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The Civil War, Part 2

  • The Turning Point in 1863: the Emancipation Proclamation that was issued on January 1, 1863 changed the nature of the conflict: Union troops became agents of liberation, and ONLY slaves in Confederate states freed (not in border states).
  • The Conf. defeats @ Vicksburg & Gettysburg in 1863 also ended their prospect of winning foreign recognition & acquiring advanced weapons from the British.
  • Lincoln put Grant in charge of all Union armies & directed him to advance against all major Confed. forces simultaneously; they wanted a decisive victory before the election of 1864
  • In June 1864 the Repub. convention endorsed Lincoln’s war measures, demanded the surrender of the Confederacy, and called for a constitutional amendment to abolish slavery
  • Sherman declined to follow the Confed. army into TN after the capture of Atlanta; instead he wanted to “cut a swath through sea” that would devastate GA and score a psychological victory
  • On Sept. 2, 1864, William T. Sherman forced the surrender of Atlanta, Georgia; Sherman’s success gave Lincoln a victory in November
  • The symbolic end to the war occurred on April 9, 1865, when Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomattox Court House, Virginia; by May the Conf. army & gov had dissolved
  • For the South, the Union armies had destroyed slavery, but the cost of victory was enormous in terms of money, resources, & lives, w/360,000 Union soldiers dead and hundreds of thousands maimed.

The Civil War, Part 2

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  1. Intro
    • Overview
      • The Road to Emancipation
      • Wilmot Proviso Map
        • Contrabands
        • Lincoln Plans to Emancipate
        • Abe Lincoln's Last Card Or Rouge-et-Noir
          • Vicksburg and Gettysburg
          • Gettysburg Address
          • The Turning Point
          • Ulysses S. Grant Charge
          • Barren Waste
          • African American Man Picks Up Skeletons
            • The Elections of 1864
            • Post-Election
            • Sherman's March
            • General William Tecumseh Sherman
              • Sherman's March Map
                • The Aftermath of Sherman's March
                • Lee's Surrender at Appomattox Court House
                • The Conquest of the South, 1861-1865
                  • Casualties and Loss
                  • The Thirteenth Amendment Passed
                  • Example 1
                    • Example 2
                      • Example 3
                        • Intro 0:00
                        • Overview 0:05
                        • The Road to Emancipation 1:50
                          • Struggle Against Slavery
                          • Contrabands
                          • First Confiscation Act in 1861
                          • Wilmot Proviso
                        • Wilmot Proviso Map 5:30
                        • Contrabands 5:49
                          • Union Lines
                          • Slavery Began to Disintegrate
                        • Lincoln Plans to Emancipate 6:34
                          • Second Confiscation
                          • Initial Draft of Emancipation
                          • Emancipation Proclamation
                          • Urged Slaves to Abstain from all Violence
                          • Freedom to Slaves!
                        • Abe Lincoln's Last Card Or Rouge-et-Noir 12:31
                        • Vicksburg and Gettysburg 14:09
                          • Vicksburg
                          • The Battle at Gettysburg
                          • Davis Supporters
                        • Gettysburg Address 17:09
                          • Dedication of the Cemetery for the Union War Dead
                          • New Birth of Freedom
                          • A War for Union and Freedom
                        • The Turning Point 20:35
                          • Own Regiments
                          • The Emancipation Proclamation
                          • White Resistance to Conscription
                          • Segregated Military
                        • Ulysses S. Grant Charge 22:04
                          • Ulysses S. Grant
                          • Fight a Modern War
                          • Union and Confederate Soldiers
                        • Barren Waste 23:52
                          • General Philip H Sheridan
                          • The Definition of Conventional Warfare
                        • African American Man Picks Up Skeletons 24:52
                        • The Elections of 1864 25:29
                          • Constitutional Amendment to Abolish Slavery
                          • National Union Party
                          • Map of the Election of 1864
                        • Post-Election 27:18
                          • Potential Invalidity of Emancipation Proclamation
                          • Legality of Abolishing Slavery
                        • Sherman's March 28:10
                          • Accelerated the Pace of Emancipation
                          • The 13th Amendment
                        • General William Tecumseh Sherman 29:00
                        • Sherman's March Map 29:12
                        • The Aftermath of Sherman's March 30:17
                          • Destruction brought by Sherman
                          • Wreak Vengeance
                          • A Manpower Shortage
                        • Lee's Surrender at Appomattox Court House 31:11
                          • Appomattox Court House
                          • Cost of Victory
                        • The Conquest of the South, 1861-1865 32:35
                        • Casualties and Loss 33:10
                          • The Lost of the South
                          • Destroyed Cities
                        • The Thirteenth Amendment Passed 34:14
                          • Jurisdiction
                          • Abolish Slavery
                        • Example 1 36:19
                        • Example 2 38:36
                        • Example 3 41:33

                        Transcription: The Civil War, Part 2

                        Welcome back to www.educator.com.0000

                        This lesson is on the Civil War, part 2.0002

                        In this lesson, we are going to talk about the events leading up to, and the turning point in 1863, 0007

                        as that is when we are going to start to see the break in the stalemate between the Union and the Confederacy,0015

                        And eventually the Union will be victorious in the Civil War.0021

                        And there are couple key events that helped to make this war decisive.0025

                        We are going to see one of the major steps will be the Emancipation Proclamation, 0031

                        which was an act that took several steps leading up to it.0037

                        And that will be very significant, and will bring African-Amerricans more and more into the war effort.0046

                        And it will also redefine the meaning of the Civil War, especially for the Union under the leadership of Abraham Lincoln.0052

                        Also, the key battles at Gettysburg and Vicksburg, that will be decisive wins for the Union,0062

                        that will also help the Union, eventually, become victorious in the war.0068

                        Then, we are going to talk about the war of the Radical Republicans in helping to shape national policy,0074

                        and advocate for African-Amerrican rights.0082

                        Then, we will talk about the election of 1864, and the end of the Civil War, and Sherman's march.0085

                        And the 13th amendment which will officially abolish slavery, and then, 0096

                        the conclusion of the war when Robert E. Lee surrenders at Appomattox Court House.0102

                        Let us get into it, Road to Emancipation.0110

                        This was a process and it took several steps to lead to the eventual Emancipation Proclamation.0114

                        As we are going to see, Lincoln, being a very skilled politician, is going to reflect0123

                        and be very calculated in the way that he proceeds with emancipation.0131

                        He does not rush onto it, it is a process for Lincoln.0138

                        He wants to do it at the right time and we will see that he has a strategy in mind, when it comes to emancipation.0142

                        Before we talk about the Emancipation Proclamation, I want to talk about some of the events that connect to it and lead up to it.0151

                        As war casualty has mounted in 1862, we know the stalemate was dragging on, 0159

                        Lincoln and some Republican leaders start to change their mind regarding the issue of slavery, 0165

                        and they start to accept Frederick Douglas' argument, and began to redefine the war as a struggle against slavery.0172

                        If you remember, at the beginning of the war, Lincoln was much more focused on stopping the spread of slavery,0181

                        but he did not talk about the moral issue regarding slavery.0191

                        He starts to have a stronger stance.0199

                        Before, again, the emphasis is keeping the Union together, whereas at this point in the war, 0202

                        he starts to take a stronger stance against slavery and abolishing it.0210

                        Tens of thousands of slaves escaped during wartime disorder and sought refuge behind Union lines, 0216

                        where they were known as contrabands.0223

                        That is going to also be part of this whole process, will also tie into that idea of total war, 0226

                        as more African-Amerricans are abandoning the south and abandoning the plantations.0234

                        The Union starts to utilize a lot of these African-Amerricans.0242

                        They are also worried about the drain on their camps and resources that they have.0248

                        They also start to realize that maybe it would be a smart thing to do is 0254

                        to try to motivate these African-Amerricans to fight on behalf of the Union.0260

                        Tied to that, we will see a couple of important laws being passed by Congress.0267

                        The first Confiscation Act in 1861, which in many ways, ties to what happens here0272

                        which authorized the seizure of all property including slaves used to support the rebellion.0279

                        Total war, that all was game to be attacked.0284

                        In April of 1862, Congress led by the Radical Republicans, Salmon Chase, 0289

                        Charles Sumner, in particular, saw an opportunity to destroy slavery.0298

                        Now that they had a huge role in Congress and the Republican majority, 0303

                        they start to push in a much more substantial way and enact legislation ending slavery in D.C.0312

                        And in June, it enacted the Wilmot Proviso, finally, which had been kind of on the fence for a while.0321

                        Just to remind you again, the Wilmot Proviso, this originally was proposed back in 1846, 0332

                        that this region would be prohibited to have slavery there.0341

                        A little bit more on contraband.0351

                        From the very onset of the war, thousands of slaves fled to or were taken behind Union lines.0354

                        Here are some examples of some contrabands.0360

                        And eventually, thousands of contrabands were living in overcrowded camps.0364

                        And as a result, slavery began to disintegrate throughout the south.0369

                        Abolitionist around the same time period, this is where we kind of see it is a key turning point regarding the push for emancipation.0375

                        Abolitionist will grab onto this is well, demand for emancipation as part of the war effort.0383

                        We will see that that is what is going to also have a huge influence over Abraham Lincoln.0390

                        July of 1862, the second Confiscation Act declared forever free all fugitive slaves and all slaves captured by the Union army.0398

                        Complete reversal of the Fugitive Slave Act or even part of the Compromise of 1850, that had a Fugitive Slave Clause.0409

                        We are seeing a much stronger stance against slavery.0419

                        This gradual attack on the institution that will culminate when Lincoln writes the initial draft of the Emancipation Proclamation in July of 1862, 0424

                        and discusses his intentions at key cabinet meeting.0437

                        He was very much a skilled strategic politician, he delayed writing and issuing the final draft because he wanted support.0443

                        He needed a military win and confidence, not only the Radical Republicans would be behind him. 0450

                        Although they were much more radical than Abraham Lincoln, and much more outspoken in their stance against slavery.0458

                        But Lincoln, he needs the support of all the Republicans.0467

                        He needed the confidence of Northern conservative Republicans, who were bit skeptical and wanted to see more military success.0471

                        Lincoln needed some military wins to help bolster his agenda.0481

                        Eventually, the final draft of Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation of January 1, 1863, 0492

                        will change the nature of the conflict, as Union troops will become agents of liberation.0498

                        This is a key and this is going to help to redefine the war and bring moral teeth, into the cause during the Civil War into the Union cause.0507

                        That there is a key point here and I will actually read you some of the Emancipation Proclamation.0523

                        The key point to keep in mind is that the slaves in states that were in rebellion against the Union were freed.0530

                        In other words, in the Confederate states only were they free, not in the border states.0539

                        If you remember, states like Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, those states that were slave states,0547

                        but were still considered part of the Union.0557

                        Those slaves who are technically not freed.0560

                        The other thing, this will kind of help to bolster the whole vision for the Republican Party and for the Union.0569

                        And not only does Lincoln advocate for preserving the Union but abolishing slavery.0578

                        This is very much tied to his initial goal.0585

                        Ultimately, we will say that the Emancipation Proclamation was an act of justice and this is the right thing to do.0590

                        He is bringing a moral purpose and upping the ante, if you will, in his vision during the Civil War.0598

                        To reassure the northerners who sympathize with the south feared race warfare,0609

                        we will see he will urge caution, he will urge slaves to abstain from all violence.0614

                        He did want race warfare to break out.0620

                        He had enough problems, just trying to lead with the Union during the Civil War.0623

                        He tried to advocate for calm and for people to abstain from breaking out in riots, and so forth.0628

                        I’m going to read you the Emancipation Proclamation.0638

                        There are several versions, this is the most well known.0642

                        Now, therefore, I, Abraham Lincoln, President of the United States, by virtue of the power in me vested as Commander-in-Chief.0647

                        And as a fit and necessary war measure for suppressing the said rebellion, do, order and designate as the States 0654

                        and parts of States wherein the people thereof respectively, are this day in rebellion against the United States the following.0662

                        I do order and declare that all persons held as slaves within said designated States, and parts of States, are, henceforward shall be free.0670

                        I omitted some of these but, this actually does list the specific counties and states 0681

                        that wherein rebellion, that were part of the Confederacy.0689

                        Except for parts that had already been occupied by the Union.0694

                        That is something to keep in mind.0699

                        If you actually look at the text of the Emancipation Proclamation.0701

                        And I further declare that such persons of suitable condition, will be received into the armed service of the United States.0705

                        And upon this act, sincerely believed to be an act of justice, warranted by the Constitution, upon military necessity.0712

                        Another key point I would like to bring up here is that, as much as I just said that Abraham Lincoln was trying to make the Civil War 0723

                        and definitely advocate for emancipation to bring in the morality issue, and definitely to abolish slavery, 0737

                        yet there was a military strategy and aspect to it, that he needed African-Amerrican forces to help win this war0747

                        and make it a decisive win for the Union.0757

                        It is not all moralistic, there is also an aspect of reality and strategy here, and military necessity, 0761

                        that will help to inform his decision to emancipate slaves in the Confederacy.0771

                        That would obviously weaken the Confederacy, if slaves were not working more and more on the plantations and were leaving,0777

                        this will cause a lot of instability.0784

                        We will see that this is going to certainly cause some confusion, and Lincoln is not even 100% sure if this is completely legal.0788

                        That will also lead to the necessity to pass the 13th amendment down the road, which we will talk about in a bit.0802

                        Here is a famous cartoon Abe Lincoln's Last Card or Rouge-et-Noir.0810

                        The Emancipation Proclamation elicited strong response, both here and abroad.0817

                        In London, the well known cartoonist John Tenniel satirized the decree before it is released as a last resort of a desperate gambler.0822

                        That is supposed to be last card, because he is holding a card here.0835

                        It does kind of make him look a bit devilish, as you can see by the imagery.0841

                        But nonetheless, you know, he was a strategic politician.0847

                        Then, as far as military wins that are going to also turn the tide and help in is turning point 0855

                        and making it much more decisive for the Union to win, we will see the overall battle for the Mississippi which will include regions in the south, 0861

                        as well as we will see even north into Pennsylvania.0874

                        A little background here, General Grant sought to split the Confederacy in two, 0878

                        and he was successful in achieving the surrender at Vicksburg Mississippi,0885

                        where Confederate surrendered to the Union army on July 4, 1863.0893

                        Grant also took regions of Louisiana, and we will see that slaves began deserting regions around the Gulf of Mexico.0901

                        We will also see around the same time period, actually about a month earlier, further north, 0911

                        Confederate General Robert E. Lee wants to seek invasion of the north, when he left the army of north Virginia into Pennsylvania.0919

                        This will eventually lead to the battle of Gettysburg Pennsylvania.0930

                        This ends up becoming one of the greatest battles ever fought in the western hemisphere.0937

                        Nearly 90,000 Union soldiers led by General George Mead battled 75,000 Confederate troops for three days 0942

                        before repelling the invasion and forcing Lee's army to retreat to Virginia.0951

                        There were 28,000 Confederate deaths and 23,000 Union deaths.0958

                        Huge, you can see this was the most lethal battle of the Civil War.0966

                        This was a really important Union victory.0973

                        This was a victory along with the Vicksburg win.0976

                        These wins were extremely important to Abraham Lincoln and now he could get the support politically.0979

                        The other thing is that the conservative Republicans in the north needed this win also to get the support from their constituents, 0991

                        while Confederate voters went sharply against Davis’ supporters.0999

                        This will have major political consequences as well.1004

                        The Battle of Gettysburg, huge bloodbath, huge sacrifice on both sides but ultimately will be a major win for the Union.1010

                        This is where the famous Pickett's Charge took place, for those military people who enjoy learning more about specific military tactics.1022

                        Lincoln spoke at the site where the Gettysburg battle took place on November 19, 1863, four months after the significant battle of Gettysburg.1037

                        He gave a very short speech but it ended up becoming one of his most famous and well known speeches.1052

                        During this ceremony, he gave dedication of the cemetery for the Union war dead.1058

                        During this famous speech, he spoke of a new birth of freedom, and again, redefines the aims of war for the American people, 1069

                        transforming it from a war for Union to war for Union and freedom.1079

                        A very important turn and also kind of brings a moral purpose and theme into his vision as president, and for the United States.1087

                        This is the famous speech where he says fourscore and seven years ago.1100

                        Again, a score means 20 years.1105

                        Fourscore and 20 years ago, our fathers brought forth a promise to this continent, 1108

                        a new nation conceived in liberty and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal.1113

                        Again, kind of going back to that declaration of independence and that promise of equality.1121

                        Again, looking to the words of the founding fathers and saying we need to reflect, 1128

                        and we need to analyze whether we are living up to that promise.1136

                        And we continue, I divert.1141

                        Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure.1144

                        We are met on a great battlefield of that war.1153

                        We have come to dedicate a portion of it, as a final resting place for those who have died here, that the nation might live.1155

                        This we may, in all propriety do.1163

                        But in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate, we cannot consecrate, we cannot hallow this ground.1166

                        The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have hallowed it, far above our poor power to add or detract. 1173

                        The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, while it can never forget what they did here.1181

                        And then it goes on, where he does talk about,1191

                        that we here highly resolved these dead shall not have died in vain, that the nation shall have a new birth of freedom, 1200

                        and that government of the people, by the people, for the people shall not perish from the earth.1208

                        He kinds of goes to the preamble of the constitution, again, bringing us back to our ideals1216

                        and emphasizing those very important core American values, that he uses to inspire Americans.1222

                        And also to bolster the Union war effort.1234

                        Initially, we know that Lincoln refused to consider blacks for service.1241

                        But by 1862 and certainly by 1863, we will see African-Amerricans playing more and more of a role in the Civil War.1245

                        And many African-Amerricans even form their own regiments in South Carolina, Louisiana, and Kansas.1255

                        After the emancipation was passed, it changed popular thinking and military policy.1262

                        Some northern whites argue that if blacks were to benefit from the Union victory, they should also share in the fighting and dying.1272

                        Take on the responsibility.1279

                        As the war did dragged on, the military necessity because of white resistance to conscription increased.1283

                        The Lincoln administration was recruiting as many African-Amerricans as it could.1291

                        To emphasize that this was a military necessity for Lincoln to have African-Amerricans participate in the war effort.1298

                        Even though African-Amerricans did participate, racism still existed as the military was segregated,1307

                        and actually will continue to be segregated until the Truman administration.1315

                        Very long time in our history.1322

                        Lincoln, remember, he did not have a lot of luck with his generals, but the tide was definitely turning by 1863.1327

                        Lincoln put Grant in charge of all Union armies and directed him to advance against all major Confederate forces simultaneously.1336

                        They wanted a decisive victory before the election of 1864.1344

                        He could keep things stable and have Republican support and so forth.1350

                        Grant definitely had the stomach more than any other of the previous generals, and was willing to accept heavy casualties if necessary.1358

                        Ultimately, he knew that he had to go all out in order to have a decisive win for the Union.1372

                        Grant knew how to fight a modern war.1380

                        Again, modern, by the time we are talking of the 1860’s, that relied on technology and focused on an entire society.1384

                        Lee, Confederate General, was narrowly victorious in the battles of the wilderness in Spotsylvania Courthouse.1395

                        At Cold Harbor, Grant, however will erode Lee's forces but the Union losses were even greater.1402

                        This is still pretty tough, not a complete win yet.1408

                        But Union and Confederate soldiers suffered through protracted trench warfare around Richmond and Petersburg.1412

                        We will see the enormous casualties and military stalemate threatened Lincoln with the defeat in the November 1864 election.1420

                        He was counting on Grant to change the tone of the war.1429

                        To punish farmers who provided a base for dual early and food for Lee's army, 1437

                        Grant ordered General Phillip Sheridan to turn the region into a barren waste.1442

                        Grant’s decisions to carry the war to Confederates civilians changed the definition of conventional warfare.1447

                        And made this even uglier, you could say, when they are going after civilians, 1456

                        this is when things get particularly nasty, that this is not just between soldiers.1465

                        The psychological toll of the fighting was enormous on both sides.1472

                        Morale is going to continue to decline.1478

                        Soldiers will desert trench warfare and scorch to earth campaigns start to show the desperation, 1481

                        that they are just going all out and they are looking for a decisive end to this war.1490

                        This is a grotesque photo but just to show you how awful this was.1497

                        This was a typical type of job, African-Amerricans were not provided with the best job opportunities but this was a necessary job.1502

                        With the amount of deaths that were happening in these battlefields, somebody had to pick up the bodies.1513

                        Here you could see skeletons being picked up.1522

                        Let us continue.1529

                        The election of 1864, the Republican convention endorsed Lincoln's war measures 1531

                        demanded the surrender of the Confederacy and called for a constitutional amendment to abolish slavery.1538

                        Republican party temporarily had renamed itself the National Union Party, to focus on the nation,1545

                        the Union bringing back together the United States.1554

                        And nominated democratic Andrew Johnson for vice president.1557

                        This was also an important political move.1561

                        Johnson being from the south, that would be kind of a political olive branch, if you will.1565

                        That they are trying to reach out to the Democratic Party and show that they are willing to work together across the aisle.1576

                        The democratic convention nominated George McClelland, 1584

                        who promised to recommend an immediate armistice and peace convention, if elected.1587

                        We are going to see the democrats are split into two camps.1596

                        That is going to divide them once again, as they cannot find a unified platform.1602

                        The outcome, the important thing is that, after taking control of Atlanta,1608

                        in fact, we are going see some key wins in the south, in Georgia, for instance, that I will get to a little bit more.1621

                        That is going help turn the tide and bolster a lot of support for Lincoln.1629

                        Ultimately, we are going to see Lincoln ends up winning the election of 1864.1633

                        Lincoln fiercely supports the 13th Amendment that would abolish slavery, and why does he do this and it is this particular time,1641

                        once he is elected, that because there is this potential in validity of the Emancipation Proclamation, that it was not really constitutional.1649

                        He was grasping for straws and trying to use any powers that he did have to end slavery.1661

                        With a clear constitutional amendment that abolished bravery, this would legally abolish slavery once and for all.1669

                        We will see that this passed by two votes, it needed a 2/3 majority for a constitutional amendment, and just had it passed by September 13th.1680

                        September 2, 1864, William Sherman forced the surrender of Atlanta, Georgia.1693

                        Sherman’s success gave Lincoln a huge victory in November.1699

                        The pace of emancipation accelerated.1704

                        Maryland and Missouri, they freed the slaves, followed by Tennessee, Arkansas, and Louisiana.1707

                        On January 31, 1865, the Republicans dominated Congress, 1713

                        approved the 13th Amendment which prohibits slavery throughout the united states.1719

                        Sherman declined to follow the Confederate army into Tennessee after the capture of Atlanta,1727

                        and instead wanted to cut a swath through the sea that would devastate Georgia and score a psychological victory.1731

                        This is showing how desperate and determined these generals were getting at the end of the war.1740

                        Here is a picture of the famous General William Tecumseh Sherman who would lead this famous march to the sea.1748

                        William Harold Warrior Sherman, commanded the Union army of Tennessee and moved southward with his army, 1759

                        demolishing whatever was in their path.1767

                        Many Confederate soldiers were demoralized and abandoned.1771

                        Treated as a savior by Georgia's black population, Sherman that is, issued special Field Order number 15.1775

                        This is very important, which set aside 400,000 acres for the use of freedmen.1784

                        He helped invade South Carolina and met up with General Grant in North Carolina to fight General Lee.1792

                        This is going to be a very brutal attack.1799

                        He will be a hero for many African-Amerricans, and in fact, this will come up again.1802

                        That he promises land to those who help, especially, fight on behalf of the Union forces, guarantees them 40 acres and a mule, 1806

                        this is what it becomes known as, which we will talk about when we get to reconstruction.1815

                        After the burning of Atlanta, Sherman destroyed railroads, properties, supplies, etc., during his march to the sea.1821

                        Very destructive, all out war.1831

                        Many Confederate soldiers deserted, they are just completely demoralized, fled home to protect their farms and families.1834

                        This is the end of the war.1843

                        By February of 1865, Sherman invaded South Carolina with the desire to wreak vengeance upon the state where secession had began.1846

                        And because of class resentment from poor whites, the Confederates had such a manpower shortage,1856

                        they were going to arm the slaves in exchange for their freedom.1862

                        But the war ended before this had a chance to transpire.1865

                        The final nail on the coffin, I guess you could say, during the Civil War, the Confederate collapsed.1873

                        Again, class resentment is going to wear down the Confederate cause.1881

                        The symbolic end to the war will occur on April 9, 1865, when Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomattox Courthouse in Virginia.1887

                        By May, the Confederate army and government had dissolved.1897

                        This was the end of the war.1902

                        For the south, the Union army had destroyed slavery but the cost of victory was enormous, in terms of money, resources, and lives.1904

                        With 360,000 Union soldiers dead and hundreds of thousands maimed.1915

                        This is when they are surrendering and having a truce.1925

                        Thomas Nast portrait of a concurred ignoble fear became part of southern mythology 1932

                        that ignored many of the difficult issues, particularly slavery that led to war in the first place.1937

                        He will be immortalized and put on a pipe throughout U.S. history, especially in the south.1946

                        And lastly, a couple more slides here.1956

                        You can see visually how the Union gradually was able to conquer the south, if you will.1962

                        It started in 1861 to 1862 to 1863 and then 1864, in orange.1972

                        By 1865, this is the last, this is where the final surrender took place.1981

                        As I mentioned before, the Union lost about 360,000, the Confederacy lost about 260,000.1992

                        This is almost as many soldiers has died in all other American wars combined.1999

                        Still huge, biggest casualties in any war.2006

                        The south lost a fourth of its white male population of military age, a third of its livestock, 2012

                        half of its farm machinery, and $2.5 billion worth of human property.2017

                        Factories and railroads had been destroyed.2027

                        Cities such as Atlanta, Charleston, Columbia, and Richmond had been largely burned to the ground.2030

                        These were all affected tremendously.2035

                        South Carolina, the value of property plunged from 400 million in 1860, ranking it third in the nation to just a $50,000,000 in 1865.2038

                        Tremendous loss throughout the south.2049

                        And lastly, we will see that the 13th Amendment that was passed, just to share with you the language of that.2055

                        We will see other important amendments, the 14th Amendment and 15 Amendment will be passed during reconstruction,2063

                        that we will talk about in the next lesson, will be key to strengthening the constitutional rights for African-Amerricans.2069

                        But the 13th Amendment will set the foundation, that officially abolished slavery throughout the nation.2076

                        We will see that all of the former Confederate nations will have to pass and accept,2082

                        and follow this and enforce this law throughout their states.2088

                        Slavery was abolished and here is the exact language of the amendment.2094

                        Be there slavery nor involuntary servitude except as a punishment for crime,2098

                        whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States or any place subject to their jurisdiction.2103

                        The 13th Amendment finally passed.2113

                        And the end, slavery was done.2115

                        Of course, we know the legacy of slavery, the legacy of the Civil War is going to be major and leave a huge blemish,2120

                        if you will, leave wounds in the American spirit, and cause divisions for a long period of time.2128

                        We will see the next stage in U.S. history will be reconstruction.2138

                        When there will be an effort to rebuild and bring back together the Union and former Confederate states.2142

                        Obviously, there still will be long term resentment and there will still be a conflict between states' rights and federal power,2149

                        as you will see, when we get into the reconstruction period2160

                        The United States finally has concluded its Civil War by 1865.2165

                        And now will enter into its next stage of trying to heal and rebuild.2172

                        With that, we are going to move on to the assessment portion of the lesson.2178

                        This is the famous Emancipation Proclamation.2183

                        Now therefore, I, Abraham Lincoln, President of the United States, by virtue of the power in me 2189

                        vested as Commander-in-Chief, and as a fit and necessary war measure for suppressing said rebellion, do, 2195

                        order and designate as the States and parts of States wherein the people thereof, respectively, 2203

                        are this day in rebellion against the united states the following.2208

                        I do order and declare that all persons held as slaves within said designated states and parts of states, 2217

                        are henceforward shall be free.2225

                        And I further declare that such persons of suitable condition will be received into the armed service of the United States.2229

                        Upon these acts, sincerely believed to be an act of justice, warranted by the constitution upon military necessity.2237

                        This is justification.2246

                        Let us get into the questions.2250

                        President Lincoln delayed issuing an Emancipation Proclamation because of his concern that it would,2252

                        Increase foreign support for the Confederacy.2259

                        Cause the Border States to secede.2262

                        Decrease power of the cotton industry.2264

                        Or free slaves before they were ready.2266

                        Think about strategically what Lincoln would have wanted.2270

                        The answer.2276

                        2, before issuing the Emancipation Proclamation, President Lincoln felt that he needed which of the following? 2279

                        A constitutional amendment, Supreme Court approval, Republican control of the Congress,2285

                        a military victory to win support from Conservative Northerners.2290

                        Again, this is before issuing an Emancipation Proclamation, that is the key.2297

                        Do not get fooled by.2302

                        Can we just talk about something else.2304

                        In this case, this is the military win.2306

                        This will come after, this one is a little tricky, but not before.2311

                        Second one by George Templeton Strong, you may not know him.2318

                        He is not as well known.2325

                        That is okay, let us see New York lawyer diary.2326

                        We drew fast towards war with England, but I think we shall not reach that point.2330

                        The shopkeepers who own England want to do is all harm they can and to give all possible aid 2337

                        and comfort to our slave breeding and woman flogging adversary, 2345

                        for England has degenerated into a traitor, manufacturer, and banker, and has lost all the instincts and sympathies that her name still suggests.2349

                        She cannot align herself with the slavery, as she inclines to do.2358

                        Without closing a profitable market exposing her commerce to Yankee privateers, 2364

                        and diminishing the supply of northern bread stuffs, which her operatives depend for life.2369

                        On the other side however, is a consideration that by allowing piraticals of Alabama's to be built, armed and manned in her ports 2374

                        to prey on her commerce, she is making a great deal of money.2384

                        A strong statement that the British feared diminishing the supply of bread stuffs on which her operatives depend,2396

                        explains why he thinks the British would benefit from less trade with the U.S., in general,2402

                        Would eventually recognize a Confederacy and trade only with it.2408

                        Depended more on slave trade than most Americans realized.2413

                        Depended as much on trade with the Union as with the Confederacy.2417

                        The answer is this one.2426

                        The Union was most upset that the British were supporting the Confederacy by which of the following?2431

                        Building warships, purchasing cotton, loaning money, supplying foodstuffs.2436

                        And the answer is building warships.2445

                        Which of the following describes the reason not mentioned by Strong in this excerpt that ultimately stopped Britain from recognizing the Confederacy?2452

                        Concerns about causing problems with Canadians.2463

                        Desire for closer ties with Mexico.2465

                        Respect for the Monroe doctrine.2468

                        Opposition from the working class, the British working class.2470

                        The answer, a bit tricky but...2486

                        Let us move on.2494

                        Briefly explain why one of the following best supports the view that Lincoln was one of the most democratic 2496

                        and also one of the most autocratic presidents?2503

                        You have the Emancipation Proclamation, Gettysburg address, or Habeas Corpus.2507

                        We talked about that in the previous lesson.2511

                        For the sake of this, I'm going to choose Emancipation Proclamation.2517

                        This one seems like the most straightforward one to do.2521

                        The Emancipation Proclamation demonstrates that Lincoln was the most democratic president 2524

                        because he freed slaves in the Confederate States.2530

                        Those that were in rebellion against the Union.2534

                        Contrast your choice against one of the other options, demonstrating why that option is not as good as your choice.2540

                        I’m going to choose Habeas Corpus.2552

                        When Lincoln suspended Habeas Corpus, he acted in an autocratic manner out of military necessity to enforce order,2554

                        even though it is recognized in the constitution that it may be suspended in cases of rebellion or when public safety is in danger.2561

                        Lastly, briefly identify one other president you believe combined the two qualities mentioned in the statement above.2572

                        I’m going to choose, who would be more democratic than Lincoln.2582

                        I’m going to go with Jackson.2587

                        President Jackson and also autocratic, President Jackson was considered as a president of the common man, as well as King Andrew.2589

                        During the Jackson administration, more people had the right to vote.2599

                        But he also ignored the rulings of the Supreme Court and was harsh in his policy toward Native Americans.2603

                        There, I’m kind of showing both sides, the autocratic and the democratic side of Jackson.2612

                        With that, we are done with part 2 of the Civil War.2618

                        Next time, we will get into reconstruction2622

                        Thank you for watching www.educator.com.2625