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Utopian Communal Societies, the Temperance Movement, and Nativism

  • In response to the rising industrialization in the U.S. during the antebellum era, there were several utopian societies that were formed, such as the Shakers, Fourierists, the Amana colonies, New Harmony, Oneida Community,
  • The Church of Latter-Day Saints (the Mormons) emerged as a religious community in 1830, and their beliefs were based on The Book of Mormon—which traced a connection between the American Indians and the lost tribes of Israel. Mormons faced persecution because of their exclusivity and polygamist practices, so under the leadership of Brigham Young, Mormons migrated to the far western frontier, where they est. the New Zion on the banks of the Great Salt Lake in Utah. More about the Mormons:
  • There was a surge in immigration from Germany and Ireland between 1854-1855.
  • Nativist groups and individuals began to scapegoat German and Irish immigrants because of job competition.
  • The temperance movement, a reform movement against drunkenness, was influential b/c of the widespread alcoholism in the U.S., as the average male drank 3x as much alcohol as they do today.

Utopian Communal Societies, the Temperance Movement, and Nativism

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  • Intro 0:00
  • Overview 0:10
  • Rural Communalism and Utopian Societies 2:24
    • Fourierism
    • Utopian Socialism
    • Members of Phalanxes
    • 100 Cooperative Communities
  • Other Communal Experiments 6:26
    • The Amana Colonies in Iowa
    • New Harmony
    • Utopian Socialist Community
  • Major Communal Experiment Before 1860 8:39
  • The Oneida Community 10:11
    • John Humphrey Noyes
    • Complex Marriage
    • Female Followers
    • Silverware Production
  • The Mormons, 1830 14:01
    • The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints
    • Joseph Smith
    • Brigham Young
  • The Mormon Trail 16:45
  • Immigration and Cultural Conflict 17:10
    • Potato Famine
    • German/Irish
    • Cholera Epidemic
    • Immigrant Communities
  • The Surge in Immigration, 1854-1855 22:14
  • Backlash Against Immigrant Groups 23:04
    • Low Wages
    • Nativist groups
    • Immigrants were Scapegoats
    • Alcoholism
    • Samuel F.B. Morse
  • The Temperance Movement 28:33
    • Reform Movement Against Drunkenness
    • The American Society for the Promotion of Temperance
    • Temperance Legislation
  • The Drunkard's Progress 32:27
  • Carrie Nation, The Bar Room Smasher 33:58
  • Conservative Social Reform 35:30
    • Congregational and Presbyterian Ministers
    • Prison Discipline Society
    • Regular Habits
    • Sabbatarian Values
  • Example 1 38:45
  • Example 2 41:20
  • Example 3 42:46

Transcription: Utopian Communal Societies, the Temperance Movement, and Nativism

Welcome back to

In this lesson, we are going to be talking about utopian communal societies, the temperance movement, and Nativism.0002

We are going to continue talking about the legacy of the second great awakening,0013

and how several people will embrace that revivalist spirit, and look to improve their lives.0018

Some will be more extreme than others where they actually try to create their own utopias.0029

They are trying to create these perfect societies where they are able to be true to their ideals, and treat everyone equally.0038

We are also going to talk about the Mormons, a significant religious group that also emerged during the 1830’s and 40’s.0049

They are going to be an important group throughout U.S. history.0061

We are also going to talk about Irish and German immigration, as that is going to significantly alter the population,0067

and cause some social issues and some tensions, as well, which will also lead to nativism.0075

We will see a backlash against these immigrant groups.0084

Immigrants are going to contribute to American culture and help fuel the industrial revolution.0089

But we will also see because of their participation in the economy,0096

we will see that there will be working class people who will oftentimes scapegoat immigrants.0102

And that is a theme we see throughout U.S. history, even in contemporary times.0109

Also, in this spirit of the second great awakening, we will see, especially,0115

Protestant groups looking to address the problem with alcoholism, which was a huge issue in the 19th century,0121

in particular, as people drank much more back then.0131

Women will become very much involved in the temperance movement.0136

We are going to talk about the significance of that.0141

Let us get into it.0145

We talked about the Shakers before, being one example of the religious group that tried to create this utopian type of society,0148

that was based on equality of the sexes.0161

Each of the utopian groups that we are going to talk about has their certain features.0164

Some are secular, some are more religious.0171

The idea here is that many of them were in fact rebelling against the unfairness of the mainstream society in industrial countries,0175

whether that would be in England or in the United States, as the industrial revolution was starting to pick up.0187

Many groups do not like what they were seeing in the big cities, in the squalor,0194

the crowded apartment buildings that people were subjected to, the horrible conditions in the factories.0201

They are looking to create, on top of it, the inequality in industrial capital societies.0210

We are going to see many idealistic people trying to experiment and find some type of alternative,0219

and experiment with these types of societies.0230

Anyway, we are going to talk about some of those important groups.0236

Beside the Shakers, we will see other groups attempt to create utopian societies in the 19th century.0239

First, I like to talk about Fourierism.0247

Charles Fourier was actually a French utopian socialist.0254

There were a lot of revolutionary minded people in France.0260

In fact, even Karl Marx was very much influenced by French revolutionary ideas.0266

Although, Marx will later say that the utopian socialists are unrealistic, that their ideas were somewhat limited.0274

But anyway, Fourier was very important in developing this idea, of these phalanxes, these communities.0283

In the United States, we will see that Albert Brisbane followed Charles Fourier,0293

who predicted the imminent decline of individual property rights and capitalist values.0299

Instead, they advocate for utopian socialism and they believe that this would help liberate the workers from capitalist employers.0306

Who, of course, were taking in all of these profits at the expense of the workers who are toiling away and working for low wages,0316

and having to deal with poor working conditions.0325

The idea is to create an ideal society where everyone is contributing, everyone is being taken care of.0330

Each member would be part of a phalanx.0338

During the 1840’s, we will see that there are about 100 cooperative communities in western New York and in the Midwest.0342

These groups were in an attempt to try to live out these ideals.0352

However, most collapse over conflicts about work responsibilities and social policies,0357

revealing the difficulty of maintaining utopian communities without charismatic leaders or compelling religious visions.0362

In this case, this was more a secular attempt to create a communal society.0373

These were very difficult to maintain and keep going in the long run.0381

There were some others too that I like to highlight.0387

The Amana colonies in Iowa, they believed in pietism.0390

This had more religious influences.0395

Very much like the Shakers, they believe in simple communal living.0399

However, they did allow for marriage.0406

That is a little different than other groups that we talked about.0409

New Harmony was another group, another settlement that was a secular experiment in Indiana.0413

The founder was Robert Owen, who was a factory owner, who was from Great Britain, from Wales.0423

He ends up creating a utopian socialist community, that its goal was0432

to provide an answer to the inequity and alienation caused by the industrial revolution.0437

He ends up having this work labor system tied to an entire money system, I should say, where,0444

however much labor you put in, you were going to get some type of currency in exchange for that.0458

This was supposed to answer that question, what is the incentive for people to do their bit to participate in the economy,0466

if they work very hard but they do not see the fruits of their labor.0475

Anyway, that is going to be something that he will experiment with.0482

But we will see in the long run that this community was not successful.0487

It only lasted about three years and failed because of financial problems and disagreements among members.0493

However, the theme to get out of this is that there were people who are very much critical of0499

what was happening in mainstream society and in industrialized urban environments.0510

They were looking for alternatives.0516

You could say that they, in many ways, were following along with the Jeffersonian ideal of0520

people being self sufficient and not being chained to the factory, and that dreadful type of life.0528

Anyway, something to keep in mind.0539

You can see here, I just highlighted a few, there are much more.0541

In a few lessons, we are actually going to come back and talk about transcendentalists and Brook Farm,0546

and some other groups as well, and other reform groups that grow tremendously throughout the 19th century.0552

Anyway, here in the map you could see that there are Fouriers in green throughout.0562

That burned over district where the great awakening had a huge influence.0570

You can see into Ohio and other states in the Midwest, as well as in Pennsylvania and New Jersey, and even in New England as well.0579

We can see the Shakers in this region, primarily, but also in this area.0590

The Owenites in Indiana and there are some other communities as well.0596

You could see actually, this is kind of interesting, down in Texas there are even a few.0606

Another community I like to highlight are the Oneidas, the Oneida community.0613

The founder was John Humphrey Noyes.0619

They advocated for what was known as complex marriage.0623

In this community, all members were married to one another.0627

You may think the hippies were the first to come up with this idea, this idea of free love in a way.0632

Actually, the Oneida community came up with this in the 19th century.0641

All members were married to one another.0646

They rejected monogamy to free women from their status as husband’s property.0648

That was the justification behind this idea.0653

Although one may question that, and we are going to see that this actually gets him into trouble later on.0660

However, the women who lived in this community did feel liberated.0668

Others, perhaps, did not, because they felt that this was just too loose for their values, for their way of living,0673

and their view of sex, and their role as far as having relationships with other males.0688

Anyway, female followers did cut their hair short and wore pantaloons, which again was pretty revolutionary for the time period.0698

We are not going to see until much later in mainstream society like the 1920’s, when women cut their hair short and that is very rebellious.0710

The idea of wearing pantaloons, we will see that is also going to push the envelope, push the boundaries of fashion sense.0719

And in many ways, give women options and kind of move them away from that traditional type of look.0728

Anyway, we will see because of this idea of complex marriage, it is something that was very controversial, even in the mainstream.0738

Noyes used his position to manipulate the sexual lives of his followers, and he eventually fled to Canada to avoid prosecution for adultery.0748

Here you could see that even a lot of the mainstream Christian values were very much still very relevant and influential over people's beliefs.0759

But again, this is yet another example of people experimenting with different social mores,0774

and trying to create their own societies within a larger context, in the larger American context, side by side of mainstream society.0781

By the mid 1850’s, the Oneida settlement had about 200 residents0798

and they use profits from steel animal trap manufacturing to diversify into silverware production.0802

This is actually pretty significant because, you may notice even today, a lot of silverware has the name Oneida on it.0811

That is a legacy of the Oneida community, is that they have had a very longstanding successful silverware business.0821

Yes, we will see that the committee eventually abandoned complex marriage but retained its cooperative spirit,0830

and does have a successful business in making silverware, the Oneidas.0836

The next group we are going to talk about are the Mormons.0844

The Mormons, religious group, the formal name - The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints.0847

The founder is Joseph Smith.0854

The ideas of the Mormons were based on the Book of Mormon which traced a connection0858

between American-Indians and the lost tribes of Israel.0865

I’m not going to get into all of the religious beliefs, and the importance of Gabriel and the golden plates, and so forth.0869

You can read up on that yourselves, because that is pretty intricate.0878

Do keep in mind that there were some similarities in Christian beliefs, yet there were other stories that were in the Book of Mormon,0885

that differentiate this religious group from other Christian sects, and were very controversial.0898

He gathered a following in upstate New York.0909

Again, upstate New York was a breeding ground for all these different thinkers.0912

Anyway, he was there but he did face a lot of backlash.0917

A lot of people were very skeptical of Joseph Smith's beliefs.0924

We will see that he and his followers end up moving to Ohio then Missouri, and finally Illinois.0930

Do keep in mind that the practice of polygamy was also something that was practiced by Mormons.0940

And in some cases, not all today, but certain groups that still practice this polygamy,0948

something that in mainstream society is not widely accepted and is not legal.0959

That will obviously cause problems for the Mormons, especially those who were practicing polygamy.0967

Yes, we are going to see that Smith was actually murdered in Illinois by a local mob.0974

Mormons did face a lot of persecution.0980

This was kind of a constant move westward.0983

To escape persecution, the Mormons, under the leadership, new leader Brigham Young, migrated to the far western frontier,0987

where they eventually established the New Zion on the banks of the Great Salt Lake in Utah.0996

This will become Salt Lake City.1004

You can see here on the map where Mormons had to move to, and eventually end up settling in this region.1009

You can see by 1860, this whole region is occupied by Mormons.1019

Now moving on to some different immigrant groups that started to influence and impact the demographics in the United States.1032

We will see some important changes happening, this is sometimes called the first wave in the 19th century.1042

The second wave will come toward the end of the 19th century.1064

During this first major wave of European immigration, we are going to see primarily Irish and German,1070

and some other western European groups, come into the United States in droves.1076

One thing to keep in mind when we talk about immigration, in general, is that there are many what we call push and pull factors.1087

The push factors, what is pushing the people out of the country?1099

Some type of tragedy, some type of political persecution or religious persecution, famine, all types of things.1105

That would be considered a push factor.1114

What is pushing you out of the country to want to flee and look elsewhere and live elsewhere.1119

The pull factor is what is drawing you to that new country.1125

We are going to see in the context of United States with immigration, that many immigrants, the Irish,1130

in particular, are going to be drawn to the work opportunities, the land opportunities.1137

There is this idea that the United States is the land of opportunity, the land of milk and honey,1145

where you can try to achieve the American dream.1153

We are going to see that many will be inspired to come to the United States, and many are desperate.1156

About two million Irish Catholics will come to the United States primarily because of the potato famine that was occurring in Ireland.1162

There was a potato blight and people were literally starving, and desperate, and they were willing to work in any type of situation.1172

Many came, they were unskilled, and they fill a vacuum for a lot of the job opportunities that were not being met.1184

There are also about 1.5 million Germans that were mostly Protestant.1194

Although, I should also mention that there were German Catholics as well.1199

Germany was divided with Protestants and Catholics, and about 750,000 British who immigrated to the United States around this time.1203

We will see German and Irish primarily settled in the northeast,1216

and particularly the first wave that comes in will primarily stay in the northeastern cities like New York, Boston, Philadelphia.1220

Those were major hubs for immigrant groups.1231

They had family, oftentimes, or they are well established, and there were community groups, church groups1234

that will help facilitate getting people into school, helping them get jobs, and housing, and so forth.1240

Yes, the push factor, many forced to flee because of poverty or political situation.1251

New immigrants often times had to live in crowded tenements that were unsanitary apartments.1257

A one bedroom apartment, for instance, that would house huge numbers of people.1265

They did not have good ventilation or air conditioning, heat, and so forth.1272

These were very unhealthy, not so nice places.1281

In fact, the situation was so bad that there was an awful cholera epidemic that broke out in 1849,1286

that had a negative effect throughout many of the northeastern cities.1295

On a positive though, we will see that a network of institutions emerged to serve the immigrant communities,1301

who will eventually be able to blend in, that is kind of the idea, into the melting pot.1308

That is somewhat of a myth.1318

But many will assimilate into American culture, enroll in school, and a lot of times in churches and other charitable organizations will help facilitate this.1321

Visually, you could see the push factors, the German revolutions of 1848 to 1849 and the Irish potato famine that happened in the 1840’s.1336

As you can see here, huge jump in immigration into the United States.1350

Yet, we are also going to see a drop by the time of the Civil War, and even before then, that there was an economic recession.1357

And then, we are going to see that many businesses are not going to be hiring and doing as well.1370

In some ways, there will be a big backlash against this major influx of immigrants which brings us to the next point.1377

When there are tough economic times, we are going to see people start lashing out and scapegoating immigrant groups,1390

especially when there is competition over jobs.1398

And again, poor immigrants were willing to work for low wages, and oftentimes awful conditions.1402

Because if you are really desperate, something is better than nothing.1412

You can understand why people would be willing to work for very low wages and put up with poor conditions.1417

Yet, this would obviously hurt a lot of the unions that were trying to push for fair wages, better conditions.1427

We are going to see a lot of political parties starting to emerge.1435

I will note a few of those here.1441

There were like Workingmen's Party that was very much a nativist type of party.1448

Then, there was also an American Party.1459

Again, the term American should be emphasized.1464

The United States is full of contradictions when it comes to this issue.1469

On one hand, we are a country of immigrants.1475

The only people who are considered native to what is now known as the United States are the Native Americans.1478

Pretty much everyone else has some type of connection to an immigrant group.1488

Many of us at this time in history, of your history, your ancestors go back a few generations,1494

you are kind of a mixture of different groups like me.1506

I have Irish, English, Czechoslovakian.1510

There isn't even Czechoslovakia anymore.1515

A little French, a little British.1519

A mixture because of these different immigrant groups coming together and having children.1521

My point being that on one hand, we are a country that welcomes immigrants,1530

that is part of what makes us a very interesting country, a diverse country, a mosaic.1535

This idea of pluralist society.1543

Yet on the other hand, we know that there is a kind of an ugly side too.1547

There is the other reality that there is also a lot of anti immigrant sentiment,1551

especially during difficult times in history, more extreme times in history.1556

We have to kind of have a balanced approach when we tackle this and deal with reality.1564

During this time period, we will see a lot of nativist groups emerging and individuals as well.1572

But oftentimes what are known as the WASP, the White Anglo Saxon Protestants,1580

especially those who were second-third generation, that were, for instance, of British descent.1589

They view themselves as the real Americans.1596

And then of course, here come the new immigrants who they are competing with all of a sudden for jobs, with whom they are competing.1599

That is going to cause a problem and cause a lot of conflict.1610

We are going to see that many groups, many immigrant groups are scapegoats,1614

and blamed for problems in society, alcoholism, for instance.1619

The Irish, this is where we get stereotypes.1624

The Irish, and Germans too, known for having a drinking culture.1628

And not to playing into this stereotype but there is some reality to this idea that it is more accepted in some cultures than in other cultures.1635

Generally speaking, not to say all, but sometimes you do have to make some general observations.1654

Anyway, we are going to see amidst all of this, that there is going to be a conflict between immigrant groups and1664

those who believe that they are the real Americans, and they view these immigrant groups as a threat.1674

People like Samuel F.B. Morse wrote a very inflammatory foreign conspiracy against the liberties of the United States.1681

A lot of people are starting to speak out and organize and form these different parties to target and critique our immigration policy.1694

They would also attack these groups and discriminate against them.1707

Tied to that, I do see a link here because we are going to see that1715

with the White Anglo Saxon Protestant backlash against the drinking cultures, that is going to feed into this temperance movement.1722

Many people who were involved in the temperance movement, who wanted to end drunkenness, had their hearts in the right place.1741

But in some cases, we are going to see that there was a slippery slope between attacking, trying to get to the root of the problem of alcoholism.1750

And then, attacking people because of their ethnicity or their religion, or their background, and so forth, or their nationality.1759

We are going to see that that is where it could become controversial and cause problems for many immigrant groups, and they were targeted.1772

There is kind of this divide between Protestant Americans and immigrant groups, especially in the 19th century.1781

Today, when we think of Irish Americans, I always try to point this out to my students, they say they are white, they are privileged Americans.1791

They were right, that perhaps today, we do not think of the Irish as being a group at the top of our list of being discriminated against,1802

because discrimination still exists.1810

However, today we think the Irish are white Americans so they are not discriminated against like they were during this time.1813

Anyway, something to keep in mind.1823

Coming back to the history, alcoholism became a huge issue in the 19th century.1827

The average male drank three times as much alcohol as they do today.1835

These caused problems in families, oftentimes, the women were the ones who are bearing the brunt of violent drunken outrages of their husbands.1841

Children often times were targets of domestic violence.1851

Groups started to emerge like the American Society for the Promotion of Temperance.1857

Yes, many Protestant churches also were very much involved.1862

They did draw a large following.1867

This particular group had more than 200,000 members nationwide.1870

They used revivals, in the spirit of the revivalist during the second great awakening, and group prayer to get the message out.1875

They did actually have some pretty good results.1885

The annual consumption of spirits declined by 1845.1889

We will also see that some temperance advocates pressured governments to pass temperance legislation, and had limited success.1896

Maine, for instance, passed such a law to restrict the sale or consumption of alcohol in 1851.1904

Other states also passed restrictive laws throughout the 1800’s1911

to not sell alcohol on Sundays, or certain counties even were considered dry counties.1918

You could not purchase or consume alcohol in those areas.1928

We are starting to see that people are taking this seriously and putting this into law.1932

We know that eventually, we will have a ban on alcohol nationally.1939

But we will get to that a little bit later.1947

Here is a propaganda or a visual that was definitely trying to promote temperance and to critique drunkenness.1950

This is called the Drunkard’s Progress.1964

It is probably hard for you to see, I will read through this.1968

As you could see, there are various steps in this process.1970

Step 1, a glass with a friend.1975

Step 2, a glass to keep the cold out.1978

Step 3, a glass too much.1981

Step 4, drunk and riotous.1984

Step 5, the summit attained, jolly companions, a confirmed drunkard.1990

Step 6, It will go downhill here, poverty and disease.1999

Forsaken by friends, step 7.2005

Step 8, desperation and crime.2007

And step 9, death by suicide.2010

As you could see, this is a very critical look at the effects of alcohol consumption.2014

Here you can also see a woman, she looks very upset.2021

She is covering her face, she has a child.2025

The caption here, the drunkard’s progress from the first glass to the grave.2030

Kind of a typical temperance propaganda, the message that they are trying to get across.2037

I just wanted to bring up Carrie Nation, even though she will become very significant in the later 19th century.2046

She is one of the most interesting extreme temperance advocates.2056

Yes, this was dramatized but she was known for having a hatchet in one hand and a Bible in the other hand.2063

She was known as the bar room smasher.2075

She actually took matters into her hands, it was pretty radical.2078

She would actually attack saloons.2082

She would travel throughout the United States.2085

She was originally from Kansas and traveled extensively throughout the Midwest, and had a very tragic upbringing in life,2088

in fact, and definitely witnessed the negative effects of alcoholism.2096

She felt that she had a message from God that this is what she was supposed to do.2111

She ended up going to all these different drinking establishments, and smashing glasses and bottles, and causing a huge ruckus.2116

Anyway, she will became very much dramatized, and an important symbol of the temperance movement, especially the extremists.2127

We will see there were other moderate reforms as well.2136

On top of alcohol abuse, we are going to see other issues that were addressed.2141

Congregational and Presbyterian ministers led benevolence organizations.2146

And oftentimes, this time period, time of war, we see the benevolent empire evolving.2152

People are trying to improve upon society and reach out to the community, not just talk about it and pray about it.2161

They are reaching out to people and trying to help them.2172

A lot of these Protestant groups concerned with alcohol, adultery, prostitution, as well as crime.2177

They start to create different societies such as the prison discipline society.2185

To try to teach people, regular habits, discipline was encouraged, living a clean sober life.2191

There was a lot of, what today we would call support groups that helped people in this situation to improve their lives.2203

A lot of these religious people involved in these reforms defy institutions to help the needy.2214

They also help create asylums for the insane.2221

That is going to be very important.2227

We will also see other religious ideas that are going to be promoted.2229

Many Protestants will advocate for Sabbatarian values, no work on Sundays, like I mentioned before.2234

They were also adamant about this that they believe that people should boycott businesses that were open on Sundays.2240

Not every one embraces this idea because of our First Amendment, the establishment clause where we have a separation of church and state.2247

Not everyone is pro religion.2257

We will see many workers who earn a living, they want money, while,2261

closing businesses on Sunday that could obviously hamper their ability to do that.2269

Freethinkers also will not like this idea.2276

Southerners oppose suggestions that slaves be taught Christian ideas and the Christian religion.2280

That is going to be somewhat controversial.2289

Although in some cases they will actually allow the slaves to be exposed.2291

Many do not because of the hypocrisy of being a good Christian and having slaves, obviously, there is a problem there.2297

But many rationalize this and would handpick certain phrases in the Bible, that would help to justify slavery.2310

But of course, Christianity will be very important to many African-Americans, many of the passages in fact,2325

some of the passages will talk about the promised land, and freedom, and so forth.2334

Religious ideas will be very important in not only helping people feel empowered to help society at large,2343

but we will also see many groups start to have their own utopian societies.2353

With that, we are actually on to the examples, let us get started.2360

The first one here, we have a graph.2368

There is a lot of data here for you to examine.2372

This one is dealing with Irish immigrants and the types of occupations that they were employed in.2376

We are also seeing the percentage based on their involvement in these occupations.2388

You can see here is a breakdown between skilled and unskilled professionals.2394

You may want to take a glance at some of the differences here,2399

especially in terms of unskilled professional, very low percentage here.2405

Higher percentage, generally speaking, of unskilled, a kind of a mix here of skilled, but still primarily larger number here.2411

Let us get to the questions.2424

Which of the following types of jobs did Irish immigrants primarily partake in?2428

Mainly, did they partake in.2435

Unskilled jobs, professional jobs, skilled jobs, lawyers.2438

The answer is unskilled.2445

Number 2, most Irish workers who arrived in the U.S. faced difficulty because of problems with,2450

Religious discrimination, racism, lack of job opportunities, or farming.2456

The answer is religious discrimination.2467

There is a lot of anti-Catholic sentiment during the 19th century.2473

Catholics were considered a minority.2482

Here is the graph that we took a look at earlier.2485

Again, where you can see the huge surge in immigration between 1845 to 1852.2489

Which of the following caused a cut in the flow of immigrants?2501

The economic recession of 1856 to 1857, the Irish potato famine, the U.S. civil war, the German revolutions.2504

The answer.2515

Number 2, immigrant groups like the Germans and Irish faced the most discrimination from,2521

Catholic immigrants, African-Americans, Nativist groups, or Native Americans.2527

The answer.2536

One thing I do want to mention here, that I did not talk about explicitly is that,2543

these immigrant groups will be competing, oftentimes, with African-Americans, especially for domestic work and unskilled jobs.2549

In fact, the Irish will oftentimes discriminate against the African-Americans.2557

This gets really messy, in terms of who is discriminating who.2562

Here we have a cartoon that says Women’s Holy War - grand charge on the enemy’s works.2571

What do you see here? Rum, brandy, gin, whisky.2580

In the name of God and humanity, Temperance League, it says here.2585

You see some other people with their hatchets.2591

Kind of like someone who we just talked about.2596

Example 3, using the cartoon, answer A, B, and C.2600

Explain the point of view reflected in the cartoon above regarding one of the following.2604

Religious revivals, temperance, or women's rights.2609

Let us do religious revivals.2619

Religious revivals are suggested by the title of the cartoon,2625

and the women at the forefront of change are depicted as crusaders leading the temperance movement and other reforms.2629

The artist of the cartoon would support the activities of women during the second great awakening,2643

and in their involvement in the temperance movement. That is what I will do.2651

Explain one element of the cartoon that expresses the point of view you identified in part A.2658

Temperance is demonstrated by the banner Temperance League, by the broken barrels of rum and whisky.2665

Women's rights are portrayed by the women leading the battle destroying the evil alcohol.2671

I include that too.2678

I think I have my bases covered.2680

Last part, explain how the point of view you identified in part A2682

help to shape one specific U.S. government action between 1820 and 1860.2685

During this period, the government of various states imposed restrictions on alcohol2693

so that by 1860 more than a dozen states that outlawed the production and sale of liquor.2698

Last question, choose one of the groups listed below and explain how the treatment of that group demonstrates the validity of this statement.2711

Discrimination was common against people unlike the white Protestant majority in United States during the 19th century.2719

American-Indians, free African-Americans, and Irish immigrants.2730

I'm going to do, since the focus of our lesson was on the Irish,2741

although we could certainly talk about discrimination against these groups as well.2746

I’m going to focus on this one for this example.2750

Irish immigrants arrive with little skills and little funds.2753

They faced discrimination because of their Roman Catholic religion and they congregated in northern cities where they first landed.2757

Contrast your choice against one of the other options demonstrating why their option is not as good as your choice.2768

Free African-Americans had some job opportunities and often could own land, even though they did face discrimination.2780

Again, you could argue any of these.2792

Briefly explain whether there was any variations in discrimination in different sections of the country.2795

Discrimination could be found everywhere in the U.S., but some minority groups found support in northern cities2802

because of the diversity and job opportunities that were available.2809

You could also say that there were more opportunities in the west, you could make that claim if you want to back it up.2816

There were people who could own land, have farms, and so forth.2825

I think that should give you a nice little overview of this section of U.S. history.2830

Thank you for watching