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The Great Awakening Spreads to the South and the French and Indian War

  • The Great Awakening in the South challenged both the dominance of the Church of England & the planter elite.
  • As Baptist ministers spread Christianity among slaves, the revival helped to shrink the cultural gulf between blacks & whites, undermining one justification for slavery and giving blacks a new religious identity
  • The Seven Years’ War (known in US History as French and Indian War) becomes a War for Empire
  • The war erupted due to British and French rivalry for empire (GB declares war on France expanding the N. American conflict to Europe, Africa, Asia & S. America); Native Americans were caught in the middle; American colonists fought with the British
  • Ben Franklin’s Albany Plan was proposed due to the common threat (for British and colonists): France’s Indian allies (the French were providing supplies, etc. to the fur-trading settlements) but it was rejected
  • The British won the war & the Treaty of Paris of 1763 granted British sovereignty over half the continent of North America; French territory was reduced to a handful of islands in the W. Indies & 2 islands off the coast of Newfoundland
  • Britain’s victory alarmed Indian peoples, who feared an influx of Anglo-American settlers, and led to uprisings, such as Pontiac’s Rebellion

The Great Awakening Spreads to the South and the French and Indian War

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  • Intro 0:00
  • Overview 0:10
  • Social and Religious Conflict in the South 1:48
    • Challenging the Church of England and the Planter Elite
    • Freeholders
    • Religious Pluralism
    • Baptist Revivals
  • Baptist Revivals 4:41
    • Free Born Male Members
    • A New Religious identity
  • The First Three Wars 6:40
    • King William’s War
    • Queen Anne's War
    • King George's War
  • The Seven Years' War 9:42
    • French and Indian War
    • Iroquois Strategy
  • Beginning of French and Indian War 12:05
    • Ohio Valley
    • Fort Necessity
  • Join, Or Die 13:49
  • Pennsylvania Gazette 16:30
  • Ben Franklin's Albany Plan 16:50
    • The Board of Trade
    • One General Government
  • Significance of the Albany Plan 18:53
    • Demands for American Independence
    • Stamp Act Congress
  • Map of Conflicting Imperial Claims 21:04
  • The French and Indian War 21:35
    • Nova Scotia
    • Seven Years' War
    • William Henry
  • French and Indian War Map 22:56
  • End of War 23:36
    • Treaty of Easton
    • Quebec
    • The Treaty of Paris
  • Boundaries After Treaty of Paris 25:40
  • Pontiac's Rebellion 26:33
    • Ottawa Chief Pontiac
    • Indian Alliance
  • British Era 28:11
  • Other Effects of the War 28:49
    • American Military Ineptitude
    • Huge Debt
    • Defied the New Treaty
    • Paxton Boys
  • Example 1 32:53
  • Example 2 35:44
  • Example 3 37:55

Transcription: The Great Awakening Spreads to the South and the French and Indian War

Welcome back to www.educator.com.0000

In this lesson, we are going to cover the great awakening spreading to the South, and the French and Indian war.0003

We are going to pickup where we left off last time and talk about how the great awakening,0015

not only had an effect in the north-eastern part of the United States but how it also affected people in the South,0019

especially a lot of enslaved African-Americans who are definitely going to feel the powerful message of the great awakening.0027

That is going to have a really important impact in the long run in U.S. history.0036

We are also going to talk about the imperial empires at war, with the focus on England and France.0041

Spain is also in the mix as well but we are going to focus on the main rivalry between France and England.0049

These are some of the wars, some of these imperial wars that we are going to discuss.0057

The first three wars, the 7 Years war, that is known in the United States as the French and Indian war.0062

We are going to talk about not only the main events during the war, but also the centrality of colonial involvement,0072

and how that is going to impact the colonies and colonists, and relationship between the colonies and Great Britain.0082

We are also going to talk about the important contribution of Ben Franklin, the Albany plan of union.0091

And lastly, the legacy of the war, the effects of the war, and how eventually that is going to lead to the American Revolution.0098

Let us get to it, before we get into the French-Indian war,0109

I’m going to say a few more things about the great awakening and how it continued to spread throughout the colonies.0113

We are going to see that the great awakening will end up also influencing many southerners and it had mixed results.0120

On one hand, we are going to see that it challenged the dominion of the Church of England0131

which was mainly in place in the South, and it was also going to challenge the planter elite.0136

Again, if you can remember that one of the major themes of the great awakening was that0145

many of the New light ministers were advocating for people to challenge authority.0151

That is ultimately one of its great effects.0159

That is going to make the status quo feel that they are quite vulnerable.0162

The social authority of the Virginia gentry was threatened, as freeholders left the established Church of England.0172

Many who saw the appeal of New light churches, this is going to threaten the hierarchical order that was in place in the south.0182

Religious pluralism, meaning there are more churches, there is a diverse body of Christian churches there, for people to participate in.0196

This also threatened the government's ability to impose taxes, to support the established church.0209

That is obviously a big one.0216

Without having the funding, that is going to lead to its decline.0217

In response, we will see the Anglicans close down Presbyterian meeting houses to prevent the spread of the new light doctrine.0226

There is a huge backlash by the Anglicans against these new light thinkers.0235

And also, we will see during the 1760’s, many poor Virginians were drawn to the enthusiastic Baptist revivals0242

which were certainly less formal, more inclusive, and even slaves were welcome.0252

This is where we are going to start to see the development of the black church,0260

the importance of the church in the African-American community.0265

This is going to be a huge factor in this area and era, that in the long run empower many African-Americans.0271

Although, we will also see that it really kind of depended on the master.0283

Some white masters were very close minded and were afraid to give the African-American slaves too much power,0289

and certainly did not want them to be too educated.0300

If they bought into some of the stories of being a good slave, being a loyal servant, that was something that would be accepted.0305

But other stories that focused on liberation and so forth, like the powerful story of the exodus,0317

that would be threatening to many white slave owners in the south.0329

Ultimately, we are going to see that these Baptist revivals during the first great awakening did not bring radical changes to the social order.0338

Although, it certainly was challenging the social order and was really the first step.0349

Baptist men kept church authority in the hands of freeborn male members, still very male dominated.0354

We will also see as Baptist ministers spread Christianity among slaves,0364

the revival will help to shrink the cultural gulf between blacks and whites,0368

undermining one justification for slavery and giving blacks a new religious identity.0375

This is going to have an empowering effect in the long run, although, there are mixed results, something to keep in mind.0383

But also, the idea of new light ideas spreading in the south will also lead to a more open minded viewpoint toward a challenging authority.0393

That is going to be really important especially when we get to the revolutionary era.0406

Now we are going to switchover to foreign policy and England's involvement in several wars with other imperial powers.0412

The first three wars that I’m just going to mention are King William's war, Queen Anne’s war, and then, King George’s war.0425

The first two, these are kind of tied together.0437

During both of these wars, Great Britain launched expeditions to capture Quebec but failed.0442

This is the main tension between Great Britain and France.0451

This is the main point of this slide, is to keep in mind that these rivalries went back.0456

They went back and forth, and they are really competing for land.0463

They are competing for influence, empire, domination of trade, etc.0467

Just keep that in mind.0474

Learning all the details of all these wars is not as important.0477

But really knowing the theme that there were several wars, imperial wars, is an important thing to keep in mind.0480

More often than not, American-Indians supported by the French, we are going to see, will consistently burn British frontier settlements.0489

More Native Americans actually ended up allying with the French than the British, at this point.0503

Eventually, we will see that Great Britain ends up getting some major gains.0513

They gained Nova Scotia from France and they also gained trading rights in Spanish America.0517

And then, King George's war, this is when Great Britain fights against its rivals, France as well as Spain, in North America.0527

They are dealing with France to the north, and to the west, towards a great extent in Spain in the south.0539

Georgia is an English settlement, it is viewed as a buffer state.0548

Florida is still dominated by the Spaniards.0555

Oglethorpe, he was the leader of Georgia, was successful in repelling those Spanish attacks.0559

But one of the other major outcomes of this war is that British gained trading rights in India.0567

And they are going to expand their empire and power in Asia, in the subcontinent.0574

And then, we are going to get into the Seven Years war.0584

This is the one we are really going to focus on.0587

This is considered one of the first global wars.0590

It did really spin the globe.0597

This took place in West Africa, it took place in Europe.0601

Even in the Caribbean and certainly in North America.0607

For the purposes of this class, we know it in U.S. history as the French and Indian war which is a bit of a misnomer.0612

It sounds like it is between the French and the Indians, it is actually between the French and the British.0622

The English colonists, the American colonists, are also pulled into the war on behalf of the British.0629

The Indians are also going to be pulled in and divided by the imperialist powers.0638

But the main tensions are between the British and the French.0644

This is a war for empire and they are competing for land trade rights.0652

Indians, who in 1750, still controlled the interior of North America.0660

Use their control of the fur trade to bargain with both the British and the French.0665

And to a great extent, this strategy that the Iroquois had used effectively for quite awhile,0671

of playing off the French against the British, started to break down in this time period.0677

As European resentment, the cost of gifts of arms and money rose.0688

The Iroquois demand for these goods, the increased demand for these payments started to get old with the British.0694

We are going to start to see that relations are going to become more tensed.0703

Indians alliances also will crumble in the face of escalating Anglo-American demands for land.0709

The Native Americans are feeling threatened that their land is being taken away.0717

That is also going to worsen relations.0724

How did these French and Indian war start?0730

The Ohio Company obtained land grant of about 200,000 acres along the upper of Ohio River.0733

This was land that was controlled by Indians.0742

We could see already, the English colonies are moving farther and farther west.0745

We are going to see that not only are they going to upset the Native American people,0751

but we are also going to see they are going to end up expanding into French Territory.0755

To counter Britain’s movement into the Ohio Valley, the French set up a series of forts.0761

This was around 1753 or 1754.0770

George Washington was actually sent to this fort to help protect British property.0778

The French seize George Washington and his men, as they tried to support the Ohio Company's claim to the land.0784

And then, we are going to see that this is going to continue to escalate.0793

Britain dispatch forces to America where they joined with the colonial militia in attacking French forts.0798

We will see that at first, the French and Indians defeat the British at Fort Necessity.0807

Unfortunately, for Washington, at this point, he surrenders after losing a third of his force.0815

This was a difficult defeat for the British, yet we are going to see that George Washington is going to make a name for himself.0823

This was a famous piece of art, a cartoon, it was also an important print0836

that will be used as propaganda during the time of the French and Indian war.0848

This was created by none other than Benjamin Franklin.0855

Yes, the title of it, join or die.0861

This was actually from a woodcut, it first appeared May 9, let me actually include this.0865

This was Ben Franklin.0874

This was published May 9, 1754, in what is known as the Pennsylvania Gazette.0881

I actually have a picture of it in a newspaper in the next page.0892

Anyway, as you can see here, this is a picture of a severed snake.0900

You will notice the head being, it says NE for New England,0904

really representing the New England confederation, also includes New York and New Jersey.0909

I believe that that is a P for Pennsylvania.0916

M, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina.0922

You will notice that George actually was not included in this, kind of an interesting fun fact.0926

Anyway, one of the main messages is that, a snake is a very powerful amphibian, but when it is severed, it is not powerful.0933

It is basically useless and powerless.0947

That is going to be an important image that is supposed to motivate and influence the colonies to join together and unify for the war effort.0952

This will become an important theme during the French and Indian war.0968

What Franklin was trying to advocate for, was his famous Albany Congress.0973

He is really looking to have representation for the colonies.0981

That is going to be an important idea.0987

I will get into this a little bit more.0992

You can see how this will look like placed in a newspaper.0993

He tried to make the argument for a unified legislative body.1001

In Ben Franklin's Albany plan, the woodcut image really goes hand in hand with this plan, this political plan.1012

Within it, the plan proposed to deal with the common threat for the British and for the colonies.1022

That was at the time the British were working with the colonists to fight against France and its Indian allies.1034

The idea behind Franklin’s plan is that they all need to unify and be on the same page,1044

in order to put their best foot forward, the Albany plan.1051

The board of trade called a meeting in Albany in 1754.1059

This included a meeting of delegates from Pennsylvania, Maryland, New York, and New England,1066

to negotiate a treaty with the Iroquois.1071

This was a plan by which parliament would be set up in America,1076

one general government for all the colonies except for Georgia and Nova Scotia.1081

Georgia was very isolated, very far removed, and the newest English colony at this point, so not really included at the time,1090

this idea of having one centralized general government.1104

Each colonial legislature would elect delegates to an American continental assembly, that would be presided over by a royal governor.1109

You still see the importance of the royal governor.1119

This was a step in the right direction, for colonists to have representation in the British parliament, to have a voice.1122

Especially for those who have been living in the American colonies for a while.1131

Although, this plan is not going to be approved, that is also something you should be aware of.1138

British ministers did not like the idea and believed that a union would spark demands for American independence.1144

We are going to see that this idea is setting that idea of independence and representation, that they should be treated as equals.1154

We are going to see that the British are going to think that is a bit too bold.1169

And, they are concerned that the colonists do not know their place.1172

We are going to see even though this is a failure, the idea will be really profound and have far reaching results.1178

Ultimately, it will pave the way for the Stamp Act Congress of 1765 and the Continental Congress of 1774.1186

Two legislative bodies, two representative bodies, governmental bodies, that will represent the interest of various colonies.1197

This is the evolution of coming up with this American unified style of government in representation,1211

and ultimately, giving the American colonies a voice and a means to express their grievances.1219

That is why this is important intellectually and in the evolution, that revolutionary thought.1229

Anyway, besides that, we are going to see that, when a need of closer union arose1240

that this will serve as a guide in the deliberations of the representatives of the colonies.1248

They will use this as a great example to learn from and to work from to come up with a better system.1257

Here is a map to show you some of the areas, especially, right here, that were in question,1267

which were disputed British and French claims.1274

At this point in history, this was considered the west.1278

As you could see, Spain is still down here, New Spain, but this was all French territory.1285

We are going to continue talking about the French and Indian war.1295

June of 1755, the British and New England troops captured Fort Beausejour in Nova Scotia, in Acadia,1300

and deported about 10,000 French Catholic Acadians to France, Louisiana, or the West Indies.1310

In July, General Edward Braddock and his British colonial troops were soundly defeated by a small group of French and Indians at Fort Dickens.1319

We are going to see that the conflict is going to expand, 1756.1331

The Seven Years war is going to expand worldwide, and include Europe, Africa, Asia, and South America.1338

In 1757, the French led by Montcalm capture Fort William Henry.1352

Following the surrender, Montcalm’s actions anger his Indian allies who capture or kill hundreds of unarmed British.1361

This is going to feed into the tensions during the French and Indian war.1374

Here is a map to show you some of those areas that we are just talking about.1379

Nova Scotia, Fort Beausejour, and here is Fort Necessity that we mentioned previously, and Fort Dickens.1385

You could see the British movements in the northeastern part of the United States and New England,1399

and up through today’s Canada down to the St. Lawrence.1406

This is where New France was located.1411

William Penn implements cooperative policies towards colonial legislatures to receive more colonial support for the war.1418

The treaty of Easton was signed with the six nations that was the Iroquois.1427

And, the British take control of the forts on the Ohio.1434

We are starting to see that the tide is starting is turning for the British.1437

In 1760, the British surround Quebec after a battle outside the city on the plains of Abraham.1443

In 1760, the British capture Montreal.1451

Those two wins are going to solidify the victory for Great Britain.1458

This will end the conflict in North America.1467

This ends with the treaty of Paris and we are going to see new borders,1471

and that, ultimately, the British are going to gain tremendous amounts of land.1476

This treaty will grant British sovereignty over half the continent of North America.1483

They are big winners, at the end of the French and Indian war.1489

French territory was reduced to a handful of islands in the West Indies,1493

and two islands off the coast of Newfoundland, where they could still have fishing rights.1499

It was pretty sad for the French.1505

Britain’s victory will certainly have other facts besides major gains for the British.1509

The Native Americans are also going to be concerned.1518

They are also going to fear the influx of Anglo-American settlers or the colonists still at this point.1525

As now Britain has even more land and will be expanding further and further westward.1534

They are starting to kind of question what is going to happen.1540

This was the new boundary that was established, you could see here in red.1546

The proclamation line of 1763, that the British will establish as the border of where the colonies could expand to.1551

That is not going to go over well with the colonists.1562

Britain is definitely trying to balance Native American concerns because the populations are getting bigger, and people want land.1567

They want cheap land, they want more land.1578

It is getting more populated, they want to move west.1581

But obviously, that comes into conflict with Native Americans who live there.1586

That is going to eventually cause problems.1591

Here is a great example, in 1763, right after the end of the French and Indian war.1595

The Ottawa chief Pontiac led a group of loosely confederated tribes in a major uprising known as Pontiac's rebellion.1606

This was against colonial settlements in the western frontier.1617

The area that I was just talking about in brown is the western frontier.1622

American-Indians were upset about colonial encroachment unto their land.1630

Feeling like their land is being stolen, taken without their consent.1634

During the rebellion, many British garrisons were also targeted and over 2,000 settlers were captured or killed.1640

The Native Americans are not happy about the situation.1652

They are distressful, they are scared.1655

They are concerned about their future and they think that these Europeans are not going to stop moving westward.1659

Eventually, we will see that the Indian alliance gradually weakened.1670

They accepted the new rule of the British as the predominant power in the region.1676

In return, that is where we are going to see the proclamation line being established, which will bar settlers from going west.1683

But that is not going to go over well either.1691

Just another map to show you the original 13 colonies.1695

But then, we are going to see the original 13 colonies,1701

and all of this is newly acquired land for the British territory that ceded to Britain in the treaty of Paris.1705

In red, you will see the areas where Pontiac's rebellion took place.1715

But ultimately we see that the British end up winning and crushed those rebellions.1722

There are a lot of effects of the war.1730

We actually tend to focus more on the effects of the war, than on the actual details of the war.1733

You do not need to know as much about the details of the war.1740

Although, it is certainly really interesting, and important to know in the overall narrative of the story.1742

It is important that you know the effects.1754

We are going to start to see a division or some discrepancy in points of view between the British and the colonists.1758

The British did not like the military ineptitude of the American colonies, their lack of financial contributions.1768

Many traders did have commercial relations with the French in the West Indies, specially, sugar merchants.1780

That is not going to go over well with the British.1797

They are very skeptical of the intentions of the colonists who are becoming more rebellious and independent.1801

Britain is also in huge debt, and thus, created a form of taxation in order to pay for those debts.1811

On the other hand, from the American perspective, we are going to see, although the British think that they are inept,1821

the American colonial soldiers gain military experience in the war.1827

They feel empowered in many ways, that they are getting this experience.1834

Yet, there are some a bit bitter that they are fighting on behalf of the British and that this is their land.1838

They are starting to take ownership of their own homeland, and that they should start really fighting on behalf of themselves.1845

Ultimately, that they were getting pulled into this imperial conflict.1855

American colonists did not also like the outcome of the treaty of Paris, and especially,1861

the proclamation line, and reacted with anger and defiance.1868

Many started to openly defy the new treaty.1876

They started moving westward, knowing the law.1882

This defiance is going to anger the British.1886

We are going to start to see many groups that will be great example of rising up against British dominance, and the imperial governments,1890

as well that viewed as offensive, outdated, out of touch with the ordinary people.1908

There were regulator movements, especially, in the south such as in North Carolina1916

where they demanded greater political rights, local courts, fair taxes.1924

There were also the Paxton boys.1931

They were Scots-Iris frontiersmen who are really looking for their governments to protect them,1934

and to support them moving farther and farther west.1939

But that did not go over well with the British.1943

We are starting to see these conflicts heat up and ultimately become a huge problem,1946

and exacerbate tensions between the British and the colonists, which will eventually lead to preparation for a revolution.1952

But that is going to evolve, as we will see in the next lesson.1965

Let us actually move into the examples.1972

Look, it is the Paxton boys.1978

We just talked about them briefly.1981

Let us read the quotation and this is a multiple choice.1985

We apprehend that as Freemen and English subjects, we have an indisputable title to the same privileges and immunities1989

with his Majesty's other subjects who reside in the interior counties.2001

And, therefore, ought not be to be excluded from an equal share with them in the very important privilege of legislation.2008

We cannot but observe, with sorrow and indignation, that some persons in this province are at pains2019

to extenuate the barbarous cruelties practiced by these savages on our murdered brethren and relatives.2025

By means, the Indians have been taught to despise us as a weak and disunited people,2034

and from this fatal source have arisen many of our calamities.2040

We humbly pray therefore that this grievance may be redressed.2044

Which of the following groups was the Paxton boys most concerned with, according to the excerpt?2057

The Scots-Iris Presbyterians, religious leaders, American-Indians, or the colonial government?2067

And ultimately, this one.2079

This would probably be a close second but really they are addressing and talking about the American-Indians.2083

Their concerns with the savages in the excerpt.2091

Number 2, due to the concerns expressed in the excerpt, the British passed,2095

And the answer is B, the proclamation of 1763.2102

Number 3, which of the following leaders from an earlier period, voice similar concerns that were mentioned in this excerpt?2110

Anne Hutchinson, John Wolfe, Nathaniel Bacon, or Edmund Andros?2122

This question is asking you to connect material you learned previously through material you have learned about in this lesson.2129

The answer is Nathaniel Bacon.2139

Join or Die. Based on the image above, which of the following best explains the original purpose of the artist?2148

A, to unify the colonies against the British.2158

B, to unify the colonies and French against the British.2161

C, to unify the colonies and British against the French and Indians.2165

D, to unify the colonies against the Indians.2170

The answer is this one, here.2177

One thing I would like to actually add in my discussion of this that I forgot to mention earlier,2184

that later we will see this image, they will borrow from it.2189

The patriots during the revolutionary war will use this image, but use a different phrase,2196

do not threat on me, in their patriotic revolutionary redirect.2205

And use it as propaganda to motivate fellow patriots during the revolutionary war.2213

The original purpose of this was to try to encourage colonists to support the Albany plan.2222

I hope I did not just give you your next answer.2232

Which of the following is true about the image 'Join or Die'?2234

A, Ben Franklin believed that all the colonies needed to remain politically independent from each other.2238

B, Ben Franklin believed that the colonies should unify politically.2249

C, Ben Franklin believed that the New England confederation should be the most powerful of all the colonies.2254

Or D, Ben Franklin believed that the colonies should unify with the Iroquois.2260

The answer is.2269

This is our last question in this lesson.2278

Briefly explain the British view of how the Seven Years war changed the relationship between Great Britain and the colonies.2283

Here it goes, the British viewed the colonial soldiers as incompetent, and that the colonies needed to invest more in the British military.2292

Because of the war, Britain was in debt and needed to tax the colonies in order to increase their revenues.2305

B, briefly explain the colonial view of how the Seven Years war changed the relationship between Great Britain and the colonies.2314

Here it goes, the colonists gained military experience during the Seven Years war and began to advocate for themselves as an independent power.2329

You could also add, they started to challenge the authority of the mother country, Great Britain,2342

especially after the establishment of the proclamation line of 1763.2355

That is another option.2363

Briefly explain a reaction taken as a result of the change in views, by either the British or a colonist.2366

The British passed the proclamation of 1763 to ensure that the colonists would not continue to expand westward.2375

They wanted to prevent tensions between Native Americans and colonists over land.2383

With that, thank you very much for watching www.educator.com.2390