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The Early Nation and the Washington Administration

  • Key concern that was unclear in Constitution: what was the place of Indian nations within the new federal structure? A “nation within a nation” & tribal sovereignty
  • After the Treaty of Paris, the U.S. gov asserted its ownership of the trans-Appalachian west, but Native Americans rejected this claim & pointed out that they hadn’t signed the Treaty of Paris & had never been conquered
  • Alexander Hamilton had a huge influence on foreign & domestic policy until mid-1790s
  • Hamilton’s vision: create a nation w/a wealthy enlightened ruling class, a vigorous independent commercial economy & industrial sector
  • The Republican Party emerges—opponents of the Federalists who tended to be supporters of the French Revolution
  • Jefferson was main Rep. leader; he considered himself a farmer and believed in creating an agrarian republic
  • Early foreign policy challenges for the young nation and Washington declares neutrality

The Early Nation and the Washington Administration

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  • Intro 0:00
  • Overview 0:07
  • Status of Native Americans 1:55
    • Conflicts over Land
    • Nation Within a Nation
    • Tribal Sovereignty
    • Domestic Dependent Nations
  • Native American Conflicts 1780s 5:25
    • Trans-Appalachian West
    • Treaty of Fort Stanwix
    • Native Americans in Ohio
  • Native American Conflicts 1790s 7:01
    • Northwest Confederacy
    • Miami Warrior Little Turtle
    • Battle of Fallen Timbers
    • Treaty of Greenville
  • Hamilton and the Federalist Influence 9:30
    • Federalists
    • Alexander Hamilton
    • Public Credit
  • Alexander Hamilton's Economic Plan 12:06
    • Assume the Debts of the States
    • A National Bank
    • Excise Tax
  • The Federalist Program 14:24
    • The Funding Bill
    • Potomac River
    • National Bank of the US
    • Public Credit
  • The Republican Opposition 16:39
    • The Emerging of the Republican Party
    • Agrarian Republic
    • Decentralization
  • Strict V.S. Broad Constructionism 20:11
    • Strict Constructionism
    • Elastic Clause
    • Loose or Broad Constructionism
  • Washington Wins 1792 Election 25:14
    • The Whiskey Rebellion
    • The Militia
  • Early Foreign Policy 26:51
    • Neutral Policy
    • Diplomat Edmond Genet
    • French West Indies
  • Jay's Treaty 29:48
    • Federalist John Jay
    • Opposition to Jay's Treaty
  • Pinckney's treaty in 1795 31:56
    • Thomas Pinckney
    • Mississippi River
    • Executive Privilege
  • Downfall of the Federalists 33:37
    • Republicans Rose in Power
    • Preserving Stability
  • The Election of 1796 35:08
    • Farewell Address
    • John Adams
  • Example 1 37:46
  • Example 2 40:50

Transcription: The Early Nation and the Washington Administration

Welcome back to www.educator.com.0000

This lesson is on the early nation and the Washington administration.0002

In this lesson, we are going to talk about the major domestic concerns for the new nation under our first President, George Washington.0008

We will also get into the concerns as well during Adams administration.0019

We will talk about both domestic problems, as well as foreign policy challenges.0026

We will see a continuation of clashes with the Native Americans in the Northwest Territory, which is in present day Ohio.0033

We are also going to discuss the unclear status of Native Americans, especially concerning our constitution.0042

We will talk about one of the major domestic rebellions, the Whiskey rebellion.0049

And then, we will get into some of the foreign policy concerns, 0054

as the young United States is going to try to prove itself as a strong country, although, it is fairly weak when it starts out.0057

It is going to declare a neutral foreign policy, in order to stay out of conflicts between these major imperial powers.0068

That is going to be a major theme throughout this time period.0080

And then, we are also going to talk about the federalist influence over the early government.0085

In fact, sometimes they actually call this period the federalist period.0089

Because there is so much of an influence of the Federalist Party,0094

Related to that is the republican challenge.0099

The two major parties that will certainly conflict and balance each other out are the Republican Party and the Federalist Party.0102

Let us get into it.0115

First, we are going to talk about the status of Native Americans.0116

We will continue to see conflicts over land, and during this early period, 0123

we will see several Indian defeats and several conflicts with Native Americans, especially in that Northwest Territory.0129

One of the overarching issues actually at this time, that in fact,0137

many would argue that the U.S. government was taking advantage of at this point,0143

was that the status of Native Americans was very unclear in the constitution.0148

Like how to deal with Native Americans and how to explain their status.0153

There was really a question that had not really been clarified by our government.0163

We will see later on that John Marshall, who will be very influential, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court,0168

will clarify the status of Native Americans, a little bit later on.0175

We will come back to that later.0180

At this point, under the Washington administration, we are going to see that it is very unclear and very vague, 0182

ultimately, what the place of the Indian nations was within the new Federal structure.0190

They had a general idea and establish this idea of tribal sovereignty.0197

This idea that Indian nations were nations within a nation, but ultimately that the U.S. government and constitution0205

gave the U.S. government the power to oversee, and deal with commerce directly with Native Americans, dealing with trade, in other words.0215

Also, that the Federal government had the power to make treaties with Native Americans.0226

However, one of the major themes with Native American relations in this early period to keep in mind is that,0234

we will see there is no doubt about it that Native Americans bore the short end of the stick.0241

And, being pushed out of their land, oftentimes, tricked into signing several treaties, 0249

and fooled into signing these treaties, and bullied off of their land.0256

However, this is something that was in flux at this point.0271

Native American tribes had the right to govern themselves according to this concept of tribal sovereignty.0277

Even aspects of this are still around today, they do not need to follow all the same Federal laws.0283

This will affect taxation as well.0291

Tribal nations are also considered domestic independent nations which is something that gets very messy and undefined.0295

This will need to be clarified later on by the government.0305

However, Native American tribes did not have power in international affairs.0309

That is where we will see, based on the constitution, that it is the federal government 0314

that has the right to engage in foreign policy and diplomatic relations.0319

Some more specifics here, some specific conflicts that took place.0327

After the Treaty of Paris, we will see that white Americans will continue to expand westward, 0332

and this is going to be a huge theme throughout the 1800’s.0338

The United States government will assert its ownership of the trans-Appalachian west.0343

Again, 'west', in quotation marks, what they considered west which is the Ohio region or south of the Great Lakes region.0352

Native Americans naturally rejected this claim and pointed out that they had not signed the Treaty of Paris and had never been conquered.0362

They did not recognize this treaty, that is going to be a major conflict of interests.0373

In 1784, the U.S. used military threat to force, some of this was payback for, 0380

especially those tribes that were pro British, to force the pro British Iroquois people to sign the Treaty of Fort Stanwix.0387

This allowed white Americans to gain lands in New York, upstate New York, in particular, and in Pennsylvania.0396

We are going to see Native Americans get pushed farther and farther west at this point.0407

Native Americans in the Ohio region as well, were forced to give up most of their lands.0414

We will see that is really a result of these conflicts here, especially the battle of Fallen Timbers.0420

But anyway, before that, we will see in the 1790’s, that because of this insecurity and because a lot of the tribes are seeing what is happening, 0429

that now they do not have the British to protect them anymore, 0439

that a group of tribes will band together in a confederacy, in this northwest confederacy.0444

The Shawnee, Delaware, Iroquois, among others, unified into this confederacy, strengthen numbers,0450

that they must come together as one, to fight against that U.S. encroachment upon their lands.0458

They were led by Miami warrior whose name was Little Turtle.0466

They were successful at first, they defeated U.S. forces in two battles in what is today Western Ohio.0471

Casualties were pretty high here, 630 Americans died, this was in 1791.0478

Even though, the British had been defeated in the revolutionary war, 0487

they were some soldiers who were still lingering, and the Native Americans were still being supplied by the British.0491

That is definitely going to be an indication that British still have an involvement in the United States.0501

The U.S. government and military is going to flex its muscle, and try to assert its power, 0510

and show that it is a strong nation, and it is going to enforce its policies.0515

Anyway, this conflict in 1791 is the biggest win for Native Americans, at this point in history.0521

In response, we will see the U.S. government will send its military forces under the leadership of General Anthony Wayne.0531

The Native Americans will be defeated in 1794.0541

This is known as the battle of Fallen Timbers.0545

At the end of this battle, we will see an important treaty was signed, the Treaty of Greenville.0550

As a result, the northwest confederacy was forced to surrender claims to the Ohio territory,0557

thus opening up lands to U.S. settlements.0563

We could see the continuation of that westward expansion, after the battle of Fallen Timbers.0566

Native American conflicts, one of the major domestic conflicts that will be a huge challenge for the early government, 0574

and will continue to be a huge challenge.0582

Now we are going to move on to more internal domestic issues, as well,0587

and also, how that will affect the foreign policy vision for the Washington administration.0591

As I was saying previously, the federalists had a huge impact in shaping the government during the early years.0601

And thus, we oftentimes call it the federalist period. 0609

Alexander Hamilton, who was very influential and in the President's cabinet, he is the Secretary of the Treasury,0613

he had a huge influence on domestic policy, financial policy, as well as foreign policy, until the 1790’s.0626

He was a bit of an elitist, there is no doubt about it.0638

He wanted capitalism to evolve and he was well educated.0641

His vision was to create the United States with a strong foundation under the leadership of a wealthy and enlightened ruling class.0648

A vigorous, independent, commercial economy, and a robust industrial sector.0660

He was looking for the United States to industrialize and to build a very strong commercial economy.0667

He believed that you needed capital, you needed banks, in order to invest in this sector of the economy.0677

He did not really believe in expanding the agrarian economy.0686

He believed in his more industrialized vision.0691

Anyway, speaking of credit, he believed that the government needed to take responsibility for public debt.0697

He wrote this report on the public credit, as it was known, and asked Congress to redeem millions of dollars and securities issued by the confederation.0708

He is going to really look for the Federal government to provide a credit system, in order to provide credit for businesses.0720

Ultimately, we are to see the beginning of a banking system being created.0731

The Federal government was asked to assume the debts of the states.0737

For Hamilton, it was okay to create a large national debt using new bonds that would be issued as old ones were paid off.0743

If in case you are wondering what a bond is, it is a certificate issued by the government promising 0756

to repay borrowed money at a fixed rate of interest, at a specified time.0762

This was his brainchild that it is okay to have a national debt.0769

This is a way that we establish credit.0774

Along with that, he believed in having a national bank.0778

He also believed that we needed revenue to pay for our debts, 0783

and also to pay for other expenses that the government may have, such as paying for the military forces.0789

He advocated for an excise tax to be paid by alcohol distillers,0797

He also advocated for a tariff on imports.0804

What we call protectionist tariffs.0809

To protect the local industries, to protect the local economy, 0814

so that it encourages people to buy goods that are made within the country.0819

Anyway, these are a lot of his policies that he will be advocating for.0826

And in fact, we will see that the government will embrace these.0830

Not to say that there will not be those who will challenge Hamilton's vision, and we will talk about that soon.0834

Lastly, Hamilton believed that the United States should play a prominent role in the world's economic affairs.0841

Early in the 1790’s, the global capitalist system is starting to evolve and expand.0849

He is really seeing the United States playing an important role and that it needs to be a strong player in the global economy.0858

Continuation of the discussion of the Federalist program.0869

We will see that the Congress passed the funding bill but there was some difficulty because debts varied from state to state.0872

The issue of fairness, obviously, was a major concern.0880

There was a lot of inequity, in terms of who paid, which caused a lot of resentment from state to state.0884

We are starting to see a lot of sectionalism starting to emerge.0892

This issue of, that there are different interests, in the north, for instance, versus the south.0897

Related to this, we will see that, in particular, southerners are feeling more insecure about the bias0905

and influence of this New Yorker, Hamilton, pushing for all of these economic policies.0914

That in fact, many in the south are concerned that they are northeastern biased to the government.0923

Jefferson, in particular, who will be challenging Hamilton on many levels, as far as his philosophy0931

and his vision for the country will advocate to move the capital farther south.0938

They do agree to compromise, and the location of the capital was moved towards the south, on the banks of the Potomac River.0946

That is supposed to be towards, one word.0955

Anyway, that is going to be part of the deal making, so that the bank is put in place and the system of credit will be established.0959

Speaking of that, here it is, the excise taxes and tariffs were put into place.0970

We will see that public credit was restored.0975

Bonds were selling and making profits.0980

Speculators with large profits, those who are selling land and buying land, and manufactures, profited from tariffs.0984

We are starting to see the commercial sector expand and be successful.0992

There are certainly the critics of this plan,1001

those who are very distrustful of the upper class and the moneyed interests.1005

This is what the nature of the diverse economy and diverse peoples who were living in the United States at the time.1011

There were two Americas, if you will, a rural America and an urban America.1020

In many ways, we still have that today, even though, urbanization has expanded tremendously.1025

And, our cities are much larger and most of the work, at this day and age, is in the cities.1031

From the beginning, we are going to see a little conflict and to a great extent a class conflict emerging, as a result.1039

The Republican Party is going to challenge a lot of the policies of the federalists.1051

They believe the federalists were too elitist and they were tied with the moneyed interests.1057

And therefore, they were not really looking after the best interest of farmers and ordinary workers.1063

Thomas Jefferson was the main republican leader.1070

There were others as well, who will advocate for protecting the agricultural economy.1073

Jefferson, to be honest, had a very elite background.1084

He is definitely tied to the money interests.1091

He was very well educated, really considered himself a farmer.1094

At least saw himself as an ordinary American, at least in a philosophical way.1099

He believed in creating an Agrarian Republic.1106

His priority was that everyone should have land.1110

Everyone should be self sufficient and have an aesthetically pleasing view from your house.1113

This was utopia for Jefferson.1124

He did not like the cities, he thought they were ugly.1127

He was suspicious of them, as I have here.1134

He opposed the development of an advanced industrial economy1137

because it would increase the propertyless workers who are packed into the cities.1142

Early cities were dismal, they were dirty.1148

They were not pleasing, aesthetically to Jefferson.1153

He is very skeptical of Hamilton's vision.1157

And in fact, he also does not like the concentration of power that was advocated by the federalists.1162

He is going to advocate more for decentralization, as well as states’ rights.1168

That is going to be important because in a democratic country, 1176

we are going to see these different voices being heard and challenging one another.1181

Generally speaking as well, that republicans tended to be supporters of the French revolution, especially in the earlier stages.1188

And many in fact believe that, we needed to repay the French for helping us out and helping us win, 1198

and helping us train our soldiers during the revolutionary war.1204

Many people were of that mind and wanted to support the revolution, whereas,1210

many federalists were very concerned about revolution breaking out, once again, in the United States.1214

They were very skeptical of what was happening, specially, during the radical phase, the reign of terror, 1224

for instance, under Robespierre in France, when things are getting quite radical.1231

The king and queen had their heads chopped off by guillotine.1236

They did not want to see that type of activity taking place in the United States, that was really trying to strengthen itself at this point.1241

They wanted to maintain stability.1251

Some other things I need to discuss relate to that conflict or differing visions,1256

and interpretations of the federalist and the antifederalists, or the democratic republicans.1264

I almost made a wording slip there.1272

But the republicans, in many ways, are very closely aligned to the antifederalists1276

because they are very much against the centralized power, and they were very critical of certain aspects of the constitution,1282

and how it is going to be applied.1291

That brings us to this issue of strict vs. broad constructionism.1293

Strict constructionism, when people favor a narrow view or strict interpretation of the constitution.1301

In other words, whatever the constitution literally says, without reference to the differences 1309

and conditions when the constitution was written, in modern conditions, inventions, and societal changes.1318

According to this perspective of strict constructionism, what the constitution says is what we have to take as face value.1327

There is not a lot of flexibility with this type of interpretation.1340

I should include here actually, that the strict constructionist tended to be the republicans.1346

Jefferson will mostly be a strict constructionist.1360

In terms of the bank, in other words, we will see that, in fact, 1366

Alexander Hamilton will use this elastic clause which is a flexible understanding of the constitution.1374

Because nowhere in the constitution did it stipulate or say anything specific about establishing a bank.1384

How is the Federal government going to be able to do this?1392

According to Hamilton, this was necessary and proper which refers to this elastic clause which is meant to be flexible, just like a rubber band.1396

Jefferson is going to say that there is nothing mentioned in the constitution about a bank.1409

Where are you getting this from?1416

You are abusing your power, and you are advocating on behalf of a particular class of people.1417

This is what is going to be very interesting, with our supreme law of the land is that there will be different interpretations.1426

Ultimately, it will be the judicial branches job to interpret the constitution.1433

Anyway, moving on to loose or broad constructionism.1442

This is when people favor what the intent of the farmers language was.1446

It expands and interprets the language extensively to meet current standards of human conduct and complexity of society.1452

This embraces the elastic clause.1460

We will see that the loose constructionist will actually be more of the federalists.1464

Now there will be an instance later on, when we will see that Jefferson would use a loose interpretation1482

because he is in a different position, when he is President.1490

We will talk about that later.1493

But during this time period, we are going to see primarily that the federalist are the ones 1495

who have more of a broad understanding of using their power, and taking advantage of that elastic clause, when necessary.1500

Let us move on.1514

Unsurprisingly, because Washington was so popular, he won the 1792 election.1517

But we are going to see that the administration is going to be put to the test early on.1524

Besides Native American conflicts, we will also see domestically that 1532

there is going to be another rebellion because of Hamilton's excise tax.1536

The people who have to pay this tax are not going to be happy with it.1542

Farmers from Western Massachusetts and in other states start to revolt.1547

And in particular, the Whisky rebellion of 1794 is another rebellion.1551

If you remember Shay's rebellion, that showed how weak our Federal government was,1557

and that we did not have a strong military to enforce the law and crush the rebellion.1565

In this case, we are going to see that people are going to revolt, refuse to pay the tax.1572

They start to terrorize the tax collectors.1577

But this time, Washington sends out the militia.1580

He flexes our military muscle and successfully crushes the rebellion.1583

Although, there will be a lot of resentment because of this tax, we are going to see that authority was being respected,1590

and people are going to see that Washington means business, and that he is willing to call out the military if necessary.1598

That is an important shift, and we are going to see that Washington is pretty successful in crushing that rebellion,1608

and seeing his policies through enforcing the law.1617

In terms of foreign policy, we are going to see that the United States is somewhat vulnerable.1622

Because of its debts, it is trying to strengthen its economy,1628

and not getting in the middle of all these major powers, Spain, England, and France, in particular.1633

Washington really thinks that it is prudent to have a neutral policy for the young nation.1645

Yet, we are going to see time and time again during this time period, the U.S. is going to be challenged by the old imperial powers.1653

One of the first clashes was a clash with France.1660

This is somewhat domestic because although it involved a French diplomat, Edmund Genet,1664

I would like to actually include there is a little tenet that goes over the top here.1674

A little symbol, I forgot the name, in French.1680

Anyway, diplomat Edmund Genet or sometimes he was called Citizen Genet, 1686

he was a French diplomat and he ignored Washington's policies.1695

There was a certain protocol that you are supposed to follow as a diplomat and he did not follow the proper protocol.1700

He is going reach out to the American people to support the French revolution.1709

He also advocated for a military expedition against Spanish lands in the south.1714

This did not go over well.1720

This is going to cause tensions between the French and the United States.1725

Apparently, he does not have this job anymore and he ends up staying in the United States, anyway.1735

But this ended up being a challenge where Washington is being pushed and tested to see what he will do and how he will react.1744

The other major challenge we will see is from Great Britain.1754

We will see that Great Britain will continue to seize ships that engage and trade with French in the French West Indies.1759

This is after the revolutionary war.1770

We are an independent country, and England is still interrupting our trade relations,1772

and is still putting pressure on the United States, as far as who it trades with.1782

The United States has to stand up to Great Britain.1786

However, it also wants to keep this neutral policy, this neutral foreign policy and stay out of war.1791

Because we cannot afford it and it is too soon to go to war again.1798

And we are in a vulnerable situation, we are pretty limited.1805

However, we need to at least assert ourselves as Americans and show the British that we are willing to stand up for ourselves.1808

What ends up happening is that federalist John Jay was sent to Britain to ask for compensation for seized ships,1818

because the British were attacking a lot of these ships and even taking property.1826

They also, the British, continued to remain in several of the post in the northwest, in the Ohio region around the Great Lakes.1833

That was another major issue, they were not withdrawing.1846

It was time for them to leave.1849

The Treaty of Paris has been signed.1851

And ultimately, back to the trade issue, Britain really needs to stop inhibiting free trade,1853

and allow the Americans to trade freely without being harassed at sea.1861

We are going to see that Jay is very successful, in terms of avoiding war with Great Britain.1868

It does settle this conflict but it was very unpopular1878

because some people back in the United States believed that it was not really strong enough.1883

There were too many concessions to the British, that we did not get everything that we wanted to,1888

and that we did not get the British to promise that they would stop harassing the American sailors at sea.1894

A lot of opposition to this treaty and that is going to cause some conflict.1905

This was considered a low point of the Washington administration.1911

And then, another important treaty that was passed during this time was with Spain.1919

Thomas Pinckney was sent to Spain to establish diplomatic relations.1925

At the time, Spain feared British American partnership against the Spaniards.1933

This was an effort to establish diplomatic relations and to clarify that concern.1940

Under this treaty, Spain recognized the right of the United States to navigate the Mississippi river, which is really going to be helpful.1947

I should add to this, and also have access to New Orleans, the major port city which is going to help the trade situation for the United States.1958

Also, the boundary of North Florida was also fixed.1967

That is going to diminish tensions between those two major powers.1971

This was considered a major accomplishment and a high point in Washington's administration.1977

However, a year later, Congress attempted to withhold funding to enforce the treaty.1983

The house asked Washington to submit all papers pertinent to the treaty for consideration.1989

But Washington refused establishing the precedent of executive privilege,1995

which is considered one of the rights that the president has to assert his power or her power, perhaps someday, as president.2002

Eventually, we will see the federalists will not be in power, as republicans start to rise in popularity.2019

In many ways, the federalists were very power hungry.2033

They were very willing to crush the opposition,2036

their priority of preserving stability at the expense of individual liberties.2041

We will see that especially under John Adams with the alien and sedition acts.2048

It is not going to be popular with the ordinary people, who were very much advocating for liberty and freedom.2053

They did not want tyranny.2062

They did remember being under King George and they do not want another monarch.2064

They want to have freedoms and they do not want to have these federalists, 2072

just kind of dominating government and taking away their freedoms and rights.2078

We will eventually see that the federalists will decline.2085

Even though, extremely important in establishing the foundations that will be very long lasting throughout U.S. history.2088

After 1796, however, the federalist, as a party, never won another election.2097

We would not see their influence much later than that.2107

We will see that John Adams will be the last federalist.2113

However, John Marshall in the Supreme Court will continue the federalist legacy, 2117

and shape a lot of the interpretations of laws and set several precedents.2124

He will continue the federalist legacy and its influence on government, more than anyone, perhaps.2133

The election of 1796, during this election, we will see Washington decides not to run for a third term.2143

Again, that is going to be significant as he will be a role model, that he does not want to be power hungry,2154

and he is willing to step down and share power, and pass it over to someone else.2163

He gives his famous farewell speech and warns against insidious wiles of foreign influence, 2171

also a kind of an extreme reaction against republicans.2178

He also warned future presidents to steer clear of permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign world.2183

He called for a foreign policy based on neutrality.2191

This was a very famous farewell address where he advocates for staying unified, and voices his concerns about factions,2196

and tries to also suggest that it is not a good idea to get entangled in these foreign alliances.2205

And that, as a young nation, our success will really depend on our survival.2215

Neutrality will not guarantee our survival.2219

That is going to be very significant after he steps down and retires.2224

John Adams will become the second present.2234

It will not be as easy for him.2238

He is not as a popular and he presides over a divided party where we are starting to see increased factionalism.2240

Whereas, Washington was the unifier, we are going to see once he is not in power, in many ways, 2250

we are going to see divisiveness starting to emerge.2257

And that is going to challenge Adam’s on many levels.2259

With that, I think we are going to move on to the examples.2265

What do we have here, an excerpt from Alexander Hamilton.2271

This is a multiple choice document that we are going to read first, and then answer some questions.2274

Here we go, it is does not denied that there are implied, as well as express powers, and that the former are as effectually delegated as the latter.2282

It is concerned that implied powers are to be considered as delegated equally with the express ones.2294

Then, it follows that as a power of erecting a corporation such as a bank, may as well be implied as any other thing.2301

It may, as well, be employed as an instrument or means of carrying into execution any of the specified powers.2310

But one may be erected in relation to the trade with foreign countries or to the trade between states.2317

Because it is the province of the Federal government to regulate those objects,2327

and because it is incident to general sovereign or legislative power to regulate a thing.2334

To employ all the means which relate to its regulation to the best and greatest advantage,2341

Alexander Hamilton, on the constitutionality of the Bank of United States.2349

Let us look at the questions.2357

Which of the following types of powers was Hamilton's argument based on?2358

Implied, reserved, strict, or state?2369

The answer is implied.2377

Which of the following most benefited from the bank that Hamilton strongly supported?2393

The answer is businessmen.2409

Who of the following would be most critical of Hamilton's position on the bank?2416

Thomas Jefferson, George Washington, Henry Knox, or John Adams?2420

Although, we did not actually talk about Henry Knox, I will give you a hint since I did not talk about him.2425

He was actually a federalist and big supporter of the constitution.2432

Knowing that, who do you think would be most critical?2439

The answer is Jefferson.2444

Here we go, another round of multiple choice.2451

Friends and fellow citizens, I should now apprise you of the resolution I have formed, 2455

to decline being considered among the number of those out of whom a choice is to be made.2462

I have already intimated to you the danger of parties.2467

With particular reference to geographical discriminations, let it simply be asked, where is the security for property?2472

For reputation, for life, at the sense of religious obligation, these ordeals.2482

As a very important source of strength and security, cherish public credit, avoiding likewise the accumulation of death.2488

Which unavoidable wars may have vacationed in mind that toward the payment of debt, there must be taxes.2497

By interweaving our destiny with that of any part of Europe, 2507

we entangle our peace and prosperity in the toils of European ambition, rivalship, interest, humor or caprice.2512

It is our true policy to steer clear of permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign world,2520

George Washington from his farewell address, 1796.2529

Let us look at the questions.2537

Washington utters, warned against political parties because they were concerned about:2538

Maintaining a reputation of the U.S. as a superpower.2544

Divisive and sectional differences.2548

Rights of property owners.2550

Unavoidable wars.2552

The answer.2556

Next one, which of the following did Washington say was very important for the United States to avoid?2565

Excesses of patriotism, foreign alliances, raising taxes, religious influence.2576

The answer is foreign alliances.2586

That concludes the lesson for today.2593

Thank you very much for watching www.educator.com.2596