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The Road to Revolution

  • The Intolerable Acts: British Crackdown and Colonial Response
  • A new series of acts ended self-rule by the colonists in MA in March of 1774
  • First Continental Congress meets in Philly, PA in 1774 and the delegates come up with an initial plan to challenge British policies
  • The outbreak of war erupts in Lexington and Concord, MA; British retreated but huge losses for both sides
  • Second Continental Congress convenes in May 1775 w/delegates from all 13 colonies
  • After losing battles at Breed’s Hill & bunker Hill, they created a Continental Army headed by General George Washington
  • Thomas Paine’s “Common Sense” had a huge influence over colonists: a pamphlet that called for independence and a republican form of government

The Road to Revolution

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  • Intro 0:00
  • Overview 0:05
  • Coercive or “Intolerable” Acts 1:54
    • Self-Rule Acts
    • The Quebec Act
    • King George and Parliament
  • Colonial Response 4:18
    • Committees of Correspondence
    • The House of Burgesses
    • Thomas Jefferson
  • First Continental Congress 7:02
    • Rejection of Colonial Union
    • Stop all Trades with England
    • A Statement of Grievances
    • The Suffolk Resolves
    • James Galloway
  • The Declaration of the Rights and Grievances 11:16
    • Greater American Autonomy
    • Violations of the Rights of the Colonists
  • Rebellion Spreads to the Countryside 12:47
    • Changing Attitudes to Imperial Issues
    • Yeoman Tradition of Land Ownership
  • British Response 14:13
    • Illegal Assembly
    • Payment of Defense and Administration
    • Conciliatory Propositions
  • Lexington and Concord 16:26
    • Minutemen of Concord
    • Huge Losses
  • John Lodge's “View of the Attack on Bunker Hill, with the burning of Charles Town, June 17, 1775” 17:57
  • Loyal Americans Feared “Mob Rule” 18:24
    • Sons of Liberty
    • Pacifist Beliefs
  • The Second Continental Congress Organizes 20:05
    • Continental Army
    • John Dickinson of PA
    • Olive Branch Petition
  • Declaration of the Causes and Necessity of Taking Up Arms 23:09
  • Patriots Mobilize and Loyalists Join British 24:05
    • Zealous Patriots
    • Patriot Planters
  • Thomas Paine's “Common Sense” 26:52
    • Called for Independence
    • Common Sense
    • Against British Rule
  • Example 1 29:17
  • Example 2 31:48
  • Example 3 34:11

Transcription: The Road to Revolution

Welcome back to

This lesson we are going to cover the road to revolution.0002

First, we are going to talk about what lead to the turning point leading to the revolution.0008

The intolerable acts, what the patriots will call the intolerable acts, the British will call them the coercive acts.0015

This is where we are going to see the British cracking down on the colonists.0023

We will also see the response that is definitely going to exacerbate tensions between the British and the U.S. colonists.0028

We are going to also talk about the divisions between patriots.0039

Those who are pro revolutionary, and then the loyalists who want to remain connected to Great Britain.0043

Then, we are also going to see how the revolutionary colonists are looking to form their early form of government,0053

and come up with a plan how to deal with the British.0064

We will see that eventually things are going to come to a head,0069

and violence will break out the first battle in Lexington and Concord, first two battles.0073

And then, we will also see the second Continental Congress being formed,0081

where many of the same members will return and come up with a more intense plan to deal with the British.0085

And lastly, we will be focusing on some of the rationale, some of the propaganda that was used0093

to help make the revolutionary cause palatable and understandable by the ordinary people,0099

and will help make the case to break free from Great Britain, once and for all.0108

Let us get into it.0114

First, let us talk about the coercive acts which the patriotic colonist will call the intolerable acts0116

because they used this term to dramatize, and turn this into propaganda for the patriotic cause,0124

and to highlight how unfair the British policies really were, toward the colonists.0135

After the Boston tea party, the British closed down -- just to pick this off where we left off last time.0144

The British closed down the Boston port to all commercial shipping until Massachusetts agreed to pay the taxes on the dumped tea.0151

We are going to see that the Massachusetts colonists are unwilling to do this.0160

Tensions are going to continue to rise.0169

A new series of acts ultimately ended self rule by the colonists in Massachusetts, in March of 1774.0173

This also included the banning of public meetings, unless they were sanctioned by the royal governor,0183

squashing their ability to have a voice and to speak to one another, and to organize.0193

That was definitely viewed as very undemocratic.0198

It also became illegal to sue royal officials in colonial courts.0202

British officials had to go back to England to go into a court which felt very undemocratic to the colonists as well.0208

And then, another act which was part of the intolerable acts, the Quebec Act,0220

extended the boundaries of Quebec to the Ohio River, and guaranteed the rights to Catholics and Indians in the region.0225

That was very offensive to the colonists who believed that they were not being protected by the British0233

who are extending rights to people who they did not believe should receive the protection.0240

We will see that these acts will quickly backfire on King George and parliament.0247

The Continental Congress is going to form and respond to the intolerable acts.0253

We will see the, kind of grassroot organization, the committees of correspondence that had been established,0261

which are a means to communicate amongst the different colonies, requested a meeting in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.0268

All the colonists had to elect and recommend delegates to represent each of their colonies.0276

Some of the most famous ones, those who are notable, Patrick Henry, George Washington, Sam Adams, and John Hancock, just to name a few.0290

There were several others as well like John Galloway, Ben Franklin will be there, and others.0299

These were prominent, many of them being important founding fathers.0307

They are going to partake in many of the discussions and debates0312

that will ultimately decide the direction and course, that the patriotic revolutionaries will take in dealing with the British.0316

The House of Burgesses from Virginia invited each colony to send a representative to a meeting,0326

to consider ways of uniting to resist British laws.0332

Twelve came, at first Georgia did not attend.0338

Eventually, the first Continental Congress drew up a statement called the Declaration of Rights and Grievances.0342

This, like it sounds, was a list of all of the different grievances that the colonists had,0351

and related to trade restrictions, and also restrictions on their democratic rights.0359

We will see some of the other works that a lot of these members like Thomas Jefferson,0369

who was recognized as a prolific writer and intellectual.0375

He wrote the famous summary view of the rights of British America,0382

that declared America's right to rebel against an oppressive and despotic government.0387

This was an important work that will not only served as instructions for Virginia's delegates to the Continental Congress,0392

but also provide foundations for many of the values that will be emphasized in some of the later documents.0403

When we start going through the process of creating a new government.0415

That is also very significant.0420

The first Continental Congress, we are going to see and meet in Philadelphia.0425

This is the first capital, if you will, of this colonial times, and early America, eventually.0433

They make five important decisions.0444

They rejected a plan for colonial union under British Authority.0446

They approved a series of resolutions to plan for military preparations against the British.0451

They agreed to non importation, non exportation, and non consumption.0458

And ultimately, to stop all trade with England.0463

And, they agreed to enforce this agreement.0467

They realized that putting this economic pressure on England0472

would be a very successful means to try to pressure them to change their behavior.0476

They also endorsed a statement of grievances that I just mentioned in the last slide.0482

They also agreed to meet again in the spring and reflect and adjust, if necessary,0488

and come up with the next plan for moving forward.0496

They were a variety of approaches, obviously, when you bring different people from different colonies,0502

and they have different interests, different economies, and so forth, that will affect their outlook.0508

Obviously, a lot of the tensions that had been happening in the Boston area0518

not affect some of the areas or some of the colonies in the southeastern part of the colony.0526

That is going to be a factor that sometimes causes tension amongst the different delegates.0537

And they have to fit interest, in kind of different cultural ways as well,0545

that sometimes will inhibit them from finding consensus.0549

However, we will see that they were able to make some decisions, and ultimately,0555

we will see that the First Continental Congress endorsed the Suffolk Resolves which declared the coercive acts to be null and void.0559

They are starting to up the ante, and come up with an organized approach, and rebellious approach,0571

and using those enlightenment ideals to question laws that they believed were unreasonable.0578

We will see that there will be much loyalist leaning approaches or0586

you could say approaches that are attempting to make amends or compromise with the British, such as James Galloway's plan of union.0592

He tried to keep the extremists on both sides in check, and ultimately, proposes in his plan to really compromise,0605

and even advocates that the colonies will have representation in parliament,0619

that their representative body will be inferior to other branches within the British legislature.0631

That did not go over very well with most of the delegates at the first Continental Congress.0640

He also believed that there should be various governors of each of the colonies, but they would be appointed by the king.0647

Anyway, his plan ends up being scrapped and they did not even include his ideas in minutes of the meeting because they were so unpopular.0659

He eventually ends up becoming an outwardly loyalist and actually goes back to England.0669

But just to give you an example that there were several different approaches and0678

different perspectives that people brought to the table, at the first Continental Congress.0683

A little bit more about the Declaration of the Rights and Grievances.0692

This called for greater American autonomy and limits on parliament’s power over the colonies.0696

In many ways, this was something of a precursor to the Declaration of Independence.0703

It reaffirmed the colonists’ rights as an Englishmen,0709

the right to life, liberty, and property, and the right to representation.0712

This is where we are going to see the emphasis from the colonial view that we are equal citizens of England,0721

and they deserve to be treated in a fair way, that they have these natural rights.0729

It also listed specific acts of parliament that were violations of the rights of colonists, and they called for their repeal.0739

It also created an agreement among most of the colonies to boycott British goods until the coercive acts were repealed.0750

They have a variety of techniques to put pressure on England to get them to change their policies,0761

and ultimately, to repeal the coercive acts that they found especially offensive.0768

We will see that rebellion will also spread beyond the elite political circles, that will spread to the countryside.0776

The ban on British goods was easily established in rural areas, and committees of safety and inspection were created to enforce it.0785

At first, farmers have little interest in imperial issues.0794

These conflicts, especially, between the British and the French.0798

Now they were in between these conflicts.0807

But after the French and Indian war which again, many colonists had to serve in that conflict.0811

Many lost their sons to military service and force imposed war taxes were very intrusive and difficult for people to pay.0820

That was definitely a factor that changed their attitudes.0834

Patriots also appealed to the Yeomen tradition of land ownership that was under threat.0840

They felt that they were not being protected, that their land rights were being taken away,0848

and that certainly justified rising up against the British.0853

After the first Continental Congress is formed, we will see that the British will respond to the declaration and their demands.0860

The British Ministry branded the Continental Congress as an illegal assembly,0870

and they refused to send commissioners to America to negotiate.0876

They were saying that we are not recognizing you, which again,0881

is going to fuel the fire and raise tensions between the British and the colonists.0886

The ministry declared that Americans had to pay for their own defense and administration,0895

and acknowledge parliaments authority to tax them.0902

Kind of scolding them like a parent to his or her children, that you have to pay for own defense.0906

Britain was in financial straits and wanted to give more financial responsibility to the American colonists.0915

That is obviously not going to go over very well.0927

William Pitt suggested withrawal of troops from America, and Edmund Burke called for the repeal of the coercive acts.0930

Those who were more moderate minded, more liberal, they did speak up and tried to encourage restraint.0938

But ultimately, their efforts were in vain.0951

They were also conciliatory propositions.0954

They would tax themselves at parliament's demand.0958

But ultimately, we are going to see the offer was too little too late.0960

We are going to see tensions are going to continue to mount and General Gage,0968

this is a British general, ordered seizure of patriot armories.0973

This will eventually lead to the outbreak of war in Massachusetts, in Lexington and in Concord.0978

In response to Gage’s seizure, about 20,000 colonial militia men mobilized to safeguard the supply depots,0989

the most famous regiment being the Minuteman of Concord.0997

By April of 1775, Gage dispatched soldiers to capture colonial leaders and supplies at Concord, Massachusetts.1002

We will see that, you may have heard the famous event that1012

Paul Revere riding through Boston on his horse, will warn people that the British are coming.1019

We will see that, he, along with other local militia men,1025

met the British first at Lexington, and then at Concord, and pull the colonists together to rally against the British.1028

And they have a lot of heart, even though they are underdogs undoubtedly, in fighting the strongest army in the world.1039

However, we are going to see that the British retreated but there were huge losses for both sides.1050

As you could see here, 73 troops on the British side were killed and about 200 were wounded or missing in action.1057

For the patriots, patriotic colonists, were 49 dead and about 46 missing or wounded.1065

We are starting to see actual violence between the colonists and the British.1075

Here is a visual to bring that together.1083

This is John Lodge’s from another battle that will occur in 1775, the view of the attack on Bunker Hill with the burning of Charlestown.1086

Not everyone in the colonies was gung-ho about breaking free from Great Britain.1105

We are going see that about a third of the population remained loyal.1113

And they did fear mob rule, they feared this violence that would snowball throughout the colonies,1120

where fear of boycotts, intimidation by force, used by the Sons of Liberty.1130

They did not really like the radical actions and violence that they embraced during their protests.1135

Quakers and Germans, in particular, tried to remain neutral because the Quakers,1144

in particular, having pacifist beliefs, also, because of their fear of political change.1150

We will also see some people on the countryside were not as supportive as well.1157

Some areas tenant farmers supported the king, but hated the landlord.1161

They had mixed feelings about the whole situation and were unwilling to commit to the patriotic cause.1167

Some social groups such as tenant farmers, the regulators, and some enslaved blacks as well,1175

refused to support the resistance movement.1182

Some of this could also be tied to the idea that this was oftentimes, this is a rich man's war but a poor man’s fight.1185

Those who are struggling financially, in particular, did not want to lose their livelihood fighting this war.1195

We are going to see that this is going to be a challenging situation,1208

and the colonists need to continue to communicate, and come up with the next plan moving forward.1213

As they had promised that they were going to reconvene after the first Continental Congress,1222

we will see that they meet in May of 1775,1228

this time with delegates from all 13 colonies.1232

After losing battles at Breed's Hill in Bunker Hill, the colonists will create a continental army headed by General George Washington.1236

As many of you know, he is very important because he eventually becomes our first president.1248

He also had the experience fighting in the French and Indian war.1253

He seems like a logical choice to many of the delegates.1259

Again, we will see that there is debate and dissension regarding next steps, what should they do.1264

They were moderates lead by John Dickenson of Pennsylvania, who was a Quaker,1270

who passed the position that expressed loyalty to the king.1279

He also was a huge advocate of trying to forge compromise.1283

He requested that repeal of oppressive parliamentary legislation in his famous olive branch petition,1289

that he was the primary author for.1297

The idea of reaching out an olive branch.1301

The idea of trying to make peace.1305

This was considered one of the last ditch efforts to try to reach out, make amends, and use diplomacy with the king.1307

Despite some disagreements, we will see that they are going to have the two approach, the second Continental Congress.1321

They have both options on the table.1330

They are willing to appease Dickenson and give this a chance.1334

But they feel that it is naive and it is really not going to work.1338

But nonetheless, they are trying to work together in this Congress.1343

It was adopted by the Congress on July 5 and submitted to King George on July 8, 1775.1348

However, once the king received this petition, he refused to read it,1356

and said that the colonists had rebelled, proceeded to open an avowed rebellion.1361

In response, he issues the proclamation for suppressing rebellion and sedition in August of 1775.1368

This crashes Dickenson, and shows the olive branch petition, this is not going to work.1377

This brings us to the other approach, which is the declaration of the causes and necessity of taking up arms.1390

We will see that since the olive branch petition was not going to work, they also had to have another approach.1405

This ultimately becomes the argument for why it is necessary for the colonists to take up arms against the king.1416

They give a long list of all of their grievances and reasons why they need to mobilize for war.1428

These goes back to the French and Indian war, and all the taxes that were being imposed on the colonies.1437

We will see that they are going to begin to mobilize, zealous patriots like John Adams and Patrick Henry.1449

In New England, in Massachusetts, in particular, the patriots are going to be much more outspoken,1460

and they are going to have a greater sense of urgency to take up arms against the British.1471

Because of the coercive acts that were affecting Boston, because their port was being closed down.1476

Because you could literally see soldiers walking around Boston.1482

It was much more tensed, and they had a greater sense of urgency than in other areas throughout the colonies.1486

Anyway, they are going to have more passion about taking a military approach.1492

They are very outspoken.1504

Anyway, they eventually won passage of the declaration of the causes and necessities of taking up arms.1505

And also around this time the patriots invaded Canada which perhaps not the smartest thing to do at this time.1515

Nonetheless, they were hoping to add a 14th colony.1524

They did take Montreal but later failed to capture Quebec, that did not have any long-term consequences.1528

But just to show their muscle and show that they are willing to attack Great Britain.1537

American merchants also cut off all exports to Britain with its West Indies sugar islands.1545

We will see in response, parliament retaliated with the Prohibitory Act banning trade with the rebellious colonies.1553

We are going to see things continue to heat up.1563

Lord Dunmore of Virginia organized two military forces, one white and one black.1565

It offered freedom to slaves and indentured servants who joined the loyalist cause.1571

We are going to see the British are going to try to, in many ways, manipulate the situation.1577

To try to convince many colonists to the loyalist cause and promise them freedom.1583

In some cases, they do actually provide some people with freedom.1591

It is somewhat understandable but in many cases, we see that they fall, their promises actually fall short.1596

Patriot planters actually call for a break with Britain because they are also getting hurt economically.1605

More and more, we are going to see that the idea of unifying all of the colonies1616

will become a very important theme throughout this time period, in the mid to late 1770’s.1621

Then there was Common Sense, Thomas Paine’s Common Sense was a very influential pamphlet1633

that called for independence and republican form of government.1642

Thomas Paine was an enlightenment thinker.1647

He would serve as a lowly bureaucrat in the customs office in England and was fired for protesting low wages.1651

He put those enlightenment ideas in his practice, specially,1659

the idea is that if you believe that a government is unjust, that it is your right and duty to overthrow that government.1662

He believed in free speech and questioning authority using reason.1671

When he migrated to Philadelphia, he met with Benjamin Franklin, Dr. Rush,1679

other patriots who shared his republican sentiments and enlightenment ideas.1684

In Common Sense, he attacked the traditional political order and made a strong case for American independence.1690

He put this in a language that was accessible to most colonists, ordinary American colonists.1699

Many colonists did retain a deep loyalty to the crown.1707

He was really trying to make the case and this ends up serving as an important piece of propaganda.1712

It did successfully arouse the general public and quickly turned thousands of colonists,1719

many of those who are previously loyalists, against British rule.1726

He sold a quite a few, made quite a few pamphlets, and made money, and sold thousands of these, as you could see.1735

In 1776, over 100,000 copies were sold in three months.1744

It was very successful and it was very effective in influencing people's mind set, and helping to make the cause for revolution.1750

Now we are going to get into the questions.1764

This first excerpt, as you could see, from Joseph’s Galloway plan of union.1770

Let us read, British and American legislature, for regulating the administrative affairs of America.1776

British and American legislature, for regulating the administrative affairs in America,1785

be proposed and established in America, including all the said colonies,1791

within and under which government each colony shall retain its present constitution1796

and powers of regulating and governing its own internal police, in all cases whatsoever.1801

In regulating governments own internal police.1810

Galloway, hopefully you remember who Galloway was, we talked about at the first Continental Congress.1815

Let us look at example 1, how did Galloway’s plan solve the problem of colonial representation in parliament?1824

A, by giving Americans complete independence from England.1835

B, by allowing Americans the right to participate in parliament by uniting them with Britain.1839

It convinced radical patriots for the need to compromise.1845

D, it advocated for America's legislature to be equal.1848

And E, to be equal, and equal that was supposed to be and an equal branch in Britain's legislature.1853

The answer.1866

This one, let us double check, yes, it is B.1869

Second example, which of the following is true?1879

Galloway’s plan was rejected by radical patriots.1882

Galloway’s plan was rejected by loyalists.1886

Galloway’s plan was adopted by the first Continental Congress.1888

Galloway’s plan proposed that England pay for colonial police forces.1892

The answer, this one.1900

Remember, they want with the Suffolks Resolves but not the plan of union.1905

Moving along, example 2, the authors and promoters of this desperate conspiracy1912

have meant only to amuse by vague expressions, I want to highlight this, desperate conspiracy,1919

by vague expressions of attachment to the parent state, and the strongest protestations of loyalty to me,1928

whilst, they were preparing for a general revolt.1937

The resolutions of parliament breathed a spirit of moderation and forbearance,1941

conciliatory propositions accompanied the measures taken to enforce authority.1946

I have acted with the same temper, anxious to prevent, if it had been possible,1950

the calamities which are inseparable from a state of war,1956

still hoping that my people in America would have discerned the traitorous views of their leaders,1959

and had been convinced, that to be a subject of Great Britain, with all its consequences,1968

is to be the free member of any society in the known world.1975

This is King George, that is supposed to be III, in his speech to parliament.1983

Let me actually fix that.1991

Let us look at the questions.2005

Based on the excerpt, which of the following best describes King George's view of the colonists?2007

They were loyal British citizens.2013

Their problems were with parliament.2018

They plan to revolt for a long time.2020

Or they misconstrued the king.2022

The answer.2029

Next question, which of the following groups or individuals have been most likely to agree with King George?2032

Thomas Paine, loyalists, John Dickinson, or patriots.2041

The answer is loyalists.2046

Lastly, we are going to talk about a long essay question.2053

I’m just going to give you some suggestions for how to approach the long essay.2061

First, let us read through the question.2066

By 1775, dates are always important,2070

it was obvious to both the British government and the American colonial leaders,2075

that there was no workable compromise between their differing views of empire.2082

Assess the statement and support, modify, or refute this contention using specific evidence.2087

First, you have to really read through this and make sure that you understand the statement.2099

Then, you have to decide if you want to support this statement, modify it,2106

meaning qualify the statement or say to a certain extent.2113

For in other words, add another connecting fact to make your argument,2119

and to formulate your thesis, or if you want to disagree with it.2129

Perhaps, you want to choose a different time period or event, for instance,2134

that is for you the turning point where they are unable to have a workable compromise.2141

Again, they are lot of different ways to approach essay questions like this.2150

It is fairly open ended.2156

I’m just going to give you one approach and some suggestions on how you could tackle this question.2158

I'm not going to read an entire essay.2168

I’m going to layout my thesis of how I would perhaps address this essay question,2171

and give you a general structure and some ideas of how you could approach it.2179

Here it goes, there was a combination of events and tensions that led to the outbreak of the American revolution,2187

that stemmed from the era of salutary neglect, and the development of enlightenment ideas that influenced colonists to rebel against the British.2196

It was apparent that the British and American colonial leaders could not reach compromise over the rule of the colonists as taxpaying citizens,2205

and to what extent they should have representation in British government.2215

And as a result, war broke out in 1775.2221

Something along those lines.2225

And then, you would break your different body paragraphs into various subsections such as,2228

you should make sure that you have a good topic sentence for each paragraph, each of those body paragraphs.2237

You want to make sure that your thesis is in the introduction, as well as in the conclusion.2246

Anyway, I think for one of the first body paragraphs, I would include a discussion of mercantilism, generally speaking,2254

and the relationship between Great Britain as mother country and the colonists.2264

And their role in providing raw materials for the benefit of mother England.2270

I would also bring in salutary neglect, that time period, when England had Locke’s administration.2280

That allowed some of the supporting details, you could bring in to that paragraph,2289

that even though they were navigation acts that were intended to bolster the British economy and help the British economy,2294

at the expense of the colonists, that colonial merchants find loopholes around a lot of those laws because they were loosely enforced.2303

You could bring in Walpole, as well, and why he believed in this policy2314

that having a more restrictive policy with the colonist was not beneficial in the long run.2324

We are going to see that salutary neglect ends up backfiring on the British,2333

as it allows for the American colonies to gain a sense of independence economically and politically.2337

I think there is a lot that you can develop just in that section.2347

You could also bring in another paragraph, after the French and Indian war where many American colonists had served.2352

The British economy was suffering and they needed to raise revenue.2363

They started to pass along many taxes and enforce many laws on the colonists.2368

I would bring in a lot of the different laws that they start to pass.2376

Several of the acts, for instance, that you could bring in, like the Stamp Act.2385

You could also talk about the Tea Act.2390

You could talk about the Boston massacre and the restriction of rights.2394

A lot of the responses that went along with those restrictive laws, and what the colonies viewed as unfair policies.2400

You could get into the political aspect as well, that the colonists had basic early forms of representative government.2415

And they believed that they needed a greater voice in Britain's parliament,2427

that they should not be taxed without having fair and equal representation.2433

Ultimately, how their efforts to express this desire to the British fell on deaf ears,2440

that the British were unresponsive, that they did not see the colonists as equals in deserving of representation in parliament.2450

And that ultimately, will lead to the inability for them to compromise and to come to some type of agreement and consensus.2459

This will eventually lead to war.2472

Anyway, I think there are lots of different ways that you can approach this.2475

You just need to back it up with facts.2479

I just gave you some of the examples.2482

There are a lot of different ways that you could approach this.2486

You could bring in more of the political writings and some of the intellectual arguments as well,2488

to help strengthen your argument that this becomes an unworkable situation, where they are unable to compromise.2496

War breaks out and eventually the American colonists will break free successfully from Great Britain.2507

I think with that, we will call it a wrap.2517

Thank you for watching