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Post by Kathleen Etzel on January 6 at 04:31:18 PM

Dear Ms. Turro,

    When you say that Jefferson cut the deficit down from 83 million dollars to 45 million dollars, it that in today's currency or is that in early American currency?  If it is in early American currency, what would the difference be today with inflation?  If you could help me out, I would greatly appreciate it.  In all of my other US history courses, we pretty much skipped over the 1800-1848, so this is wonderfully interesting!

    Thank you so much for taking your time to do this course.  As a homeschool student, it is nice to have a teacher explain concepts, whether in real time or not.  I really am enjoying your lectures.

Thanks again

Adams and The Jeffersonian Era

  • John Adams’s presidency: events from abroad helped shape his presidency and how he responded to those events, such as the French Revolution and Haitian Revolution
  • Tense relations w/France: XYZ Affair led to a huge backlash against the French & support from Federalist response
  • Alien and Sedition Acts were passed and were widely unpopular, especially with the Republicans
  • The Election of 1800 became known as a [peaceful] “revolution” and Thomas Jefferson became president
  • John Marshall: Federalist chief justice and dominant figure of the Court, who shaped most of its first important rulings, such as establishing judicial review in Marbury v. Madison
  • Jefferson also helped broker the purchase of the Louisiana Territory—started by John Adams—for $15 million

Adams and The Jeffersonian Era

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  • Intro 0:00
  • Overview 0:05
  • John Adams 1:48
    • Political Philosopher
    • French Revolution and Haitian Revolution
    • Not a Slave Owner
    • Falling out with Jefferson
  • Relations with France Deteriorate 5:32
    • XYZ Affair
    • A Huge Backlash
    • New Warships
    • Rejected the Federalist Approach
  • Alien and Sedition Acts 9:06
    • Alien Act
    • French Revolution
    • 1st Amendment's Prohibition
  • Republican Response 12:21
    • VA and KY Resolutions
    • Undelegated Powers
    • States' Rights Interpretation of the Constitution
  • Jefferson Becomes President in 1800 13:50
    • Election of 1800
    • Burr
    • Voting for Jefferson
  • Jefferson Elected 15:51
    • Electoral College
    • Revolution of 1800
  • Judiciary Act of 1801 17:37
    • Midnight Appointments
    • Marbury V. Madison
  • Marbury V. Madison 19:41
    • Judicial Review
    • John Marshall
    • Samuel Chase
  • Thomas Jefferson 21:51
    • Architect, Intellectual, Writer
    • Urbanization
    • Expansion of US Territory
  • Monticello 24:23
  • Limits on Government 25:06
    • Abolishing Internal Taxes
    • The U.S. Military Academy at West Point
  • U.S. French Relations 26:25
    • Secret Treaty of San Ildefonso of 1800
    • Unrest in the Caribbean Islands
    • New Republic of Haiti
  • Napoleon and L'ouverture 29:44
  • Other Foreign Policy Challenges 30:05
    • Pinckney Treaty of 1795
    • Robert Livingston
  • Louisiana Purchase of 1803 31:46
    • Proposal of Buying Louisiana
    • Signed the Agreement
    • Louisiana Admitted as a State
  • Louisiana Purchase 33:07
  • Lewis and Clark 33:34
    • Missouri River
    • Records to Geography and Civilizations
  • Lewis, Clark and Sacajawea 35:07
  • The Burr Conspiracy 35:24
    • Essex Junto
    • Aaron Burr
  • Other Challenges for Jefferson 37:27
    • War of 1812
    • Napoleonic War
    • Chesapeake-Leonard Incident
  • Jefferson's Proposal: Embargo 39:35
    • Embargo
    • A Controversial Policy
    • Exports
  • Example 1 42:35
  • Example 2 44:46

Transcription: Adams and The Jeffersonian Era

Welcome back to www.educator.com.0000

This lesson is on Adams and Jeffersonian era.0002

We are going to talk about second President John Adams, his administration, 0007

and the major challenges that he faced domestically, as well as foreign policy.0012

The relations that were pretty tense are with France, mainly, because of the French revolution that was taking place.0019

That is going to definitely cause a lot of instability in the United States at the time.0029

And also put a strain on relations with the U.S. government and the French government.0035

And we will talk about the XYZ affair.0040

We will also see domestically that there are huge concerns over people speaking out and being influenced by the revolution.0043

That is going to become a very messy political situation during the Adams administration,0052

and had a negative effect on his legacy as a president.0059

We will also talk about overall conflicts between federalists and republicans.0068

Those clashes between the two major parties will continue.0073

And then, we will talk about the third president of the United States,0078

Thomas Jefferson, and his alternative vision for the United States.0081

We will talk about some of his major accomplishments, in terms of foreign policy, and domestically, as well as some of his major challenges.0087

Lastly, we will talk about the legacy of the federalist Supreme Court under the leadership of John Marshall.0098

With that, let us get into it.0107

Let us talk about John Adams first.0110

He is oftentimes brushed over and people do not really focus on him.0113

He is sometimes known as the forgotten president.0120

He served from 1796 to 1800.0123

He came from humble beginnings, his father was a farmer.0126

He was a self-made man in many ways.0131

His father actually hoped that he would enter the clergy.0136

But his Harvard professor has taught, his propensity for debate would make him a good lawyer.0139

In fact, Adams is known for being longwinded, and was perhaps a better speaker than a writer.0144

In fact, that was something that really came out during the various continental Congresses.0153

He was very much a political philosopher more than a leader.0161

Although, he was perhaps more than a leader than most people are given credit for,0166

but he was not really well liked, not overly popular.0171

In some ways, he had an inferiority complex to the other great founding fathers.0174

Anyway, just a little background information on John Adams, he is oftentimes overlooked.0186

Events from abroad will definitely shape his presidency and will definitely have a huge effect on how he responded to those events.0193

In particular, we will see the French revolution and the Haitian revolution will impact his policies in foreign policy, 0205

his policies domestically and his foreign policies.0212

This is something that I wanted to highlight as well,0215

because it is oftentimes well known these days that most of our founding fathers were slave owners.0218

But actually John Adams was one that was not a slave owner and was very much against the institution of slavery.0226

This is another interesting fun fact that perhaps will change in the future.0235

There is no monument in Washington, DC, of John Adams.0239

There are those who are advocating that this founding father should have his place in Washington, DC, 0243

or at least somewhere that we can celebrate and honor him.0250

I’m sure that there is something in Massachusetts that commemorates Adams.0256

But I think having something that the national mall, this is my little flag for Adams, would be appropriate.0260

He was very competitive with Thomas Jefferson, although, he admired him greatly.0269

They did actually have a falling out.0274

Politically, they did have their differences.0277

John Adams was a federalist and Jefferson was a republican.0280

Kind of their views regarding revolution are going to be much different.0288

That is going to cause a strain in their relationship.0293

Adams also felt that Jefferson was working behind his back to bolster his own political career.0296

That is a factor that is going to put strain on their relationship.0306

However, toward the end of both of their lives, they mended their friendship.0309

It was Adams who reached out to Jefferson and they were able to make up and mend their friendship.0314

And interestingly, they both died on the same day, and how patriotic is this, July 4, 1826.0323

Kind of getting into the Adams administration and some of the major challenges.0334

Relations with France start to deteriorate during the Adams administration.0339

The roots of it started in the Washington administration but it comes to a head during this, 0345

what became known as the XYZ affair.0352

Ultimately, we are going to see that Marshall, Gerry, and Pinckney, were sent to France to stabilize relations,0356

because John Adams had actually spoken out against the French revolution.0364

In fact, he was known for being somewhat hotheaded and not very good at politicking, especially in terms of, when he is actually speaking.0369

He created a tense situation and this was an effort to warm up relations.0382

We are going to see that, in fact, France was most willing to break off relations completely with the United States.0390

We end up sending over these diplomats to try to warm up relations.0405

When they arrive, they met three agents who demand a loan for France.0410

Thy also try to bribe the diplomats, before any negotiations could begin.0415

This was viewed negatively and very offensive by the Americans.0426

This became known as the XYZ affair.0432

The issue of the letters XY and Z were substituted for the names of three French agents that were in the report.0444

That is where the name comes from.0451

Anyway, as a result, we are going to see that this led to a huge backlash against the French because this was insulting, this was disrespectful.0453

And as a result, there is going to be a huge supportive response from the federalists.0464

We will see that things are going to be pretty tense.0476

Trade was cut off and the United States starts to build up for war.0480

There is a construction of new warships.0486

However, this quasi war, meaning it never turned to be full fledged war.0488

But things were getting tense, they are starting to build up and prepare for war.0494

This quasi war came to an end, once the new Bonaparte government agreed to a treaty with the United States.0498

Trade relations were reestablished.0505

This was actually viewed as a major game for the Adams administration.0509

He broke with his party or at least broke with the Hamiltonian wing of the party.0514

He rejected the federalist approach of Hamilton, and others who wanted to begin 0521

what would surely have been a disastrous war against France over maritime shipping routes.0527

Adams was a good diplomat, in this case, and really a good leader in this situation.0534

This is probably viewed as one of his major accomplishments of his presidency.0543

However, these two acts, during his presidency, were not very popular and have left a negative legacy over his administration.0551

The Alien Act, this act that was put into place, placed obstacles in the way for foreigners to become U.S. citizens.0563

This one was viewed as targeting French citizens, as well as Irish citizens.0574

This law had the effect of discouraging immigration and encouraging some foreigners to leave.0581

It was very much rooted in xenophobia that was very much tied to the French revolution at the time.0589

Especially, the federalist minded people who were very much worried about a reign of terror springing out in the United States,0597

and instability spreading throughout the young nation.0610

They blew this out of proportion and people were very fearful.0617

There was a huge backlash against French immigrants, in particular, as well as Irish.0621

Perhaps, some of that can also be anti-catholic, anti-republican as well.0628

We are going to see that is going to become a very murky slippery slope during this time period, 0635

which brings us to the other important law that was passed, the Sedition Act.0643

This allows the government to prosecute those who engage in sedition against the government.0647

Those who were considered to be traitors.0653

This was offensive, especially, to the republicans, because this was viewed as an assault on republicans0659

who were challenging the federalist administration.0666

That obviously would be viewed as a violation of the First Amendment, freedom of speech.0671

As you can see here, that is not going to go over very well.0680

There is a huge backlash against this law.0684

That is the thing, Adams did have a bias against mob mentality.0691

Even though, he did come from modest beginnings, he believed in a strong government, and was against mob mentality,0701

and was definitely concerned about the masses.0711

If you actually looked at a lot of his political writings, you will see an indication of that.0713

You can understand the context of why he would support these laws.0720

I guess only about 25 people were actually arrested due to the Sedition Act and only 10 convicted.0729

But this was very much an unpopular policy.0737

In response to that, we will see the republicans will mobilize and in fact, 0742

Jefferson and Madison, in direct response, will write the Virginia and Kentucky resolutions.0746

Within this, it is stated that the Federal government had formed a compact among the states,0757

and whenever the Federal government had exercised undelegated powers, the states, 0763

this is the most important part, had the right to nullify the laws.0769

Thus, this establishes the idea of nullification, which is a really important concept in U.S. history which is states' rights.0774

This is the foundation of our states’ rights ideology.0789

Again, states’ rights interpretation of the constitution.0797

That is based on, if you remember, the 10th amendment, that reserves the powers to the states.0801

Those that are not delegated to the Federal government are reserved to the states.0814

Important concepts to keep in mind.0824

We are moving on to Jefferson.0833

Adams, because he was only in power for one administration and does not have the votes for a second term.0836

He is a family guy, he ends up retiring and enjoying his wife and family back in Massachusetts,0846

and goes back to farming, and being a lawyer, and retires.0854

Jefferson, he, on the other hand, is very popular despite the bitter controversies,0862

and the divisiveness between federalists and republicans, during the election of 1800.0868

A lot of mudslinging was taking place, as republicans were equated with French radicals,0879

who would bring of reign of terror to the United States.0885

Jefferson, however, is going to try to be above this.0890

He used the laws and resolutions as key issues in his campaigns.0895

And then, we will see on the other side, federalists and Adams were portrayed as conspirators with the king.0901

That, and they were trying to put an end to human liberty.0906

This was kind of getting nasty during this election.0911

And then, there was a tie between Jefferson and Aaron Burr.0915

There were complications when the ballots were counted and many suspected that Burr engineered the deadlock.0920

They had to decide what they are going to do now, they have a tie.0929

According to the constitution, they have to look to the law of the land for what the next steps would be.0937

In this case, they end up looking to Congress, who will end up voting for Jefferson.0944

He ends up winning by a narrow victory, so basically a recount takes place.0953

73 to 65, victory in the Electoral College but the republicans also gave 73 votes to Aaron Burr.0960

Sending the election to the House of Representatives.0972

This is where it ends up being decided.0974

Federalists in the house blocked Jefferson’s election until Hamilton, 0977

this is what is very interesting, who was a federalist, thus an enemy of Burr’s,0982

he declares Burr unfit for the presidency.0991

He liked Jefferson much more.0994

He ends up persuading key federalists to vote for Jefferson.1000

Anyway, this whole ordeal, this election becomes known as the revolution of 1800, 1005

because it does not end up turning into a bloody revolution.1012

It is a bloodless transfer of power that demonstrates that governments elected by the people could be changed in an orderly way, 1017

even in its bitter partisan conflict in foreign crisis.1026

This will be called the revolution of 1800.1031

This maybe an early version of American exceptionalism, that this is a great example of how the United States government,1034

and the American people are able to transcend our divisions and disagreements, in forward you had as a unified nation.1046

Anyway, that is kind of one perspective of these events.1057

Then, an import law was passed in 1801, that will also have an impact on the judicial branch of the Federal government.1062

The Judiciary Act of 1801 includes the following.1074

The number of Supreme Court justices decreased by one.1078

It also created 60 new judgeships and 6 new circuit courts.1081

Before Adams was out of power, he appointed many federalists to the court.1087

This was considered to be like a midnight appointment because in the last hour of his administration,1093

he is trying to leave his influence over the court.1101

When Supreme Court justices are chosen, they are appointed by the President.1108

They, of course, need congressional approval but they are there for life.1117

This is where you can have a huge influence over interpreting the law.1121

That is when we are going to see how the law is being applied.1127

What happens?1133

What ends up happening is, let me just get my little details here.1137

William Marbury was promised a judgeship by Adams.1144

What ended up happening is that James Madison who was actually a Republican, 1152

refused to deliver the commission appointing William Marbury as a justice of the peace in DC.1158

This caused Marbury to petition under the terms of the Judiciary Act of 1789.1167

We are going to see an important court case take place.1174

This is known as Marbury vs. Madison, that took place in 1803.1183

It is perhaps our most important early Supreme Court decision.1187

In this decision, Marshall wrote, John Marshall is a very influential, significant Chief Justice, 1195

who will shape the early history of the Supreme Court.1202

Anyway, Marshall wrote that, although Marbury had the right to the appointment,1208

the court did not have the power under the constitution to enforce it.1212

This important court case that established the concept of judicial review,1218

which is the power for the court to nullify an act of Congress.1224

This has a huge impact on the scope of the Supreme Court's power.1229

And ultimately, empowers the Supreme Court to be able to interpret and nullify any law that was passed by Congress.1236

Thus, I did not include it here, we are going to see the Judiciary Act of 1789 being declared as unconstitutional.1246

This is an extremely significant decision which establishes this idea,1259

that the court decides whether a law is constitutional or unconstitutional, whether it is lawful or not.1265

It is a part of the checks and balances, and ultimately, shows how strong this branch is.1274

Yes, it is very indicative of that federalist vision for the Federal government.1282

John Marshall, extremely important, he also urged Congress to impeach obstructive judges.1289

There was an attempt to impeach, for instance, an impartial judge.1296

Samuel Chase was one such judge.1300

But they did not get the 2/3 conviction so it did not take place, but nonetheless, very influential, very significant.1304

Now we are moving back to Thomas Jefferson who does become president.1314

Very talented man, very much influenced by the enlightenment.1321

He is an architect, intellectual writer, shrewd politician, and president for two terms from 1800 to 1808.1328

He tried to be an ordinary citizen although, let us be honest, he really was not.1335

But that worked for him politically because he embraced the idea of the American farmer, 1342

and really wanted to be one, and wanted to relate to ordinary people.1349

But in reality, he was a wealthy aristocratic planter with more than 100 slaves.1354

His vision was that people in the United States should aspire to be independent farmers who will be self sufficient.1360

As the United States began experiencing more urbanization in the early 1800’s, Jefferson was dismayed by this.1373

He did have to deal with these changes, despite his ideal of having an agrarian society, this nation of independent farmers.1383

Once he is president, he will try to be more of a unifier.1398

That is oftentimes an important role of the president, to try to squash a lot of the factional debate 1403

that is very divisive, and can be very counterproductive.1411

We are experiencing that recently with our own Congress in the 21st century.1416

This is something that has been around for a long time.1422

He is trying to minimize the differences between federalism and republicans one hand.1424

But he is also trying to outdo the federalists and shape the government in a different way, now that he is president.1429

He is going to have some major accomplishments and probably his greatest one was overseeing the expansion of U.S. Territory.1439

The Louisiana Purchase will be one of his major accomplishments.1447

However, he is going to have many growing difficulties abroad and domestically during his, especially, his second term.1453

I have a picture of Monticello, and this is in Virginia.1465

This is a picture of his home.1469

As I was saying, Jefferson was an architect, he was instrumental in designing his own home.1471

This is the view from Monticello.1478

This is just to illustrate his vision that people should be able to have an aesthetically, pleasing, beautiful type of scene,1482

that they can enjoy, and embrace, and allow them to be happy people, fulfilled people.1492

If you ever have a chance to go there, it is a beautiful place to visit.1502

He is also a huge promoter of limits on government or limited government, one of the republican ideals.1507

In 1802, the Jefferson administration persuaded Congress to abolish internal taxes, 1516

leaving the sale of western lands and customs duties as the only sources of revenue.1525

Again, whereas, Hamilton's approach was taxes and bringing the revenue and the bank.1531

We are going to see that Jefferson is going to take a different approach.1540

We will see that the debt was cut in half from about 83,000,000 to 45,000,000.1545

The armed forces were also scaled down.1550

That will definitely help our overall budget, it may seem.1553

Yet, we are going to have the revenue coming in to also keep our budget balanced.1558

At the same time that we are seeing the armed forces being scaled down overall, 1567

we are also seeing the establishment of the U.S. military academy at West Point.1571

Eventually, we will see, especially, by the end of his second term, the army and the navy will eventually build up.1577

Getting into foreign policy and U.S. French relations.1588

In 1804, we are going to see that Napoleon names himself emperor and the direction of the French revolution is going to shift.1593

He is going to be extremely ambitious and we are going to see the Napoleonic wars breakout, 1605

as he is looking to expand the French empire.1610

He is looking to regain territories in America which belong to Spain.1616

Spain and France actually signed a secret treaty of San Ildefonso in 1800.1623

This allowed France to regain the title of the Louisiana Territory.1631

Napoleon also directed Spanish officials in Louisiana to restrict U.S. access to New Orleans.1636

You may remember that under the Pinckney treaty, the United States did have access to New Orleans and the Mississippi river.1643

Now this is being shut off by Napoleon and the Spaniards.1652

Jefferson has to address this issue.1658

He also questions his party's pro-French foreign policy.1662

He was traditionally pro-French really.1667

Now he has to rethink this, as president and as commander in chief.1671

He is going to have to be a strong leader and show leadership in this way.1678

The other thing to keep in mind is that, revolution continues to spread because of the French revolution throughout the Caribbean,1683

in the colonies of France, the colonies of the French in the Caribbean.1690

Guadalupe, Martinique, and Saint Domingo, that will later be known as Haiti.1698

There is a successful slave revolt that will be crushed by Napoleon at one point.1706

But eventually, we will see the New Republic of Haiti being created.1713

This was very alarming in the United States, as slavery was still intact.1719

Of course, the southeastern economy was very much entrenched with slavery.1730

They did not want to see a slave revolt causing widespread instability.1735

Because in Haiti, it was very successful and they did outlaw slavery and were able to defeat colonial powers, and become independent.1741

They took revolution to the next level.1755

Even Jefferson, kind of going back to his writings, was against slavery, he was not an advocate of seeing slavery being outlawed, outright.1758

They did not want the revolution to break out, more revolutions to break out under his administration, or on his watch.1771

Important to keep in mind.1781

A picture of Napoleon Bonaparte and Toussaint l’Ouverture, who will be very significant overall in the history of slavery,1785

and in the history of the age of revolutions.1800

At first, kind of going back to French U.S. relations, Jefferson supported the French and he reversed the policy of the Adams administration.1808

Once he was aware of Napoleon's imperial ambitions, we are going to see that Jefferson is going to have to change his approach.1819

The Pinckney treaty of 1795 was being violated and American shippers were not allowed to access the lower Mississippi river.1829

Westerners also demanded that the Federal government do something.1838

Jefferson sent Robert Livingston, the U.S. ambassador, to Paris, 1843

and proposed that the French sell to U.S. the western part of Louisiana as well.1847

He persuaded Congress to raise funds and expand an army, and threaten to form an alliance with Britain,1855

if problems with France continued.1862

Then, James Monroe was sent to Britain to negotiate an alliance, in case of war with France.1866

This is really risky.1871

They are putting it all out in the line there.1873

And then meanwhile, another major challenge was that there was this clash with Barbary pirates in the Mediterranean Sea,1876

where pirates were demanding bribes when sailors were out at sea.1884

Under Adams and Washington, they put up with this behavior but Jefferson's like no, no more.1893

He ended up standing up to the pirates and the United States started to be respected.1902

I think I will just leave it with that.1908

Back to French relations, Jefferson is going to help broker the purchase, eventually, of the Louisiana territory.1911

That actually was started under John Adams and put another flag in for Adams.1920

He actually did start to begin the diplomatic talks regarding those territories in the region, in the Louisiana region.1925

Anyway, Monroe and Livingston, they go to France to make a deal, originally to buy New Orleans.1937

But they were offered to buy the Louisiana territory for 15,000,000.1944

Napoleon accepts the proposal, the agreement was signed in 1803, and the U.S. buys the Louisiana territory.1951

France was also granted in return, commercial privileges in the Port of New Orleans, and Louisiana residents were to be treated as citizens.1961

This is a major game because basically, the United States is going to double its territory at this point.1972

Louisiana will eventually, years later, become admitted as a state in 1812.1978

Here is a picture.1987

Again, this was the United States up to 1803.1990

But now you could see westward expansion continues,1996

and the United States is going to have access to much more territory,2000

which obviously will open up and cause new challenges, obviously.2006

But this was viewed as a major accomplishment.2012

Let us keep on moving.2016

Lewis and Clark, then, are going to be hired, where Jefferson is going to appoint them to travel throughout the territory,2017

and to learn about the land, and lead this expedition through the new territory.2031

And learn about the flora, the fauna, the types of animals that are there, the people that are there.2038

They are going to be really important, Lewis and Clark, in exploring and in mapping the new territory.2047

They started at the Missouri River from St. Louis with the help of Sacajawea, who was a Shoshone woman.2056

She served as an interpreter, she knew the land as well, she knew the geography, 2062

and knew how to help this crew navigate the different rivers, and so forth.2068

She also was very instrumental in dealing with the native peoples.2080

During their travels, they kept elaborate records of the geography and the civilizations along the way.2084

This was a very involved trip.2093

After two years, the corps return the first maps of the immense wilderness.2095

They brought back vivid accounts of natural resources and the inhabitants of the Louisiana territory.2100

Now I have a map here just to show long their trip really was.2107

This is going to be very involved.2116

Here you can see the corps and Sacajawea.2118

Then, the Louisiana Purchase is also going to open up and cause some other problems such as the Burr conspiracy.2127

After the Louisiana Purchase takes place, it is going to cause concern that western expansion2136

would diminish the power of their states and their parting.2143

And in particular, we are going to see the federalists in the northeastern part of the United States2148

are going to be a very much distrustful and concerned.2153

A group of extreme federalist known as the Essex Junta,2160

suggested that New England should separate and secede from the union to survive politically.2165

Alexander Hamilton, again, he was a federalist, did not support this idea.2176

They turn to his rival, Aaron Burr, who thought that he was going to win governorship of New York in 1804.2182

He united that state within New England states and leads this group of states to secede from the nation.2191

This is going to feed into the rivalry between Hamilton and Burr.2198

Burr challenged him to a duel and this is with a gun, this type of duel.2205

They end up doing this actually.2214

Hamilton was mortally wounded and actually died from this duel the next day.2216

This was really disastrous.2224

Burr, in turn, ends up leading a group down the Ohio River and was eventually arrested as a traitor.2226

However, there were some those, even Marshall, actually, federalist on the court, who eventually acquitted Burr.2233

Pretty dramatic event.2243

There are other challenges for Jefferson.2249

Native American conflicts that will continue to be a huge issue.2252

Native American groups continue to forge relationships with British forces in Canada and Spanish forces in Florida.2257

This will eventually lead to the war of 1812 which we will be talking about shortly in a future lesson.2265

The Napoleonic wars, as well in Europe, had an effect on the U.S.2272

because the British and French wanted to prevent U.S. trade relations with the other.2275

In other words, British did not want the United States to trade with the French.2281

And the French did not want the United States to trade with the British.2285

And the United States needed to trade with both of them.2288

They are caught in the middle.2292

This is causing a lot of strain.2294

In particular, speaking of the British, we are going to see that relations at sea are going to put a lot of pressure on U.S-British relations,2297

because of impressments and so forth.2312

Many British deserters joined the merchant marine in the U.S. Navy, that is supposed to be.2315

The British began searching ships and impressing soldiers.2321

Like, literally kidnapping people and forcing them onto British ships, and saying you have to work for us.2325

This was unlawful, but it was very much like anarchy out at sea.2333

And then, there was the Chesapeake landlord incident, when the Brits fired on a U.S. warship.2343

The United States did not really do a lot about it.2350

This was becoming a major issue that the British were continuing to kind of poke at the United States.2358

And the United States felt very vulnerable because it did not have the military might, that the British Empire did at this point.2367

Jefferson is trying to continue and follow Washington’s suggestion of having a neutral foreign policy.2377

And Adams was successful in keeping it as well but it is becoming more and more difficult.2384

He is trying to figure out what would he do, what is another way that 2390

he can put pressure on these governments to stop picking on us, to stop bullying us at sea, militarily, and so forth, and economically.2392

His answer is going to be that we should respond with an embargo,2405

that this is another tool to put pressure on the British.2408

Despite this public outcry for revenge, there were those who wanted to go to war with England, the war hawks.2413

We will see that we will eventually, by 1812, there is going to be a war with Great Britain.2420

But at this point, Jefferson is trying to show restraint.2425

Jefferson and Washington try to maintain the peace and used diplomacy with the Brits.2430

All British warships from U.S. waters, and Monroe was sent to demand the British government to renounce impressments.2435

Basically, it is just saying stop attacking our ships.2445

The British are pretty arrogant about it and are pretty aloof.2450

They refused but they do offer compensation for some of the damaged property and lost property.2455

Basically, Jefferson is feeling like his back into a corner.2463

He needs to do something.2467

He advocates for an embargo.2469

This prohibited U.S. ships from leaving the U.S., or import anywhere in the world until Britain and France repealed restrictions on U.S. trade.2472

The idea is we are cutting off trade.2484

The thing is global trade was very much entwined, and the French and the British were trading with us quite a bit,2489

that they did depend on a lot of our goods.2497

This is what is going to get them to change their ways.2502

A force act was also passed to give the government the power to enforce the embargo act.2507

But this was a controversial policy.2514

The law was widely evaded but effective enough to spur an economic depression.2516

And that is really what is going to impact the states and the United States, in general, 2523

and the different merchants that were involved in this economy.2532

Exports plunge from 108,000,000 in 1806 to 22,000,018 in 1808, hurting both farmers and merchants.2538

The economy is really struggling as a result of this embargo.2548

This is a low point for the Jefferson administration.2552

With that, we are done with the material.2558

Now we are going to move on to the multiple choice questions.2561

Here we go, resolved that the several states composing the United States of America 2566

are not united on the principle of unlimited submission to their general government,2572

but, that by compact under the style and title of the constitution for the United States,2579

and of amendments thereunto, they constituted a general government for specific purposes.2585

Delegated to that government certain indefinite powers, reserving that once so ever, 2590

the general government assumes undelegated powers, its acts are unauthoritative, void, and of no force.2597

This is Jefferson's, although supposedly anonymous, Kentucky resolutions.2609

Let us look at the question.2618

The Kentucky and Virginia resolutions were issued in reaction to,2619

Ratification of the Bill of Rights.2625

Passage of the Alien and Sedition Acts.2627

Revelations about the XYZ affair.2629

The declaration of the proclamation of neutrality.2631

The answer is B.2636

Who does Jefferson believe should have the final decision whether a law or action was legal? 2645

Congress, the President, state government, or the Supreme Court?2651

The answer is state governments.2658

Moving on, who of the following would be most critical of the Kentucky resolutions?2662

This is most critical.2669

George Washington, democratic republicans, John Marshall, or James Madison?2672

The answer, he was very federalist minded.2680

Lastly, we have short answer questions.2687

You get my answers all set here.2692

Choose one of the following below and explain why it best supports this statement.2695

America's first foreign policy under President Washington-Adams had the main goal of avoiding war.2701

A lot of choices here, the Citizen Genet controversy, Jay treaty, or the XYZ affair.2708

A lot of different ways you can answer this.2715

I will give you the example of the Jay treaty.2720

Jay treaty was established when Washington sent Jay to Britain to discuss the searching and seizing of American ships,2724

and impressments of seamen.2732

The treaty had no mention of British seizures of American ships,2735

but it did include an agreement for the Brits to evacuate posts on the U.S. western frontier.2739

Because the U.S. used diplomacy, they avoided going to war with Great Britain.2745

These are all actually examples, even though, these are disputes.2760

Like these two are going to cause tensions but actually they are able to avoid war,2767

and use the diplomatic approach to try to come to some type of agreement.2773

Let us look at the next one.2783

Contrast your choice against one of the other options demonstrating why their option is not as good as your choice.2784

Here we go, the Citizen Genet controversy involved the diplomatic dispute where French diplomat did not follow the rules,2795

because he tried to elicit support for the French revolution from the American people directly.2801

This was viewed as controversial because the French revolution was controversial at the time.2807

The Jay treaty, however, that could be another option, I’m going to leave with that.2813

Let us look at the last one.2823

Briefly explain an argument for war involving one of the choices provided,2824

or another situation during this period of the first two presidents.2829

Here we go, I’m going to choose to talk about, those who want to go to war.2835

Many Americans were affiliated with the Federalist Party wanted to go to war,2848

in order to gain French and Spanish lands in North America.2852

That is very to the point.2860

Another one you could talk about is the French revolution, that some supported it while others did not.2862

Obviously, the republicans supported the French revolution, whereas the federalists did not.2873

I think with that, we are done for this lesson on Adams and Jeffersonian democracy.2882

Thank you very much and thank you for watching www.educator.com.2891