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John Quincy Adams, Growing Sectional Tension, and the Capitalist Commonwealth

  • Election of 1824: a major turning point in presidential elections b/c prior to 1824, electors (who selected the president in the electoral college) had been chosen by a variety of methods.
  • Many viewed outcome of election as a “corrupt bargain”
  • Adams supported the tariff on imported goods: The Tariff of 1828 was passed but immediately was controversial.
  • The tariff issue (in general) became a huge contentious sectional issue; Southerners, such as John C. Calhoun, especially detested the tariff, calling it the “tariff of abominations”
  • The growth of the cotton industry kept slavery intact

John Quincy Adams, Growing Sectional Tension, and the Capitalist Commonwealth

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  • Intro 0:00
  • Overview 0:08
  • The Election of 1824 1:17
    • State Legislatures
    • William H. Crawford
    • The Demise of the Caucus System
    • House of Representatives
    • Henry Clay as Secretary of State
    • Corrupt Bargain
  • John Quincy Faces Obstacles 7:05
    • Partisan Tensions Emerged
    • International Issues
    • Conflict with Georgia
  • The Controversial Tariff of 1828 9:29
    • Tariff on Imported Goods
    • Tariff of Abominations
    • A Huge Backlash in New England
  • Capitalism and the Commonwealth 10:55
    • Common-wealth
    • Abrupt Drop in Worldwide Prices
    • Business Cycle
  • Transportation Improvements 13:58
    • The Sale of Privately Owned Land
    • Marshall Court
    • First Railroad Lines
  • Transportation Innovations 16:24
    • Trade Ventures
    • Shipping Industry
    • James Watt
    • Robert Fulton and Robert Livingston
    • Turnpikes
    • Erie Canal Project
  • George Harvey's “Pittsford on the Erie Canal” in 1837 18:37
  • Erie Canal 18:53
  • Growth of U.S. Industry 20:14
    • Factory System
    • Eli Whitney
    • Changes in Corporate Law
    • Trade/Craft Unions
  • Commonwealth v. Hunt in 1842 26:32
    • Peaceful Unions
    • Labor Contracts
  • Cities Continue to Grow 28:09
    • Northerners
    • Agriculture and the Rise in Immigrants
    • Peculiar Institution
  • Effects of the Market Revolution 31:31
    • Isolated Lives
    • Women's Rights
    • Less Arranged Marriages
    • The Growth of the Cotton Industry
  • Example 1 34:18
  • Example 2 36:55
  • Example 3 39:18

Transcription: John Quincy Adams, Growing Sectional Tension, and the Capitalist Commonwealth

Welcome back to

This lesson is on John Quincy Adams, rising sectional tensions, and the capitalist commonwealth.0002

In this lesson, we are going to talk about the election of 1824, which was a very significant election, 0010

when John Quincy Adams was elected.0018

We are also going to talk about partisans in the political party, 0021

and sectional tensions that emerge and continue to grow in the United States during this era, this post-1812 era.0025

We are also going to talk about how the industrial revolution hits the United States 0035

and has a huge impact on certain sections of the United States.0039

And tied to that, we will talk about the market revolution and the integration of markets.0043

We will also see how the capitalist commonwealth continues to develop in the United States, as capitalism takes root.0050

And along with that, we will see improvements in overall infrastructure, 0059

the transportation improvements through the American system and so forth.0063

We will also talk about the overall effects, socially and economically,0071

because of all of these new developments that are happening in the United States.0075

Let us get into the election of 1824.0080

This was a major turning point in presidential elections because prior to 1824, 0084

electors who selected the president in the Electoral College had been chosen by a variety of methods.0090

Do keep in mind, from state to state, that they will determine how they want their electors to go, to be chosen for the president.0098

We will see that for the most part, state legislatures chose many electors, although, 0114

with each election, the number of states using this method decreased.0120

This is going to have a democratizing effect during the 1820’s and into the 1830’s, 0129

as we are going to see more and more emphasis on bringing the people into the voting process.0137

Especially, when we get to Jackson, we are going to see a huge increase in voting opportunities and voting rights.0149

Anyway, tied to that, in the 1824 election, we will see by 1824, majority of states allowed voters to choose their presidential electors.0159

However, there was less and less voter’s support for the candidates nominated by party leaders, in the era before primaries and caucuses.0169

What we are going to see is a deadlock, between or amongst five different candidates.0180

When the democratic Republican caucus chose William H. Crawford in 1824, others among them,0189

John Quincy Adams, Henry Clay, and Andrew Jackson,0198

the most famous of that group that were questioning, thus decided to challenge the nomination.0200

This became quite controversial and very tense, in fact, politically speaking.0211

Their opposition along with accusations that the party caucuses is undemocratic, brought about the demise of the caucus system.0222

And thus, we are going to see an increase in democratization.0230

The outcome of the election, no one had won a majority.0237

It was decided by the House of Representatives.0241

We are going to see that Henry Clay was the Speaker of the House at the time, and had a lot of influence.0247

It is believed that he worked behind the scenes and used his influence to gain support for Adams.0255

This is going to feed into a lot of tensions especially with the Jacksonians, because Jackson had a majority of the electoral votes.0264

However, he did not have enough electoral votes to win the presidency.0277

This ended up being decided by the House of Representatives.0284

Adams, you have to keep in mind, John Quincy Adams, the first son of a former president, 0291

and certainly from a more prestigious, higher class background.0299

It was kind of looked that he had a major advantage and he was a Washington insider.0307

Whereas Jackson, was kind of viewed as a Washington outsider, and a man of the people.0314

Anyway, we will see that the presidency was granted to Adams, even though Jackson won the popular vote.0323

Henry Clay, many believed, had a political motive for supporting Adams.0330

Although Adams was a nationalist and had ran on that platform, 0336

that he was looking to expand internal improvements and show national leadership in that regard.0343

Henry Clay was the brainchild behind the American System.0353

There was a lot of push back from several states, especially in the south.0357

This was his opportunity to build bridges and get the support of Adams that he was hoping for.0363

Also, we are going to see that Adams names Clay as Secretary of State,0373

a position whose previous holders viewed it as a gateway to the presidency.0379

This is also going to be a controversial move.0387

Jackson, in fact, will view this as a corrupt bargain.0391

Looking at this whole incident that, these were Washington DC insiders,0397

and they are rewarding each other for supporting each other politically.0403

This is going to fuel Jackson later on, to come back with a vengeance and have the people behind him, and he will eventually become president.0411

But we will get to him later.0423

John Quincy Adams becomes president.0426

Even though he is this staunch nationalist, we are going to see partisan tensions emerging.0431

Adams proposes this program that is similar to Clay’s American System.0439

But we are going to see the backlash, the resistance from the Jacksonian Democrats in Congress.0443

They are going to continue to block his program.0449

There are also international issues.0454

Adams was not having luck sending delegates to the international conference, 0457

that the Venezuelan liberator Simon Bolivar had called in Panama in 1826.0461

He was looking to be a major participant in global affairs.0463

There was a lot of racism that was still part of the culture and mindset of many Americans, and certainly of many U.S. Congressmen, 0475

particular from the south, who did not see Latin American politicians as equals.0488

That was a missed opportunity for the United States.0496

Haiti also was a participant.0499

Again, the United States stays isolationist.0503

He was not able to see through his foreign policy objectives.0508

He was not able to meet those objectives.0514

There was also a conflict in Georgia, Native Americans and land issues.0516

Land was guaranteed to the Crees, then, this was in jeopardy0523

because the state of Georgia extracted a new treaty with the leader of a faction in the tribe.0527

As a result, we are going to see that Indian removals began.0534

Adams did not have too much power to stop this.0540

He did not make a major move to stop this.0545

We will pick up on this again later, when we talk about Andrew Jackson, as he is going to be hostile toward Native Americans.0549

But it started in Georgia, in particular, in the southeastern part of the United States, Indian removal during the Quincy Adams administration.0558

Adams also supported the tariff, that again was a very controversial economic policy.0572

Tariff is a tax on imported goods, using a protectionist type of economic policy, 0580

to help bolster the American economy.0587

It was passed, the tariff of 1828, but immediately controversial and questioned by States’ writers, 0590

who felt that this was oppressive and unfair.0597

And in fact, yes, some of them will go as far as to call it the tariff of abominations.0601

States’ writers like John C. Calhoun and others who were States’ writers, they really dislike the tariff.0608

This is where we are going to see more and more sectional tensions emerge 0616

because economic policies coming from the Federal government do not always benefit all sections of the United States.0620

This is always like an ongoing tension throughout U.S. history.0630

Going back to this point, in order to win support from middle and western states, 0636

they accept the duties on other items, besides British textiles.0640

This also caused a huge backlash in New England.0644

This region also tended to be more pro tariff.0649

Now we are going to segway into economic issues during this time.0658

We are going to see tremendous expansion of the economy during the 1800’s, the early 1800’s.0667

For entrepreneurial minded merchants, farmers, political leaders, republican governments, should help support capitalist adventures.0676

We are going to see a partnership with all these different leaders and trying to bolster the economy.0685

There has to be cooperation between Federal government, States’ governments, the private sector, so forth.0693

With the help of state government advocated mercantilist policies, that would assist private business to enhance the common wealth.0703

All Americans can benefit.0713

The idea is that this will help strengthen the middle class.0717

With a strong middle class, we have a strong economy.0721

In order to finance the mercantile enterprises, U.S. citizens needed a banking system.0724

They need capital, in order to invest in those businesses, for loans, and also to establish solid credit.0731

But first, banking policies of the Second Bank, the Second Bank is viewed as a legacy, perhaps, of the old Federalist Party.0738

The bank was somewhat controversial, especially people like the Jacksonian crowd, who were very suspicious of banks.0750

Anyway, state banking policies of the Second Bank were a factor in the panic of 1819.0760

But many people were in fact quite uneducated, I guess you could put it, 0766

because the main causes of the panic were rooted in the abrupt 30% drop in worldwide prices.0772

The bank is going to be an economic institution that is going to be questioned.0782

The instability in the economy during this major change, and during this transition stage,0793

specially the effects of this panic, gave people a taste of what we will like to call the business cycle.0805

This is one of the major time periods when there are booms and busts, 0815

these up and down fluctuations throughout the history of capitalism.0822

It is considered a natural part of the capitalist cycle.0833

We are going to see a plan to improve transportation and technologies, overall.0841

There was legislative support for road and canal companies.0849

That will be part of this commonwealth system, that you have to invest in infrastructure, you have to invest in transportation.0854

This will help trade, this will help the economy.0865

We will see that it is not quite fair, it is not quite hands off.0869

It is actually a government that is trying to help the capitalist system flourish.0875

We will see special charters were granted to corporate enterprises.0884

Eminent domain laws allowed Turnpike Bridge and Canal corporations to force the sale of privately owned land along their routes.0888

Eminent domain, when the government was required to compensate private property owners0900

for selling and sacrificing part of their land, for these larger projects.0907

Like, the road needs to be expanded, we go into your land.0914

They have the right by eminent domain laws to move people.0919

These are very controversial, even today, but this is going to be a stepping stone for helping to bolster transportation systems.0924

And of course, the support of the Marshall court, very pro business minded court, upheld corporate charters and eminent domain.0937

Along those same lines, we will see railroads being built, the earliest railroads in the 1820’s.0949

They will continue to grow but would not be as major of a transportation system, 0958

until we will see around the time in the Civil War and after the Civil War, particularly.0966

But they are starting to emerge as an important competitive form of transportation with canals and other methods.0972

We will see that earlier on, due to war in Europe in the 1790’s, U.S. was able to develop trade ventures.0987

We will see as a result, the shipping industry grew rapidly.0996

The steamboat was invented and improved upon by James Watt.1002

We will also see that Fulton and Livingston perfected the steamboat with their famous Claremont that sailed the Hudson,1009

and in New Orleans, that sailed down the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers.1018

Transportation by sea is going to be important for people to travel, as well as for trade.1027

Turnpikes, toll roads, were constructed.1032

Also the Erie Canal project is going to be a major undertaking.1037

This was the dream of Dewitt Clinton who became governor of New York.1042

This was a very difficult undertaking, very difficult to fund, and build.1049

We will see that this father of the Erie Canal stuck to his objective,1055

and eventually we will see that the Erie Canal opened in 1817, and was completed in 1825.1063

He was a huge advocate of this system.1078

He was looking to connect all the water systems in New York to the Midwest.1081

Many were against it, calling it the Clinton’s ditch.1088

This is kind of a derogatory term used, that this is a crazy project.1092

You are putting too much money into it.1097

But we are going to see that public money does in fact go into the funding of it.1099

Eventually, this canal that is 363 miles long, does connect central and western waterways to the Hudson River.1105

This is going to help the regions all along the Erie Canal to grow.1115

This is a very nice picturesque painting of Pittsburgh on the Erie Canal.1122

Here is the Hudson River, and of course the Hudson River does meet the Atlantic Ocean and the Long Island.1136

Atlantic Ocean and New York being a major port city, very important to connect to that lifeline.1145

The Erie Canal will go across central New York, and you can see there is another canal that will extend to Lake Ontario.1155

Also, we will see that these other waterways to Lake Erie, and even a little bit of the finger lakes here, 1169

particularly, Lake Cayuga, is going to be important to link all these regions and help to develop the economies,1178

not only in New York but also all the regions that are connected to this canal.1189

This is going to be extremely important and helped to strengthen the economy overall.1195

Clinton ended up getting a lot of props in the long run, 1203

even though it was a very controversial and expensive project, and the environment was very difficult.1207

Tough conditions in New York in the winter, harsh winters, as well as humid summers, with mosquitoes, and so forth.1215

Coming back to the growth of industry, we will see that the Factory System will continue to grow.1225

We talked about the Lowell system previously.1232

There is another one that is very famous, the Slater system.1235

Several of the factories in early 1800’s become very successful,1239

even though there are some downsides to factories, factory life, in many ways.1249

We will see mass production becoming part of the norm of this time, which will lower the price and produce lots and lots of goods.1257

We will see specialization as part of this factory system, where everyone has a specialized job, and there is a division of labor.1268

Everyone is doing the same thing, kind of repetitive task over and over.1278

The idea here is to make things more efficient and affordable for all, and for people to be able to make money, factory owners.1282

Although this was difficult at first to find laborers, and in fact we will see many children and women will be employed at first, 1295

these two groups will be exploited.1307

There is no doubt about it, and that will become very controversial.1309

We will start to the see labor unions starting to advocate for fairer conditions in the factories because they were very harsh.1314

They did not have limits on hours, for instance, and safety regulations, and fair conditions at all.1322

But the first wave of factory workers will primarily be children and women.1334

Later immigrants will supplant this first group, the latter group, 1341

and that is going to make things very difficult for the unions, which I will come back to a little later.1349

There are also several inventions that were extremely important, that will allow these factories, in the first place, to grow.1356

Mechanical inventions such as Eli Whitney's interchangeable parts, like they sound, 1365

you know they can be used for several different applications.1370

And that will be very important in the Factory System.1374

And the cotton gin, which is another one of his major inventions that will have a significant impact on the economy, 1377

especially in the south, where many people believed that the institution of slavery would die out.1386

With the creation of the cotton gin, it is actually going to expand slavery production even more.1395

This is going to be the impetus that slavery and plantation life and growing cotton is here to stay,1404

and that is what many of the investors and plantation owners believed at the time.1416

That is going to be very significant.1424

We will also see as a result, the country is developing differently.1426

In the northeastern part of the United States and the eastern part of United States, they are embracing more of the Factory System, 1433

whereas in the south, the plantation economy is going to continue using slave labor.1438

We will also see changes in corporate law that will encourage investors.1450

The idea of limited liability will be very important, where people who invest in a corporation are only liable for what they invest.1454

The risk seems reasonable to people, not like they are going to lose double or more than that, than they invest.1465

Because working conditions in a lot of the early factories were not so good,1476

there is also a lot of backlash against a lot of skilled workers, and artisans, and so forth,1482

who believed that the de-skilling and un-skilling of laborers was not a good thing.1489

They felt like their status was lowering.1496

We will see that trading craft unions end up being organized in major cities from the 1790’s on,1500

but they are going to face many obstacles such as this point here.1511

Immigrant replacement workers, because there were all these groups of people 1516

coming into the United States looking for a job.1520

They were willing to work for low wages.1525

This made it very difficult for laborers and factory workers who are trying to improve their wages and their conditions,1528

when there are people who are desperate for a job willing to work for lower pay, and put up with the bad conditions.1539

There also were a lot of state laws outlawing unions.1549

Unions were oftentimes considered a restraint of trade, and that it was against the development of capitalism.1555

That is going to cause a very unfriendly environment for unions.1564

We will also see many economic depressions.1570

And high unemployment will also cause challenges for the unions because people,1573

especially during hard times, are willing to put up with the worst conditions when they are desperate for a job.1580

We will see, however, a major gain with the Commonwealth vs. Hunt court case.1594

I wanted to connect this in, that this was a Federal, let me back out.1599

Federal law around this time was mostly hostile toward labor unions, 1605

as their activities were interpreted as restraining trade or in restraint of trade, but this was a major victory.1610

This court case in Massachusetts, we are going see the Supreme Court will rule that1619

peaceful unions had the right to negotiate labor contracts with employers.1626

This is going to be viewed as a major gain for labor unions, as we are seeing that in this case, there is more support legally for their activities.1632

This will uphold the right of workers to strike in order to enforce a closed shop agreement, that limited employment to union members.1647

That will also be important.1657

In fact, let me write this down.1662

Closed shop, this is a term we use that, business that hires union members.1665

That is going to support the union effort.1684

Along with industrialization, we will also see that urbanization will continue to occur.1691

Some of the early Atlantic port cities that start to grow, and are the largest at this point in time, Philadelphia that is about 70,000.1699

You could see, actually larger than New York which is at 60,000, Baltimore, Boston, and Charleston.1709

These were the largest cities in the early 1800’s.1717

New York will eventually grow bigger than Philadelphia, especially, once we get to the late 1800’s,1721

when a major influx of immigrant groups who will end up working in New York City.1728

In the early 1800’s, these were the largest cities.1738

Northerners were bound together by improved transportation and high economic growth based on commercial farming.1741

No more small scale, you could say, and industrial innovation.1748

In the northwest, they focused on agriculture.1753

The rise of immigrants will help to settle and work the land throughout the 1800’s.1757

In fact, they will also use commercial farming as a major aspect of their economy.1763

We will also see cattle, raising of cattle will be very important as well.1770

In the south, cotton was increasingly a profitable cash crop.1775

Again, the cotton gin will make cotton king, that becomes a very famous phrase throughout the 1800’s,1780

that this is an important cash crop that is the gold of the time.1788

It had crazy potential for profit.1797

That means that it requires a lot of labor.1802

This will continue, the use of slavery, slave labor.1806

Southerners will use all different types of rationale to justify this, what they call peculiar institution, not an immoral institution.1811

The wording of this, you could see this is a very biased, a very limited and twisted interpretation of this institution.1823

It is obviously cruel, and against liberty, and against all of our founding principles.1840

However, many people who are supporters of slavery will use Christian beliefs to justify it, 1846

and say that we treat our slaves like they are our children,1853

in the sense that they are very patronizing.1859

Of course, they do not see slaves as equal human beings.1863

They see them as their property.1867

That is going to be the value that will be emphasized, not that they are equal as human beings.1870

That is something that you should actually read upon, if you have some primary sources that you can look at.1878

This will come up a little bit later, but just to put it out there for you to think about.1886

There will be a whole intellectual discussion and debate about the justification of slavery that we will get into 1892

when we talk about the abolitionist movement, and also those defenders of slavery.1902

We are also going to talk about the effects of the market revolution.1910

With all these changes that are happening to the free market in the United States, that it is developing to industrialization, 1915

we are going to see this is going to have a major effect on family life, that was starting to change more and more.1925

Families are becoming smaller, especially, in the northeast and in the eastern part of the United States.1932

Women start to see that having less children, in fact, improves their lives overall.1942

People will live more isolated lives, whereas, pre industrial revolution, people were working in their home, 1950

they were much more connected to one another.1957

We will see to a certain extent that women were gaining control over their lives.1961

Although, there still were limits, no suffrage, they were limited to certain jobs, domestic service, or teaching.1964

And even though, we know women did work in factories like in the Lowell system, this was not as common.1973

In fact, we still see that men will be the primary breadwinners.1980

Even though, you could say that is not always fair and equal to men either, they still have a lot of power because of it.1986

There were less arranged marriages in the 1800’s.1998

This one, I have already talked about.2003

That is going to be very significant.2005

I get into this a little bit more in the next lesson, in fact.2008

That is going to have an empowering effect on both men and women, as we see old morals fading and new ones being created.2013

There are legal and political restrictions to women, property rights were pretty limited.2023

And overall, we are going to see economic and social mobility increased.2032

There was the opportunity to move up the social ladder.2037

This was something that was viewed as a great opportunity for more and more Americans.2040

And then obviously, contrasting the industrialized sector of the country, the growth of the cotton industry will keep slavery intact.2046

Now we are actually at the end of our lesson, and we are going to get into some of the examples.2061

This is going to be a round of multiple choice.2068

Let us read this excerpt together, and this is the Philadelphia mechanics union of trade associations.2072

We, the journeyman mechanics, here is our author here right, of this city and county of Philadelphia,2079

our series of farming and association, which I will avert as much as possible, 2087

those evils which poverty and incessant toil have already inflicted.2092

If the masses of the people were enabled to buy with their labor, to procure for themselves and families, 2097

a full and abundant supply of the comforts and conveniences of life, 2103

the consumption would amount to at least twice the quantity it does at present.2107

And of course, the demand by which alone, employers are enabled either to subsist or accumulate,2112

would likewise be increased in an equal proportion.2125

The real object, therefore, of this association, is to revert, if possible the desolating evils 2132

which must inevitably arise from a depreciation of the intrinsic value of human labor.2138

To raise the mechanical and productive classes to that condition of true independence and equality.2150

I tried to highlight some of the keywords, so you can understand the meaning of this excerpt.2161

One of the primary reasons to form a union during this period was to,2173

Was it improve working conditions, to cut work hours, prevent immigration, or show racial solidarity?2179

And the answer.2193

Next one, workers in the 1820’s faced difficulty because of problems with,2198

Transportation, ethnic rivalries, state laws, or inventions?2204

The answer is state laws.2212

Now we have short answer.2218

Answer A, B, and C.2221

Choose one of the choices below and explain how your choice had an impact on the industrial growth during this period,2222

from prior to the war of 1812 to the middle of the 19th century.2233

Factory system, inventions, labor unions.2238

Let us do the first part.2243

I will give you an example using inventions.2248

Inventions increased because there were patent laws that protected 2253

and fostered the development of inventions like farm machinery, interchangeable parts, and the cotton gin.2259

Eli Whitney was a famous inventor who prospered at this time, who developed the cotton gin, interchangeable parts, and other inventions.2268

How about that?2280

Let us look at B, contrast your choice against one of the other options, demonstrating why that option is not as good as your choice.2282

I chose inventions so I have to contrast them with the others.2299

It was necessary to have inventions, technology, capital, and a labor force, in order to have a developed Factory System.2304

Straight to the point.2317

C, briefly explain whether there were any variations in industrial growth in different sections of the country.2320

We definitely covered that.2330

The northeast had plentiful resources to industrialize, and the Factory System developed tremendously,2332

whereas the south remained agricultural and based their economy on plantations and slave labor.2340

There we go, two examples in pointing out how industrial growth developed in different ways.2347

Let us move on, this one is a long essay question.2358

I, again, I’m just going to highlight some of the major themes that you may be able to touch upon in this essay.2363

Let us take a look, to what extent do you agree or refute, or disagree, with the following statement.2372

Both nationalism and sectionalism increased between 1816 and 1828.2379

That is the first part.2387

How did both of these beliefs develop at the same time, and did one become of greater importance in the economics and politics of this period.2388

I’m just going to give you an example.2412

There are a lot of different ways that you can answer this.2414

You could say that both of these trends, nationalism, as well sectionalism, were growing during this time period.2417

Before I even get into this, you may want to outline this, and brainstorm, and think about how would you approach this question.2431

Again, think about what your thesis is, how you are going to structure this essay,2441

what are your main themes, what are you going to argue?2447

What evidence are you going to use to backup your sub arguments, if you will.2450

Obviously, you need to have a conclusion where you bring back your thesis, and perhaps extend it a bit more.2457

One thing you want to make sure of is not to merely restate the question.2467

Try to come up with your own unique thesis statement that addresses the question affirmatively.2472

It could be a mixed type of thesis, to a certain extent, you could qualify it, where you do not have to be so black and white, so to speak.2481

Anyway, things that you could actually touch upon would be the economic differences between the different sections of the United States.2494

This will be my theme, if I was to approach this essay.2515

The issue of westward expansion, I will expand upon this in a little bit, and political differences between Nationalists and States' rights Southerners.2519

Just to kind of summarize this.2554

These would be my overall reasons of why I believe that, in fact, nationalism was growing to a certain extent.2559

Yet sectionalism was also dividing Americans because of the economic differences amongst the different regions of the United States.2573

There are differences in how the economies should continue to expand, as Americans move farther and farther westward.2587

What will we become, in other words, an industrialized economy and follow that Hamiltonian model, 2598

or will we continue to be agricultural, following the Jeffersonian model.2607

The other major theme is political differences between Nationalists and States’ rights southerners.2615

You could also bring in, this obviously ties into economy as well.2623

In fact, depending on your emphasis, you could say that this is more of a political issue that is rooted in the contradictions within our constitution,2631

between States’ rights and national power, federal power.2643

Or if you want to really emphasize the economic differences, that this was the foundation of what will emphasize the politics of the period.2650

Some examples of nationalism that you could bring into this essay, you certainly saw after the war of 1812, this era of good feelings.2665

You could say, to a certain extent, nationalism was growing in the United States during the era of good feelings.2681

There was increased patriotism after the war of 1812.2689

There were internal improvements.2694

They were linking the nation together such as the American System.2695

There was politically unity and leadership under James Monroe.2699

There was also major population growth which is indicative that the country was successful, 2706

and it is growing, the economy is tying together through the market revolution.2713

All of those things could be great examples and you can expand within those minor points even more to strengthen that argument.2720

Kind of moving to the sectionalist argument.2731

Here we go.2736

Despite the fact that the post-1812 U.S. was the era of good feelings, there was growing sectionalism.2737

There was a crisis and disagreement over slavery such as when Maine and Missouri came into the union, 2745

and the Missouri compromise ended up being established.2755

That would be good example of a sectional crisis.2758

Because what is at stake was the balance of power in Congress.2763

When it be more slaves or free.2767

There is also the concern over western interests to fund internal improvements.2771

While at the same time, southerners did not support those improvements and continued to block any funding for those programs.2777

There was also controversy of the second bank of the United States because of the panic of 1819.2786

Many believed, specially, many southerners were blaming the second bank of the United States for a lot of the economic problems.2795

That would be indicative of a more sectionalist concerns tying into these things as well.2803

Economic differences, you could certainly also focus on, not only the differences between the northeast,2813

in terms of having factories, industry, etc, more of a desire to invest in transportation.2820

Whereas, in the south, there is interest in strengthening the plantation economy,2826

the invention of the cotton gin which is going to expand the profit capability of print producing cotton 2833

throughout the black belt of the southeastern United States.2843

I think that would give you enough to work with, to address this essay in a substantial way.2849

Thank you for watching