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A Comparison of Colonization and Settlement Patterns

  • Because of widespread cruel Spanish treatment of Native Americans, many Native Americans rebelled against Spanish rule, such as during the Pueblo Revolt that erupted in 1680 that was led by Popé, an Indian shaman, who advocated for traditional ways.
  • The French sent explores in the 1500s to North America and eventually established Quebec and New France.
  • New France became a vast fur-trading enterprise, and the French had relatively peaceful relations with Native Americans, especially the Hurons.
  • The Iroquois organized themselves into the confederation of Five Nations: Senecas, Cayuga, Onondogas, Oneidas, & Mohawks to extend control over territory & the fur trade in the mid1600s.
  • Dutch New Amsterdam was somewhat short-lived became the Dutch gave up on New Amsterdam and turned to the profitable sugar plantations in Brazil and slave trade. The British eventually take over Dutch settlement and rename it New York.

A Comparison of Colonization and Settlement Patterns

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  1. Intro
    • Overview
      • Spanish Settlements in North America
      • Spanish Exploration in North America
        • St. Augustine
          • Indian Attacks and Spanish Response
          • Images Related to Spanish Colonization
          • Native American Response to Spanish Policies
          • What did Spain Achieve?
          • Spanish Class System
            • The French Explore and Settle in North America
            • Fur trade and Relations with Native Americans
            • Iroquois Five Nations
              • The French Also Sought Converts
              • The Dutch Explore and Settle in North America
              • New Amsterdam, Dutch Style, Fort-Like Trading post
                • New Amsterdam
                • The Brits Take Over and Rename the Settlement New York
                • Hudsob River and Dutch Colonies in Green
                  • New York Divided and New Jersey is Formed
                  • Example 1
                    • Example 2
                      • Intro 0:00
                      • Overview 0:10
                      • Spanish Settlements in North America 1:46
                        • Spanish Adventurers
                        • Francisco Vasquez de Coronado
                        • Hernan de Soto
                        • St Augustine
                      • Spanish Exploration in North America 5:38
                      • St. Augustine 8:00
                      • Indian Attacks and Spanish Response 8:49
                        • Comprehensive Orders of New Discoveries
                        • Pacification of Indians
                        • Franciscan Friars
                      • Images Related to Spanish Colonization 12:13
                        • San Antonio Mission
                        • Pope
                      • Native American Response to Spanish Policies 14:28
                        • Attitude towards Franciscans
                        • Sante Fe
                        • Pueblo Revolt
                        • Pueblos Joining the Spaniards
                      • What did Spain Achieve? 19:05
                        • Settled San Diego and San Francisco
                        • Development of the Rigid Class System
                        • New Spain
                      • Spanish Class System 22:51
                      • The French Explore and Settle in North America 24:20
                        • Giovanni da Verrazano
                        • Voyages of Jacques
                        • Quebec
                        • Louisiana
                      • Fur trade and Relations with Native Americans 28:09
                        • The Hurons
                        • Devastating Indian Wars
                        • The New York Iroquois
                        • The Confederation of Five Nations
                      • Iroquois Five Nations 32:07
                      • The French Also Sought Converts 32:30
                        • The Needs of the Indians
                        • Threat to Native Population
                      • The Dutch Explore and Settle in North America 34:29
                        • Joint-Stock Company
                        • The Town of New Amsterdam
                        • Encouragement of Migration
                      • New Amsterdam, Dutch Style, Fort-Like Trading post 39:08
                      • New Amsterdam 39:42
                        • Fort Orange
                        • Taverns Outnumbered Churches
                        • Seizing Farming Land
                        • Welcoming Settlers from Other Nations
                      • The Brits Take Over and Rename the Settlement New York 43:07
                        • Ignoring the Requests for Representative Government
                        • Second Anglo-Dutch War
                        • The Duke of York
                      • Hudsob River and Dutch Colonies in Green 45:35
                      • New York Divided and New Jersey is Formed 46:12
                        • Lord John Berkeley and Sir George Carteret
                        • East and West Jersey
                        • Quakers
                        • Queen Anne
                      • Example 1 49:10
                      • Example 2 54:24

                      Transcription: A Comparison of Colonization and Settlement Patterns

                      Hello, and welcome back to

                      Today, we are talking about the comparison of colonization and settlement patterns.0003

                      We are going to continue comparing and contrasting how different European countries colonized and settled the new world.0012

                      In particular, in North America, what will become the United States.0021

                      The areas of focus for today will be New Spain.0025

                      Of course, whenever you see the term New, which in Spanish would be nuevo,0031

                      the idea is that they are expanding their empires in the Americas and creating these new settlements, these new colonies,0037

                      to provide wealth, status, and also to spread culture for the mother country.0048

                      New Spain, we will also going to talk about New France, New Netherland for the Dutch.0056

                      We are also going to talk about some of the early English settlements in what will become New York and New Jersey.0065

                      This topic is an important topic that would not certainly be covered on the AP U.S. History exam.0076

                      One thing that you should try to keep in mind when you are learning about these various settlements0083

                      is how they compare to the other European settlements and analyze as you go along.0089

                      Like what worked, what did not work, what were the strengths and weaknesses of each, what were the similarities, etc.0096

                      Let us get into it.0104

                      First, we are going to talk about the Spanish settlements.0108

                      Again, do keep in mind that the Spanish adventurers were really the first to explore what will become the Southern and Western United States.0111

                      Oftentimes, we think of the history of the United States from east to west, but in fact,0126

                      it starts in many ways from the southwest, as well as the southeast but certainly in the southwest.0134

                      Numerous explorers and conquistadors or conquerors that explored,0144

                      as we know Central and South America, what will become Mexico, and also in North America.0152

                      There are tons of them to memorize.0161

                      I would not focus on memorizing every single explorer.0165

                      But you should be familiar with the few of the main ones.0168

                      I’m just going to highlight a few here and also show you a map of some of the major explorers at the time.0172

                      Especially, the 1500’s for the Spaniards.0180

                      The first one I would like to talk about is Francisco Vasquez de Coronado.0183

                      He was an explorer and a conquistador.0189

                      His goal really was to find the legendary seven golden cities of Sibila.0194

                      But instead, during his ventures, he is going to discover the Grand Canyon,0200

                      the Pueblo peoples of the southwest, and a lot of buffalo as well, and the Kansas grasslands.0206

                      He apparently went on this very long venture and one of the local native people promised that there would be this flourishing city,0218

                      admitted along the trip that he had lied and this really angered Coronado.0229

                      He actually had him killed.0236

                      You did not want to mess with Coronado, he was a pretty tough guy.0239

                      But he was really disappointed to see that there were not these lavish civilizations0243

                      that the previous Spanish explorers had discovered with the Aztecs in Mexico.0251

                      He is going to be disappointed.0262

                      However, that is not going to stop their quest for gold.0265

                      That is really the goal of these explorers and conquistadors.0269

                      They want to find gold.0274

                      We will also see they want to spread Catholicism.0277

                      Gold is a huge motivator for these conquistadors.0280

                      Another example of one of the main explorers was Hernan de Soto.0285

                      He explored Florida and Alabama, and fought against Apalachee people and Cruza peoples,0291

                      but did not have luck as well finding any gold.0299

                      At first, this is going to be rough going for the Spanish explorers.0304

                      There will be several failed attempts because they are attacked by Native American people and their settlements are not very permanent.0310

                      Until we see in 1565, Spain does eventually establish its first permanent settlement in North America which in St. Augustine in Florida.0322

                      Before I show you the actual fort of, that still remains in St. Augustine,0343

                      I’m going to actually show you a map to show the extent to which there were so many Spanish explorers.0350

                      Again, I cannot go through all of these but there are several of them, as you can see.0358

                      For instance, again, we were talking about Coronado.0363

                      You could see here in brown, this is the region that he had explored into what we will call the Great Plains into Kansas,0367

                      all the way through Arizona which is in New Mexico, and all the way into parts of Mexico as well.0377

                      We will also talk about a little bit, Cabiza de Vadca here in orange.0387

                      He explored, you could see parts of Texas and into Mexico as well,0394

                      and part of the Gulf of Mexico and even a little bit of Florida on the West Coast.0403

                      Onate in pink, you can see in Arizona and New Mexico, and even in parts of Kansas into the Great Plains.0413

                      He also wanted to find gold and establish settlements.0425

                      Ponce de Leon was a pretty famous one in yellow.0431

                      He was really instrumental in exploring parts of Eastern Florida and also settling Puerto Rico,0436

                      which is now a commonwealth of the United States in the Caribbean.0446

                      You could see that the Spaniards did penetrate quite a bit, in both southeastern and southwestern part of the United States0453

                      and even all the way to the West Coast, Cabrial, and others, as you could see the coast of California.0464

                      They will eventually make some settlements with missions and so forth.0473

                      At first, it is going to be pretty slow going.0481

                      Here is an example of an actual fortified fort in St. Augustine.0484

                      As you can see, they had to really create a very stable structure that would be able to withstand Native American attacks.0492

                      Here is an aerial view so you could see the design of the fort.0502

                      Here is the location of St. Augustine.0506

                      While I think of it, one thing to keep in mind with a lot of the Spanish settlements, is they will be named after saints,0510

                      which exemplifies the importance of the Catholic religion and leaving a mark of a Catholic name on the place.0519

                      We will see that one of the major challenges for the Spaniards and0532

                      for other European explorers is that they are going to be attacked by native peoples.0536

                      That is what is going to cause a lot of problems for them.0546

                      We are going to see, yes, because most of Spain’s early military outposts were destroyed by Indian attacks,0552

                      they had to strengthen their approach and their policy.0558

                      They eventually end up instituting what was known as the comprehensive orders of new discoveries.0563

                      This was really a harsh policy.0570

                      You may actually want to write that down.0573

                      The Spaniards were really known for being quite harsh with this type of policy.0582

                      The task is really to pacify Native American peoples in the hands of missionaries, whatever.0588

                      When they were settling and conquering Central America, they put most of their responsibility in the hands of the conquistadors,0597

                      who were definitely very harsh, who will use force, labor, and had a very heavy hand.0609

                      Now we are going to see a shift to more of a religious slant in emphasis.0616

                      They will put a lot of the responsibility on the missionaries.0623

                      These are the religious people who will look to convert and to subdue the Native American peoples.0626

                      They put the Franciscan friars in charge to help set up missions.0640

                      These were churches.0646

                      They were also part school as well, where they would try to impose Catholicism.0648

                      They would also try to teach them the Spanish language and Spanish ways, Spanish dress, and customs, and so forth.0655

                      They set up missions among the, we will see at first, the Apalachees in Florida.0664

                      Then, also the Pueblo peoples in New Mexico, in the southeast and in the southwest.0670

                      They did use force, they were not very nice about it.0676

                      Some were less heavy handed than others but kind of generally speaking, very forceful.0679

                      They forcefully imposed Catholicism on the native people.0687

                      In some cases, would even whip Indians who continued to practice polygamy.0691

                      They ruled with an iron fist and there were harsh consequences for native peoples, if they did not follow suit, if they did not go along.0698

                      In many cases too, because the Native Americans were poly atheistic,0708

                      they have different deities and different religious beliefs, spiritual beliefs,0715

                      the Spaniards would smash their idols which they believed was blasphemy.0721

                      They were very punitive for those who did not follow along.0728

                      Again, just symptomatic things to keep in mind that the Spaniards were pretty strong0734

                      and use force when necessary, according to their perspective.0741

                      Just some visuals to keep in mind here, as we talk about Spanish colonization.0749

                      Here is an example of a mission.0754

                      This one is the San Antonio mission.0757

                      As you could see, kind of the adobe style, this is a Spanish style mission that is kind of a typical.0761

                      There are some varieties but these are pretty frequent throughout this southwestern part of the United States and still around today.0769

                      You can see some of the imagery here, Catholic imagery, the importance of the saints to the Catholics.0779

                      The explorer who were on horseback, obviously, we know that horses were brought to the Americas0788

                      and that is going have a huge effect on changing the environment in many ways0795

                      and will certainly change transportation in the Americas.0802

                      This is Pope who we are going to talk about quite a bit.0809

                      He is a really important leader of the Pueblo people in the southwestern part of the United States.0813

                      He is going to be very crucial in terms of, this I will put here, Pope, sometimes kids have fun with his name Pope.0821

                      Hopefully, you can be above that.0837

                      Anyway, Pope was a really brave, extremely motivated, and spiritual man, and well revered leader.0841

                      Many of the Pueblo are going to look to him to help fight against the Spaniards.0855

                      Let us move on.0866

                      We are going to see that because of the harsh policies of the Spaniards, that Native Americans are going to start to rebel.0871

                      Although, many at first, tolerated the Franciscans, some went with the flow0879

                      and were open minded to many of the beliefs until they start to see that the Christian friars fail to prevent disease.0886

                      Disease is a major weapon against the Native Americans.0897

                      They just do not have the immunity to these diseases like smallpox that the Spaniards will bring.0902

                      That problem is going to make people start to question these Catholic beliefs.0908

                      Drought, that was a constant problem, Apache raids.0913

                      They were still faced with violence.0917

                      How can our prayers are not being answered?0919

                      They start to really question these Catholic beliefs and they did not buy into the faith0923

                      that the Franciscans are trying to instill in them.0930

                      Many return to their traditional religions and blamed the Spaniards for their ills, and some, yes, revolted.0934

                      In particular, we are going to see Pope, who I was talking about, who is really a well revered leader.0944

                      He is an Indian shaman, a holy man.0952

                      He is going to advocate that people go back to their roots.0955

                      Yes, that is eventually going to happen.0960

                      The Spaniards will continue to establish their missions.0963

                      In Santa Fe, for instance, which is established in 1610.0971

                      The Spaniards will continue to use the mission system and forced labor.0975

                      Then again, they are going to continue their coercive policies.0982

                      The Pueblo revolt, and eventually erupted in 1680, that was led by Pope.0987

                      Again, this was a very dramatic event.0993

                      He was able to unify many of the local Pueblo people and even some of the Apaches who had traditionally been enemies.0998

                      Ultimately, many historians would say that to a certain extent, Pope’s spiritual beliefs,1011

                      because you could see here he was a shaman, he also incorporated some Christian ideas apparently.1019

                      Because some of his promises did kind of embrace the Christian Trinity, so to speak.1024

                      He was very, almost apocalyptic, and promising that they would come back, that they would be born again,1033

                      the Pueblo people, if they banded together and stood up to the Spaniards.1047

                      That they would eventually overcome and come back, return to the traditional ways.1053

                      He was a huge motivator and inspiration to the people, and was pretty successful, at least temporarily.1058

                      This revolt was pretty serious and did some major damage to the Spaniards.1068

                      As you could see here, over 400 were killed.1072

                      This warfare is going to continue on for quite a few years.1078

                      This will eventually get really old.1083

                      The Spaniards will have better weaponry in the long run.1085

                      Disease, specially, will be the biggest weapon.1092

                      This is going to not last forever for the Pueblos.1098

                      The Pueblos will be eventually exhausted by constant warfare.1104

                      They join Spaniards to protect their lands against nomadic Indians.1110

                      We will see for a time period that the Spanish were driven from New Mexico until the early 1700’s,1118

                      when they were able to effectively reassert control over the region.1126

                      Again, very challenging for both parties involved.1133

                      We will see that eventually the Spaniards were able to reestablish themselves.1138

                      Just to kind of bring this all together and assess how the Spaniards did overall.1145

                      Some things to keep in mind.1154

                      There were heavy cost for expansion and exploration and creating these settlements.1156

                      This is going to be slow going for the Spaniards.1164

                      Heavy cost of expansion in Florida and Mexico, this will delay expansion in the other regions.1170

                      Some of those that I talked about like in Texas and in California.1178

                      We will see again a few settlements eventually by the early 1700’s, this is much later.1182

                      We will also see some in California and San Diego, San Francisco.1191

                      You will see the San in here for saint.1196

                      These today are huge cities that are still around, that have missions, again, named after Catholic saints.1201

                      This will be other important settlements in the long-term.1212

                      All in all, we will see that Spain was able to maintain its Northern empire1218

                      but it did not achieve religious conversion or a cultural assimilation of the Native American peoples.1224

                      We will see to some extent they will but this is not going to go over well.1235

                      This is going to be a hard fight.1241

                      Because they use so much force, there is really ultimately going to be a big backlash.1243

                      There will be a big backlash against the Spaniards, again, mixed results.1250

                      Spaniards did intermarry with Indians.1257

                      As a result, because of their beliefs, because of their point of view, their world view at the time,1261

                      that was certainly biased, that was you could say racist, absolutely.1269

                      They believe that people of European descent, of the Catholic religion were superior, were civilized.1275

                      Those who are not, especially Native American people, were uncivilized savages.1284

                      Really, less than human, they did not see them as equal.1290

                      That is something to keep in mind.1294

                      In any way, even though we will see it is mostly men, Spanish men that came to the New World.1296

                      Once they do end up settling, they establish a rigid class system that certainly is tied into and based on ethnicity and race.1305

                      Meaning, you are higher up the social ladder if you were of pure Spanish blood.1318

                      The more mixed you were, the lower on the social ladder you were.1328

                      I'm going to show you a visual, so you can see all the different categories of this social group.1334

                      The last point I just want to make is that even though Spain did have all of these challenges and all these problems,1341

                      and they did have to deal with a lot of violence and fighting against Native American peoples,1350

                      the amount of land that Spain did acquire and settle, that they claimed, was quite extensive.1355

                      Their influence certainly was pretty tremendous, that cannot be understated.1365

                      Here is the class system and racial categories that I was talking about.1374

                      Peninsulais would refer to people of the Iberian peninsula.1379

                      In this case, we are talking about Spain, we are talking about people of Spanish blood.1385

                      The Creoles would be the next level and these were often the people who were placed in power, specially once the settlements were established.1392

                      They would either be of Spanish descent or in some cases somewhat mixed, definitions do vary.1402

                      They would be of the native people, meaning they lived in the Americas but they were of Spanish ethnicity.1411

                      Then, Mestizos would be a mixture of Spanish and Indian people.1421

                      Indio, Indians, negro of African descent, which really brings up an important point that1428

                      the Spaniards along with the Portuguese were very much involved in the slave trade, at this point in history.1436

                      You will see slaves here as well.1447

                      This was happening way before the English and the Dutch will be really involved in the slave trade.1450

                      Now we are going to move on to the French.1461

                      The French explore and settle in North America.1466

                      Why are they interested and when did they become interested?1470

                      We will see that the French monarchy became interested in exploration in 1524.1475

                      They sponsored a voyage by Italian navigator Giovanni da Verrazano,1483

                      who may have hoped he would find the Northwest passage from the Americas to Asia.1490

                      Various European countries, I should say states, empires, at this point in time, were really looking to invest in exploration.1496

                      They had to compete with Spain, with Portugal.1508

                      They are looking to make sure that they are in the game as well.1515

                      They would sometimes hire people from outside of their own empire.1519

                      That was pretty common at the time.1527

                      Verranzo was one of the important ones.1531

                      Another French claim was based on the voyages of Jacques Cartier.1533

                      He did quite a bit of exploring for the French.1539

                      He explored the St. Lawrence River extensively.1543

                      I have a map a little bit later on in the slide show where you could see that region.1549

                      It is really in between, if you can envision this, today’s Northern New York and Canada.1554

                      When these explorers make their ventures, they also add to people's knowledge of geography and1565

                      they take notes of the map, as they go on their ventures.1574

                      The first permanent settlement was Quebec, that was established in 1608.1582

                      This is in today’s Canada.1590

                      This was founded by Samuel de Champlain, who was later called the father of New France for his significant leadership role.1592

                      There is another place named after him, Lake Champlain, that really borders Vermont and today’s New York.1604

                      He did quite a bit of exploring for France, as well, and will be really significant.1614

                      We will see that France will have its foot in the North America, as well,1622

                      in parts of what is today’s Canada, the northeastern part of the United States.1629

                      We will also see in parts of the Mid-West and down into, as we will Mississippi river region and Louisiana.1635

                      In the North, we see, especially, that New France will become a very successful flourishing fur trading enterprise.1644

                      That is really where they are going to base their stability for quite awhile.1656

                      There are some other claims here too.1663

                      Louis Joliet and Jacques Marquette explored the Mississippi River.1665

                      La Salle explored the Mississippi basin which he named Louisiana, sounds very French.1670

                      That is because it was actually named after the French Louis XIV, Louisiana.1679

                      Fur trade, again, very important, something you should definitely remember about French settlements.1692

                      The local Native American people in the area that we know as New France,1701

                      will allow the French to trade in their territory, in exchange for protection from their rivals, the famous Iroquois.1709

                      This is one thing to keep in mind as well, that Native Americans, we have to think about all of these different cultures and meeting.1720

                      Europeans are coming into contact with Native Americans, how do they deal with one another?1729

                      Are they going to work together, are they going to have tensions and fight against one another?1737

                      We are going to see that this is what is going to be at stake with these exchanges.1744

                      One of the major things to keep in mind during this time period,1750

                      with early contact between Native Americans and Europeans, is that the native peoples oftentimes will be caught in the middle.1756

                      They will look to the Europeans to help protect them from their own rivals.1766

                      The Europeans will use this to their advantage.1770

                      We are going to see this especially with the case of the tensions between the Hurons and the Iroquois.1774

                      And then, I'm going to build upon this a little bit later.1781

                      But keep this in mind because it is an important theme.1783

                      One thing to keep in mind also is what really distinguishes the French from other European colonizers is that relations tended to be more friendly.1790

                      French relations with Native Americans, specially with the Hurons than the Spanish.1801

                      We just talked about how cruel and heavy handed, and sometimes violent that the Spaniards were.1807

                      Not to say that the French were a 100% peaceful because they were not.1814

                      They certainly brought disease as well.1820

                      We are going to see that some of the effects were unintended.1824

                      Once the French start getting involved in the fur trade, it is going to disrupt the flow for the local Huron people,1829

                      specially, and their relationship with the Iroquois.1838

                      French traders and their activities set in motion series of devastating Indian wars over the fur market.1842

                      This is going to exacerbate the tensions between the different tribal groups.1851

                      This is going to cause a lot of instability and kill off many Native Americans as a result too, because of disease.1857

                      Much of the population was wiped out.1867

                      A very consistent theme as well, when Europeans make contact with Native Americans.1870

                      The Iroquois definitely felt threatened by the Hurons and eventually they will also feel threatened by the French.1877

                      But they want to flex their muscles.1887

                      Beginning in the 1640’s, the New York Iroquois seize control of the fur trade market which forces the Hurons to migrate north and west.1891

                      Eventually, the Iroquois decide to unify themselves into a confederation of five nations.1903

                      They have the different tribes unifying, the Seneca, Cayuga, Onondaga, Oneidas, and Mohawks.1913

                      They really do this in order to extend control over the territory and to make sure that they really have power.1922

                      Here is a map that you can see the different Iroquois tribes and how they unified into this one confederation,1931

                      in order to really keep the monopoly over the fur trade and to unify and strengthen as one.1942

                      We are also going to see like the Spaniards that they also sought converts.1953

                      The French had previously been involved in their own religious civil war between Catholics and Protestants.1960

                      But at this point are primarily of a Catholic nation.1966

                      They do actually have French priests who do come to the New World.1971

                      They look to convert the natives to Catholicism.1977

                      However, unlike the Spanish, French missionaries, these are of the Jesuit order, did not use Indians for forced labor.1984

                      They did not make that mistake that the Spaniards made, to use such heavy handed force.1995

                      They also address the needs of the Indians.2001

                      They worked with them.2004

                      They were a bit more sensitive to their needs.2005

                      I think they are more clever and understanding their cultural beliefs, so that they could find common ground,2008

                      so that they could convert them in a more peaceful way.2019

                      That is going to be very significant.2023

                      The French that were settling, especially, in the Northeastern part of North America, had to deal with the harsh conditions,2029

                      climate conditions, specially in the winters which are pretty harsh.2039

                      They did not have a lot of settlers.2043

                      That also changed the dynamic.2046

                      People were not coming over in droves.2049

                      There are few colonies, farms, or towns.2052

                      Ultimately, they posed little threat to the Native American population, specially, in comparison to the Spanish.2055

                      An important thing to keep in mind, some differences there.2065

                      Now we are going to move on to the Dutch.2072

                      The Dutch, keep in mind, that means that they came from, the Dutch are from Holland.2076

                      The Dutch Republic became independent from Spain.2087

                      They had previously been ruled by Spain and eventually they are going to become free.2094

                      They are also going to become the financial commercial capital, that is really of Europe.2103

                      They are going to flourish and do really well.2111

                      They start to emphasize commerce, when they began to settle in North America.2114

                      They are going to be much different than, specially, the Spaniards and to a great extent, the French.2124

                      Their main emphasis is trade.2131

                      They are in a good location in Europe which is close to the water.2135

                      It is right on the water, in fact.2140

                      They are really looking to expand their global economic opportunities and trade opportunities.2142

                      That is their priority.2148

                      They are not looking to spread religion around the world or to convert the locals.2150

                      They will, to a certain extent, they will bring the Dutch reform church.2155

                      They will bring a lot of their kind of Protestant beliefs over, but it is not going to be like to the extent2162

                      that we will see with other Europeans who are trying to settle and convert local Native Americans.2168

                      There is an important company in 1621 called the Dutch West India Company which was a joint stock company.2178

                      You should be familiar with this concept.2186

                      I gave you a nice definition here so you can understand what it means.2190

                      A joint stock company, this is a company that pull the savings of people of moderate means2194

                      and supported potentially profitable trading ventures.2202

                      That is what a joint stock company was back then.2207

                      Again, various people could invest in it which made it less risky and more people could benefit from it as well.2212

                      It was a good way to get resources from various people.2222

                      This also was supported by the government.2228

                      The goal is really to expand trade opportunities, to create a trade monopoly, not only in West Africa.2232

                      We talked about triangular trade in the Atlantic System before.2244

                      Yes, the Dutch want in on that and they really want to dominate it.2248

                      They want to expand their trade opportunities and have a monopoly in West Africa and Indonesia,2254

                      over in Southeast Asia, and in Brazil in South America, giving the Dutch control of the Atlantic slave trade.2262

                      That is extremely profitable and is expanding tremendously in the 1600’s.2272

                      This brings us to North America.2279

                      In 1624, they founded the town of New Amsterdam on Manhattan Island.2282

                      This is in today’s Manhattan in New York City.2290

                      This was established as the capital of New Netherland.2296

                      A new colony in a new world being established.2300

                      To encourage migration, the company granted huge estates along the Hudson River.2306

                      You may remember Henry Hudson.2313

                      Henry Hudson was the explorer who explored for the Dutch.2315

                      In any way, yes, they grant these huge estates to wealthy Dutchmen but it attracted few settlers.2320

                      They did not continue to come.2329

                      Some of this is really because things are going well back in Holland and they are investing in these other regions around the world.2333

                      I will kind of point out where are some of these Dutch settlements which were established.2343

                      They did not really expand in the long run.2348

                      Here is an old picture of New Amsterdam.2351

                      As you can see, certainly not as populated back then as it is today.2358

                      This is what today’s Canal straight looked like back when the Dutch settled this region.2364

                      You can see the Dutch style architecture here, horse and buggy.2371

                      New Amsterdam, some things to keep in mind, it failed as a settler colony but flourished briefly in fur trading.2384

                      They were also involved in the fur trade, that was very profitable especially in Fort Orange2393

                      which was the site of present day Albany, which today is the capital of New York.2400

                      It is also on the Hudson River which I will show you a map in a minute.2406

                      What else? New Amsterdam was less prosperous and pious, and more rowdy than Puritan New England.2412

                      We will be talking about the Puritans soon.2420

                      But the Puritans were very religious devout people.2422

                      We are going to see that the Dutch settlers, although certainly many of them were Protestant and religious people,2427

                      for the most part, these settlers were not of the religious type.2436

                      Yes, this is a funny characteristic.2440

                      There were more taverns than churches.2444

                      Putting that into perspective, that is the significant fact because we will see, the Puritans,2450

                      for instance, and with the Spaniards, very much concerned about religion.2457

                      And the church is really the center of the village.2464

                      Not so much the case with the Dutch.2469

                      The Dutch did seize prime farming land from Native Americans, Algonquians, and took over their trade network.2471

                      We will see a backlash against that.2482

                      They responded with force, not a surprise.2484

                      That is also going to inhibit many settlers from continuing to come to the new world.2487

                      The West India company largely ignored the floundering settlements.2497

                      Started to struggle because of these attacks and they also start to have some financial problems to a certain extent.2501

                      They are not investing in the settlement in New Amsterdam, in New Netherland, overall.2511

                      They start to concentrate more on the profitable slave trade and the sugar plantations in Brazil.2519

                      We will also see in the Caribbean, what was known back then as the West Indies.2529

                      By 1640, we will see that the Dutch gave up their trade monopoly in New Amsterdam.2537

                      That is going to eventually lead to the British moving in.2546

                      Another thing to keep in mind about New Amsterdam and the Dutch West India Company,2552

                      is that they were much more open minded than other civilizations.2564

                      We will see other settlements, they did not welcome settlers from other nations.2567

                      And at least 18 languages were spoken in New York.2572

                      Kind of open minded, a little more pluralistic in their world view, especially in comparison to other European groups at the time.2577

                      We are going to see eventually the British take over and eventually rename the settlement New York.2590

                      Because the Dutch lost interest and were somewhat shortsighted and2599

                      not responding to their inhabitants request for representative government,2602

                      many of the settlers and those diverse people that I was just talking about, were very loyal to the Dutch.2608

                      They did not feel that the Dutch government was very responsive to letting them have a voice in their local decision-making.2616

                      That is going to also kind of leave a power vacuum in many ways that the English are going to look to fill.2625

                      The English invaded in 1684 and despite Stuyvesant's call to resist, he was the governor of New Amsterdam,2633

                      the Dutch could not defend their colony against the British.2643

                      They eventually lost New Netherland to the English during the second Anglo Dutch war in 1664.2649

                      That meant enter Duke of York, and then New York was named after the Duke of York.2658

                      He became the overlord of the new English colony.2666

                      That is going to be a change.2672

                      Many historians would say that the local people who are living in the former Dutch settlement really welcomed the English,2675

                      because the English at least were promoters of representative government at this point in time.2685

                      That was something that was a little more appealing, kind of interesting to keep in mind.2691

                      Back to the Duke of York, once he is in power, he will initially rule with a mild hand,2698

                      allowing the Dutch residents to retain their property, legal system, and religious institutions.2705

                      The Dutch will try to fight back, it is not very successful in 1673.2713

                      And then, we will see a shift around this time wherein English officials will start to impose their law and customs,2720

                      and try to instill order in the colony.2729

                      This is where Albany was, just so you can have a visual here.2738

                      This was really just the only area where the Dutch had and colonized in today's United States.2744

                      Here is a nice picture of the Hudson River in the fall.2754

                      As you could see, this was a very small region that the Dutch had colonized and that2759

                      they really became interested in the global trade and these other regions around the world.2764

                      Now the English are in control, the former New Netherland and New Amsterdam.2775

                      New York was quite a big colony and this actually included today’s New Jersey, at this point in time.2783

                      What the Duke of York decided to do, he was a generous guy.2791

                      Yes, he is the future James II.2796

                      He believed that New York was too large to administer.2798

                      He gave his two friends some territories, the section of the colony between the Hudson River and Delaware Bay.2802

                      That is ultimately what will become New Jersey.2811

                      He divided it between Lord John Berkeley and Sir George Carteret.2813

                      Their colony was divided into two parts, east and west Jersey.2823

                      One was Berkeley’s and the other was Carteret’s.2829

                      To attract settlers, both proprietors, these were the proprietors,2833

                      made generous land offers and allowed religious freedom and an assembly.2839

                      Now we are starting to see the wisdom of some of these founders, these proprietors, these land owners.2846

                      They are the ones overseeing the land.2858

                      They want to find ways to make their settlement successful.2860

                      They realized they need to lure people and promise them something, and be generous.2865

                      That is going to draw in many diverse peoples, specially, a lot of dissenters, religious dissenters,2871

                      who were not being accepted back home in the old world.2878

                      Like, we will see the Quakers or other groups, even French Huguenots, French Protestants, who were being persecuted back in Europe.2883

                      We are going to see that the hands of who is in power in New Jersey actually changed several times.2895

                      Eventually, we will see that they will sell their proprietary interests to groups of Quakers,2903

                      which is another group we will be talking about later on, a protestant dissenting group.2911

                      By 1702, Queen Anne united both Jerseys, east and west Jersey, to make it a royal colony.2919

                      When a colony becomes under the direct control of the crown.2927

                      Leaving the locals, they do not have as much autonomy as they had previously.2935

                      That will also kind of shift the relationship between settlers and the mother country, as we will see.2941

                      We are actually at the end of the lesson.2954

                      Hopefully, you have a better idea of some of the similarities and some of the differences amongst the different European powers2957

                      and how they settled in North America, and think about how successful they were and why, or how unsuccessful they were.2967

                      What were the greatest problems that these European settlers had, in terms of being able to sustain their settlements in the long run?2976

                      This part of the lesson, we are going to do some of the questions, in fact.2989

                      This year’s AP U.S. history exam includes multiple choice questions that are based on,2996

                      you have to read some type of passage or look at some type of cartoon.3009

                      In this case, we are going to look at an excerpt from a letter by Francisco Garcia De Loaysa on behalf of King Charles V.3016

                      What I like to do is give you a chance to read this to yourself, and then, you should press pause.3026

                      And then, we will go to the next slide, and then, you can answer the question that accompanies this passage.3035

                      For the multiple choice question, again, first, you read through the passage.3045

                      I will read this.3053

                      Francisco Vasquez de Coronado, new governor and captain of the province of Galizia of New Spain.3054

                      We saw your letter of July 15 of the year prior to 1540.3063

                      Year prior would be 1539.3069

                      Which we became aware of the state of things of that province and3072

                      the things that you have worked on to bring peace to the natives of the land, who remained in revolt for which I thank you.3075

                      And that you have and have of the pacification and population of the land.3085

                      Do you see how I’m writing here?3092

                      And of the good treatment of the natives that reside in the land.3094

                      If you continue to be in charge of them that we have given to you because we hope that with your good management,3099

                      you placed the land under my rule and bring its natives to the knowledge of my Holy Catholic faith.3108

                      We do order you too, with all prudence and good order, work on making sure that the orders and provisions3117

                      that have been ordered by us and provide what is beneficial to the service of my God.3125

                      One thing to do, when you are trying to understand an older type of text, specially, is you want to highlight key points, key terms, dates.3133

                      You want to try to identify who the author is.3144

                      You want to think about the perspective of the author and what their intention is.3147

                      Are they trying to persuade, who is their audience?3155

                      Again, refer to the silkstone handout that you can download on the web site so that you can learn the skills to analyze these examples.3159

                      Let us look at question number 1.3175

                      What was one of the reasons given to Coronado to undertake the continued exploration of the American Southwest?3179

                      Was it A, to protect the rights of Native Americans.3187

                      B, to put in place Spain’s claim to the land.3190

                      C, to allow Coronado to decide what he wants to do with the Native Americans.3195

                      D, to find ample amounts of gold.3201

                      Now of course you may need to go back to the passage and reread it or glance at your notes,3206

                      or your highlighted portions to see if you can make sense of this.3212

                      That would be a good idea.3217

                      Anyway, you can pause this and then check the answer.3219

                      And when you come back, here we go, the answer is B.3224

                      To put in place Spain’s claim to the land.3233

                      Number 2, Coronado could best be described as?3237

                      A, a missionary, B, a priest, C, a conquistador, D, a Native American advocate.3242

                      The answer would be a conquistador.3256

                      Let us go on to the next one.3261

                      Here is another excerpt, example 2.3265

                      I marvel not a little, Richard Hakluyt, the younger wrote in 1582, that since the first discovery of America3269

                      which is now a full four score and 10 years,3277

                      after so great conquest and plannings of the Spaniards and Portuguese there,3280

                      that we of England could never have the grace to set fast footing in such fertile and temperate places.3285

                      As I left as yet un-possessed by them.3292

                      We know this is 1582.3298

                      Four score, four score is 20 years, this is 80 and 10 years.3305

                      90 years after a conquest plantains of the Spaniards and Portuguese.3312

                      That we of England, what does it tell you, this is the British perspective,3318

                      could never have the grace to have such footing in such fertile and temperate places.3322

                      You have to think to yourself, is this positive, is this negative?3331

                      As I left as yet un-possessed by them.3335

                      He is really talking about the Spaniards and the Portuguese, and how they are really ahead of the English,3341

                      in terms of discovering America and creating settlements.3353

                      Looking at this question, how do you think you would answer?3359

                      How would you describe Hakluyt's view of extensive Spanish colonization in the 16th century?3363

                      Disappointed, encouraging, neutral, joyous?3370

                      Think about it, pause.3376

                      The answer is disappointed.3382

                      In fact, if you know a little bit more about the person who said this, he actually was a huge advocate of English colonization.3387

                      Sometimes these questions will give you clues, if you know who the author is and3399

                      you know the context of the quotation, of the excerpt.3404

                      Our last question for this lesson, our last practice question example.3413

                      During the time that Hakluyt wrote, which of the following had the most settlements in the new world?3417

                      This is 1500’s, of these 4 choices, which one would you choose, Holland, England, Spain, or Portugal?3425

                      The answer is Spain.3437

                      Thank you for watching, goodbye.3444