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Interactions of Europeans, Native Americans and Africans

  • Around 1450-1550, European Societies were hierarchical, agricultural, patriarchal, and influenced by Christianity.
  • The Scientific Revolution and the Age of Exploration led to many technological advances that fostered oversees exploration.
  • Prince Henry the Navigator, who founded a center for oceanic navigation, helped train sailor and improve map making. Three-mast ships & gunpowder helped Europeans explore.
  • The Portuguese explored and traded with West Africans in 15th century, eventually exchanging fish and other goods for African ivory, gold and later slaves.
  • The Spaniards led a Reconquista and explored and conquered several areas in the Americas while converting Native Americans to Catholicism via the mission system. Columbus was one of the most influential explorers, and the Columbian exchange changed the global trade dynamic. European diseases devastated Native American populations.
  • The Arab trade routes were extensive and Europeans were influenced by Arab knowledge.
  • After 1550 other European groups began slave trade and developed sugar plantations in Americas.
  • See Guns, Germs, and Steel and to learn more about effects of smallpox on Native American populations, see: http://www.pbs.org/gunsgermssteel/variables/smallpox.html
  • More about Las Casas who advocated for Native Americans: http://www.pbs.org/opb/conquistadors/namerica/adventure2/b3.htm
  • See “The Black Atlantic” to learn more about the global experiences that created the African-American people: http://www.pbs.org/wnet/african-americans-many-rivers-to-cross/video/

Interactions of Europeans, Native Americans and Africans

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  1. Intro
    • Overview
      • Europeans Encounters Africans and the Americans 1450-1550
      • Hierarchy
        • Inheritance and Religious Influences
        • Importance of Religious History
        • The Renaissance and The Age of Exploration
        • Improvements in Technology
        • West Africa and the Mediterranean in the 15th Century
        • Trade Routes in the Sub-Saharan Region
        • West African Society and Slavery
        • Europeans and Africans Trade
        • Portuguese Traders and Slavery
        • Europeans Explore America
        • Ferdinand and Isabella
        • Christopher Columbus
        • The Spanish Conquest
        • Conquistadors and Disease
        • Columbian Exchange
        • Spanish Colonization of Americas
        • Effects of Spanish Conquest
        • European Treatment of Native Americans
        • Latin American Social Hierarchy
          • Las Casas and Missionaries
            • Bartolome de Las Casas
            • Example 1
              • Example 2
                • Example 3
                  • Example 4
                    • Intro 0:00
                    • Overview 0:50
                    • Europeans Encounters Africans and the Americans 1450-1550 2:51
                      • European Agricultural Society - Yeomen
                      • Hierarchical Social Order
                    • Hierarchy 4:59
                    • Inheritance and Religious Influences 5:32
                      • Dower and Primogeniture
                      • Religious Influences
                    • Importance of Religious History 6:43
                      • Pagans and Animists
                      • Crusades
                      • Christian Identity of Europeans
                      • Absorption of Arab Knowledge
                    • The Renaissance and The Age of Exploration 8:57
                      • The Black Death
                      • The Renaissance
                    • Improvements in Technology 11:15
                      • Prince Henry the Navigator
                      • Gunpowder
                    • West Africa and the Mediterranean in the 15th Century 13:50
                      • Sea of Darkness
                      • Madeira and Azore Islands
                      • The Development of the Slave Trade System
                    • Trade Routes in the Sub-Saharan Region 15:21
                      • Trade Routes in the Globe
                    • West African Society and Slavery 17:31
                      • Geographical Location
                      • Trading of Goods
                      • Languages
                      • Spiritual Beliefs
                      • Effects of European Traders
                    • Europeans and Africans Trade 20:56
                      • Vasco da Gama
                      • Slave Trade
                      • War Captives and Criminals
                    • Portuguese Traders and Slavery 24:19
                      • Elmina, Foree, Mpinda and Loango
                      • Sugar Plantations
                      • Shipping to the America
                    • Europeans Explore America 26:19
                      • Spanish Monarchs, King Ferdinand of Aragon and Queen Isabel of Castile
                      • Arranged Marriage
                      • The Capture of Granada
                    • Ferdinand and Isabella 27:42
                      • Christopher Columbus
                      • Two Goals
                    • Christopher Columbus 28:47
                      • Native Inhabitants
                      • The Three Expeditions
                      • Colonization of the West Indies
                      • Amerigo Vespucci
                    • The Spanish Conquest 31:02
                      • Reconquista
                      • Hernan Cortes
                      • Moctezuma
                      • Superior European Military Technology
                    • Conquistadors and Disease 32:44
                      • Francisco Pizarro
                      • Conquistadors and Encomiendas
                      • Columbian Exchange Map
                    • Columbian Exchange 36:20
                      • The Definition of Columbian Exchange
                      • The Gold and Silver from Aztecs
                    • Spanish Colonization of Americas 37:15
                      • Spaniards Migration
                      • Mestizo Population
                    • Effects of Spanish Conquest 38:27
                      • Introduction of Pigs
                      • Steel Weapons
                      • Smallpox
                    • European Treatment of Native Americans 39:20
                      • “Inferiority”
                      • Spanish Policy
                    • Latin American Social Hierarchy 41:21
                    • Las Casas and Missionaries 42:20
                    • Bartolome de Las Casas 43:06
                      • In Defense of the Indians
                      • Enslavement of Africans
                    • Example 1 44:32
                    • Example 2 47:45
                    • Example 3 49:56
                    • Example 4 52:21

                    Transcription: Interactions of Europeans, Native Americans and Africans

                    Welcome back to www.educator.com.0000

                    This lesson is about interactions.0003

                    I just messed up a little bit but I did not move anything.0019

                    Welcome back to www.educator.com.0041

                    This lesson is about interactions of Europeans, Native Americans, and Africans.0043

                    In this lesson, we are going to talk about how Europeans are going to encounter Africans and Native Americans.0052

                    How the median of these three worlds is ultimately going to impact global history, and certainly what will happen throughout U.S. history.0059

                    As we are going to see, these different people coming together, exchanging, trading, 0069

                    and then also in some cases, subjugating one another.0074

                    We are going to talk about background of these different peoples including European societies, African societies, 0080

                    and really build upon what we learned in the first lesson on the different Native American societies.0087

                    We are also going to talk about the age of exploration, its importance, 0094

                    and all the other movements that eventually led to European traders looking to expand their trade opportunities.0097

                    They are looking for a new and better trade routes.0106

                    We will also talk about the role of religion, specifically Catholicism with the Spaniards and0109

                    how they wanted to spread religion throughout the Americas.0114

                    And that, this will lead to exploration of the Americas and eventually, colonization.0118

                    We will talk about the overarching effects of these interactions and how this will really provide the foundation for what is to come.0123

                    We will see three cultures clashing.0132

                    This will cause problems for some groups more than others, to put it lately.0136

                    We will also talk about the impact of what becomes known as the Columbian exchange where we will see people migrating.0144

                    We will see different foods being brought to the different parts of the worlds.0152

                    This is ultimately going to impact people's diet all around the world.0155

                    We will see the impact of disease and so forth.0159

                    We will also talk about how trade and eventually mercantilism will grow 0162

                    and have a huge impact on what is to come, not only in the 1400’s, 1500’s, 1600’s, and 1700’s.0168

                    First, a little background about European societies.0177

                    What is really important in understanding this background is keeping in mind that 0180

                    the way that these societies are structured, the cultural practices, the spiritual beliefs.0186

                    All of these different characteristics are going to have an impact on how they view each other and how they interact.0193

                    They are going to bring also a lot of those qualities to the new civilizations.0202

                    We will also see these diverse ideas blending together in some cases, accommodating, and adapting as well.0207

                    Something to keep in mind.0215

                    Also think about similarities and differences amongst these different groups.0217

                    A little background on Europeans, in general.0223

                    Again, a bit hard to over generalize but to just really pinpoint some of the major highlights here.0226

                    We know that before the industrial revolution really hit Europe, for the most part, we are going to see more of a feudal type of society.0235

                    Europe was actually primarily agricultural.0245

                    There a few large cities in Europe before 1450 and 90% were peasants who lived in small rural communities.0249

                    And in fact, people were not very educated.0261

                    Most yearn to be Yeomen or small farm owners.0264

                    There are high mortality rates because of disease and lack of knowledge on how to cure those diseases.0269

                    People were quite isolated.0276

                    The society was very hierarchical, authority came from above.0280

                    This is really the legacy of feudalism.0284

                    We will also see a patriarchal influence that was ultimately justified by Christian teachings.0288

                    Hierarchy will be a huge influence in European societies and that will inform the way that they create,0295

                    that influence will also impact what they bring to what will become known as the United States, 0308

                    the colonies, and so forth, that legacy.0314

                    Here we can see an example of that hierarchy and the different classes involved.0315

                    These are at or below poverty level.0323

                    This is the affluent or clearly above the poverty line.0326

                    Moving along, inheritance and religious influences, in which women could receive a dower.0332

                    1/3 of the family's property for her to use during her lifetime.0339

                    The practice of primogeniture or the right of the first born to inherit the land.0344

                    However, that will force many younger children into poverty, as really there are lack of opportunities for land, for most people.0350

                    We will also see the influence of the Roman Catholic Church that served as a major unifying force within Western society.0361

                    Although, the pervasive authority and discipline through Christian dogma and churches in every village, 0369

                    the Latin language, it has its pros and cons. 0377

                    It definitely brings people together but will also lend itself to, eventually, the protestant reformation.0379

                    As we are going to see reformers who are looking for more freedoms, ultimately, a fairer type of system.0385

                    Where people start to question a lot of these dogmas, I guess you could say, 0396

                    and practices that were prominent in the Catholic Church.0400

                    The importance of religious history is quite profound.0407

                    Do keep that in mind that most European peasants originally were pagans.0411

                    They did actually see spirituality in the natural world and many of them were animist.0417

                    There is a common point where you see Native Americans, for instance, who are animist, 0424

                    with a lot of the early European peasants.0428

                    They were attacked by the church.0432

                    They were viewed as heretics and they were punished as such.0433

                    There are a few highlights where we see a lot of persecution, ultimately, because of religious motives,0440

                    such as the crusades which occurred in the 11th century to 13th century, from 1096 to 1291,0448

                    when Christian armies targeted Muslims, as well as pagans.0457

                    We see very Christian centric perspective here and lack of toleration for other cultural/religious ideas or primarily religious beliefs.0461

                    Christian identity of Europeans broaden the privilege classes, intellectual, and economic horizons.0476

                    Trade and learning will become increasingly important.0485

                    We will also see that with travel and with trade, this will definitely help knowledge to spread such as from the Arabian peninsula.0488

                    There were extensive knowledge of astronomy, mathematics, in fact, 0500

                    that will definitely spread to Europe and have a huge influence that will have certainly encourage many Europeans to learn more.0506

                    Ultimately, expand their trade opportunities.0515

                    As we will see, from Constantinople, as it was named at the time, 0520

                    today’s Istanbul to Beijing, from the Mediterranean sea to the eastern Indian seas.0523

                    They want to get part in on the trade routes that were very well established in what today is the Middle East.0532

                    Also, we will see in Asia and throughout Europe.0540

                    Feudalism, again, was predominant in the middle ages.0546

                    We will see by the time we get to, first of all, before I get to renaissance, 0550

                    after the black death that destroyed about a third of the population, Europe was obviously decimated from this.0557

                    It was a very dark time, it was a very depressing time.0564

                    But eventually, Europe will pullout of this very dark period in its history.0567

                    Europe experienced a rebirth of learning economic development and cultural life.0574

                    This is known as the renaissance.0580

                    Perhaps, you have studied this in world history class.0581

                    This rebirth will draw from early Greek Roman civilizations.0586

                    There is a flourishing of learning of the art, music, culture, in general.0592

                    There is wealth so people can spend their leisure time bettering themselves, etc.0603

                    We see that trade is going to become increasingly important.0610

                    The new ruling class of merchants, bankers, and business owners have a higher status, and are also having more access to information.0615

                    Civic humanism and the concept of the republic emerged or you could say reemerged, because again, it was drawn from the past.0623

                    In many ways, republican ideals are going to be continued on and emphasized.0633

                    We know that in the United States, eventually, a Republic will be created.0639

                    The idea of being a good citizen and participating in government in the democratic process.0644

                    That is an important value that really comes out of this period.0651

                    Mercantilism, kind of tying into the rise of this middle class that is emerging will be very important.0655

                    Tying into this, we will see the importance of building not only trade opportunities that it is ultimately tied to improve technologies,0664

                    that will allow different explorers and traders to explore the world and trade, and to travel to these different regions.0672

                    We are going to see major improvements with this excess wealth and this desire to increase knowledge.0685

                    Spain and Portugal, close to Italy, in the Mediterranean region, did have the opportunity 0694

                    and were very much inspired to lead the way in Europe's first age of overseas expansion.0701

                    The man who really laddered this age of exploration was Prince Henry the navigator.0711

                    He was the third son of King Joao, the Joao of Portugal, and his English wife Philippa of Lancaster.0718

                    In 1420, he founded the center for oceanic navigation and astronomical observation at Southern Portugal.0728

                    He started a school, basically for potential travelers, for potential mapmakers, 0737

                    for people who are looking to travel the world, ultimately, and explore.0749

                    A lot of efforts and a lot of research is going to improve mapmaking and the development of new technologies for the ships at the time,0758

                    the development of caravel, a three masted ship with two regular cells and one triangular cell.0772

                    We will also see, because Europeans had access to gunpowder, gunpowder had been around all the way back to early Chinese civilization.0780

                    But it is going to be utilized at an even grander scale.0789

                    And that will ultimately give Europeans a huge edge in their exploration exploits abroad.0794

                    There is a great film and book, the book actually came first, called Guns, Germs, and Steel,0802

                    that really gets into the major reasons why, specially, superior guns, the germs,0809

                    as well as steel weapons, that will ultimately help give the Europeans an advantage in their colonization pursuits0816

                    and in conquering different Native American tribes and civilizations, as well as in Africa.0826

                    Which brings us to West Africa,which we are going to focus on for the most part.0835

                    Portugal is really going to be at the forefront of the age of exploration.0840

                    A very small country, really right here, that bordering there in the Mediterranean region.0844

                    In the Atlantic, we are going to see that there is a huge desire to foster exploration.0858

                    He urged his captains to find a way around Cape of Bojador in North Africa and to explore the feared sea of darkness to the South.0868

                    Could you imagine going out on a sailboat and having limited technologies, would you do it?0876

                    Would you really want to go out to the unknown?0884

                    They eventually discovered and colonized the Madeira and Azores Islands, 0888

                    discovered for the Europeans that were people who lived there.0894

                    From there, the sub-Saharan African coast.0896

                    By 1435, the Portuguese reached Sierra Leone where they exchanged salt, wine, and fish, for African ivory and gold.0900

                    By the 1440’s, Yeomens as well, this will really set the foundation for an expansive slate trade.0909

                    Portuguese are really the ones who are at the forefront of this.0920

                    Trade routes had already been well established.0924

                    We could see in sub-Saharan region in Sahara.0927

                    We will also see that, this is one particular trade route that had been established already, and also, in this region as well.0932

                    The silk road which should been around for quite a long time.0943

                    There was history of this, and knowledge of this trade route.0948

                    Again, during the age of exploration there is this huge impetus to expand trade opportunities and 0952

                    to expand knowledge about the globe and geography, in general.0959

                    Do keep in mind that in West Africa there were, you can see the breakdown here, 0964

                    the grain coast where grains were being traded.0972

                    The gold coast where gold was being traded.0975

                    The slaves coast where slaves were being traded.0978

                    The ivory coast where ivory was being traded.0981

                    Ivory is illegal to trade today, was traded so extensively that it did eventually lead to governments having to intervene,0983

                    to really protect elephants from being harvested, ultimately.0994

                    Anyway, we are going to see Europeans are going to look to tap into these opportunities, trade wise.0999

                    And then, here is a global picture.1006

                    We can see that by 1500, really up to 1500, that there were extensive trade routes 1008

                    that were pretty well-known in some of the European explorers had already started to venture out to the Americas.1016

                    They thought they were, specially when we get to Christopher Columbus, 1025

                    he thought he was going to Asia but did not really account for another continent on route.1028

                    There had already been trading zones here in the Americas.1038

                    The Aztec empire, the Inca empire, of course, throughout the world.1043

                    Take a look at that.1049

                    We are going to go back to Africa.1050

                    Do keep in mind in West Africa, it was a vast and diverse, 1054

                    and it is always very difficult to concisely get background such a huge continent, even just the region of West Africa.1058

                    But it is very important to realize that, specially when we are talking about U.S. history,1066

                    that the ancestors of African-Americans primarily come from this region.1071

                    Although in some cases, and there is a lot of interesting studies happening now with DNA testing, so forth, 1077

                    where we are seeing other parts of Africa but primarily from West Africa.1083

                    But again, to acknowledge that the diversity of these different societies that were very advanced, 1088

                    very civilized, and they had been well established for many years.1097

                    The West African region stretches along the coast from present day Senegal to Angola.1102

                    In the 1400’s, tropical rainforests covered much of the coast with a series of great rivers, the Senegal, Gambia, Welta, Niger, and the Congo, providing access to the interior.1109

                    Whereby, most people lived.1121

                    There were few coastal cities because there was little seaborne trade, but that will eventually change.1124

                    Most plant small plots and lived with extended families in small villages that specialized in certain crops.1130

                    Ranging from mullet and cotton to livestock, yams and oil rich palm nuts.1137

                    They traded both raw and manufactured goods with one another.1143

                    Including rare items which is salt, iron, gold, textiles, and ivory.1147

                    That is when we are talking about the ivory coast, the gold coast, etc.1152

                    Hierarchical societies were common as well.1155

                    That is a commonality with the European societies.1159

                    The West Atlantic speakers such as the fulani and wolof peoples were the most numerous in this region.1163

                    The mande speakers in the upper Niger region included the malinke and the bambara peoples.1170

                    The Yoruba and Igbo of southern Nigeria spoke varieties of the kwa language, the moses.1177

                    Again, just to illustrate all of the different groups, the moses and the voltaic speakers inhabited the area along the upper volta river.1183

                    In terms of spirituality, beliefs vary greatly.1194

                    With most West Africans recognizing a variety of deities.1198

                    West Africans who lived immediately South of the Sahara learned about Islam from arab merchants and missionaries.1202

                    There we will see Islam will become very influential in North Africa and West Africa as well.1209

                    At first, in terms of European exchanges, Europeans had a positive impact on West African peoples.1216

                    Before they got involved in the slave trade, they did introduce new plants, animals, and metal products,1224

                    which will obviously open up opportunities and trade goods, ultimately.1230

                    This will expand African trade networks.1236

                    But once Europeans engaged in the slave trade, it is obviously going to have a detrimental effect on Africa, as a whole.1239

                    As we are going to see major drain of human resources and obviously very disruptive to the overall stability of the continent.1249

                    As Europeans will continue to try to penetrate and eventually colonize the entire, for the most part, 1261

                    except for a few exceptions like Ethiopia and Iberia, and Sierra Leone, to a certain extent.1266

                    You probably have learned about that in Global studies or World History class.1275

                    Europeans and Africans trade.1280

                    We talked about this, some of the goods that were traded by 1502, Vasco De Gama’s ships did outgun the Arab fleets.1285

                    The Portuguese start to tap into that trade route, especially in North Africa.1293

                    Portuguese government built trading post on the coast and opened trade routes from Africa to Indonesia,1302

                    and up the coast of Asia to China and Japan.1311

                    Tons of opportunities for the Portuguese to get their foot in the door, so to speak.1314

                    Portuguese traders joined African states and Arab merchants in the slave trade.1320

                    To also highlight that different peoples were very much tied up in the slave trade.1326

                    Africans traded other Africans,1332

                    bonded labor in the form of slavery, serfdom.1335

                    Indentured servitude was really the norm in pre-modern societies,1340

                    something that we really think as horrific.1345

                    Of course, we know that slavery, unfortunately, is still around today, even in the United States, whether we like to admit it or not.1347

                    It is obviously illegal but it is much more underground than it was back then, and now it is accepted, but it still exists.1355

                    This was really the norm during these times.1371

                    In Africa, we will see it took the form of slavery.1373

                    But we will talk about, particularly in the U.S. history class, primarily slavery, not as much about serfdom but indentured servitude.1377

                    As we will see many Europeans will come to actually North America as indentured servants.1387

                    A small portion of West Africans were trade slaves who were war captives and criminals sold from one kingdom to another.1396

                    I do not know what this really refers to.1410

                    I’m just going to erase it because it is confusing me.1414

                    The idea is that that was a way to punish a warring tribe and they end up being sold to other Africans,1417

                    in some cases we will see, to Europeans.1428

                    One thing that was different that we will see that the Americans are going to eventually establish is that, people were not born into slavery and 1430

                    it was not primarily based on race, as we are going to see in the United States.1440

                    This was really more because of born traditions and so forth.1445

                    Some carried slaves over land.1453

                    In different parts of Africa, in other words, slaves were traded.1456

                    In caravans, we will see slaves will be brought by Arab traders to the Mediterranean region.1461

                    To exploit trade, Portuguese merchants established ports at small port cities.1470

                    First is at Elmina, in 1492.1476

                    Later at Foree, Mpinda, and Loango, this one is probably the most famous, where they ended up having these gigantic ports where.1479

                    Eventually, these prisons, ultimately, where they were to keep the slaves in captivity.1490

                    These various port cities were very crucial for the various things that were traded such as gold, slaves from African princes and warlords.1502

                    Initially, the Portuguese carried a few thousand Africans each year1514

                    to work on sugar plantations in the Cape Verde islands, the Azores, and the Madeira.1517

                    But we are going to see that the slave trade will gradually expand, and then even on a grander scale.1524

                    Into the 1600’s, 1700’s, and the slave trade will continue through the 1800’s.1531

                    In fact, it does not stop in Brazil until the late 1880’s.1539

                    Portuguese also sold slaves in Lisbon, back in Portugal, which soon had a black population about 9000.1549

                    After 1550, other Europeans soon joined the West Africa’s longest trade in humans.1557

                    By 1700, European’s shipped hundreds of thousands of slaves to new American sugar plantations in Brazil and in the West Indies.1565

                    Europeans will become very wealthy off the backs of these enslaved peoples.1576

                    Explorers like King Ferdinand of Aragon and Queen Isabel of Castile,1586

                    Spanish monarchs will become very interested in overseas exploration and expanding their empire.1594

                    They will be very much instrumental in helping to discover the western hemisphere for Europeans.1604

                    These two were married in an arranged marriage to combine their Christian kingdoms.1613

                    They had political reasons for this marriage, was very consistent.1618

                    This is very consistent during this time with other examples, with other monarchs, in other words.1625

                    The young rulers completed the centuries long reconquista.1633

                    The Spanish wanted to reclaim and reconquer the lands that were taken and dominated by the Moro’s.1637

                    They want to expand Catholic influence ultimately and kick out the Muslims, kick out other non Christian groups, ultimately.1644

                    In 1492, there are news of capture of Granada, the Islamic state in Western Europe.1654

                    They were ultimately on a mission to fund and find explorers who are looking to spread Spanish influence around the world.1660

                    Ferdinand and Isabela, I like to call them or nickname them Ferdy and Issy.1674

                    They sought trade and empire and most of the services of Christopher Columbus, was a Christian man, a very religious devout man, from Genoa, from Italy.1679

                    Despite Columbus' theory of world geography, his trip was financed by the court and merchants.1692

                    He actually had a pretty limited understanding of geography and was quite naïve.1699

                    But ultimately, the two goals of this expedition would include spreading Christianity and finding of route to Western Asia.1705

                    Again, he was really looking for a better, more improved trade route.1714

                    He set sail in August of 1492, hoping he would had to the Indies, the East Indies, but in fact, ends up in the Americas, as we see here.1721

                    This is a very regal type of image of the Nina, the Pinta, and the Santa Maria, and the other travelers along with Christopher Columbus.1734

                    We will see that the Native inhabitants in the Caribbean islands were named or labeled Indians, as he thought he was in the Indies.1750

                    The name is stuck.1759

                    The people actually were more than likely taino, arawak, and carib people.1762

                    Caribbean named after the Carib people.1769

                    He did not find gold, that was another major goal for the monarchs is to acquire gold.1772

                    This is oftentimes what I call the first gold rush in pre-U.S. history.1780

                    The monarchs sent three more expeditions over the next 12 years.1787

                    Ultimately, they are looking to expand their empire, las Indias, the Indies.1792

                    We will see the establishment eventually the West Indies under Spanish control.1798

                    Other European groups, other European monarchs will also look to expand their opportunities abroad too.1803

                    Again, Spain is going to follow the Portuguese lead, in terms of the exploration.1813

                    Back to Columbus, during the expeditions, Columbus began the colonization of the West Indies, 1823

                    by transporting more that a thousand Spanish male settlers and hundreds of domestic animals.1827

                    Eventually, we are going to see this is going to be very well developed 1834

                    in what becomes known as the Columbian exchange, which I have a map in a few slides, stay tuned.1838

                    Again, we talked about this before that Amerigo Vespucci was an explorer in the Americas1845

                    and is really attributed for the name Nuevo mundo, a new world, also for the naming of America.1853

                    Besides Christopher Columbus, other Spanish adventurers will look to spend opportunities for Spain.1865

                    They are extremely harsh.1875

                    They ruled with an iron hand.1876

                    There were rumors of rich Indian kingdoms lead to the reconquista.1879

                    Many of what we call conquerors or conquistadors, or conquistadores, in Spanish, 1886

                    will start to get involved in the colonization of the Americas.1893

                    Hernan Cortez who was a member of the Spanish gentry class and his fellow Spanish conquistadors landed on the Mexican Coast 1898

                    and began a conquest of the Aztec empire, which we know was a rich civilization.1905

                    Moctezuma, who was the Aztec ruler at the time, believed that Cortez might be a returning God and allowed him to enter without a challenge.1911

                    This was supposed to depict that exchange.1922

                    He was a bit naïve, sad for him and his people.1926

                    Superior European military technology, the whole gun, germs, and steel theory is really important here.1932

                    We will see that the superior weaponry will definitely give Spaniards a huge advantage.1939

                    There are also internal problems, internal divisions, within the Aztec empire, power struggles, etc.1946

                    The assistance of a female Native interpreter named Malinchae also contributed to Spanish victory, 1953

                    as there was ultimately a lot of miscommunication that took place.1961

                    Disease, more than weaponry, steel weaponry, for instance,1967

                    ended up really being the biggest weapon of the Spaniards, and perhaps not even an intended weapon.1974

                    Smallpox, measles, and influenza, eventually facilitated the Aztec collapse.1981

                    This is going to be a huge thing throughout this early period where Native American peoples 1987

                    just did not have the immunity against these European diseases that were being brought in to the Americas.1993

                    They have been isolated from them, very vulnerable.2000

                    Many of them got sick very quickly and ended up dying.2005

                    In South America, Francisco Pizarro overthrew the Inca empire in Peru.2010

                    The Incas were also preyed because of internal fighting over the throne and also disease.2017

                    Conquistadors, these kind of cruel conquerors who are looking to plunder and dominate the Americas, 2024

                    they remained very powerful because of their well grant, that they have a whole,2034

                    new feudal system that they are imposing on the Americas, that will give them legal control of the Native population.2038

                    Ultimately, Spaniards, Spanish explorers, settlers, colonizers, will be given land as well as some Native people as well.2048

                    Ultimately, they will start to exploit Native peoples to work the land.2058

                    There are really the racist ideas, as well, that helped to justify this mistreatment of the Native population.2066

                    This Encomienda system was very rigid, very hierarchal, and very powerful.2076

                    This took place principally in plantations and livestock ranches that their goal is ultimately2083

                    to grow different goods and to export those goods to Europe.2090

                    Once we see widespread Spanish settlement and trade starts to pick up quite a bit,2095

                    this phenomenon is going to become known as the Columbian exchange.2104

                    As Spaniards and other Europeans, but at this point, we are just talking about Columbus and his colleagues from Spain.2109

                    Columbus was originally from Italy but he was working for Spain.2120

                    We see the exchange of various goods that were Native from the Americas like pumpkins,2123

                    sweet potatoes, corn, corn bean, and squash, remember the three sisters.2132

                    Cacao, very trendy and yummy, this day and age.2136

                    We also see diseases, livestock.2142

                    In fact, Native peoples in the Americas did not know what a horse was.2144

                    They were afraid of them.2150

                    A lot of these animals, in fact, bring diseases as well.2153

                    Different grains were brought to the Americas.2157

                    This becomes known as the Columbian exchange.2159

                    Some of these things will be very good.2163

                    They will improve the diets in some regions.2166

                    Obviously, some of these are not as positive and will change the environment,2169

                    and have more impact on the population such as various diseases.2174

                    We have a definition here of the Columbian exchange, will have a huge effect on European life, the Americas, and Africa.2182

                    We will see that the Columbian exchange will start to broaden out and also become more inclusive.2190

                    We will go upon this and talk about the triangular trade system.2196

                    This will ultimately have set the foundation for global trade, ultimately.2202

                    The gold and silver from the Aztecs that was acquired through the exploitation of Native American mover, 2208

                    was now used to guild the Catholic Churches of Europe.2217

                    That made the monarchs proud.2220

                    It also flowed into that the count houses of Spain making that nation the richest and most powerful in Europe.2224

                    This helped to fund even more expeditions to the Americas.2231

                    Look at the numbers, they speak for themselves.2240

                    Between 1500 and 1650, around 35,000 Spaniards migrated to Mesoamerica,2242

                    middle America, Central America, and Western South America.2249

                    75% of them were men, that is another important point which means when the cat is away, the mice will play,2253

                    which really means that the Spanish men will also have sexual relations with Native peoples in the Americas.2262

                    That will actually lead to the growth in the Mestizo population.2270

                    With this, we will see an elaborate caste system develop, that is based on race, ultimately, and lineage.2277

                    The more European, in this case, the more Spanish one was, the more status one had.2290

                    We are going to see this society was divided along relatively rigid lines, based primarily on birth.2298

                    Catholicism will be imposed on Native peoples very forcefully, in many cases.2305

                    Some of the effects, we have talked about this, horses and pigs.2314

                    Pigs are really going to change the landscape.2318

                    They are going to eat up a lot of the flora and fauna.2321

                    That will become a huge challenge for human beings in the Americas.2324

                    Steel weapons and other advanced weaponry aided the Spanish conquest.2329

                    It also changed the nature of warfare for years to come.2333

                    Smallpox, that is obviously going to be the worst weapon of all.2338

                    Ultimately will decimate Native populations.2341

                    There are estimates that approximately 20 million people may have died in the years following European invasion.2346

                    Up to 95% of the population of the Americas was actually eradicated because of disease.2353

                    Very profound.2363

                    Most Europeans, because of their world view, because of the different influences, the ideologies, the religious beliefs,2366

                    believed that Native Americans, were for the most part, inferior, and they could be exploited.2373

                    They were used.2383

                    They were viewed as pagans.2387

                    They were viewed as uncivilized.2388

                    They were religious reasons.2390

                    Some perspectives were a little bit more benevolent than others.2391

                    Others were patronizing and some people were just downright cruel and completely Eurocentric biased and anti-Christian, ultimately.2397

                    This is ultimately going to impact the approach that Europeans, for the most part.2413

                    Of course, not all, as we are going to see some exceptions to the rule.2418

                    But generally speaking, we are going to see that the Spanish policy toward Native Americans was harsh by using forced labor2423

                    and forced conversion in the missions where they will hold people captive.2432

                    They would smash their idols and really punish them for practicing their Native beliefs.2438

                    Many Native Americans were captured and taken to Europe as slaves.2445

                    That will even set the foundation for the slave trade later on, 2450

                    as we will ultimately see many Native Americans starts fighting back against this system.2455

                    We will also see a rigid social class system emerge based on racial and ethnic identities.2460

                    On the next slide, I will actually show you what this looks like.2467

                    There is certainly will be those who descended, as I was saying, cannot completely generalize.2471

                    Although, the general trend tended to be quite negative.2475

                    There are some examples such as Bartolome de Las Casas, who was very much dissenter,2480

                    who was very much against this harsh treatment, for the most part of Native Americans.2488

                    Here I have an example of the different categories.2493

                    From the top, these are the people who have the most power.2496

                    The pensulanies actually from the Iberian Peninsula.2499

                    To the Creoles who are of European descent that lived or really were born in the Americas.2503

                    Mixture of, we will see mestizos or mulatos.2510

                    It could be African-American, African and European not American.2516

                    Indio, which would be a mix just or primarily Indians, negro-Africans.2524

                    And then slaves, the lowest on the social ladder.2532

                    Here is the whole relationship in that hierarchy.2537

                    Again, close to the end here.2545

                    Here is a picture of Bartolome de Las Casas.2547

                    He is going to write extensively from 16th century, Spanish Dominican priest, writer, and first resident bishop of Chiapas.2551

                    He is going to become a very instrumental advocate for Native American peoples.2560

                    He championed for them, devoting his lifetime to improving the conditions in the West Indies, Peru, and Guatemala.2567

                    Here we could see European missionaries creating South Americans, as they hoped to convert them in the 16th century.2576

                    This will help provide the religious rationale for European influence.2585

                    Here you could see a note of in defense of the Indians, where he starts to write actually to the monarchs about the unfair treatment of Native Americans.2591

                    As hopeful as he wrote here, these Indians can bring near the redemption.2605

                    If we treat them humanely in the world and convert them to Christianity, 2609

                    we are preparing for the redemption of the Western world in the mezoimic era.2613

                    Their conversion is up in deed, as I'm convinced the Indians originate in ancient Israel.2618

                    Indeed, I can bring proofs from the Bible that they are the lost tribes.2624

                    We have a co-reference.2631

                    He also seems to be quite empathetic and sympathetic to their situation.2632

                    Against enslaving the Native Americans, but eventually changed his stance.2638

                    Oftentimes, this is not highlighted and advocated for the enslavement of Africans.2643

                    And trying to help Native Americans but boo for really looking to move in that direction and slave another group of people.2649

                    He later recanted and advocated for Africans.2658

                    He is kind of all over the place, regarding that issue, definitely thinking critically for a man of his time.2662

                    With that, we are actually going to move into the assessment section of the lesson.2671

                    Here, we have an excerpt.2677

                    This will be followed by a few multiple choice questions.2680

                    Example 1, and this is from a historian David E. Stanard, a historian of American holocaust.2685

                    That is pretty strong word, holocaust.2693

                    Columbus in the conquest of the New World, 1892.2695

                    Here it goes, apart from his navigational skills, what most set Columbus apart from other Europeans of his day were not the things that he believed 2702

                    but the intensity with which he believed in them and the determination which he acted upon those beliefs.2713

                    Columbus was in most respects nearly and especially active and dramatic embodiment of the European, and especially the Mediterranean.2721

                    Mind and soul of his time.2729

                    A religious fanatic obsessed with the conversion, conquest, or liquidation of all non-Christians.2731

                    A latter day crusader in search of personal wealth and fame, who expected the enormous and mysterious world 2739

                    he had found to be filled with monstrous races, inhabiting wild forest, and with golden people living in Eden.2747

                    Number 1, which of the European countries who at least likely share the quality, standard uses in his description of Columbus?2765

                    This one, you may not have a lot of background on, but I will tell you this.2777

                    These three are primarily Catholic countries.2783

                    This country tended to be more protestant minded.2787

                    The answer to this is actually A, that is the primary reason because Columbus is tied to the Catholic tradition.2798

                    Which of the following is a reason historians are most likely to criticize the view of Columbus expressed in his excerpt?2809

                    It ignores the period in which Columbus lived.2816

                    It displays Columbus is biased against Christians.2819

                    It skips over the progress brought by Columbus during the age of exploration.2822

                    It uses highly charged language.2826

                    The answer to this is actually D, that it uses highly charged language.2831

                    The monstrous, for instance.2838

                    The monstrous races inhabiting wild forest with golden people living in Eden.2842

                    Let us see, a religious fanatic obsessed with the conversion, conquest, or liquidation of Christians.2848

                    Sometimes with multiple choice, you may say this is open to interpretation a bit.2854

                    If we had to really choose from these four choices, I will go with D.2861

                    Number 2, briefly explain how two of the following, here is a great example of how we have an A and B but two answers within part A.2867

                    Two of the following factors came together in Europe in the early 16th century.2868

                    Both the motivation and means to explore and colonize land across the seas.2884

                    Religion, trade, and technology.2889

                    I’m going to choose religion and I’m also going to choose technology.2899

                    Here it goes, Protestants and Catholics were fervently trying to spread their religious beliefs around the world, specially in the New World.2912

                    Spanish Christian missionaries look to convert Native American to Catholicism.2920

                    Due to the renaissance and scientific revolution, new technologies would advance such as the sailing compass, 2926

                    the caravel, mapmaking, and the printing press.2931

                    Religious motives for exploration and colonization added to economic and political motives,2935

                    as nations like Spain, Holland, and England, had at the time.2941

                    I was able to fuse in those two into my response.2949

                    B, briefly explain how one of the three factors listed above2954

                    became either more or less important in colonization by the end of the 16th century.2958

                    Those are the key things you need to make sure that you address.2966

                    Here it goes, trade increasingly became a major focus by the end of the 16th century,2971

                    as nations like England, Holland, and France, looked to claim territory and establish colonies in the Americas.2976

                    The colonies became settlements and colonists became involved in the trading of raw materials with European countries.2983

                    Here we go, let us move on.2996

                    Here we have another round of short answers, Christopher Columbus.2998

                    I want the Natives to develop a friendly attitude towards us 3004

                    because I know that they are people who can be made free and converted to our holy faith, more by love than by force.3010

                    I therefore gave red caps to some and glass beads to others.3018

                    They hung their beads around their necks along with some other things of slight value that I gave them.3022

                    I warned my men to take nothing from the people without giving something in exchange, Christopher Columbus.3027

                    He is in the excerpt, answer A, B, and C.3040

                    Briefly explain the point of view expressed by Columbus in this excerpt.3044

                    Columbus wanted his men to treat the Natives fairly so that they would be more apt to convert to Christianity.3050

                    Simple, one sentence, B.3061

                    Briefly explain what powerful group in Spain other than the monarchy, Columbus would be appealing to in the above passage.3063

                    Who was he appealing to, to whom?3073

                    Columbus was appealing to the Catholic Church leaders to show his dedication3075

                    to spreading the Catholic faith and willingness to convert the Indians to Christianity, to Catholicism. 3079

                    C, provide an example of contact between Europeans and the first inhabitants of America that is not consistent with the above passage.3090

                    Here we go, the techniques used by the conquistadors were very harsh.3116

                    The Spaniards put into place the Encomienda system that set up a system of land grants3121

                    that were given to the Spaniards and Indians.3127

                    Native inhabitants were exploited and had to work in mines, 3129

                    while the Spaniards rip the buckets extracting gold and silver from the Americas.3133

                    Lastly, map, it looks like, ultimately, Columbian exchange.3141

                    We are also even seeing more global trade happening.3154

                    Here we go, short answer.3160

                    Identify and briefly explain one import from Europe and you can certainly refer to this map, 3164

                    that has a significant impact on the Native American population in the 15th and 16th centuries.3169

                    One import from Europe to the Americas that had a significant impact on 3177

                    the Native American population in the 15th to 16th centuries was disease such as smallpox.3180

                    Native Americans did not have immunity against European diseases, so huge numbers of the Native population perished.3186

                    Identify and briefly explain one import from the Americans to Europe that have a significant impact on the European population.3197

                    B, corn, beans, and squash were brought to Europe and consumed by Europeans from the Americas.3207

                    Europeans became increasingly dependent on corn as a major staple food and it changed their diet.3216

                    C, identify and briefly explain one element of the Columbian exchange that had a significant impact on Africa in the 15th and 16th centuries.3224

                    Africans traded sugar with the Europeans and Europeans began cultivating sugar in the Americas3236

                    such as in the Caribbean islands because of the optimal climate.3241

                    Eventually, slaves will be imported to work on the sugar plantations in the Americas.3245

                    This will negatively impact Africa.3250

                    With that, we are actually done with our lesson on Africans, Europeans,3259

                    and Native American interactions during the age of exploration and leading us to eventually the colonization of the Americas.3264

                    In the next lesson, we will get into the global competition amongst different European imperial colonial powers3278

                    that will look to establish various settlements for various reasons.3288

                    Religious, economic, and other reasons as well.3292

                    With that, thank you for watching www.educator.com.3297