Carbon Cycle 14:56 
    Heat 15:20 
    Landmasses/ Mountains 16:02 
    Volcanoes 16:14 
    Pollution 16:36 
    Wind Patterns 16:55 
   Greenhouse Gases 17:10 
    Gases That Warm the Earth's Surface as They Accumulate in the Atmosphere 17:11 
    Examples 19:04 
   The Greenhouse Effect 21:05 
    Heat Trapped in Earth by Greenhouse Gases 21:06 
    Majority of Heat Radiates Back Into Outer Space 21:18 
    How It Works 21:46 
   The Atmosphere 25:01 
    Thermosphere 25:49 
    Mesosphere 26:30 
    Stratosphere 26:53 
    Troposphere 27:52 
   How We Study Climate 31:13 
    Instrumental Record 31:17 
    Historical Record 32:59 
    Paleo-Proxy Record 34:03 
   Climate Change and Feedback Loops 40:57 
    Negative Feedback 41:08 
    Positive Feedback 45:20 
   Causes of Climate Change 48:07 
    Milankovitch Cycles 49:12 
    Solar Cycles 51:50 
    Albedo Effects 52:48 
    Roughness of the Earth 53:22 
    Chemistry of Life 53:48 
    Climate Forcing 54:13 
   Oceans and Climate Change 56:22 
    Ocean/ Atmosphere Relationship 56:23 
    Ocean Conveyor Belt 57:37 
    El Niño 58:16 
    La Niña 60:01 
   Forecasting Climate Change 60:06 
    Past Observations and Research 60:10 
    Computer Simulations 63:34 
    Polar Amplification 64:47 
   Potential Environmental, Ecological, Human Effects 65:51 
    Changes in River Flow 65:57 
    Rise in Sea Levels 66:26 
    Glaciers and Sea Ice 67:37 
    Changes in Biodiversity 68:37 
    Agricultural Production 69:53 
    Human Health Effects 70:47 
    Options to Deal With It 72:09 
   Kyoto Protocol 73:18 
    International Agreement to Mitigate Global Warming 73:23 
    Cut of Carbon Dioxide Emissions 73:48 
    2008: U.S. Agreed to 50% Reductions 74:16 
    2010: No International Agreement with U.S. 75:35 

VI. Cities and the Future

  The Urban Environment 51:05
   Intro 0:00 
   City Facts 0:05 
    1950: Few people Lived in Cities 1:22 
    U.S. = 75% Urban, 25% Rural 2:07 
    2002: Megacities 2:41 
    Urban Ecosystems 3:19 
   Location, Location, Location 5:04 
    Site 5:29 
    Situation 5:42 
    Fall Line 7:44 
   Site Modification 9:11 
    Negative Consequences: New Orleans 9:22 
    Bruges, Belgium 11:06 
   Environmental History of Cities 12:19 
    Stage 1: Rise of Cities 12:27 
    Stage 2: Urban Center 13:33 
    Stage 3: Industrial Metropolis 15:22 
    Stage 4: Center of Civilization 17:29 
   Planning and the Environment 18:52 
    Defense and Beauty 19:15 
    City Parks are Designed with Nature 21:26 
    Garden City with Green Belt 23:33 
   The City as an Environment 24:14 
    Cities Inevitably Change the Landscape 24:17 
    Energy Budget 26:17 
    Climate Effects 28:00 
    Solar Energy 28:53 
    Water and Soils 30:13 
    Pollution 30:54 
   Bringing Nature to the City 31:52 
    New York City's High Line 31:59 
    Rivers 34:38 
    Vegetation in Cities 37:55 
    Urban 'Wilds' 38:59 
    Animal Pests 41:02 
   Urban Sprawl 45:02 
    1959: Blue Line 46:38 
    1967: Greenbelt 48:01 
    1976: 2% Increase in Residents Per Year 48:25 
    2002: Only Increased 2000 48:41 
  Materials Management 1:14:52
   Intro 0:00 
   The Importance of Resources 0:04 
    Renewable vs. Nonrenewables 0:11 
    Goal 1:22 
    Ways to Achieve Goal 1:28 
   Mineral Resources 5:06 
    Ore Deposits 5:40 
    Sedimentary Processes Result 6:17 
    Weathering 6:59 
   How Much is Left? 8:15 
    Resources 8:22 
    Reserves 8:44 
    Varied Use of Minerals Worldwide 10:36 
    When the Resources is Limited… 11:59 
   Mineral Development and Its Impact 13:42 
    Environmental Impacts 13:46 
    Social Impacts 15:22 
    Minimizing the Impact 17:15 
   Resource Cycle Flowchart 18:47 
   Materials Management and Waste 21:38 
    History or Waste Disposal 21:39 
    Industrial Ecology 25:51 
   Integrated Waste Management 28:06 
    IWM 28:07 
    Single Stream Recycling 29:33 
    Public Support 30:33 
    Recycling Human Waste 32:19 
   Solid-Waste Management 35:48 
    What It's Composed Of 35:51 
    Composting 39:23 
    Incineration 41:11 
    Open Dumps vs. Sanitary Landfills 41:43 
   Landfills: Site Selection and Monitoring 43:51 
    The Hazard of Leachate 44:10 
    Site Selection 45:10 
    Entrance into the Environment 46:33 
   Legislation and Waste Reduction in Landfills 49:03 
    Federal/ EPA Standards 49:07 
    Waste Reduction Strategies 50:51 
   Hazardous Waste 54:20 
    Illegal Dumping 54:40 
    Pollution of Groundwater and/or Soil 57:49 
   Hazardous Waste Disposal, Management 59:35 
    Resource Conservation and Recovery Act 59:38 
    CERCLA 59:48 
    Environmental Audits 61:39 
    Secure Landfill 63:11 
   Alternatives to Land Disposal 63:58 
    We Can Improve Hazardous Waste Disposal 64:00 
    Source Reduction 65:00 
    Recycling, Resource Recovery 65:16 
    Incineration 65:30 
   Ocean Dumping 65:52 
    Oceans Cover More Than 70% of Earth 65:05 
    Some of Marine Pollution's Harmful Effects 66:40 
    Microlayer Dangers 68:43 
    'Plastic Island' in the Pacific 70:09 
   E-Waste 70:56 
    Danger of Electronic Waste 70:59 
    Treasure of the Cell Phone 71:54 
    Some Areas Factor Recycling/ Disposal Into Costs 72:45 
    We Can Do Better! 74:10 
  The Future of the Environment 29:09
   Intro 0:00 
   Ecotopia! 0:05 
    Stable or Declining Human Population 0:23 
    All Resources are Sustainable 0:51 
    Enough Wilderness for People to Enjoy Recreation 1:05 
    Minimized Pollution 1:24 
    Risk of Extinction Minimized for Many Species 1:37 
    Healthy, Functioning Ecosystems 2:14 
    Enough Water and Food for All Life 2:29 
   Planning a Future 2:48 
    Self-Organizing Systems 2:51 
    Example: Town Formation vs. Deepwater Horizon 3:43 
    Democracy 5:19 
    Planning is a Social Experiment We All Participate In 6:02 
   Environment and the Law 7:23 
    'A Horse, a Gun, and a Plan' 7:27 
    Three Stages 8:45 
    How Far Can Governments Go with Enacting Environmental Legislation? 12:29 
   Planning for Services and Recreation 12:51 
    Regional Planning 12:55 
    Planning Goes Into Providing Recreational National Park Space 14:25 
    Policy Implementation Examples 15:32 
    Skiing at Mineral King 16:28 
    Rewilding 18:45 
   Participation in Environmental Law 20:13 
    Environmental Groups Have Been a Powerful Force 20:17 
    Citizens Actions 20:27 
    Mediation 21:41 
   International Law and Security 22:57 
    More Than One Billion People on Earth Live in Poverty 22:58 
    United Nation's Annual Budget for Environment 26:31 
   Earth Summit of Sustainable Development 27:14 
    Johannesburg, South Africa 27:15 
    Objectives 27:21 

VII. Lichens

  Lichens: A Closer Look 40:06
   Intro 0:00 
   Lichen Intro 0:05 
    Composite Organism from a Symbiotic Relationship 0:49 
    Thousands of Species 1:58 
    Can Live Anywhere 2:43 
    Found from Sea Level to Alpine Environments 3:10 
    Not Moss 3:24 
    Related to Environmental Science in Many Ways 3:54 
   Various Forms of Lichen 5:48 
    Categorized Based on Growth 5:50 
    Wide Variety of Colors 7:07 
    Range of Forms 7:38 
   Symbiosis: Not a Traditional Mutualism 8:08 
    'Lichens are Fungi That Have Discovered Agriculture' 8:14 
    Mutualism 8:53 
    Some Lichens Live on Other Lichens 12:01 
   Reproduction of Lichens 12:24 
    Reproduction is Generally Asexual 12:27 
    Fungal Part Can Reproduce Sexually 12:54 
    Spore-Containing Bodies Grow from the Thallus 13:25 
   Energy Use of Lichens 13:57 
    Photobiont 14:05 
    Water 14:34 
    Temperature 15:45 
    Minerals 16:41 
    What Eats Lichens? 17:07 
   Lichens in North American Biomes 18:04 
    Arctic/ Alpine Region 18:20 
    Boreal Region 19:36 
    Temperate Region 20:24 
    Madrean 21:31 
    Tropical 22:50 
    Desert 23:45 
   Response to the Environment 24:30 
    Lichens are Efficient Accumulators of Minerals 24:31 
    Absorbed from the Atmosphere and Soil 25:30 
    Pollution Monitors 26:28 
    Transplants Programs 28:27 
    Ability to Absorb Metals Can Potentially Indicate Where Ore is Located 30:02 
    Some Lichens are Restricted to Old Growth Forests, With Undisturbed Growth 30:48 
   Human Use of Lichens 32:12 
    Exceptions 32:33 
    Clothing 35:12 
    Dyes 35:40 
    Perfumes 35:55 
    Medicines 36:47 

VIII. Practice AP Test

  AP Practice Exam: Math Problems 37:14
   Intro 0:00 
   Testing Basics 0:07 
   Advice on Preparation 4:12 
   Math Problem 1 7:46 
   Math Problem 2 11:37 
   Math Problem 3 13:11 
   Math Problem 4 16:07 
   Math Problem 5 20:41 
   Math Problem 6 22:30 
   Math Problem 7 23:14 
   Math Problem 8 24:28 
   Math Problem 9 25:29 
   Math Problem 10 27:30 
   Math Problem 11 29:26 
   Math Problem 12 31:15 
   Math Problem 13 32:36 
   Math Problem 14 34:44 
  AP Practice Exam: Multiple Choice 41:50
   Intro 0:00 
   Explanation 0:06 
   Breakdown of Concepts 1:57 
   Question 1 2:19 
   Question 2 2:47 
   Question 3 3:36 
   Question 4 4:35 
   Question 5 5:32 
   Question 6 5:48 
   Question 7 6:39 
   Question 8 7:19 
   Question 9 7:59 
   Question 10 9:10 
   Question 11 9:37 
   Question 12 10:29 
   Question 13 11:21 
   Question 14 12:03 
   Question 15 12:42 
   Question 16 13:44 
   Question 17 14:20 
   Question 18 15:14 
   Question 19 16:23 
   Question 20 17:13 
   Question 21 18:24 
   Question 22 19:28 
   Question 23 20:12 
   Question 24 20:51 
   Question 25 21:54 
   Question 26 22:32 
   Question 27 23:44 
   Question 28 24:20 
   Question 29 25:08 
   Question 30 26:03 
   Question 31 26:35 
   Question 32 27:24 
   Question 33 28:11 
   Question 34 29:14 
   Question 35 29:53 
   Question 36 30:42 
   Question 37 31:22 
   Question 38 31:57 
   Question 39 32:32 
   Question 40 33:44 
   Question 41 34:27 
   Question 42 35:01 
   Question 43 35:28 
   Question 44 36:11 
   Question 45 36:51 
   Question 46 37:29 
   Question 47 37:55 
   Question 48 39:16 
   Question 49 40:11 
   Question 50 40:58 
  AP Practice Exam: Free Response 1:01:26
   Intro 0:00 
   Free Response Summary 0:05 
   Advice on Preparation 3:55 
   Free Response Question 1 7:11 
   Free Response Question 2 25:12 
   Free Response Question 3 37:46 
   Free Response Question 4 50:28 

Course Details:

Duration: 23 hours 21 minutes

Number of Lessons: 29

This course is aimed at high school students taking the AP Environmental Science course and exam, but is also suitable for college students. A full walkthrough of a previous year’s AP exam anchors this course.

Additional Features:

  • Free Sample Lessons
  • Downloadable Lecture Slides
  • Study Guides
  • Instructor Comments

Topics Include:

  • Scientific Method
  • Human Population
  • Earth’s Cycles
  • Pollution
  • Energy, Water, & Air
  • Urban Environment
  • Lichens
  • Practice AP Exam

About Prof. Cardella

Professor Cardella brings both extensive knowledge and engaging delivery to this AP course with his 10+ years teaching high school life sciences and stand-up comedy experience.

Student Testimonials:

“Thank you so much! Just took the exam today and felt really confident! Your videos were a huge help in my self-study!” — Caleb K.