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Progressive Era, Part 2

  • Teddy Roosevelt and the Square Deal: reform program that sought to keep the wealthy & powerful from taking advantage of small business owners & the poor
  • TR used his executive power & stepped in: trustbusting & regulating
  • Many progressive laws were put in place like the Hepburn Act and Elkins Act that strengthened the ICC, Meat Inspection Act, Pure Food and Drug Act, National Reclamation Act, the creation of national parks
  • TR busted the “bad trusts” and oftentimes worked out gentlemen’s agreements with “good” trusts although the Supreme Court began to take a stronger stance against trusts and monopolies
  • The Republican Party divided over differences regarding tariffs and progressive goals, like Taft and Roosevelt
  • Progressive Amendments passed: 16th Amendment: this instituted a national income tax and 17th Amendment: this called for/allowed the direct election of senators
  • The Civil Rights Movement continued: Niagara Movement led by Du Bois and Trotter, NAACP was formed, Urban League was founded
  • Wilson attacks triple wall of privilege: the tariffs, the banks, and the trusts--that blocked businesses from being free and many laws were passed to regulate banks and businesses

Progressive Era, Part 2

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  1. Intro
    • Overview
      • TR's Square Deal, 1901-1909
      • Regulating the Railroads
      • Regulating Food Industry
      • Slaughterhouse
        • The “Trust Buster”?
        • Other Regulations
        • Teddy's gentlemen's Agreement
        • The Infant Hercules and the Standard Oil Serpents
          • Environmental Regulations
          • Republican Progressives Fracture
          • Joseph Cannon
          • The Progressive Faction
          • Progressive Amendments Under Taft
          • Roosevelt Strikes Back
          • Civil Rights Movement Heats Up
          • Niagara Movement
          • The NAACP
          • The Urban League
          • Woodrow Wilson's “New Freedom”
          • New Freedom
          • Example 1
            • Example 2
              • Example 3
                • Example 4
                  • Intro 0:00
                  • Overview 0:04
                  • TR's Square Deal, 1901-1909 1:04
                    • Taking Advantage of Small Business
                    • Trustbusting and Regulating
                    • Coal Strike in 1902
                  • Regulating the Railroads 3:16
                    • Interstate Commerce Commission
                    • Elkins Act in 1903
                    • Hepburn Act in 1904
                  • Regulating Food Industry 4:45
                    • The Jungle
                    • The Meat Inspection Act in 1906
                    • The Pure Food and Drug Act and FDA
                  • Slaughterhouse 8:11
                  • The “Trust Buster”? 8:42
                    • Bad Trusts
                    • Good Trusts
                  • Other Regulations 11:04
                    • Sherman Antitrust Act
                    • The Bureau of Corporations
                    • Northern Securities Company
                    • Standard Oil, American Tobacco and DuPont
                  • Teddy's gentlemen's Agreement 13:06
                    • Trans-Missouri Decision
                    • Gentlemen's Agreement
                  • The Infant Hercules and the Standard Oil Serpents 14:52
                  • Environmental Regulations 15:02
                    • Environmentalist or Conservationist
                    • National Parks
                    • Rational Use of Gifford Pinchot
                    • National Reclamation Act
                  • Republican Progressives Fracture 16:53
                    • William Howard Taft
                    • Payne-Aldrich Act
                    • Whistle-Blowing on a Conspiracy
                  • Joseph Cannon 18:42
                    • Congress's Leading Conservative
                    • Dictator
                  • The Progressive Faction 19:14
                    • Dissident Faction
                    • Progressives or Insurgents
                    • Standard Oil
                    • Pursued Monopolies
                  • Progressive Amendments Under Taft 20:54
                    • 16th Amendment
                    • 17th Amendment
                  • Roosevelt Strikes Back 21:36
                    • New Nationalism
                    • Child Labor Law
                    • Strong As a Bull Moose
                  • Civil Rights Movement Heats Up 22:21
                    • Booker T. Washington
                    • Atlanta Compromise
                    • W.E.B. Du Bois
                    • The Soul of Black Folk
                  • Niagara Movement 24:58
                    • William Monroe Trotter
                    • Niagara Falls
                    • Comprehensive Education
                  • The NAACP 25:45
                    • The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
                    • Challenge Unfair Laws
                  • The Urban League 26:31
                    • Providing Welfare to Black Migrants
                    • A Network Created
                  • Woodrow Wilson's “New Freedom” 27:25
                    • A Middle Way that Bears the Powers Of Government
                    • Place Strict Government Controls on Corporation
                  • New Freedom 28:20
                    • Triple Wall of Privilege
                    • The Underwood Tariff Act of 1913
                    • Federal Reserve Act of 1913
                    • The Federal Trade Commission
                    • The Clayton Antitrust Act of 1914
                    • The Federal Farm Loan Act
                    • A Federal Child Labor Law
                  • Example 1 31:18
                  • Example 2 33:18
                  • Example 3 36:20
                  • Example 4 37:36

                  Transcription: Progressive Era, Part 2

                  Welcome back to www.educator.com.0000

                  This lesson is on the progressive era, part two.0002

                  In this lesson, we are going to continue talking about progressivism and focused on progressive era Presidents, 0006

                  such as Teddy Roosevelt who was known as the trustbuster.0013

                  We are going to talk about his square deal.0017

                  Then, we are going to talk about his successor William H. Taft who was not known as being a progressive, he is more conservative.0020

                  But he did in fact, initiate some progressive reforms.0029

                  And we will talk about some of the major progressive laws that were implemented 0034

                  and talk about the role of the Supreme Court that finally starts to crack down on some monopolies.0038

                  Then, we will talk about progressive President Woodrow Wilson and his new free agenda.0047

                  Then, we will finish talking about the civil rights movement of the late 19th century and early 20th century,0054

                  and the Niagara movement that became very influential and helped to lay the foundation for the civil rights movement throughout the 20th century.0061

                  First, a little bit about TR or Teddy Roosevelt.0071

                  His platform, his program was known as the square deal.0076

                  His reform program sought to keep the wealthy and powerful from taking advantage of small business owners and the poor.0082

                  You should be familiar with the square deal.0090

                  One thing to keep in mind is that Teddy Roosevelt did actually support business, 0095

                  and to a certain extent will even support big business but he is not a supporter of monopolies and aggressive business policies.0102

                  He was a President who expanded executive power tremendously and stepped in, 0112

                  and was the opposite of laissez-faire, and believed in flexing presidential muscle as a trustbuster, and was a huge supporter of regulation.0119

                  He is a bit of a control freak.0132

                  He wants to have a lot of influence in policymaking.0133

                  You will see that his position on deciding which trusts are good and which trusts are bad 0138

                  can be a bit contradictory regarding his trust-busting status.0147

                  However, early on in his administration, we are going to see that he is a different kind of president.0154

                  And in fact, there was a coal strike in 1902 and the Federal government does intervene.0160

                  But this time, instead of crushing the workers for voicing their concerns against employers, management,0166

                  he actually advocated on behalf of the workers.0174

                  And as a result, they ended up getting a pay raise.0178

                  This was significant, the first time in U.S. history that we are seeing that the President is supporting worker rights.0182

                  And this is going to help build bridges in the long run.0192

                  Regulating railroads, we have talked about the ICC before.0199

                  And even though, this was certainly a step in the right direction in terms of regulating railroads, 0203

                  we know that it was not applied in an effective way.0210

                  In many ways, the ICC’s power was stripped away by the Supreme Court, and thus, was without practical effect.0217

                  Roosevelt realized that the Supreme Court had oftentimes been more pro business.0227

                  And some of the laws that were written were too vague and there were loopholes that businesses were able to work around and circumvent.0234

                  He pushed for the Elkins Act of 1903.0243

                  This was trying to strengthen regulations of railroads.0246

                  This imposed fines on railroads that gave special rates to favored shippers.0253

                  Then, the Hepburn Act was also passed, that gave the ICC strong enforcement powers.0258

                  This will give the ICC teeth, if you will, will help substantiate it.0263

                  And gave authority to the government to set and limit shipping costs.0268

                  Max prices or maximum prices for ferries, bridge tolls and oil pipelines.0272

                  In terms of food, we are also going to see some major efforts by government to regulate the food industry.0287

                  This will certainly help the consumer.0294

                  There was a very influential muckraker named Upton Sinclair and he wrote a book called The Jungle.0299

                  In this book, he intended to focus on the exploitation of workers in the Chicago meatpacking plants.0308

                  But in his descriptions during his observations of the working conditions in the meatpacking plants, he was quite descriptive.0316

                  I will read you a little passage and you can decide for yourself.0328

                  It was only when the whole ham was spoiled that it came into the department of Elzbiata.0333

                  Cut up by the 2000 revolutions a minute fliers, and mixed with half a ton of other meat, no odor that ever was in a ham could make any difference.0340

                  There was never the least attention paid to what was cut up for sausage.0349

                  They would come all the way from Europe, old sausage that had been rejected, and that was moldy and white.0354

                  It would be dosed with borax and glycerin, and dumped into the hoppers, and made over again for home consumption.0361

                  There would be meat that had tumbled out on the floor, in the dirt and sawdust,0368

                  where the workers had tramped and spit uncounted billions of consumption germs.0373

                  There would be meat stored in great piles in rooms, and water from leaky roofs would drip over it, 0379

                  and thousands of rats would race about on it.0384

                  It was too dark in these storage places to see well, but a man can run his hand over these piles of meat and sweep of handfuls of the dried dung of rats.0387

                  These rats were nuisances, and the packers would put poisoned bread out for them.0397

                  They would die, and then rats, bread, and meat would go into the hoppers together.0402

                  This is no fairy story and no joke.0407

                  The meat would be shoveled into carts, and the man who did the shoveling would not trouble to lift out a rat even when he saw one.0410

                  And it goes on, talks about the sausage that was made.0416

                  Decide for yourself, what you would think of this meatpacking plant.0420

                  This brought attention to the lack of sanitation and how dirty and disgusting these plants were.0427

                  People were outraged and are very concerned with the descriptions of rotten meat, filthy conditions, and demanded the government to step in.0436

                  Roosevelt will also be influenced, he urged Congress to pass the Meat Inspection Act in 1906, in order for Federal agents to inspect meat plants.0447

                  The Pure Food and Drug act and the FDA, the Food and Drug Administration, 0458

                  will also be established to ensure safety and proper labeling of food and drugs.0465

                  This agency is still around today.0471

                  We know that the Meat Inspection Act is also very important, as we are seeing these regulatory agencies responsible for quality control.0474

                  They are responsible for recalls and so forth, and to make sure that consumers are safe in what they consume.0486

                  Today, there is a website where you can go there to learn about the health benefits and other issues that may come up concerning food and drugs.0498

                  Anything that is regulated by the FDA.0510

                  Here is a picture of a slaughterhouse.0514

                  Do keep in mind that muckrakers also use photography to capture conditions and to bring people's attention to those issues.0518

                  Teddy Roosevelt, the trustbuster.0529

                  As you see, I put in quotation and I have a question mark for this heading.0531

                  Now you see two different images and depictions of Teddy the trustbuster.0536

                  I would like to address both sides of these two different perspectives.0542

                  On one hand, we are going to see that Teddy Roosevelt is going to become known as the trustbuster because he is a huge supporter of regulation.0547

                  He does actually differentiate between good trusts and bad trusts.0557

                  You may or may not know also the bear connotation here, the symbolism that he was named Teddy Bear 0562

                  because he was this hunter. One time in the west, apparently on one of his hunting ventures0570

                  he was unable to shoot a bear, showing he has a soft heart like a teddy bear.0577

                  Anyway, he did actually differentiate between good trusts and bad trusts.0584

                  He believed bad trusts are trusts that harm the public in stifled competition, whereas good trusts were efficient,0588

                  good for the economy and trusts that had low prices which could help the consumer, and ultimately help the economy.0597

                  That is going to be really important and he is going to believe that he has a huge role in determining which trusts are good and which trust are bad.0604

                  He does like to be very hands on, in terms of deciding which company should be regulated or not, which could be problematic at some times.0612

                  We also see here that he is in his cowboy gear, stereotype of his persona.0623

                  Here we see a very critical view of his trust-busting record, seeing that he was a bit inconsistent.0632

                  There is a back door for the national Republican headquarters, that he did have some companies that he had a close relationship with,0640

                  that he was not as harsh regarding his policy of pushing for further regulations.0649

                  He also believed that he could work out some deals with some companies to change their behavior.0658

                  He did not always leave it to the courts to decide.0665

                  That is kind of an aspect of his trust-busting that you should keep in mind.0670

                  It is not a simple black and white issue concerning his trust-busting reputation.0676

                  But to continue talking about Roosevelt as a trustbuster or trustbuster.0684

                  He enforces the Sherman Antitrust Act and this is very significant.0693

                  If you could make the argument that he was in fact a trustbuster, but there are times when he does kind of the opposite.0699

                  And I will give you some examples here.0707

                  This was pretty significant, you may remember that the Sherman Antitrust Act was somewhat weak and oftentimes not enforced.0710

                  He was the first President to do so, although, he did make a distinction between good and bad trusts.0717

                  In 1903, he established the Bureau of Corporations in order to investigate business practices and 0723

                  to support the justice department's capacity to mount antitrust suits.0729

                  The Northern Securities Company or Trust that controlled the major railroad systems of the northwest, 0735

                  this company ends up having to go to court for monopolistic practices.0741

                  In a landmark decision, the Northern Securities case, pretty famous, the Supreme Court ordered Northern Securities dissolved in 1904.0748

                  Here we are seeing he is allowing the court to do their job.0758

                  He took on many of the nation's giant firms such as Standard Oil that controlled 90% of the oil industry, 0761

                  American Tobacco, and Dupont, it is like a chemical company.0770

                  It is important to remember that Roosevelt was not necessarily anti-business, just that firms that abuse their powered deserved punishment.0775

                  Teddy also had some different approaches for businesses which he considered good trusts and he could work out a deal.0788

                  In the Trans-Missouri decision of 1897, the Supreme Court formulated the rule of reason, 0800

                  holding that actions that restrained a monopoly trade regardless of the public impact, automatically violated the Sherman act.0806

                  This left Teddy in a quandary, he could not rely on the courts to distinguish between good and bad trusts.0814

                  They start to have a much more straight line and they used this rule of reason to inform their decisions.0822

                  This is where Teddy is going to step in and advocate for a gentleman's agreement.0833

                  This is when man to man, behind closed doors you make a deal.0841

                  You have to compromise, instead of going to court.0847

                  This agreement was made in 1904, when the Bureau of Corporations are going to investigate, not Trans-Missouri, but U.S. Steel.0852

                  The chairman of the company approached Teddy Roosevelt with a deal, to cooperate and open their books to the government.0860

                  Please, come to our company, we will cooperate with you.0867

                  We will listen to your advice, and so forth, please do not take us to court.0871

                  If the government detects wrongdoing, they were to quietly take corrective action.0876

                  This gentleman's agreement was accepted.0881

                  Here you can see Teddy does not want leave it to the rule of reason to the courts, because this can sometimes backfire.0884

                  Here is a famous cartoon showing the infant Hercules and the Standard Oil serpents.0895

                  In terms of the environment, as I had mentioned before, he was a hunter, spent some time in the west and even befriended John Muir.0904

                  He became an avid environmentalist and conservationist, and wanted to protect wilderness areas.0914

                  He was a huge supporter of creating National Parks.0923

                  Some of them had already been established like Yellowstone and Yosemite National Park.0928

                  John Muir, who was very influential on Roosevelt, but we are going to see that0935

                  whereas Muir is going to advocate for more preservation, Roosevelt supported efficient use and sustainability.0942

                  He drew from, building off of this point, the rational use philosophy approach of Gifford Pinchot, 0952

                  who was the Director of Forestry in the U.S. Department of Agriculture, using forest for lumber eventually, but in a more sustainable way.0960

                  Not just, today we would use the term like clear cutting which is not at all viewed as an environmentally sustainable practice.0969

                  Roosevelt believed that you should have some rational use, but also promote environmental policies.0981

                  Roosevelt pushed Congress to pass the National Reclamation Act which gave the Federal government the power to decide0991

                  where and how water would be distributed, and the Federal government would also help to build dams.0998

                  We will see that this is going to be put into practice with the building of the Roosevelt Hoover Dam.1004

                  You can see the foundation being created for other public works programs 1011

                  during other progressive presidencies in the future, such as Franklin Delano Roosevelt during the New Deal.1017

                  We will talk about that more later.1033

                  There are some troubles for the Republican party.1035

                  William Howard Taft who was Roosevelt's former Secretary of War, ended up winning the presidency.1040

                  He was not known for being a progressive and was actually much more conservative.1046

                  Although, we will see some progressive policies under his presidency, ironically.1051

                  Taft had his own agenda and did not support regulation like Roosevelt did in the past.1056

                  He promised to lower the tariff during his campaign, but approved the conservative Pepublicans supported Payne-Aldrich Act,1062

                  the protectionist law that lowered certain tariffs on imports.1070

                  But in reality that did not lower tariffs significantly, in fact raised the tariff on most imports.1072

                  He did not distinguish between good and bad trusts and he supported the courts rule of reason, 1079

                  which relaxed the hard line set by the Sherman Antitrust Act.1085

                  Taft, ends up infuriating Roosevelt, and Roosevelt believes that he is just undoing everything that Roosevelt accomplished.1090

                  On top of it, he actually fires Pinchot for whistle blowing, exposing this conspiracy to hand public land to a private company.1102

                  This infuriated Roosevelt, this was very much against conservationist type of policy.1118

                  That is going to actually inspire him to get back into politics, which I will address in a second.1127

                  Before that, I also want to say a little bit about Joseph Ken, he was the House Speaker 1133

                  and a very influential politician whose Congress is leading conservative, and progressives, one of the president to rein him in.1137

                  As Cannon was very outspoken like a dictator, but he did not.1147

                  He starts to have a huge influence over the Republican Party.1154

                  We are going to see a split in the Republican Party.1161

                  Galvanized by Taft’s defection, reformers in the Republican party became a dissident faction calling themselves the progressives or the insurgents.1165

                  Then, in the Standard Oil decision of 1911, this is another event happening at this time, 1175

                  the Supreme Court once again asserted the rule of reason, which meant that the courts not the President1182

                  would distinguish between good and bad trusts.1187

                  And ultimately, the outcome of this case, they found Standard Oil guilty of monopolizing the oil industry through a series of anticompetitive and abusive actions.1191

                  Keep in mind that Ida Tarbell, was an important muckraker that exposed a lot of the business practices in1204

                  Standard Oil and advocated for regulation and that the government cracked down on this business, this monopoly.1213

                  Taft’s attorney general brought suit also against U.S. Steel, based in the antimonopoly charges in part on acquisition approved by Roosevelt.1222

                  Anxious to reenter politics, Roosevelt cannot ignore what appeared to be a direct attack on his honor.1231

                  That is going to encourage him to get back into politics.1240

                  Even though Taft was known as being the conservative, he ironically pursued monopolies even more aggressively than Roosevelt.1244

                  Or at least let the Supreme Court do their job, and not intervene and decide for themselves which trusts are good, which trusts are bad.1251

                  There some other key amendments that were put into place under Taft.1264

                  Progressive amendments, you could also say populist amendments.1271

                  The 16th Amendment was passed that instituted a national income tax.1276

                  The 17th Amendment, this called for the law for the direct election of senators.1282

                  That was definitely viewed as an empowering amendment, as people had a much more direct influence over their senators.1289

                  Roosevelt travels the country and speaks out for new nationalism.1298

                  A program to restore the government's trust busting power and that human welfare had priority over property rights.1305

                  He proposed a Federal child labor law, regulation of labor relations, a national minimum wage for women, 1312

                  and proposals to curb the power of the courts based on his insistence that they stood in the way of reform.1323

                  He declares itself as strong as a bull moose.1330

                  The progressive party, in many ways, becomes known as the Bull Moose Party.1336

                  We are going to shift a little bit and talk about civil rights.1344

                  Other progressives were looking to improve civil rights for African-Americans.1348

                  And there are few important civil rights activists that I like to highlight.1354

                  One being Booker T. Washington, he believed that African-Americans had to achieve economic independence before civil rights.1358

                  This is important, this is an important point.1368

                  Many people view him as an accommodationist, as a result.1372

                  He believed the blacks should tolerate discrimination, while they proved themselves.1376

                  This, I do not want to overstate, he was also a supporter of civil rights but he believed that this is going to be a gradual process.1382

                  Anyway, the blacks should tolerate discrimination while they prove themselves, and that civil rights would come naturally.1390

                  This is known as the Atlanta compromise, when he gives this very famous speech.1398

                  He helped to found Tuskegee Institute, and behind the scenes he does actually fight for civil rights 1403

                  and was very much against Jim Crow laws and disfranchisement of African-Americans.1410

                  He still believed in economic independence first before fighting for civil rights.1415

                  W.E.B Dubois is going to take a different approach.1422

                  They are both supporters of civil rights and empowering African-Americans but they have different roads to achieve their goals.1426

                  Dubois was a Harvard educated sociologist and activist who believed 1434

                  that African-Americans had to demand for their social and civil rights, or else become permanent victims of racism.1439

                  We wrote a very influential collection of essays called The Souls of Black Folk.1446

                  He encouraged the talented tenth of the black population to strive for higher education.1452

                  Whereas, Booker T. Washington is going advocate for technical skills that may seem much more practical for African-Americans1459

                  who do not have a lot of education in the late 1800’s and early 1900’s.1469

                  Dubois is going to say no, we need to have leaders, we need to have highly educated African-American people to help lift up the community.1475

                  He edited The Crisis, this was a magazine, he used that as a platform to demand for equal rights for blacks.1488

                  He was also instrumental in the Niagara movement.1498

                  During the summer of 1905, he, along with William Monroe Trotter, two of the most outspoken African-Americans 1502

                  believed the African-Americans needed to stand up for civil rights and social justice, met at Niagara Falls in Canada.1510

                  Why Niagara Falls?1518

                  They had to meet there because they were unable to get rooms in a hotel in New York.1519

                  Here is a famous picture illustrating their gathering.1525

                  This group who denounced the idea of gradual progress and called for African-Americans1529

                  to be educated in a more comprehensive way, not just trade schools.1536

                  This will leave a long-term impact on the civil rights movement.1545

                  Shortly, thereafter, the NAACP was created in 1909.1549

                  This acronym stands for the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People.1555

                  This was created to fight for African-Americans voting rights, civil rights, and to advocate for social justice.1560

                  Black and white came together and used the courts to challenge unfair laws through these organizations, still around today.1568

                  Here is a picture, later period in history, but they will be very instrumental throughout U.S. history 1578

                  especially during the civil rights movement and still active today, dealing with more contemporary civil rights issues.1585

                  The Urban League, as you could see within the name, focused more on the urban environment.1595

                  Originally founded in New York City and united in 1911 with many other agencies, 1601

                  they took the lead in providing welfare to black migrants to the North.1606

                  In many cases, uneducated, lacked skills, this was to provide people with a start, with a little help,1614

                  while they were going through the transition and migration.1623

                  This network created was intended to help African-Americans in various cities to get jobs 1627

                  and financially assist families with basic needs, such as clothing, books, food, other supplies.1633

                  Still active today.1642

                  Now shifting gears a little bit to another President, Woodrow Wilson and his New Freedom, what he will call New Freedom.1647

                  Steering the course between Taft’s conservatism and Roosevelt's radicalism, so to speak, Wilson for radical progressivism,1654

                  Wilson will carve out a middle way that brought to bear the powers of government without threatening the constitutional order.1662

                  He will try to curb abusive corporate power without threatening the capitalist system.1674

                  The middle way, I think it is a good way of understanding Wilson's approach.1680

                  He is going to use freedom, free trade in a lot of his speeches.1686

                  His program was similar to Roosevelt, in a sense that it would apply strict government controls on corporations but there were some differences.1694

                  But what did New Freedom trying to address?1704

                  He attacked the triple wall, what he called the triple wall of privilege, the tariffs, the banks, and the trust, 1706

                  that block businesses from being free.1715

                  Three important laws, we will see agencies were created, I guess you could say, laws/agency.1719

                  The Underwood Tariff Act of 1913, the creation of the income tax, the 16th Amendment gave Congress the power to have an income tax.1729

                  This solidifies that.1739

                  Trusts dominating industries were targeted to foster competition and reduce prices for consumers.1741

                  The Federal Reserve Act of 1913, this was passed in order to place national banks under Federal control.1748

                  And the intention was to help the economy, regulate the economy.1755

                  This was not as strong as we will see after the Great Depression, as we will see a huge expansion of regulatory agencies under FDR.1759

                  More about that later.1773

                  The Federal Trade Commission was created in 1914, in order to monitor business practices that might lead to monopoly.1775

                  It ultimately became a watchdog, a group that is watching, observing, regulating for false ads or dishonest labeling.1783

                  Obviously, a huge positive for consumers.1795

                  Other laws that were passed under Wilson.1801

                  The Clayton Antitrust Act, this was a big one, this protected labor unions.1804

                  As you know, there is a long history of labor unions being crushed and the Supreme Court, oftentimes, found them in restraint of trade.1809

                  This protected labor unions from being attacked as trust.1819

                  There is my point.1825

                  This becomes known as the Magna Carta of Labor, and ultimately closed the loophole from the U.S. versus E.C. Knight case, that so called sugar case.1826

                  This was a major switch in U.S. history, it is more pro labor, pro regulation.1836

                  It also lamented the Sherman Act and its definition of illegal practices.1843

                  That is left flexible to distinguish whether or not an action stifled competition or created a monopoly.1848

                  The Federal Farm Loan Act was passed that provided the low interest credit system, long demanded by farmers.1855

                  There is a populist law, a Federal Child Labor Law, the Adamson Eight Hour Law for railroad workers, 1864

                  and the Seamen’s Act which a limited abuse of sailors.1871

                  Several regulatory laws were implemented.1875

                  We were on a progressive roll during this point in history.1879

                  And look, we are already at the end and into the assessments.1884

                  The first example here, this will be multiple choice.1891

                  Upton Sinclair, The Jungle.1896

                  Worst of any however, were the fertilizer men and those who served in the cooking rooms,1898

                  these people could not be shown to the visitors, for the owner of a fertilizer men would scare any ordinary visitor at a 100 yards.1905

                  And as for the other men who worked in tank rooms full of steam, their peculiar trouble was that they fell into the vents.1915

                  And when they were fished out, there was never enough of them left to be worth exhibiting.1922

                  Sometimes they would be overlooked for days, till all but the bones of them has gone out to the world as germs pure leaf lard.1927

                  I cannot hide my displeasure.1943

                  Which group or idea of the progressive movement is most closely associated with the excerpt?1946

                  Muckrakers, Trustbusters, Supreme Court, Square deal?1954

                  Muckrakers.1962

                  The Jungle directly contributed to the passage of,1963

                  National Labor Act, Seamen’s Act, Meat Inspection Act, Clayton Act?1966

                  Meat Inspection Act.1974

                  Example one continued, Upton Sinclair's The Jungle was primarily concerned about working conditions,1977

                  which of the following most directly helped organized labor?1983

                  Mann Elkins Act, Muckrakers, Clayton Antitrust, The National Urban League.1985

                  The answer is Clayton Antitrust, remember the Magna Carta of labor.1992

                  Next example, this is going to be a short answer, principles of the Niagara movement.2001

                  We just learned about that.2007

                  We believe also in protest against the curtailment of civil rights.2008

                  We specially complain about the denial of equal opportunities to us in economic life.2015

                  We note with alarm, the evident retrogression in this land of sound public opinion on the subject of manhood rights,2021

                  republican government and human brotherhood.2028

                  Any discrimination based simply on race or color is barbarous.2032

                  We care not how hallowed it be by custom, expediency, or prejudice, but discrimination based simply and solely on physical peculiarities,2037

                  place or birth, or color of skin, are relics of the unreasoning human savagery of which the world is ought to be thoroughly ashamed.2046

                  Of the above grievances, we did not hesitate to complain, and to complain loudly and insistently. 2060

                  persistent manly agitation is the way to liberty, and toward the goal the Niagara movement has started and asked the cooperation of all men of all races.2067

                  Short answer, using in the excerpt answer A, B, and C.2084

                  Briefly explain how the point of view of this excerpt differed from the approach advocated by Booker T. Washington.2089

                  The Niagara movement supported political protest against discrimination and the violation of African-American civil rights,2102

                  and while Washington supported civil rights, he also believed in a gradual approach and2111

                  that African-American should prove themselves to be economically independent first, before advocating for civil rights.2117

                  B, briefly explain one form of discrimination against African-Americans from the period that it would support this excerpt.2126

                  African-Americans faced segregation and discrimination, especially in the south, because of the Plessy vs. Ferguson case,2134

                  that established separate but equal was constitutional.2142

                  Briefly explain one way the Niagara movement reflected the ideas of W.E.B Dubois.2150

                  W.E.B Dubois was one of the founders of the Niagara movement and his ideas were implemented via the Niagara movement.2158

                  He believed that African-Americans needed to demand equal civil rights and aimed toward higher education not just trade school education.2168

                  More short answers, briefly explain how two of the following reforms from the Wilson administration fulfilled the longstanding goals of reformers.2182

                  For this, I have chosen this one and this one.2194

                  Let us do Clayton first.2203

                  The Clayton Antitrust Act strengthened the antitrust powers of Federal government 2205

                  to break up the monopolies and protected labor unions from the court.2209

                  Second one, the Federal Trade Commission that was created to regulate businesses and protect consumers from fraud2215

                  and unfair practices became an important feature of the Wilson administration.2222

                  Briefly explain how one of the above either reflected or violated Wilson's campaign policy of new freedom.2230

                  On one hand, the reforms that were instituted during Wilson's administration helped consumers,2237

                  laborers, and farmers, and unions.2242

                  On the other hand, advocates of free trade would be disillusioned that the size of government was increasing.2245

                  This was the antithesis of freedom.2250

                  We have the trustbuster.2258

                  We have a short answer, using the cartoon answer A, B, and C.2264

                  Briefly explain how the point of view of the artist about two of the following.2267

                  Bad trust, good trust, role of Theodore Roosevelt.2272

                  This you could obviously combine all three.2275

                  I’m going to address the first two.2280

                  You will see I kind of address the third part too.2283

                  Roosevelt made a distinction between good trusts that were viewed as successful businesses 2287

                  that help the economy and bad trusts that were monopolistic and harmful to the U.S.2292

                  Briefly explain one way that trust policy of Woodrow Wilson differed from those of Theodore Roosevelt.2304

                  Roosevelt’s policies advocated for strong Federal regulation of large corporations, 2310

                  whereas Wilson's New Freedom advocated for the breakup of trusts and corporations that dominated the market.2315

                  Roosevelt was more apt to support gentlemen's agreements whereas Wilson advocated for free trade and economic freedom.2321

                  There we go, we are finally done with the progressive era.2332

                  Thank you for watching www.educator.com.2336