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Elizabeth Turro

Elizabeth Turro

England's Tobacco Colonies, Jamestown, Bacon's Rebellion

Slide Duration:

Table of Contents

I. Period 1: 1491 - 1607
The First Americans

53m 30s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:06
“American” History?
3:12
Controversies with the Term, “America”
3:24
The Origin of the Term, “America”
4:10
The Peopling of the Americas
4:40
The Land Bridge Theory
6:33
How the First Americans come to the Continent
6:44
Evidence of the First Americans
7:50
The Three Major Waves of the First Americans
8:27
The First Wave
8:40
The Second Wave
8:50
The Third Wave
8:57
The Controversial of Kennewick Man
9:12
The Native Americans
9:47
The Three Sisters
9:50
The Effects of Agricultural Surplus
10:26
The Three Sisters
11:09
Mayas and Aztecs of Mesoamerica
11:57
Olmec Civilization
11:45
Subsequent
12:36
Mayan Society
12:52
Jaguar Temple in Tikal (Mayan Temple)
13:17
Mayan Calendar
15:11
Mayans
15:43
Priests Ruled Society
15:53
The Decline of the Mayan Civilization
16:03
Aztecs
16:40
Tenochtitlan
16:51
Aztec Priests and Warrior Nobles
17:12
Incas
17:39
Introduction of the Incas
18:06
Summary of Mayans, Aztecs and Incas
18:29
Map of Native American Cultural Areas
18:55
The Indians of the North of Rio Grande
20:15
Clan-Based and Egalitarian Society
20:36
Why the Indians did not Develop into an Advanced Group?
21:22
Self-Governing Tribes
22:28
Southwest Settlements
22:51
Hohokam, Anasazi, Pueblos
23:00
The Decline of the Southwest Settlements
23:47
Architectural Site of a Southwest Settlement
24:01
Underground Kivas of the Anasazi
24:05
Zunis, Acomas and Hopis
24:36
Artifacts From the Southwest
24:49
Lives of the Pueblo People
25:10
Ancient Apartment buildings of Anasazi and Petroglyph
25:42
Midwest Settlements
26:39
Adena-Hopewells
26:42
Cahokia
27:25
The Decline of the Mississippian Civilization
28:07
Muskogean and Algonquian Speaking Societies
28:18
Hopewell Mound
28:51
The Great Serpent Mound
29:07
The Culture of Mississippians
29:15
Animists
29:53
Northeast Settlements
30:33
Hunting and Farming-Based Society
30:48
Iroquois Confederation
30:57
Iroquois Women at Work, 1724
32:42
Matrilineal Society
33:27
Iroquois Creation Myth
33:38
Dominant Economic Activity
35:35
The “New World”
36:27
Example 1
37:26
Example 2
43:15
Example 3
44:44
Example 4
50:59
Interactions of Europeans, Native Americans and Africans

55m

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:50
Europeans Encounters Africans and the Americans 1450-1550
2:51
European Agricultural Society - Yeomen
3:42
Hierarchical Social Order
4:39
Hierarchy
4:59
Inheritance and Religious Influences
5:32
Dower and Primogeniture
5:33
Religious Influences
6:00
Importance of Religious History
6:43
Pagans and Animists
6:53
Crusades
7:20
Christian Identity of Europeans
7:56
Absorption of Arab Knowledge
8:08
The Renaissance and The Age of Exploration
8:57
The Black Death
9:16
The Renaissance
9:34
Improvements in Technology
11:15
Prince Henry the Navigator
11:51
Gunpowder
13:00
West Africa and the Mediterranean in the 15th Century
13:50
Sea of Darkness
14:28
Madeira and Azore Islands
14:47
The Development of the Slave Trade System
15:00
Trade Routes in the Sub-Saharan Region
15:21
Trade Routes in the Globe
16:45
West African Society and Slavery
17:31
Geographical Location
18:21
Trading of Goods
18:50
Languages
19:22
Spiritual Beliefs
20:01
Effects of European Traders
20:16
Europeans and Africans Trade
20:56
Vasco da Gama
21:28
Slave Trade
22:00
War Captives and Criminals
23:15
Portuguese Traders and Slavery
24:19
Elmina, Foree, Mpinda and Loango
24:30
Sugar Plantations
25:13
Shipping to the America
25:56
Europeans Explore America
26:19
Spanish Monarchs, King Ferdinand of Aragon and Queen Isabel of Castile
26:26
Arranged Marriage
26:52
The Capture of Granada
27:33
Ferdinand and Isabella
27:42
Christopher Columbus
27:58
Two Goals
28:26
Christopher Columbus
28:47
Native Inhabitants
29:12
The Three Expeditions
29:31
Colonization of the West Indies
30:22
Amerigo Vespucci
30:40
The Spanish Conquest
31:02
Reconquista
31:18
Hernan Cortes
31:37
Moctezuma
31:50
Superior European Military Technology
32:11
Conquistadors and Disease
32:44
Francisco Pizarro
33:30
Conquistadors and Encomiendas
33:43
Columbian Exchange Map
34:52
Columbian Exchange
36:20
The Definition of Columbian Exchange
36:21
The Gold and Silver from Aztecs
36:46
Spanish Colonization of Americas
37:15
Spaniards Migration
37:22
Mestizo Population
37:51
Effects of Spanish Conquest
38:27
Introduction of Pigs
38:36
Steel Weapons
38:48
Smallpox
38:57
European Treatment of Native Americans
39:20
“Inferiority”
39:35
Spanish Policy
40:25
Latin American Social Hierarchy
41:21
Las Casas and Missionaries
42:20
Bartolome de Las Casas
43:06
In Defense of the Indians
43:10
Enslavement of Africans
43:58
Example 1
44:32
Example 2
47:45
Example 3
49:56
Example 4
52:21
The Protestant Reformation, Early Dutch and British Colonization and The Price Revolution

45m 42s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:10
The Protestant Reformation (Early 16th Century) and the Rise of England
2:00
Protestant Reformation
3:33
Spain's Loss of its Position
4:16
The Protestant Movements and Religious Conflicts
4:23
Religious Wars
4:32
Protestant Nations
4:49
Catholic Church
5:02
Martin Luther
5:16
Martin Luther
5:47
Grace
6:07
Dismissed the Need for Priests
6:24
Bible as the Ultimate Authority
6:48
Peasants' Social Protests
7:11
The Peace of Augsburg
7:30
John Calvin and Calvinism
7:58
Calvinism
8:50
Institutes of the Christian Religion and Predestination
9:13
The Chances of Salvation
9:33
The New Creed
9:49
The Anglican Church
10:09
The Presbyterian Church
11:15
Puritans
11:33
Religious Diversity in Europe, 1600
11:53
Radical Religious Groups
13:09
Migration to America
13:57
The Dutch and English Challenge Spain
14:32
John Cabot
15:12
King Philip II of Spain
15:46
Dutch (Holland)
16:05
Queen Eliz. I
16:28
Holland on the Rise
17:17
The Spanish Armada
17:48
Philip II
18:12
The Rise of the Dutch
18:48
Henry Hudson
18:58
Amsterdam
19:55
West India Company
20:28
Furtrading Colony of New Netherland
20:42
Dutch Colonies and Hudson River Valley
21:22
Mercantilism
22:01
Parliamentary Policies
23:36
Enrichment of Britain
23:48
Mercantilist Policies
24:48
Rise of Economy
24:50
Queen Eliz
25:48
The Domestic English Textile Industry
26:11
Merchant-Oriented Policies
26:48
Triangular Trade
27:00
Complex View of the Atlantic Trade System
28:05
The Social Causes of English Colonization
28:57
Merchant Fleets and Manufactures
29:26
Price Revolution
29:39
Creating Representative Government
30:08
Price Revolution Graph
30:36
Price Revolution
31:10
Expansion of the Textile Industry
31:21
Indentured Servants
31:58
A New Collision
33:00
Example I
33:21
Example II
36:43
A Comparison of Colonization and Settlement Patterns

57m 28s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:10
Spanish Settlements in North America
1:46
Spanish Adventurers
1:50
Francisco Vasquez de Coronado
3:02
Hernan de Soto
4:45
St Augustine
5:24
Spanish Exploration in North America
5:38
St. Augustine
8:00
Indian Attacks and Spanish Response
8:49
Comprehensive Orders of New Discoveries
9:10
Pacification of Indians
9:48
Franciscan Friars
10:38
Images Related to Spanish Colonization
12:13
San Antonio Mission
12:29
Pope
13:29
Native American Response to Spanish Policies
14:28
Attitude towards Franciscans
14:39
Sante Fe
16:03
Pueblo Revolt
16:23
Pueblos Joining the Spaniards
18:15
What did Spain Achieve?
19:05
Settled San Diego and San Francisco
19:50
Development of the Rigid Class System
20:17
New Spain
22:21
Spanish Class System
22:51
The French Explore and Settle in North America
24:20
Giovanni da Verrazano
24:30
Voyages of Jacques
25:33
Quebec
26:20
Louisiana
27:42
Fur trade and Relations with Native Americans
28:09
The Hurons
28:20
Devastating Indian Wars
30:22
The New York Iroquois
31:30
The Confederation of Five Nations
31:43
Iroquois Five Nations
32:07
The French Also Sought Converts
32:30
The Needs of the Indians
33:20
Threat to Native Population
33:48
The Dutch Explore and Settle in North America
34:29
Joint-Stock Company
36:14
The Town of New Amsterdam
38:01
Encouragement of Migration
38:25
New Amsterdam, Dutch Style, Fort-Like Trading post
39:08
New Amsterdam
39:42
Fort Orange
39:46
Taverns Outnumbered Churches
40:10
Seizing Farming Land
41:11
Welcoming Settlers from Other Nations
42:31
The Brits Take Over and Rename the Settlement New York
43:07
Ignoring the Requests for Representative Government
43:18
Second Anglo-Dutch War
44:08
The Duke of York
44:17
Hudsob River and Dutch Colonies in Green
45:35
New York Divided and New Jersey is Formed
46:12
Lord John Berkeley and Sir George Carteret
46:50
East and West Jersey
47:03
Quakers
48:22
Queen Anne
48:38
Example 1
49:10
Example 2
54:24
England's Tobacco Colonies, Jamestown, Bacon's Rebellion

55m 26s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:09
Areas Colonized by 1660
0:45
Early British Ventures in North America and Roanoke Island
1:48
Sir Humphrey Gilbert
2:20
Sir Ferdinando Gorge
2:57
Sir Walter Raleigh
3:20
Croatoan
3:57
The Chesapeake Colonies
4:51
Populous Colonies
4:59
Indentured Servants
5:27
Virginia
6:49
Jamestown
7:14
Virginia Company
7:16
Corporate Colony
8:44
Harsh Life
8:57
Finding Gold
9:51
The Man, the Myth, the Legend
10:17
Powhatan and Captain John Smith
11:51
Powhatan
12:06
Opechancanough
13:12
Captain Smith
14:22
Powhatan and Pocahontas
15:37
Marriage
16:03
Introduction of Tobacco
16:59
Jamestown Government
17:58
The “Starving Time” and Tobacco
18:35
Disease and Famine
19:27
Cannibalism
19:32
Brown Gold
20:05
The VA Company Encourages Settlement
20:40
Headright System
20:50
House of Burgesses
21:57
Backlash of Powhatan
22:51
War led by Opechancanough
23:40
Indian Fields seized by the English
24:15
Virginia Becomes a Royal Colony
24:40
A Royal Colony
25:05
The Church of England
26:23
Maryland Is Established
26:37
George Calvert
27:02
A Safe Haven for Catholics
28:09
Cecil Calvert Takes Over
28:54
Cecil Calvert
28:58
An Act of Toleration
29:51
Protestant Revolt
31:33
Hard Times and Labor Shortages
31:52
Raising Prices of Exports
32:55
Sir William Berkeley
34:11
Nathaniel Bacon
34:43
Bacon's Rebellion
35:17
Building Frontier Forts
36:02
Berkeley Arrested Bacon
36:47
Political Reforms and Restoring the Rights of Voting
37:15
Nathaniel Bacon and the Site That His Followers Occupied
37:36
Aftermath and Effects of Bacon's Rebellion
37:49
Manifesto and Declaration of the People
37:58
Sharp Class Difference
38:15
Early Indication of Colonial Resistance
39:38
The First African Workers Arrive and Slavery Supplants Indentured Servitude
40:12
The First African Workers
40:18
English Common Law
41:24
Lowering the Status of Africans
42:23
Analyzing Primary Sources
43:46
Example 1
44:26
Example 2
48:05
Example 3
51:10
Example 4
51:59
II. Period 2: 1607 - 1754
Puritan New England, The Pequots And Metacom's Rebellion

1h 3m 53s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:09
Puritan Migration
1:20
Pilgrim Separatists Sail to North America
2:29
Elizabeth I
2:47
Separatists
4:10
Mayflower
4:20
The Mayflower and Pilgrims
5:25
64-Day Voyage
5:43
Pilgrims
6:00
The Mayflower Compact
6:35
Self-Government
7:12
Just and Equal Laws
8:06
Grim Conditions for the Pilgrims at Plymouth
9:55
William Bradford
10:28
The Local Wampanoag Tribe
11:12
Thanksgiving Holiday
12:59
Puritans Arrive in MA Bay Colony in 1630
14:00
Arabella
14:13
John Winthrop
14:18
More Puritans Follow the Pilgrims
16:15
The Anglican Church
16:28
Massachusetts Bay Colony
17:19
Joint-Stock Corporation
17:53
Puritan Governance and Society
19:19
John Winthrop
19:24
Holy Commonwealth
20:30
Creation of the Theocracy
21:19
The Role of Church and the Bible
22:16
Pious, Patriarchal Puritans
23:57
Patriarchal Society
24:57
Predestination
26:04
Three Ways to Deal With Uncertainties
26:40
Puritan Dissenters
27:21
Roger Williams
28:05
Anne Hutchinson
29:34
Antinomianism
30:42
More Dissent and New Colonies
31:24
Thomas Hooker
31:40
The Fundamental Orders
31:51
Puritanism and Witchcraft
33:21
Witchcraft
37:45
European Enlightenment
39:16
Puritans Value Education
39:53
Puritan Law
40:19
Harvard College
40:32
Tight-Knit Yeoman Society
41:14
Town Meeting
42:42
Proprietors
43:51
A Socioeconomic Hierarchy
44:22
Puritan Town and Village Map
44:45
Halfway Covenant
46:03
Clergy
46:30
New England Congregationalists
46:46
Partial Church Members
47:25
Map of Algonquian Peoples In MA
48:17
Puritans and Pequots
49:36
Pequot Warriors
50:00
Savages
50:32
Praying Towns
51:12
The Wampanoag and Metacom's Rebellion
51:40
Peaceful Relations with Wampanoag
51:50
Metacom
52:47
The White Settlements
53:20
Losses of the Rebellion
54:15
Metacom
55:24
Example 1
56:06
Example 2
59:10
Example 3
1:01:13
The British Empire in North America, Part I

1h 3m 58s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:08
Restoration Colonies
1:43
Charles II
2:17
South and North Carolina
2:49
Feudal Manors
3:13
Map
4:49
Georgia Founded Later in 1732
5:55
A Buffer
6:10
James Oglethorpe
6:20
Charles II Grants Proprietorships
7:58
A Gentry Class
8:41
Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina
9:25
The Carolinas
10:15
Rebellion of the English Quakers
10:40
South Carolinians
11:58
Pennsylvania
13:15
William Penn
14:48
Inner Light
15:08
Church Services
16:14
William Penn
17:00
The Society of Friends
17:35
Holy Experiment
18:04
City of Brotherly Love
18:17
Pennsylvania's Frame of Government
18:36
Guaranteed Religious Freedom
19:32
Persecuted Protestants
20:50
Political Factionalism
21:53
The British Increase Pressure on the Colonies
22:52
Navigation Act in 1651
24:19
Navigation Act in 1660
25:56
Navigation Act in 1663
26:30
English Domination of Commerce
27:02
The Revenue Act of 1673
27:22
Commercial Wars
27:58
A Punitive Legal Strategy
28:57
Divine Right
30:10
The Dominion of New England
30:46
The Dominion
31:11
Sir Edmund Andros
31:42
English Law and Customs
32:53
Excerpts From the Commission of Sir Edmund Andros
33:20
Imposing Levy Rates and Taxes
33:44
Executing Martial Law
34:22
Britain's American Empire in 1713
34:45
Dominion of New England and Sir Edmund Andros
37:27
The Glorious Revolution and Its Effects
38:30
Glorious Revolution
38:56
Mary and Williams of Orange
39:12
Constitutional Monarchs
39:28
The English Bill of Rights in 1689 and the Enlightenment
41:43
The English Bill of Rights
41:50
British Parliament
42:05
Two Treatises of Government
42:59
The Leviathan Absolutist State
44:28
The Demise of the Dominion of New England
46:03
Broke Up of the Dominion of New England
46:42
A New Royal Colony
47:06
The Restoration of Internal Self-Government
47:59
Board of Trade
48:16
Example 1
48:54
Example 2
51:29
Example 3
54:36
The British Empire in North America, Part II

1h 58s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:06
Imperial Wars and Native People
3:13
Carolinas Armed with the Creek
3:50
Fighting in the North
5:03
The Abenakis and Mohawks
5:08
Aggressive Neutrality
6:09
Treaty of Utrecht
6:37
Western Indian Trade
7:03
Britain's Supremacy
7:24
The Imperial Slave Economy
7:40
The South Atlantic System
7:53
The Sugar Plantations
9:27
Sugar Revolution
10:09
Most Profitable Crop
10:21
Negative Effects
11:06
Africa, Africans and the Slave Trade
12:03
Changing the West African Society
12:36
Benin
13:02
The Imbalance of the Sexes
13:33
Slave Trade
14:00
Middle Passage
15:09
Slavery in the Chesapeake and SC
17:58
A Slave Society
18:10
An African American Community
20:28
The Gullah Dialect
21:06
A Black Majority Emerges in South Carolina
21:50
Images of Slavery
22:40
Resistance and Accommodation
26:34
Drastic Limits on African Americans
26:45
Slave Protests
27:35
Stono Rebellion of 1739
29:24
Stono Rebellion
29:58
The Emergence of the Southern Gentry
30:49
Patriarchal Society
31:03
The Planter Elite
31:08
Owning a Slave
32:33
Gentility
33:41
Gentility
33:46
The Profits of the South Atlantic System
34:42
The Northern Urban Shipbuilding Economy
35:01
Bills of Exchange
35:48
Shipbuilding and the Distilling of Rum
36:33
Commerce in Lumber and Shipbuilding
36:55
Wealthy Landowners and Merchants
37:13
The Rise of Colonial Assemblies
37:55
Ruling With Gentle Hand
37:13
American Representative Assemblies
39:02
The Rising Power of the Colonial Assemblies
39:20
The Power of the People Began to Grow
40:18
Crowd Actions
40:22
Representative Political Institutions
40:33
Salutary Neglect
41:07
Constitutional Monarchism
42:07
The Prime Minister
42:50
Radical Whigs
43:07
Faction
43:12
Incompetent Royal Bureaucracy
43:41
Walpole
44:24
Navigations Act
44:34
A Degree of Independence
44:44
Walpole's Concerns
45:04
War Against Spain
45:29
War of Jenkin's Ear
46:30
War of Austrian Succession
46:52
The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle
48:36
The America Economic Challenge
49:04
Navigations Act
49:07
The Molasses Act of 1733
49:52
The Currency Act
50:20
Example 1
51:48
Example 2
55:42
Example 3
59:52
Freehold New England and Diverse Middle Colonies

32m 29s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:08
Freehold Society in New England
1:03
Freeholders
2:25
Women and the Rural Household
2:42
Patriarchal Society
3:06
Farm Property and Inheritance
4:58
Laborer to Freeholder
5:39
Women Relinquished Ownership
6:43
Whole Communities
7:25
Challenges for Freehold Society
7:30
Double of the NE Population
7:44
Families' Petition
8:56
Livestock Economy
10:15
Preserving the Freehold Ideal
10:28
The Hudson River Manors
10:49
The Middle Atlantic Colonial Society
12:23
Grain Exports
13:07
The Hudson River Valley
13:56
Rural Pennsylvania and New Jersey
14:45
Economic Changes in Mid Atlantic
15:03
Social Division
15:17
“Outwork” Manufacturing System
15:42
Cultural and Religious Diversity
16:13
Cultural Diversity: Quakers and Germans
18:47
Preserving Cultural Identities of Migrants
19:02
German Cultural Heritage
20:25
Scots-Irish
20:39
Movement of Scots-Irish
20:50
Presbyterian Faith
21:28
Religious Identity and Political Conflict
21:52
Demanding a More Aggressive Indian Policy
22:15
Opposition to the Quakers
22:51
Economic and Demographic Changes in Mid Atlantic
24:18
Example 1
25:51
Example 2
28:00
Example 3
29:38
The Enlightenment and the Great Awakening in America

44m 4s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:07
The Enlightenment
3:04
The Age of Reason
3:33
Empirical Research and Scientific Reasoning
5:25
Influential Enlightenment Ideas
6:45
Four Fundamental Principles
7:29
John Locke
8:03
Two Treaties of Government
9:28
Revolutionary Ideas
11:46
Two Non-clergy-led Universities
13:39
Deism
14:32
Accordance with the Law of Nature
14:50
Ben Franklin
15:50
Ben Franklin
16:02
Key Contributor of American Revolution
16:45
Founder of the Junto Club
17:12
American Philosophical Society
17:22
Franklin's Poor Richard's Almanak
18:16
Almanacs
18:25
Richard Saunders
18:35
Wise Maxims
18:49
American Pietism
19:53
Pietism
20:12
Evangelical Christian Movement
20:27
Jonathan Edwards
22:04
The Great Awakening
22:18
Christian Zeal
22:24
George Whitefield
23:10
New Light
23:48
George Whitefield
24:06
The Great Awakening
24:46
Growth of Churches
24:52
Emotionalism, Revivalism, Evangelicalism
24:58
Itinerant Ministers
25:32
New Colleges
25:42
Jonathan Edwards
26:14
Revivalist and Intellectual
27:01
Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God
27:20
Eternal Damnation
27:42
Religious Upheaval in the North
28:34
Old Light
28:38
Unconverted Sinners
30:22
Separatist Churches
30:35
Presbyterianism
31:26
Protestant Church Government
31:31
Geneva, Switzerland
31:50
Hostility of Irish Catholics
32:13
Reverend William Tennent
32:39
Scots-lrish Immigrant
32:49
Log College
33:16
Picture
34:02
Effects of the Great Awakening
34:08
Americans
34:45
Emotionalism
35:30
The Congregational and Presbyterian
36:45
Baptists and Methodists
37:10
Growth in the Number of Churches
37:35
Example 1
38:07
Example 2
41:09
The Great Awakening Spreads to the South and the French and Indian War

39m 53s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:10
Social and Religious Conflict in the South
1:48
Challenging the Church of England and the Planter Elite
2:01
Freeholders
2:51
Religious Pluralism
3:16
Baptist Revivals
4:02
Baptist Revivals
4:41
Free Born Male Members
5:37
A New Religious identity
6:14
The First Three Wars
6:40
King William’s War
7:22
Queen Anne's War
8:46
King George's War
8:47
The Seven Years' War
9:42
French and Indian War
9:50
Iroquois Strategy
11:10
Beginning of French and Indian War
12:05
Ohio Valley
12:40
Fort Necessity
13:17
Join, Or Die
13:49
Pennsylvania Gazette
16:30
Ben Franklin's Albany Plan
16:50
The Board of Trade
17:39
One General Government
17:54
Significance of the Albany Plan
18:53
Demands for American Independence
18:56
Stamp Act Congress
19:37
Map of Conflicting Imperial Claims
21:04
The French and Indian War
21:35
Nova Scotia
21:39
Seven Years' War
22:17
William Henry
22:31
French and Indian War Map
22:56
End of War
23:36
Treaty of Easton
23:38
Quebec
24:02
The Treaty of Paris
24:30
Boundaries After Treaty of Paris
25:40
Pontiac's Rebellion
26:33
Ottawa Chief Pontiac
26:37
Indian Alliance
27:49
British Era
28:11
Other Effects of the War
28:49
American Military Ineptitude
29:27
Huge Debt
30:10
Defied the New Treaty
31:15
Paxton Boys
32:10
Example 1
32:53
Example 2
35:44
Example 3
37:55
III. Period 3: 1754-1800
British Reorganization After the French and Indian War and Colonial Protest

42m 59s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:10
British Shift in Policy Toward Colonists
1:00
Higher Import Duties
1:46
Discriminatory British Policies
3:44
British Expenditures and Revenue
4:04
British Law and Imperial Reform
4:57
The Supremacy of Parliamentary Laws
5:02
Second-Class Subjects
5:22
Currency Act
6:02
The Sugar Act
6:46
Navigation Act Loophole
7:01
Vice-Admiralty Court
7:45
The Stamp Act and Quartering Act Passed
8:28
Stamp Act
8:39
First Direct Tax
9:06
Quartering Act
10:06
Declaratory Act
10:33
Colonists Begin to Rebel
11:21
Virtual Representation
11:38
Patriots
12:23
Enlightenment Ideas
12:51
The Colonial Response
15:06
James Otis of MA
15:24
Stamp Act Congress
15:32
The Sons of Liberty
16:18
The Bostonians Paying the Exciseman or Tarring and Feathering
17:08
Extreme Measures
17:46
A British View
19:02
The Repeal or the Funeral Procession of Miss Ame-Stamp
19:49
Stamp Act Repealed
22:01
Declaratory Act
22:15
The Townshend Acts
22:52
Refuse to Drink Tea
23:03
More Acts, More Restrictions
23:30
The Revenue Act
23:38
Quartering Act
24:24
More Forms of Resistance
24:56
Daughters of Liberty, Boycotts and Homespuns
25:06
Boycotts of British Goods
26:50
Trade as a Political Weapon
27:26
Some Notable Patriots
27:57
Patrick Henry
28:04
John Adams
28:49
The Boston Massacre
30:11
The Boston Massacre
30:19
Paul Revere
31:28
Committees of Correspondence
32:11
The Rights and Grievances of the Colonists
32:36
More Organized Attempt
32:47
The Boston Tea Party: Reaction to Tea Act
33:07
Mohawk Indians
33:23
Crates of Tea
33:47
Sons of Liberty
34:04
British Reaction to Boston Tea Party
34:43
Closing Down the Port
35:07
Coercive Acts
35:35
Example 1
36:06
Example 2
38:47
The Road to Revolution

42m 3s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:05
Coercive or “Intolerable” Acts
1:54
Self-Rule Acts
2:52
The Quebec Act
3:40
King George and Parliament
4:07
Colonial Response
4:18
Committees of Correspondence
4:20
The House of Burgesses
5:25
Thomas Jefferson
6:08
First Continental Congress
7:02
Rejection of Colonial Union
7:25
Stop all Trades with England
7:37
A Statement of Grievances
8:02
The Suffolk Resolves
9:20
James Galloway
9:59
The Declaration of the Rights and Grievances
11:16
Greater American Autonomy
11:31
Violations of the Rights of the Colonists
12:18
Rebellion Spreads to the Countryside
12:47
Changing Attitudes to Imperial Issues
13:35
Yeoman Tradition of Land Ownership
13:59
British Response
14:13
Illegal Assembly
14:29
Payment of Defense and Administration
14:55
Conciliatory Propositions
15:54
Lexington and Concord
16:26
Minutemen of Concord
16:37
Huge Losses
17:28
John Lodge's “View of the Attack on Bunker Hill, with the burning of Charles Town, June 17, 1775”
17:57
Loyal Americans Feared “Mob Rule”
18:24
Sons of Liberty
18:50
Pacifist Beliefs
19:04
The Second Continental Congress Organizes
20:05
Continental Army
20:38
John Dickinson of PA
21:10
Olive Branch Petition
21:33
Declaration of the Causes and Necessity of Taking Up Arms
23:09
Patriots Mobilize and Loyalists Join British
24:05
Zealous Patriots
24:11
Patriot Planters
26:45
Thomas Paine's “Common Sense”
26:52
Called for Independence
27:16
Common Sense
28:09
Against British Rule
28:39
Example 1
29:17
Example 2
31:48
Example 3
34:11
Independence Declared and the Revolutionary War

30m 41s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:08
Independence Declared
1:01
Declaration of Independence
1:14
Thomas Jefferson
1:27
Principle of Individual Liberty
6:01
The Legitimacy of Republican State Government
7:05
War in the North
7:20
Patriots
7:27
The Loyalist Strongholds
8:02
Native Americans' Preference
8:17
The British Military and Strategy
8:46
Powerful Navy
8:52
Joseph Brant
9:15
The American Army and Strategy
10:15
Economically and Militarily Weak
10:25
New Continental Army
10:28
Guerilla Tactics
11:34
British Tactics
12:12
General Howe
12:19
Battle of Long Island
13:20
Trenton
13:34
1776-1777 Map
14:04
African-American Role in the War
14:30
Loyalists and Americans
14:42
Enslaved During the War
15:10
Women's Role in the War
15:32
Boycott of English Good
15:58
Abigail Adam's Letters
17:51
The Ladies Association
19:49
Washington’s Sewing Circle
20:00
Edenton Ladies Tea Party
20:11
Philadelphia on the Eve of the Revolution
21:15
General William Howe
21:39
Starvation at Valley Forge
21:58
Thomas Jeffery's, After George Heap. “ An East Prospect of the City of Philadelphia”
22:11
Turning Point: Battle of Saratoga
23:26
Saratoga
23:45
Captured British Troops and Equipment
24:18
End of War
24:36
Dutch Declared War Against Britain
24:44
Marquis de Lafayette
25:05
Yorktown
25:39
Treaty of Paris
26:28
Treaty of Paris in 1783
26:49
Example 1
27:33
Example 2
29:09
Creating Republican Institutions

44m 52s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:06
Creating Republican Institutions
1:39
Sacred Fire of Liberty
2:04
The Destiny of the Republican Model
2:11
Experiment Entrusted to the hands of the American People
2:26
The State Constitutions, 1776-1787
2:41
Republicanism
3:22
New Constitutions
4:27
Voting Rights
5:48
John Adam's Influence
6:21
Thoughts on Government
6:56
PA Unicameral Legislature
7:08
Bicameral Legislature
8:07
Bicameral Legislature
8:43
Restricting Popular Power
8:49
Middling Circumstances
9:56
Women Seek a Public Voice
10:35
Second-Class Citizens
11:12
Abigail Adams
12:12
Vindication of the Rights of Woman
12:55
On the Equality of the Sexes
13:42
The Loyalist Exodus
14:21
Structure of Rural Communities
14:36
A Traditional-Oriented Economic Elite
15:00
Entrepreneurial-Minded Republican Merchants
15:13
In Search of a National Government
15:48
Weak Central Government
16:26
Continental Congress
16:39
First Constitution
17:34
Congressional Powers in the Articles
18:34
Conduct Wars and Foreign Relations
18:53
Adjudicate Disputes
19:38
Land Ordinances
20:04
The Confederation and the “Northwest”
20:17
Westward Expansion
20:50
Creation of Several Ordinances
21:49
Secessionist Movements
22:10
The Northwest Territory
22:46
Refused Morris's Proposal
23:18
Trans-Appalachian West
23:29
Native American Tribes
23:44
Map of Northwest and Southwest Territories
24:20
Ordinance of 1784
24:43
Ordinance of 1785
25:28
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
26:50
A Single NW Territory
27:12
Inhabitants
27:22
Weaknesses of the Articles
27:47
No Power to Tax
28:26
No Executive
28:53
Single Vote for Each State
29:02
Diplomatic Features
30:05
Great Lake Area
30:20
John Adams
31:10
Example 1
31:35
Example 2
34:28
Example 3
36:55
The Constitutional Convention and Debate Over Ratification

45m 59s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:07
Debts, Taxes and Shays
3:31
Postwar Depression
3:41
Resentment of Farmers
4:00
Abolition of Imprisonment for Debt
4:33
Effects of Shays' Rebellion
5:29
Sentenced to Death
5:37
No Federal Army
5:54
A Riot Act
6:30
What Type of Government to Create?
7:20
A Stronger Central Government
8:07
Money Questions
8:16
Alexander Hamilton
9:15
James Madison
11:06
Madison's Virginia Plan
12:06
3-Tiered National Government
13:41
Lower House
13:58
Upper House
14:10
Patterson's New Jersey Plan
14:47
William Patterson
15:18
One-House Legislature
15:57
Tax and Regulate Commerce
16:06
The Great Compromise
16:30
Roger Sherman
16:43
Connecticut Plan
17:07
Legislature
17:30
Other Important Decisions
19:56
In One Supreme Court
20:00
The Electoral College
20:23
A Fugitive Clause
22:50
The Supreme Law of the Land
23:17
National Supremacy
23:28
The Constitution
24:19
Fear of Abuse of People's Rights
24:58
Federalism, Enlightenment and Republicanism
25:34
Federalism
25:47
Enlightenment Ideas
26:27
Enumerated Powers
27:04
Federalists V.S. Antifederalists
28:42
Federalists
28:55
The Federalist Papers
29:30
Antifederalists
30:25
A Bill of Rights
30:41
Completing the Structure
30:57
First Elections
31:25
Ratification
31:31
Washington and John Adams
31:35
First Ten Amendments
31:44
The Judiciary Act of 1789
31:58
Map of State Ratification of Constitution
32:17
Creation of a Cabinet and Three Departments
33:33
Example 1
34:32
Example 2
35:25
Example 3
42:23
The Early Nation and the Washington Administration

43m 18s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:07
Status of Native Americans
1:55
Conflicts over Land
2:04
Nation Within a Nation
3:09
Tribal Sovereignty
3:20
Domestic Dependent Nations
4:54
Native American Conflicts 1780s
5:25
Trans-Appalachian West
5:43
Treaty of Fort Stanwix
6:02
Native Americans in Ohio
6:52
Native American Conflicts 1790s
7:01
Northwest Confederacy
7:24
Miami Warrior Little Turtle
7:45
Battle of Fallen Timbers
8:51
Treaty of Greenville
9:09
Hamilton and the Federalist Influence
9:30
Federalists
10:02
Alexander Hamilton
10:26
Public Credit
11:37
Alexander Hamilton's Economic Plan
12:06
Assume the Debts of the States
12:16
A National Bank
12:56
Excise Tax
13:13
The Federalist Program
14:24
The Funding Bill
14:32
Potomac River
15:48
National Bank of the US
16:08
Public Credit
16:15
The Republican Opposition
16:39
The Emerging of the Republican Party
17:30
Agrarian Republic
18:17
Decentralization
19:20
Strict V.S. Broad Constructionism
20:11
Strict Constructionism
21:39
Elastic Clause
22:45
Loose or Broad Constructionism
24:01
Washington Wins 1792 Election
25:14
The Whiskey Rebellion
25:50
The Militia
26:21
Early Foreign Policy
26:51
Neutral Policy
27:23
Diplomat Edmond Genet
28:05
French West Indies
29:19
Jay's Treaty
29:48
Federalist John Jay
30:17
Opposition to Jay's Treaty
31:44
Pinckney's treaty in 1795
31:56
Thomas Pinckney
32:08
Mississippi River
32:27
Executive Privilege
33:15
Downfall of the Federalists
33:37
Republicans Rose in Power
33:44
Preserving Stability
34:03
The Election of 1796
35:08
Farewell Address
35:46
John Adams
37:13
Example 1
37:46
Example 2
40:50
IV. Period 4: 1800-1848
Adams and The Jeffersonian Era

48m 14s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:05
John Adams
1:48
Political Philosopher
2:40
French Revolution and Haitian Revolution
3:13
Not a Slave Owner
3:46
Falling out with Jefferson
4:34
Relations with France Deteriorate
5:32
XYZ Affair
7:12
A Huge Backlash
7:33
New Warships
7:59
Rejected the Federalist Approach
8:33
Alien and Sedition Acts
9:06
Alien Act
9:23
French Revolution
9:48
1st Amendment's Prohibition
11:19
Republican Response
12:21
VA and KY Resolutions
12:26
Undelegated Powers
12:40
States' Rights Interpretation of the Constitution
13:06
Jefferson Becomes President in 1800
13:50
Election of 1800
14:34
Burr
15:15
Voting for Jefferson
15:35
Jefferson Elected
15:51
Electoral College
15:58
Revolution of 1800
16:44
Judiciary Act of 1801
17:37
Midnight Appointments
18:08
Marbury V. Madison
19:26
Marbury V. Madison
19:41
Judicial Review
20:17
John Marshall
21:29
Samuel Chase
21:40
Thomas Jefferson
21:51
Architect, Intellectual, Writer
22:00
Urbanization
22:52
Expansion of US Territory
23:57
Monticello
24:23
Limits on Government
25:06
Abolishing Internal Taxes
15:15
The U.S. Military Academy at West Point
26:06
U.S. French Relations
26:25
Secret Treaty of San Ildefonso of 1800
27:03
Unrest in the Caribbean Islands
28:02
New Republic of Haiti
28:35
Napoleon and L'ouverture
29:44
Other Foreign Policy Challenges
30:05
Pinckney Treaty of 1795
30:28
Robert Livingston
30:42
Louisiana Purchase of 1803
31:46
Proposal of Buying Louisiana
32:17
Signed the Agreement
32:30
Louisiana Admitted as a State
32:57
Louisiana Purchase
33:07
Lewis and Clark
33:34
Missouri River
34:15
Records to Geography and Civilizations
34:43
Lewis, Clark and Sacajawea
35:07
The Burr Conspiracy
35:24
Essex Junto
36:00
Aaron Burr
36:23
Other Challenges for Jefferson
37:27
War of 1812
37:44
Napoleonic War
37:51
Chesapeake-Leonard Incident
39:03
Jefferson's Proposal: Embargo
39:35
Embargo
41:02
A Controversial Policy
41:53
Exports
42:17
Example 1
42:35
Example 2
44:46
Period IV: James Madison and the War of 1812

44m 36s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:06
Election of 1808
2:24
Non-Intercourse Act in 1809
3:12
Macon's Bill No. 2 in 1810
3:43
Madison Faces Challenges
4:24
France Stop interfering with US Shipping
4:34
Indians in Ohio River Valley
5:14
Westward Expansion and Clashes With Native Americans
5:34
Treaty of Grenville in 1795
6:25
The Harrison Land Law
6:57
William Henry Harrison
7:25
Tenskwatawa, “The Prophet”
8:18
Shawnee Leader
8:42
Spiritual Revival
10:07
Tecumseh: “The Shooting Star”
10:29
Against White Civilization
10:43
Battle of Tippecanoe
11:12
Florida and War Fever
12:04
War Hawks
13:58
Henry Clay of Kentucky
14:10
John C. Calhoun of SC
14:13
Causes of War and Divisions
14:50
Naval Blockade
15:44
A Divided Nation
16:53
Anti-War Groups
17:36
The War of 1812
18:53
Land Campaign
20:11
Invaded Canada through Detroit
20:25
General Hull
20:37
The War of 1812: “Mr. Madison's War”
21:05
Map of the War
24:16
The White House Burns in 1814
27:05
The Revolt of New England
28:04
Daniel Webster
28:36
Talk of Secession
29:20
Hartford Convention
29:35
The Effects of the War of 1812
31:07
Respect Canada as a Neighbor
31:42
Debate over Missouri Territory
32:01
Rise of Sectionalism
32:20
Territorial Expansion for Anglo-Americans
33:21
The Treaty of Ghent
33:56
The Rush-Bagot Agreement of 1817
34:54
Example 1
35:12
Example 2
37:59
Example 3
42:15
Period IV: The Growing Economy, The American System and The 'Era of Good Feelings'

35m 25s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:08
The Growing Economy
2:32
Manufacturing Increased
2:39
The Bank of the U.S.
2:59
Building of a National Network of Roads and Waterways
3:24
Tariff of 1816
4:04
Transportation System Improvements
6:01
Potomac River to the Ohio River
6:09
President Madison
7:54
Conestoga Wagon
8:25
Henry Clay's American System
8:35
Protective Tariffs
8:43
National Bank
8:52
Internal Improvements
8:55
The Panic of 1819
9:56
The First Major Financial Panic
10:26
Tight Credit Policy
10:37
Debt Increased Sharply
10:53
Westward Expansion
11:14
The Population Doubled
11:30
The Factor System
12:08
The Plantation System in the Southwest
13:17
Black Belt
14:15
Cotton Plantations and Slavery
14:31
Four States Admitted to the Union
15:25
Trade and Trapping in the Far West
15:45
Mexico Gained Independence
16:08
U.S. Traders
16:39
Jedediah Smith
17:37
Exploration of the West
18:03
Plattee
18:36
The Great American Desert
18:56
James Monroe
19:13
Virginia Dynasty
19:22
John Quincy Adams
20:25
John C. Calhoun
20:32
John Quincy Adams and Florida
21:04
A Committed Nationalist
21:16
Negotiations with Spain
21:25
Andrew Jackson
21:41
Adams-Onis Treaty of 1819
22:52
Adams-Onis Treaty
24:02
Sectional Conflicts
24:57
The Extension of Slavery
25:06
The Tallmadge Amendment
26:32
Missouri Compromise
27:14
A Free State
27:21
A Slave State
28:11
MO Compromise
28:29
Example 1
30:16
Example 2
31:53
John Marshall, the Federalist Legacy and James Monroe's Foreign Policy

35m 22s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:09
John Marshall and the Federalist Legacy
1:10
Judicial Authority, the Supremacy of Laws and Traditional Property Rights
1:51
The Interests of Propertied and Commercial Classes
2:25
Long Term Mark on the Court
3:02
Fletcher v. Peck in 1810
3:30
Land Frauds
3:42
Contract Clause
5:42
Property Rights
7:00
Dartmouth College v. Woodward in 1819
7:40
College's Charter
8:04
Expanded the Meaning of Contract Clause
8:27
The Corporate Charter
8:48
McCulloch v. Maryland in 1819
9:20
Constitutionality of the Bank of the United States
11:16
Implied Powers
11:34
Power to Destroy
12:05
Gibbons v. Ogden in 1824
12:23
A State Grant
14:29
Interstate Commerce
14:38
Johnson v. McIntosh in 1823
15:01
Sold Land to White Settlers
16:19
Take Land from Tribes
16:44
Worcester v. Georgia in 1823
17:49
Establish Native American Sovereignty
18:51
Marshall Affirmed the Rights of Tribes
19:32
Foreign Policy Under Monroe
20:39
U.S.-Latin American Trade Relations
22:46
Neutrality
23:40
Establish Diplomatic Relations
25:08
Monroe Doctrine in 1823
25:53
“Backyard” of the U.S.
27:05
Nationalistic Policy
28:26
Secretary o State John Q. Adams
28:40
Example 1
30:00
Example 2
32:43
John Quincy Adams, Growing Sectional Tension, and the Capitalist Commonwealth

47m 41s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:08
The Election of 1824
1:17
State Legislatures
1:52
William H. Crawford
3:08
The Demise of the Caucus System
3:49
House of Representatives
4:43
Henry Clay as Secretary of State
6:14
Corrupt Bargain
6:30
John Quincy Faces Obstacles
7:05
Partisan Tensions Emerged
7:16
International Issues
7:33
Conflict with Georgia
8:36
The Controversial Tariff of 1828
9:29
Tariff on Imported Goods
9:32
Tariff of Abominations
10:01
A Huge Backlash in New England
10:37
Capitalism and the Commonwealth
10:55
Common-wealth
11:42
Abrupt Drop in Worldwide Prices
12:50
Business Cycle
13:23
Transportation Improvements
13:58
The Sale of Privately Owned Land
14:43
Marshall Court
15:37
First Railroad Lines
15:48
Transportation Innovations
16:24
Trade Ventures
16:30
Shipping Industry
16:37
James Watt
16:42
Robert Fulton and Robert Livingston
16:51
Turnpikes
17:13
Erie Canal Project
17:17
George Harvey's “Pittsford on the Erie Canal” in 1837
18:37
Erie Canal
18:53
Growth of U.S. Industry
20:14
Factory System
20:27
Eli Whitney
22:35
Changes in Corporate Law
24:08
Trade/Craft Unions
25:00
Commonwealth v. Hunt in 1842
26:32
Peaceful Unions
26:59
Labor Contracts
27:08
Cities Continue to Grow
28:09
Northerners
29:00
Agriculture and the Rise in Immigrants
29:13
Peculiar Institution
30:01
Effects of the Market Revolution
31:31
Isolated Lives
32:29
Women's Rights
32:40
Less Arranged Marriages
33:17
The Growth of the Cotton Industry
34:07
Example 1
34:18
Example 2
36:55
Example 3
39:18
Republicanism, The Second Great Awakening and Antebellum Reform Movements

40m 4s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:51
A Democratic Republican Culture
1:54
Republican Marriages
2:44
Republican Motherhood
4:56
Raising Republican Children
7:10
Promoting Cultural Independence
8:32
Aristocratic Republicanism and Slavery
9:55
Necessary Evil
11:32
Wages-Slaves
11:50
Gabriel Prosser
12:35
Outlawed Slave Trade
13:47
Voting Rights Expand
14:05
The Antislavery Movement Early 1800s
15:06
Black Abolitionists
15:24
Haitian Revolution
15:42
The American Colonization Society
17:43
Liberia
18:19
Richard Allen
20:04
The Second Great Awakening
21:33
Huge Evangelized Hubs
22:27
Evangelic Methodist and Baptist Churches
23:09
Timothy Dwight and Charles Finney
23:33
Revival Meetings Could Last Up to a Week
23:53
Effects of the Second Great Awakening
26:01
A Fervently Protestant People
26:30
Academies
27:56
Women's Rights and Temperance Movements
28:22
Revivalism
29:20
Camp Meeting
29:27
Rationalism/Enlightenment (Deism)
29:45
Charles Grandison Finney
30:53
Finney and Revival
31:32
Other Religious Groups Arise
31:51
The Shakers
32:15
The United Society of Believers in Christ's Second Appearing
33:10
Utopian Society
34:22
The Shakers
35:27
Example 1
36:17
Example 2
38:43
Utopian Communal Societies, the Temperance Movement, and Nativism

47m 18s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:10
Rural Communalism and Utopian Societies
2:24
Fourierism
4:06
Utopian Socialism
5:05
Members of Phalanxes
5:37
100 Cooperative Communities
5:42
Other Communal Experiments
6:26
The Amana Colonies in Iowa
6:29
New Harmony
6:53
Utopian Socialist Community
7:10
Major Communal Experiment Before 1860
8:39
The Oneida Community
10:11
John Humphrey Noyes
10:18
Complex Marriage
10:22
Female Followers
11:38
Silverware Production
13:17
The Mormons, 1830
14:01
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints
14:11
Joseph Smith
14:14
Brigham Young
16:23
The Mormon Trail
16:45
Immigration and Cultural Conflict
17:10
Potato Famine
19:27
German/Irish
20:15
Cholera Epidemic
21:26
Immigrant Communities
21:41
The Surge in Immigration, 1854-1855
22:14
Backlash Against Immigrant Groups
23:04
Low Wages
23:18
Nativist groups
26:11
Immigrants were Scapegoats
26:54
Alcoholism
27:02
Samuel F.B. Morse
28:00
The Temperance Movement
28:33
Reform Movement Against Drunkenness
29:07
The American Society for the Promotion of Temperance
30:56
Temperance Legislation
31:37
The Drunkard's Progress
32:27
Carrie Nation, The Bar Room Smasher
33:58
Conservative Social Reform
35:30
Congregational and Presbyterian Ministers
35:46
Prison Discipline Society
36:24
Regular Habits
36:32
Sabbatarian Values
37:10
Example 1
38:45
Example 2
41:20
Example 3
42:46
Jacksonian Democracy

40m 25s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:07
The Rise of Popular Politics
2:21
Expansion of the Vote
2:30
Presidential Electors
3:17
No Franchise
4:01
The Political Machine
4:38
Martin Van Buren
5:58
Patronage
6:30
Spoils System
6:46
Jacksonians
8:32
Changing in Voting Patterns
8:52
Jackson Runs a Tough Campaign
10:57
Age of Jackson
11:42
Jackson's Inauguration
13:23
Reign of King Mob
13:45
Economic Equality
14:41
First Days in Office
15:14
Whigs
15:54
Against Jackson
17:09
Like a Monarch
17:18
Northern Whigs
18:02
Southern Whigs
18:57
President of the Common Man
19:22
Self-Made man from TN
19:27
Equal Protection and Equal Benefits
19:31
No Region
19:58
Permanent Office Holders
21:07
Frugal Jeffersonian
21:43
To the Victors Belong the Spoils
21:48
Spoils System
21:50
A Central, Corrupting Feature
22:40
To the Victors Belong the Spoils
23:44
Jackson's Political Rivals: Clay
24:14
Four Internal Improvement Bills
24:44
The Bank of the United States
25:22
Vetoing Numerous Bills
25:40
The Rise of Martin Van Buren and Jackson's Scandalous Cabinet
26:05
Kitchen Cabinet
26:54
Albany Regency
27:18
Senator Eaton
27:28
The Rats Leaving a Falling House
28:50
Calhoun and Nullification
29:33
John C. Calhoun of South Carolina
29:40
Nullification
30:04
Tariff of Abominations
30:20
Sectional Controversy
31:15
Nullification Crisis
31:45
Preserve Federal Union
32:54
A Force Bill
33:45
Compromise Reached
34:09
Henry Clay
34:14
Passed the Compromise and Force Bill
34:33
Nullification of the Tariffs
34:40
Example 1
35:09
Example 2
37:54
Four Internal Improvement Bills
24:44
The Bank of the United States
25:22
Vetoing Numerous Bills
25:40
The Rise of Martin Van Buren and Jackson's Scandalous Cabinet
26:05
Kitchen Cabinet
26:54
Albany Regency
27:18
Senator Eaton
27:28
The Rats Leaving a Falling House
28:50
Calhoun and Nullification
29:33
John C. Calhoun of South Carolina
29:40
Nullification
30:04
Tariff of Abominations
30:20
Sectional Controversy
31:15
Nullification Crisis
31:45
Preserve Federal Union
32:54
A Force Bill
33:45
Compromise Reached
34:09
Henry Clay
34:14
Passed the Compromise and Force Bill
34:33
Nullification of the Tariffs
34:40
Example 1
35:09
Example 2
37:54
Jackson, The Removal of Native Americans and The Bank Veto

43m 48s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:08
“King” Jackson and Native Americans
2:01
Vetoed 12 Bills
2:45
Abusing Power
3:13
Land-Hungry Citizens
4:30
“King Jackson”
4:55
Attitudes Toward Native Americans
6:42
White Expansion
6:49
Get Rid of Indian Landholdings
7:26
Indian Removal Act
7:48
The “Five Civilized Tribes”
8:08
Cherokees
9:23
Southern Indians
10:11
Tribal Map in Southeast
10:37
The Indian Removal Act, 1830
11:00
The Resettlement of Many Thousands of American Indians
11:06
Bureau of Indian Affairs
11:28
The Black Hawk War
12:01
Chief Black Hawk
12:12
Last Battle
12:26
70 Indian Nation to Sign Treaties
13:02
Portrait of Black Hawk by Charles Bird King
13:26
Worcester v. Georgia in 1832
13:55
Worcester
15:27
Native American Sovereignty
15:54
The Rights of Tries to Remain Free from the State Government
16:11
Jackson's Response
16:54
Let the Court Enforce It
16:56
Removal Continued
17:26
Johnson v. McIntosh in 1823
17:32
Illinois and Pinakeshaw
17:50
Buy Land from Tribes not from Individuals
18:11
Indian Removal
18:33
Trail of Tears
20:07
Trail of Tears, a 1200 Mile Journey
20:44
The Seminole War
21:37
The Seminoles of Florida
21:55
The Struggle Dragged on for Years
22:18
Uprising in 1835
22:30
Osceola
23:24
“The Indians and Negroes Massacre the Whites in Florida, in January 1836”
23:30
Result of Removal
25:07
Less Hospitable Lands of the Mississippi
25:26
Disease or Exhaustion
26:37
Alien Environment
26:46
Jackson's Bank Veto
27:03
Most Powerful Financial Institution in the Nation
27:30
Nicholas Biddle
27:50
The “Soft Money” Faction
28:12
The Hard money Position
28:33
Henry Clay
29:56
Private Monopoly
30:19
Jackson's Second Term
31:13
Destroy the “Monster” Bank
31:26
Attorney General Roger B. Taney
31:56
Raising Interest Rates and Calling in Loans
32:10
Chronically Unstable Banking System
32:46
Jackson Cartoon
33:14
Jackson's Species Circular
35:52
Inflated Prices for Land and Various Goods
36:01
Specie Circular
36:12
The Panic of 1837
36:38
Example 1
37:41
Example 2
40:09
Democrats, Whigs, and the Second Party System

36m 37s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:06
Taney Appointed to the Court
1:32
Charles River Bridge v. Warren Bridge
2:19
Promote General Happiness
2:44
Exercising a Monopoly
3:18
Expansion of Economic Opportunity
3:35
The Whigs Respond to the Democrats
4:03
Second Party System
5:14
Laissez-Faire Capitalism
5:53
Irish and German Catholics
6:35
Whig Ideology
6:52
Expanding the Power of the Federal Government
6:53
Supporters of Legislation
7:37
Anti-Mason Movement
8:10
The “Great Triumvirate”
8:20
Henry Clay
8:40
Daniel Webster
8:53
John Calhoun
9:01
Election of 1836
9:28
Van Buren
9:34
Nominating Four Candidates From Different Regions
10:14
An Affecting Scene in Kentucky
10:35
1836 Election Cartoon
12:48
Divided Leadership Affects 1836 Election
14:51
Martin Van Buren and Democrats
14:58
Individual Rights
15:05
The Failed Plan
15:22
The Panic of 1837
15:49
Distribution Act
16:45
Land Speculative Fever Resulted
16:54
Independent Treasury System
17:56
Image of the Panic of 1837
18:50
Depression of 1837
21:25
The Ideology of Artisan Republicanism
21:41
Unions to Bargain for Higher Wages
22:06
Closed Shops Agreements
22:23
Effects of the Depression
23:09
Prohibited “Conspiracies” in Restraint of Trade
23:12
The Democratic Party
24:22
Commonwealth v. Hunt in 1842
24:35
Peaceful Unions
24:50
Upheld the Rights of Workers
25:06
Ten-Hour Day for Federal Employees
25:30
Log Cabin Campaign of 1840
25:50
Penny Press
26:50
The Party of the Common People
27:30
William Henry Harrison
27:47
Log Cabin Campaign
28:02
Harrison Wins
28:24
234 V.S. 60 Electoral Votes
28:40
Re-Charter bank
29:19
Preemption Act of 1841
29:32
Foreign Policy Highlights
30:09
Caroline
30:23
Aroostook war
30:41
Creole
30:55
Webster-Ashburton Treaty
31:32
Extraterritoriality
31:53
Example 1
33:05
Example 2
35:36
Transcendentalists and the American Renaissance

37m 43s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:06
Individualism
0:54
Alexis de Tocqueville
1:14
Individualism
1:48
Transcendentalism
3:12
Intellectual Movement
3:19
Individuality Self-Reliance and Nonconformity
3:48
Instincts and Emotion
4:32
Transcendentalists
4:55
Understanding
5:05
Transcend the Limits of the Intellect
5:22
Concord, MA
5:55
Images of Transcendentalists
6:07
Ralph Waldo Emerson
7:11
Leading Spokesman of this Movement
7:35
The American Scholar
8:31
Outpouring of First Class novel, Poetry and Essays
9:18
Original Relation with Nature
10:39
Ordinary Middle-Class Americans
10:56
New Industrial Society
11:35
Henry David Thoreau
12:04
Lives of Quiet Desperation
12:16
Self-Realization
12:34
Walden and Life in the Woods
13:10
Resistance to Civil Government
13:36
The Defense of Nature
16:34
The Rapid Economic Development
17:00
Inspiration and Spirituality
17:17
Gender Roles Redefined
17:49
Woman in the Nineteenth Century
17:59
Mystical Relationship with God
18:53
The Questioning of Gender Roles
19:23
Emergence of a Broad Array of Movement
19:49
Romanticism
19:57
Order and Control
20:33
Slavery Overshadowed
21:25
Romanticism and Nationalism
21:49
The Need to Improve the American Culture
21:55
Romanticism for Inspiration
22:05
Literature and the Quest for Liberation
22:19
Washington Irving's James Fenimore Cooper
22:59
Walt Whitman
23:43
Democracy, The liberation of the Individual and the Pleasures of the Flesh
24:04
Herman Melville
24:28
Strength of Individual Will
24:47
Edgar Allen Poe
25:09
BrookFarm: A Utopian Experiment
25:33
Nathaniel Hawthorne
25:35
Brook Farm
25:56
Form of Socialism
26:13
All Share in the Leisure
26:36
Southern Literature
27:40
Historical Romances of the Plantation System
27:50
William Gilmore Simms
28:13
The Lives of Ordinary People and Poor Whites
28:49
Mark Twain
29:09
American Landscape Painting
29:15
Hudson River School
29:25
Nature is the Source of Wisdom
29:50
Albert Bierstadt and Thomas Moran
30:45
Examples of Landscape Painting
30:53
Example 1
31:45
Example 2
34:08
Abolitionism

46m 20s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:05
Free Blacks Urge Others to “Elevate”
1:17
Social Uplift
1:19
Whites Led Mob Attack Against Blacks
3:25
Moderates and Extremists
3:48
The Antislavery Movement
4:04
American Colonization Society
4:15
Gradual Manumission of Slaves
4:48
Decline of Antislavery Movement
5:30
Abolitionists
5:36
Free African Americans
6:21
Threat of Being Kidnapped
7:10
Liberator
8:07
Moderate and Extreme Approaches
8:20
Advocating for Moderate Approach
8:29
Radical Abolitionists
8:56
Evangelical Christians
10:32
William Lloyd Garrison
11:01
Newspaper: Liberator
11:08
Reject Gradualism
12:42
New England Antislavery Society
13:04
David Walker
13:36
Walker's Appeal to the Colored Citizens
14:01
National Convention in Philly
15:10
Collective Equality for All Blacks
15:40
Nat Turner
16:06
Bloody Revolt in Southampton Country, Virginia
16:55
Turner's Men
17:40
The Virginia Legislature
19:30
Southern States Toughened their Slave Codes
20:00
The Underground Railroad
20:21
Frederick Douglass
23:10
Most Powerful Abolitionists and Orators
23:13
North Star in Rochester, NY
23:35
Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass
24:35
Friend with Garrison
25:34
Douglass and the North Star
27:01
Other Evangelical Abolitionists
27:11
Theodore Dwight Weld
27:18
Angelina and Sarah Grimke
27:39
American Anti-Slavery Society
29:31
Sojourner Truth
29:56
Anti-Abolitionism
32:12
Backlash Against Abolitionist Movement
32:14
Prudence Crandall
32:56
Abolitionist Headquarters
33:27
Amistad
33:35
The Spanish Slave Vessel Amistad
33:39
Prigg v. PA
34:18
Federal Fugitive Slave Laws
34:47
Abolitionists and Politics
35:04
Ban Interstate Slave Trade and Abolish Slavery
35:10
Restrict the Use of Mail
35:28
The Liberty Party
35:55
James G. Birney
36:11
Free Soil
36:21
Women's Rights
37:38
Example 1
38:09
Example 2
40:46
Example 3
43:09
Women's Rights Movement and Antebellum Reform

46m 20s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:07
Education Reforms
1:05
Horace Mann
1:56
Reorganized the School System
2:25
Literacy Rate
2:54
Experimental Schools
5:17
Self-Realization
5:23
Perkins School
5:44
Social Value and Democratize the U.S.
6:03
Rehabilitation
6:19
The Asylum Movement
6:34
Dorothea Dix
6:45
The Rise of Feminism
8:09
Sarah and Angelina Grimke
9:11
Other Reformers
9:37
Married Women's Property Acts
10:09
Seneca Falls
10:40
Society of Friends
10:44
Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions
11:39
The Women's Right
13:11
Declaration of Sentiments
13:38
Quakers Influence Feminist Movement
14:36
Sexual Equality
14:47
Stanton Were Quakers
15:25
Lucy Stone
16:26
Emma Willard
17:08
Catherine Beecher
17:21
Feminist Style of Clothing
17:39
Bloomer
17:42
Amelia Bloomer
17:54
Example 1
18:54
Example 2
21:08
Example 3
23:30
V. Period 5: 1844-1877
Manifest Destiny, Westward Expansion, And Increased Sectionalism

43m 51s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:08
Westward Expansion
3:17
Manifest Destiny
5:25
Penny Press
7:10
Empire of Liberty
7:50
John Gast's American Progress
8:05
Americans in Texas
10:03
Interested in Texas
10:14
American Immigration Into Texas
12:02
Stephen Austin
12:47
Revolt Broke Out
13:20
Stephen Austin: “The father of Texas” and Sam Houston, the First President of the Republic of Texas
13:36
Tensions between U.S. and Mexico
14:02
Legalize Slavery
14:10
Instability in Mexico
15:33
Independence of Texas
16:07
Battle of San Jacinto
16:20
U.S. Settlements and The Texas War of Independence
17:09
U.S. Annexation of Texas
17:09
Southern Democrats
17:38
Election of 1844
17:47
President martin Van Buren Refused
18:30
Main Battles in the Texas War of Independence
18:55
Oregon
19:51
U.S. and British Sovereignty
19:58
The Catholic Missionaries From Canada
20:30
Oregon Fever
20:55
A Measles Epidemic
21:32
Huge Westward Migration and Trails
21:50
Great Overland Trails
22:13
Gender Lines
23:26
Expansion Issue Politicized
23:37
The Election of 1844
23:39
President Tyler
23:48
James Polk
24:27
Fifty Four Forty or Fight
24:38
Compromise over Oregon And The Southwest
25:26
Border 49th Parallel
25:30
The Northern Border of Oregon
25:50
Zachary Taylor
26:13
The Mexican American War
26:30
Map of the U.S.-Mexican War
26:43
U.S.-Mexican War
28:30
John Slidell
28:34
Whig Critics
28:54
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
29:19
Mexican Cession
29:42
Polk Supports Extending the Missouri Compromise Line
30:43
Banning Slavery North of the Line and Permitting it South of the Line
31:19
Popular Sovereignty
31:31
The Sectional Debate Heats Up
31:41
Polk's Expansionist Agenda
32:05
The Wilmot Proviso
32:44
A Threat to Republican Liberties and White Yeoman Farming
33:38
Dissent and Divergence
34:08
Dissenter of the U.S.-Mexican War
34:27
Frederick Douglass
35:46
Diverging Views of Douglass and Garrison
36:46
Example 1
37:32
Example 2
40:54
Example 3
41:50
The Expansion of Slavery and Resistance to its Expansion

1h 5m

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:09
Election of 1848
1:10
Free-Soil Party
2:04
Taylor Won
2:38
Antislavery Democrats: “ Barnburners”
2:54
The California Gold Rush
4:26
Increased in Non-Native American Population
5:39
Forty-Niners
5:56
Chinese Migrants
6:38
The California Gold Rush Images and Map
7:27
California and Gold Rush Map
9:41
Effects of the Gold Rush
10:34
A Labor Shortage
10:36
Indian Hunters
11:17
Heterogeneous Population
11:50
Rising Sectional Differences
12:05
The Balance of Slave and Free States
12:12
Personal Liberty Laws and Fugitive Slave Laws
12:34
A Series of Compromises
13:14
Compromise of 1850
13:30
Fillmore
14:48
California Join the Union as a Free State
14:55
Fugitive Slave Law
15:17
Temporarily Preserved the Union
16:37
Map of the Compromise of 1850
16:43
Crisis of the 1850s
17:39
Franklin Pierce
17:45
Young America
19:59
The Ostend Manifesto
19:24
Railroads, Slavery, and Sectionalism
20:02
Westward Expansion
20:11
Better Communication
20:28
Gadsen Purchase
20:50
Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854
21:45
Popular Sovereignty
22:03
Missouri Compromise was Repealed
23:01
A Scramble of Pro- and Anti-slavery Settlers
23:42
Republican Party
24:05
Anti-Nebraska Dems
24:25
Map of the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854
24:48
Bleeding Kansas
25:39
Pro-Slavery Forces
26:23
Free-Staters
26:29
President Pierce
26:51
John Brown
28:16
Pottawatomie Massacre
28:42
Tragic Prelude
29:04
Charles Summer's “The Crime Against Kansas”
30:46
Free-Soil Ideology
32:40
Northern Whites Believed that Slavery was Dangerous
32:52
Antithesis of Democracy
33:57
The Free Soil Party
34:34
A Critical View: “The Hurly-Burly Pot”
34:55
The Pro-Slavery Argument
37:52
Uncle Tom's Cabin
37:58
The Pro-Slavery Argument
38:37
Superior Southern Way of life
39:03
“Cotton is King”
39:19
Election of 1856
39:51
John Fremont
40:13
Increasing the Support of the Republican Party
41:17
Sectionalism of the Realigned Political Parties
42:14
A Surge in Nativism
42:26
Nativism
43:13
The American Party
44:11
Know-Nothing Party
44:20
The Dred Scott Decision
44:16
An Army Surgeon
45:04
Circuit Court
45:26
John Sanford
45:29
Chief Justice Taney's Stance
46:28
No Claim to Citizenship
46:35
The MO Compromise
47:33
Great Controversy
47:48
Deadlock Over Kansas
48:11
Buchanan Timidly Endorsed the Dred Scott Case
48:18
Lecompton Constitution
48:28
Buchanan Pressured Congress
48:55
KS as a Free State
49:18
Significant Congressional Election of 1858
49:28
Sectional Crisis
49:36
Lincoln-Douglas
50:30
House Divided
51:38
The Spread of Free Labor
53:03
The Rise of Lincoln
53:18
Freeport Doctrine
53:36
A National Following
54:47
Lost the Majority of Democrats of the House
55:10
Lincoln and Douglas
55:21
John Brown's Raid
55:34
John Brown's Statement
56:08
Seized a Mountain Fortress
56:50
Brown Surrendered
57:07
Example 1
57:40
Example 2
1:00:29
Example 3
1:02:25
The Civil War, Part 1

44m

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:05
The Election of 1860
1:53
Divided Democrats
2:45
A Free-Soil Platform
2:56
Momentous Consequences
3:58
Storming the Castle
4:26
The National Game, Three “Outs” and One “Run”
7:12
The Election of 1860 Voting Results
7:53
The Appeal of Abraham Lincoln
8:52
Reputation for Eloquence
9:02
Signal to White Southerners
9:36
Secession and the Fire-eaters
9:44
South Carolina Convention
9:48
Confederate States of America
10:18
Jefferson Davis
10:27
Buchanan's Response and the Crittenden Plan
10:39
Fort Sumter
11:30
The Crittenden Compromise
11:53
Constitutional Amendment
12:10
Extension of Missouri Compromise Line
12:25
Lincoln Inaugurated and In Command
12:49
Refuse the Extension of Missouri Compromise Line
13:05
Union Constituted Insurrection
13:49
The Upper South Chooses Sides
14:01
State Militiamen
14:14
Border States
14:50
Setting Wars Objectives and Strategies
15:41
Defense of Confederacy
15:45
Unconditional Surrender
16:09
George B. McClellan
16:50
Battle Of Shiloh
17:20
The Anaconda Plan
17:43
Blockading the Gulf of Mexico
18:40
Starve the South into Submission
18:48
Seizing the Mississippi River
19:07
The Defensive Strategy of the Confederacy
20:06
Strategy of the South
20:13
General Robert E. Lee
20:21
Problems with Military Generals for the Union
20:28
Confederate Army under “Stonewall” Jackson
21:12
Battle at Antietam Creek
21:50
Joseph Fighting Joe Hooker
22:57
Both Sides Forced Into “Total War”
23:11
The First Legally Binding Draft
24:03
Rich Man's War and a Poor Man's Fight
24:45
Unenforceable Southerners
25:02
The Union and Total War
25:15
The Union's Militia Act of 1862
25:20
German and Irish Immigrants
26:10
15000 Confederate Sympathizers
27:05
Draft Riots of 1863
28:06
Aftermath of Draft Riots
29:16
Riots in New York City
29:52
A Plea for Churches
29:55
Financial Relief
29:58
Medical Services During the War
30:42
The Union Army Medical Bureau
31:27
U.S. Sanitary Commission
31:36
Dorothea Dix
32:06
Women Participated in Military Duties
33:00
Women and the Civil War
33:15
Mobilizing Resources
34:00
Mass Production
34:11
King Cotton
34:55
Rebel Government as a Belligerent Power
35:05
Federal Subsidies for Railroads
35:48
The Homestead Act
36:10
Economic Differences
36:59
Less Coherent Economic Policy
37:03
Legal Tender Act of 1862
37:41
Inflation Increased
38:03
Example 1
38:32
Example 2
40:03
Example 3
42:15
The Civil War, Part 2

43m 47s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:05
The Road to Emancipation
1:50
Struggle Against Slavery
2:44
Contrabands
3:35
First Confiscation Act in 1861
4:28
Wilmot Proviso
5:17
Wilmot Proviso Map
5:30
Contrabands
5:49
Union Lines
5:52
Slavery Began to Disintegrate
6:03
Lincoln Plans to Emancipate
6:34
Second Confiscation
6:38
Initial Draft of Emancipation
7:10
Emancipation Proclamation
8:12
Urged Slaves to Abstain from all Violence
10:13
Freedom to Slaves!
10:25
Abe Lincoln's Last Card Or Rouge-et-Noir
12:31
Vicksburg and Gettysburg
14:09
Vicksburg
14:46
The Battle at Gettysburg
15:30
Davis Supporters
16:39
Gettysburg Address
17:09
Dedication of the Cemetery for the Union War Dead
17:40
New Birth of Freedom
17:48
A War for Union and Freedom
17:59
The Turning Point
20:35
Own Regiments
20:48
The Emancipation Proclamation
21:01
White Resistance to Conscription
21:22
Segregated Military
21:53
Ulysses S. Grant Charge
22:04
Ulysses S. Grant
22:15
Fight a Modern War
23:00
Union and Confederate Soldiers
23:33
Barren Waste
23:52
General Philip H Sheridan
23:57
The Definition of Conventional Warfare
24:08
African American Man Picks Up Skeletons
24:52
The Elections of 1864
25:29
Constitutional Amendment to Abolish Slavery
25:37
National Union Party
25:45
Map of the Election of 1864
26:45
Post-Election
27:18
Potential Invalidity of Emancipation Proclamation
27:30
Legality of Abolishing Slavery
27:53
Sherman's March
28:10
Accelerated the Pace of Emancipation
28:23
The 13th Amendment
28:33
General William Tecumseh Sherman
29:00
Sherman's March Map
29:12
The Aftermath of Sherman's March
30:17
Destruction brought by Sherman
30:20
Wreak Vengeance
30:45
A Manpower Shortage
30:58
Lee's Surrender at Appomattox Court House
31:11
Appomattox Court House
31:32
Cost of Victory
31:48
The Conquest of the South, 1861-1865
32:35
Casualties and Loss
33:10
The Lost of the South
33:32
Destroyed Cities
33:46
The Thirteenth Amendment Passed
34:14
Jurisdiction
35:07
Abolish Slavery
35:12
Example 1
36:19
Example 2
38:36
Example 3
41:33
VI. Period 6: 1865-1898
Reconstruction, Part 1

49m 57s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:06
Reconstruction
1:32
Readmitting the Southern States
2:15
Bind Up the Nation's Wounds
4:27
Freedom Beyond Emancipation
5:24
Rebellious States
6:22
Presidential Reconstruction
6:29
Separation of Power
6:59
Ten Percent Plan
7:41
Lenient Policy
8:33
Congressional Reconstruction
9:37
Wade-Davis Bill
10:00
An Oath of Allegiance
10:13
Pocket veto
10:54
Lincoln Was Assassinated
11:34
Ford's Theater
11:45
The Four Co-conspirators
12:19
Andrew Johnson's Reconstruction
13:16
Andrew Johnson
13:25
Appointed Provisional Governors
14:56
Rejoining the Union
15:20
Black Codes and Backlash
15:34
Black Codes
16:10
Refuse to Admit the Southern Delegations
18:31
The Black Codes
19:08
Freedmen's Bureau
20:08
Lyman Trumbull
21:34
Securing the Civil Rights of the Freedmen
22:26
What Type of Labor System
22:52
Battles in the Sea Islands
22:56
True Freedom
23:52
Gang-Labor System
25:08
White Man's Government
25:33
White Supremacy
26:55
Turned to Washington
27:06
Congress Versus the President
27:17
Freedmen's Bureau Bill
27:24
Trumbull's Civil Rights Bill
27:39
14th Amendment to the Constitution
29:12
Fourteenth Amendment
29:24
All Persons Born or Naturalized in the United States
29:34
The Equal Protection of the Laws
29:53
Civil Rights Act
31:38
Johnson's Response
32:00
The Fourteenth Amendment Became a Campaign Issue
32:45
Waving the Bloody Shirt
32:57
The Civil Rights of Ex-Slaves
33:54
Radical Republicans
34:07
Party's Abolitionist Strain
34:21
Remaking Southern Society
35:55
Thaddeus Stevens and Charles Sumner
36:52
The Reconstruction Act of 1867
36:54
Five Military Districts
37:12
Prewar Political Class
37:32
The Tenure of Office
37:48
Replace Edwin M. Stanton by General Ulysses S. Grant
38:18
Impeachment of Johnson
38:47
Impeachment
39:03
Tenure of Office Act
39:31
Horatio Seymour
40:31
Impeachment of Johnson, 1867
40:49
Example 1
41:22
Example 2
44:09
Example 3
47:15
Reconstruction, Part 2

50m

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:06
Women's Suffrage Denied
1:24
Women's Suffrage
2:35
National Women's Suffrage Association
3:17
Modern Feminist Movement
3:37
Out in the Cold
3:57
Republican Rule in the South
5:38
Congressional Stipulations
5:57
Scalawags
6:47
Carpetbaggers
7:09
Martial Law in the South
8:36
The Republican Program
9:39
Black Officeholders
9:54
Modernized State Constitutions
10:04
Tax Assessors and Collectors
10:58
Republican Reconstruction
11:20
Public Credit Collapsed
11:26
Education as the Foundation
13:12
New African American Churches
13:31
African Americans Take a Greater Role in Politics
14:16
Greater Role in Politics
14:18
The Assemble will Demand Revenge
15:13
Robert Brown Elliot
15:47
African Americans in Government
16:15
Hiram Revels
16:26
Robert Smalls
16:32
Blanche K. Bruce
16:40
African American Majority
17:11
The Quest of Land
18:00
Overcome Poverty
18:20
Southern Homestead Act of 1866
19:15
Ex-Confederates
19:40
Sharecropping
20:04
Sharecropping
20:32
A Lien on the Crop
21:37
A Pretext for Peonage
21:54
Barrow Plantation
22:55
Ownership of Land after Reconstruction
23:55
Devastating to Southern Agriculture
24:29
Violence in the South: Backlash
25:02
Counterrevolution
25:35
A Threat to White Supremacy
26:33
Nathan Bedford Forrest
27:15
The KKK Act of 1871
28:13
Worse Than Slavery
28:36
One Vote Less
29:51
Democratic Backlash
30:21
Prosecuting the KKK
30:56
The Klan
31:02
Prosecuting Klansmen
31:40
Democrats Overthrew Republicans Government
32:51
The Undoing of Reconstruction
33:04
Redeemers
33:17
Massive Black Barbarism
33:53
The Civil Rights Bill
34:48
The End of Reconstruction
35:08
Selling Their Votes for Money
35:14
Refashioned Themselves as Liberals
35:48
Grant Turned a Blind Eye
36:45
Grant Wins and Scandals Ensue
37:11
Whiskey Ring
37:54
White House
38:07
Credit Mobiler
38:49
Depression
39:20
The Bankruptcy of the Northern Pacific Railway
39:28
Freedman's Savings and Trust Company
40:05
Lost its Moral Claim on the Country
40:39
Grantism
41:13
Scandal-Ridden Administration
41:18
Triumphant Foreign Tour
41:35
The Political Crisis of 1877
41:46
Home Rule
42:02
Disputed Votes to Hayes
42:45
Hayes was Inaugurated
43:03
The End of Reconstruction
43:23
Compromise of 1877
43:28
3 Rights-Defining Amendments
44:00
Example 1
45:01
Example 2
46:12
Example 3
47:52
The American West

58m 16s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:05
The U.S. Frontier and Industrialism
2:47
Post Civil War Republican Vision
4:05
Laissez-Faire Approach
5:04
Spread of American Industrialism Movement
6:50
The Great Plains and The West
7:05
Semiarid Great Plains
7:13
Arid West
7:20
Small Pox and Measles
7:43
Map of the U.S.
8:13
Native American Tribes and Lands Ceded
9:26
The Sioux
10:48
Antelope and Buffalo
11:03
Pawnees, Mandans and Euro-Americans
11:34
Westward Migration Into “Indian Country”
11:42
American Fever
12:24
Exodusters and Kansas
13:00
Union Pacific and Central Pacific
13:29
Telegraph Lines
13:56
Farming and Railroads in the West
14:05
Cattle Raising
14:06
New Technologies
15:22
Settlement of the Great Plains
16:37
The Transcontinental Railroad
17:03
Promontory Point, UT
17:18
Gold Rush in 1849
17:36
The Increase of Non-Native American Population
18:14
Hit the Trails
18:26
Chinese
18:48
Gold Rush and Cattle Ranching
19:18
Silver Mining and Other Industries
20:15
Open-Range Ranching
21:05
Long Drive
21:56
Cowboys and Buffalo Bill's Wild West
22:57
Buffalo Bill
23:22
The Wild West Show
23:56
Little Annie Oakley
24:40
The Wild West Show
25:59
Homesteaders and Homestead Act of 1862
27:24
Homestead Act of 1862
27:40
The U.S. Geological Survey
29:08
Department of the Interior
29:14
Farming and the Grange
29:23
Meat Packing Industry
29:41
National Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry
31:07
Oliver H. Kelley
31:20
Montgomery Ward
31:41
Oliver Kelley, Founder of the Grange
32:13
Native Americans and the West
32:36
A Peace Commission in 1867
32:58
Bureau of Indian Affairs
33:30
Reservations
34:03
SW Dakota Territory
35:05
Apaches, Navajos and Utes
35:22
Fort Laramie Treaty
35:45
Chief Joseph of the Nez Perce
36:16
Battle of Little Big Horn
37:45
The Nez Perce
37:48
George Custer
38:37
Little Big Horn
38:54
Assimilation Polices
39:49
Education and Religious Indoctrination of American Indians
40:13
The Carlisle Boarding School
40:33
Helen Hunt Jackson
41:26
A Century of Dishonor
41:31
Helen Hunt Jackson and Dawes Severalty Act
42:03
Private Property and Severalty
42:17
The Dawes Act
43:07
Indian Education
43:37
The Ghost Dance
44:11
Native American Civilization
44:26
Wovoka
44:32
Wounded Knee, 1890
45:21
The Long War of Suppression of the Plains Indians
46:07
The End of Indian Wars
46:22
Railroad Workers, Miners and Cowboys
46:56
The Diverse West and California
47:12
The High Sierras
47:31
Asian Migration
47:48
The Six Companies
47:55
Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882
48:10
Chinese Exclusion Act
48:43
Japanese Immigrants
49:10
Biased Anti-Chinese Imagery
49:34
Golden California
50:25
Mark Twain and Bret Harte
50:50
Southern Pacific Railroad
51:12
John Muir
51:26
Sierra Club
51:45
Public Parks Established
52:03
Rampant Overdevelopment
52:32
Yosemite Valley
52:38
Yellowstone Valley
52:47
Example 1
53:20
Example 2
55:48
The Rise of the Industrial U.S.

50m 27s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:06
The Age of Steel
2:37
The Bessemer Process
3:54
Andrew Carnegie
4:36
U.S. Steel Corporation
5:04
Andrew Carnegie
5:16
Rags to Riches
5:31
Vertical Integration
6:22
Carnegie Steel
6:53
Two Carnegeian Influential Ideologies
7:38
Social Darwinism
8:18
William Graham Sumner
10:37
Gospel of Wealth
11:07
Philanthropy
11:30
The Railroad Business
12:26
Increase of Railroad Construction
12:58
John Murray Forbes, Cornelius Vanderbilt and James Hill
13:52
Investment Banks
14:12
Map of Railroad Development
14:44
Corporate Consolidation
15:44
Scarcity of Jobs and Money
16:24
The Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890
17:53
Corporate Consolidation
18:38
Corporations
18:54
Corporation
19:03
Limited Liability
19:39
Dominated by a Few Individuals
20:36
Big Four
21:11
Cornelius Vanderbilt
21:40
Robber Baron
22:08
Horatio Alger
23:47
Synonym for Enormous Wealth and Excessive Corporate
24:42
“Modern Colossus of Roads” by Joseph Keppler in Puck in 1879
24:56
The Great Strike of 1877
25:28
Railroad Mogul
25:34
The Great Strike of 1877
25:47
Fall of Railroad Building
27:25
Manufacturing Output Increased
28:10
John D. Rockefeller
28:35
Black Gold
28:43
Horizontal Integration
29:36
Cut-Throat Competition
29:49
Vertical and Horizontal Integration
30:29
Gustavus Swift and Philip Armour's Meatpacking
31:45
Dominated Meatpacking
31:56
Refrigerator Cars
32:12
Other Businesses
32:31
Tobacco, Farm Machinery, Sewing Machine and Cereals
32:35
Cartels
32:44
Trusts
32:53
Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890
33:50
The Basic Federal Antimonopoly Law
34:04
Congress Government Intervention in the Free Economy
34:43
United States v. E.C. Knight
35:52
Standard Oil Company v. United States
36:19
Laissez-Faire, and the Gilded Age
37:48
Laissez-Faire Approach
38:14
Industrial Giant
38:49
The Gilded Age: A Tale of Today
38:58
Democratic Vistas
39:43
Chromo Civilization
39:50
The Gilded Age
39:58
Glittery
40:09
Crass Corruption
40:27
Robber Barons: History Repeats Itself
41:26
Robber Barons
42:31
Example 1
43:13
Example 2
45:29
Example 3
46:53
Working People and the Labor Movement in the Gilded Age

38m 41s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:07
The World of Work
2:14
Farm Folk and Artisans
2:37
White-Collar Jobs
3:03
Negative Aspects of Urban Life
4:19
Outside Labor For Industries
5:13
Types of Jobs
6:53
Working Trends
8:10
Women Working More for Wages
8:24
Race, Ethnicity and Gender
9:04
Mechanized Jobs
9:43
Collective Bargaining
10:00
Immigration Affects the Working World
10:53
Huge Migration from the old World
11:04
Austrian, Hungarians and other Slavic People
11:20
The Labor Movement
12:09
The Knights of Labor
12:22
Cooperative Commonwealth
13:30
Social Reforms
13:55
Collective Bargaining and Closed Shops
14:02
Terence Powderly
14:16
Closed Shops
15:15
Open to all who Toiled
15:47
The Woman's Bureau of the Knights
15:55
The Knights Boycotted Against Gould
16:15
Boycott Against Unfair Employers
16:34
Jay Gould's Southwestern Railway System
16:39
Disorganized Strike
17:20
Haymarket Square Incident
17:38
Blamed on Anarchists
16:20
An Antiunion Hysteria
18:52
Yellow-Dog Contracts
19:30
The Knights of Labor
20:21
The AFL
20:28
American Federation of Labor
20:35
National Trade Unions
21:26
Bread and Butter Issues
21:39
Samuel Gompers
22:15
Samuel Gompers, Unions and Modern Strikes
22:53
Homestead Strike
24:21
Henry Frick
24:41
Put an End to Trade Unions in the Steel Industry
25:45
Pullman Strike
26:13
President Cleveland
26:57
Secondary Labor Boycott
27:16
Contempt of Court
28:24
In re Debs in 1895
28:50
The use of Injunctions against Strikes
29:04
Socialism and the American Socialist Party
29:15
The IWW
30:07
The Wobblies
30:13
Marxist Class Struggle
30:19
General Strike
30:27
Syndicalism
30:33
Influence of Socialism and Debs
31:06
Social Darwinists
31:28
Eugene Debs
32:02
Labor Unions
32:19
Example 1
33:02
Example 2
35:40
Example 3
37:09
Immigration, Urban, Culture and Politics

48m 51s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:07
Ward Politics and Political Bosses
0:56
Urban Political Machines
1:40
Tammany Hall in New York
1:56
Grassroots Constituency
3:10
Boss Tweed
4:30
The Political Machine and Corruption
5:34
George Plunkitt
7:13
Regular System
7:21
Honest Graft
7:43
Social Changes
10:54
Class Society
11:00
Increase in Suburbanization
11:25
American Woman's Home Journal
12:19
A Clash of Values
12:51
The Victorian Ideal of Domesticity
13:09
Clash of Victorian Ideas
13:59
Comstock Law
14:35
Religion and Secularism in the City
15:26
Orthodox Judaism
16:15
Catholic Church
17:25
Protestant Churches
18:04
Working-Class Culture and Journalism
19:10
Working-Class Culture
19:28
Joseph Pulitzer
20:05
Heart's New York Journal
20:14
The Higher Culture
21:58
The Corcoran Gallery of Art
22:12
Symphony Orchestras
22:53
Increase in Public Libraries
23:08
The Gilded Age
24:46
Ellis Island and Angel Island
25:31
Ellis Island
26:15
Angel Island
27:02
Paper Sons and Paper Daughters
28:00
The Immigrant Experience
28:36
“Old” and “New” Immigrants
31:12
Immigrant Challenges and Opportunities
32:06
Fraternal Organizations
32:34
Labor Force in Factories
35:25
Backlash Against Immigrants
35:57
The “Land of Milk and Honey”
37:18
Old Immigrants
38:05
Push and Pull
38:19
Immigration Cartoons
38:25
Urban Life: Technology Improves Life
39:49
New Forms of Transportation
40:25
Suburbs
40:45
Public-Works Programs
40:50
Skyscrapers and Subways
41:03
Frederick Law Olmsted's Central Park
41:18
Designed in 1860s
42:14
Inspired Other Parks
42:18
Urban Problems
42:29
Tenements
42:33
Poor Conditions
42:45
Example 1
43:32
Example 2
44:42
Example 3
45:57
The New South and The Farmers Mobilize

45m 21s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:07
Frontier Thesis
3:07
Jackson Turner
3:48
The Significance of the Frontier in American History
4:25
The Decline of the Dominance of Rural America
6:17
A “New South”
7:19
Economic Growth in the South
7:34
Henry Grady
8:31
Tax Exemptions
8:43
The “New South”
9:10
Poverty in the South
10:02
Mostly Agricultural
10:06
Lacked Technological Skills
10:17
Cycle of Poverty
10:46
George Washington Carver
11:09
Class, Race and Politics in the New South
11:50
Inequality
12:14
Redeemers
12:32
Gerrymandering
13:10
Readjusters
13:24
The Colored Farmers' Alliance
15:04
Discrimination and Jim Crow
15:21
White Man's Party and the Solid South
15:57
Problems at the Polls
16:17
Court Cases and Discrimination
18:09
Civil Rights Cases of 1883
18:44
Plessy v. Ferguson
19:11
Williams v. Mississippi
21:42
Civil Rights Activists Fight Back
22:22
Boycotts of Streetcars
22:48
Ida Wells-Barnett's Anti-Lynching Campaign
23:03
Booker T. Washington and W.E.B Du Bois
24:33
Farmers Face Problems
25:11
Grange Movement
25:41
The Farmers' Alliances
26:14
The National Alliance
26:48
The Populist Movement
27:44
A Catalyst for Political Crisis
28:25
A Class Ideology
29:13
Omaha Convention
29:44
The Texas Alliance's Subtreasury Plan
30:03
Women Populists
30:37
Populist Movement
30:48
Raise Less Corn and More Hell
30:56
Election of 1862 Map
31:18
The Texas Alliance's Subtreasury System
32:09
Public Warehouse
32:26
Subtreasury
32:40
Rejected by the Democrats
33:05
Railroad Regulations
33:23
Munn v. Illinois
33:57
For the Common Good
34:22
Richard B. Olney and Roscoe Conkling
34:46
Replaced by Judges with Pro-Business Records
34:58
The Wabash Case
35:08
Infringed on the Exclusive power of Congress
35:27
Only the Federal Government Could Regulate Railroads
36:21
The Interstate Commerce Act of 1887
36:32
The Interstate Commerce Act of 1886
36:39
ICC
36:41
Harrison, Cleveland and McKinley
38:12
Ineffective for the First 20 Years
38:23
Example 1
38:44
Example 2
40:51
Example 3
43:06
Politics of the Gilded Age

48m 1s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:06
Campaign Strategy of “Do-Little” Government
2:46
Close Elections
3:30
Campaigning
4:30
Senator Roscoe Conkling
5:53
Waving the Bloody Shirt
6:40
Big City Political Machines
6:58
Presidential Politics
7:24
Rutherford B. Hayes
7:28
James Garfield
8:31
The Great Presidential Puzzle
9:58
Roscoe Conkling
10:01
James A. Garfield
10:27
Presidential Politics
10:42
Chester A. Arthur
10:46
Pendleton Act
11:08
Grover Cleveland
11:59
Grover the Good
12:10
Another President Who Had a Rise in the World
13:11
The Toe-Path to the White House
13:16
New York Customs House
13:19
The Politics of the Status Quo
13:53
The Pendleton Act
14:11
Civil Service Commission
14:16
Excise Tax and tariff
14:47
Cultural Politics and the People
15:29
Politics Became a Form of Entertainment
15:51
Party Loyalty
15:54
Ethnocultural Issues
16:25
Republican Factions
16:47
Stalwarts
17:18
Roscoe Conkling's Faction
17:24
Half-breeds
17:41
James G Blaine
17:47
Blaine Covered in Scandals
18:14
Mugwumps
20:14
Mugwumps
20:27
Fence-Sitters
21:11
The Adoption of the Secret Ballot
21:40
Images of Mugwumps
21:54
Grover Cleveland
23:18
First Democrat
23:23
Treasury Crisis
23:50
The Money Question
24:29
Sound-Money
24:38
An Era of Chronic Deflation
25:02
Bland-Allison Act of 1878
25:14
Coxey's Army
25:46
Jacob Coxey
25:48
The Creation of Government Jobs
26:33
The Issus of Government Bonds
26:53
Assist the Unemployed
26:59
Women and Politics
27:49
National American Woman Suffrage Association
28:34
State Campaigns
29:06
Separate Spheres
29:38
Women and Temperance
30:31
Woman's Christian Temperance Union
30:34
Frances Willard
31:00
Carry Nation
32:01
Prohibition Supporters
32:39
Election of 1896
33:21
Wilson-Gorman Tariff of 1894
34:20
J.P. Morgan
34:35
William Jennings Bryan
35:07
Bryan's “Cross of Gold” Speech
35:41
The Democratic Silver Campaign
36:07
The Paralyzing Equilibrium
37:22
“Cross of Gold” Speech
37:50
Laboring Interests
38:00
The Toilers
38:02
Election of 1892 and 1896
38:43
McKinley's Consolidation
39:12
Republican Dominance in National Politics
39:43
Example 1
40:14
Example 2
42:55
Example 3
45:12
VII. Period 7: 1890 - 1945
Progressive Era, Part 1

45m 1s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:05
Progressivism
1:23
Social Justice
2:27
Industrialization or Urbanization
3:32
Corrupt Government Officials
4:02
Urban Middle Class
4:29
Jane Addams and Hull House
4:48
Jane Addams
4:58
Hull House
5:06
A New Sense of Urgency
5:25
Alleviate Social Problems
5:34
Settlement Movement
5:51
Progressive Ideas
6:33
William James
7:19
Walter Rauschenbusch
8:05
Muckrakers
8:36
Muckrakers
9:53
McClure's and Collier's
10:07
New Kind of Reform
10:19
Progress and Poverty
10:48
Effects of Laissez-Faire Economics
11:04
Inequalities Wealth
11:13
Looking Backward
11:28
A Cooperative Society
11:37
Greater Government Regulation
11:47
How the Other Half Lives
12:01
Jacob A. Riis
12:04
A Danish Immigrant
12:06
Immigrant Ghettoes
12:23
Women Progressives
13:17
Humanitarian Work
13:22
Josephine Shaw Lowell
13:28
National Consumers' League
14:10
A Wave for Protective Laws
15:07
Louis D. Brandeis
15:30
The People's Attorney
15:38
Brandeis Brief
16:17
Supreme Court Justice
17:37
Other Female Reformers
17:47
Margaret Sanger
17:52
American Birth Control League
18:23
National Association of Colored Women
18:42
National Women's Trade Union League
18:57
Suffrage Movement
19:22
The National Woman's Party
19:56
Woman Suffrage Association
20:54
The 19th Amendment
21:17
Images of Suffrage Movement
21:45
Urban Liberalism
22:02
The Needs of the Poor
22:08
Voluntarism
23:02
The Industrial Hazards and Accidents
23:35
Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire
23:49
New York State Factory Commission
26:31
Tammany
27:10
Cultural Pluralism Embattled
27:32
Progressive Goal
28:35
The Anti-Saloon League
29:01
Populist Ideas Implemented Into Politics
30:05
The Direct Primary
31:12
Initiative
31:30
Referendum
31:35
Recall
31:50
From the State to the Federal Level
32:09
Progressive Governors
32:43
Robert La Follette
32:55
Hiram Johnson
33:17
Theodore Roosevelt
33:29
Woodrow Wilson
33:39
Progressivism and National Politics
33:54
Teddy Roosevelt
35:08
Dakota Territory
35:22
Teddy Roosevelt
35:38
Civil Service Commission
35:47
Secretary of the Navy
35:50
Rough Riders
36:15
Trust Buster
36:37
Square Deal
36:38
Example 1
36:53
Example 2
40:20
Example 3
43:07
Progressive Era, Part 2

38m 58s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:04
TR's Square Deal, 1901-1909
1:04
Taking Advantage of Small Business
1:21
Trustbusting and Regulating
1:51
Coal Strike in 1902
2:34
Regulating the Railroads
3:16
Interstate Commerce Commission
3:20
Elkins Act in 1903
4:03
Hepburn Act in 1904
4:17
Regulating Food Industry
4:45
The Jungle
5:02
The Meat Inspection Act in 1906
7:26
The Pure Food and Drug Act and FDA
7:38
Slaughterhouse
8:11
The “Trust Buster”?
8:42
Bad Trusts
9:47
Good Trusts
9:54
Other Regulations
11:04
Sherman Antitrust Act
11:32
The Bureau of Corporations
12:02
Northern Securities Company
12:14
Standard Oil, American Tobacco and DuPont
12:41
Teddy's gentlemen's Agreement
13:06
Trans-Missouri Decision
13:19
Gentlemen's Agreement
14:36
The Infant Hercules and the Standard Oil Serpents
14:52
Environmental Regulations
15:02
Environmentalist or Conservationist
15:14
National Parks
15:22
Rational Use of Gifford Pinchot
15:51
National Reclamation Act
16:31
Republican Progressives Fracture
16:53
William Howard Taft
17:19
Payne-Aldrich Act
17:46
Whistle-Blowing on a Conspiracy
18:23
Joseph Cannon
18:42
Congress's Leading Conservative
19:01
Dictator
19:06
The Progressive Faction
19:14
Dissident Faction
19:29
Progressives or Insurgents
19:31
Standard Oil
19:51
Pursued Monopolies
20:46
Progressive Amendments Under Taft
20:54
16th Amendment
21:16
17th Amendment
21:20
Roosevelt Strikes Back
21:36
New Nationalism
21:38
Child Labor Law
21:53
Strong As a Bull Moose
22:10
Civil Rights Movement Heats Up
22:21
Booker T. Washington
22:38
Atlanta Compromise
23:10
W.E.B. Du Bois
23:41
The Soul of Black Folk
24:06
Niagara Movement
24:58
William Monroe Trotter
25:03
Niagara Falls
25:15
Comprehensive Education
25:30
The NAACP
25:45
The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
25:53
Challenge Unfair Laws
26:09
The Urban League
26:31
Providing Welfare to Black Migrants
26:45
A Network Created
27:06
Woodrow Wilson's “New Freedom”
27:25
A Middle Way that Bears the Powers Of Government
27:42
Place Strict Government Controls on Corporation
28:13
New Freedom
28:20
Triple Wall of Privilege
28:26
The Underwood Tariff Act of 1913
28:38
Federal Reserve Act of 1913
29:07
The Federal Trade Commission
29:34
The Clayton Antitrust Act of 1914
30:00
The Federal Farm Loan Act
30:54
A Federal Child Labor Law
31:06
Example 1
31:18
Example 2
33:18
Example 3
36:20
Example 4
37:36
The U.S. Becomes a World Power

56m 1s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:08
The Roots of U.S. Imperialism
2:12
Abandon the Policy of Neutrality
4:00
Upgraded Navy
5:04
The Influences of Sea Power Upon History
5:16
Latin America and Asia
8:38
Economics Interests
8:54
Extractive Economies
9:10
Natural Resources and Raw Material
9:49
GDP Quadrupled and Businesses
10:09
Imperialist Nations
11:09
The Economy of Expansion
11:40
The Purchase of Alaska
13:19
William Seward
13:45
Natural Resources
14:19
U.S. In Asia and in the Pacific
15:05
Commodore Matthew Perry
15:14
Hawaiian Islands
16:46
Midway Islands
16:56
Pearl Harbor
17:25
Perry's Squadron in Japan
17:31
U.S. Possessions in the Pacific
17:54
The U.S. Annexes Hawaii
19:05
Sugar Plantations
19:32
Voting Rights
19:39
McKinley Tariff
20:14
An official U.S. Territory
21:41
William McKinley and Imperialist Influences
22:55
Assistant Secretary of the Navy
24:34
Henry Cabot Lodge
24:45
William Jennings Bryan and Grover Cleveland
25:51
Causes of Spanish-American War
26:10
Spain as a Declining Imperial Power
26:32
Cuban Independence Movement
27:42
Guerilla Tactics
28:00
Yellow Journalism
28:52
Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst
29:11
Yellow Press
29:18
The Maine
30:47
Hearst and Pulitzer
31:03
Cartoon of Hearst and Pulitzer
31:04
You Furnish the Pictures, and I'll furnish the war
31:49
Jingoism
32:08
Maine Blows Up
32:32
War with Spain
33:19
Remember the Maine
33:20
The Teller Amendment
33:36
Enlisted in the Army
34:15
The Duty of the Hour
34:36
Spanish-American Cuban War
35:54
Two Theaters of War
37:18
Commodore Dewey
37:20
The Rough Riders
37:46
Deaths in the War
38:17
Battle of San Juan Hill
38:38
Treaty of Paris and Aftermath
38:51
The U.S. bought Philippines
39:04
An Imperial Power
40:18
Splendid Little War
40:48
U.S. Foreign Policy
41:17
Anti-Imperialist concerns
41:39
Filipinos Rebel Against U.S. Rule
43:36
Emilio Aguinaldo
43:58
An Insurrection Against U.S. Rule
44:26
Death in the Fighting
44:52
U.S. Policy in Puerto Rico and Cuba
45:32
Puerto Rico
45:40
The Foraker Act
45:51
Insular Cases
46:58
The Jones-Shafroth Act
47:29
The Platt Amendment
47:56
The Platt Amendment
48:07
Lease Naval Stations to U.S.
48:36
Cuban Constitution
49:14
Example 1
50:01
Example 2
51:18
Example 3
53:21
U.S. Foreign Policy Under Theodore Roosevelt, William H. Taft, and Woodrow Wilson

47m 55s

Intro
0:00
Overview
1:06
Roosevelt's “Big Stick” Policy
2:21
Strong Military Action
4:35
Civilize or Uplift Weaker Nations
5:00
Anglo-American Friendship
5:42
Speak Softly and Carry a Big Stick
6:45
The U.S. Builds the Panama Canal
7:57
Ferdinand de Lesseps
8:08
Panama Route
9:16
Declared its Independence
9:25
Canal Zone
9:38
The Panama Canal
9:52
Commanding Commercial and Strategic Position
10:12
Control Malaria
10:41
Combat Several Tropical Diseases
11:04
Panama Canal
11:24
Roosevelt Corollary
11:47
Age of Economic Imperialism
12:11
Police Power
13:25
Latin Americans' Reactions
14:34
Aggressive Form with Mr. Roosevelt
15:27
Sovereignty and Liberty of Nicaraguans
15:33
U.S. Pursues Interests in China
16:10
Spheres of Influence
17:34
Secretary of State John Hay
18:35
Spheres of Influence
19:05
Chinese Response to Imperialism
20:24
The Boxer Rebellion
20:42
Western Devils
21:28
U.S. and Japanese Troops
21:55
Hay Reaffirms the Open Door Policy
22:26
Support Chinese Students
22:37
A Trade Relationship
22:57
Scholarships for Chinese Students
23:02
Tensions Between U.S. and Japan Rise
23:36
The Spheres of Influence in China
23:44
A Peace Treaty
24:17
The Root-Takahira Agreement of 1900
25:02
Anti-Asian Backlash in the U.S.
25:21
Prejudice Against Asian-Americans
26:09
Gentlemen's Agreement
26:58
Taft's Dollar Diplomacy
27:18
Increase U.S. Investments in Businesses
27:51
The Rationale
28:36
Chinese Revolution
29:17
Woodrow Wilson Shifts the Foreign Policy
29:52
Anti-Imperialist William Jennings Bryan
30:57
Moral Diplomacy
31:17
Agreement with Haiti
32:15
Dominican Republic and Mexico
32:35
U.S. and Mexican Revolution
32:43
Caudillos and Coup d'etats
33:46
Counsel Mexico for its Own Good
34:47
Venustiano Carranza
35:08
U.S. “Punitive Expedition”
35:50
Francisco Poncho Villa and Emiliano Zapata
35:58
Punitive Expedition
37:10
Tension Were Brewing in Europe
37:55
Triple Alliance and Dual Alliance
38:24
Triple Entente
38:44
The Apostle of Peace
39:50
Triple Alliance and Triple Entente
40:13
International Efforts for Peace
40:29
Hague Peace Conference of 1899
40:31
Erosion of the Nation's Sovereignty
40:47
Cooling Off Treaties
40:59
Example 1
41:32
Example 2
43:33
Example 3
46:03
The Great War

45m 12s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:06
Causes of the Great War
0:47
A Brutal War Between European Nations
2:32
Franco-Prussian War
3:02
Nationalism
3:28
Europe Map, 1914
4:40
Assassination Hurtles Europe Toward WW1
6:11
Archduke Francis Ferdinand
6:24
Young Bosnia
7:57
Kaiser William II
8:41
Fighting Breaks Out
8:56
Ultimatum
9:07
Austria-Hungary Declares War
9:22
Pan-Slavism
9:26
Trench Warfare and Deadly Weapons
10:28
No Man's Land
11:32
War of Attrition
11:47
Western Front
12:09
Modern Weapons
12:47
Wilson Urges For Neutrality
13:09
U.S. Exceptionalism
13:29
Isolationists, Interventionists and the Internationalists
15:10
Key Events in 1915 and 1916
15:57
No Longer Attack Passenger Ships Without Warning
16:17
German Invasion of Neutral Belgium
16:29
A Slim Margin
17:03
Early Anti-War Sentiments
17:30
Domestic Divisions
17:40
Cancellation of Irish Home Rule
17:48
Robert La Follette of Wisconsin and George Norris of NE
18:08
Andrew Carnegie and Henry Ford
18:59
Pro-War Propaganda
19:08
Wilson Abandons Neutrality
20:43
Blockade Against Britain
20:48
Lusitania
21:13
Sussex
22:30
The National Defense Act
22:48
The Naval Construction Act
22:52
Sinking of Lusitania
23:00
The Zimmermann Note
23:27
Germans Proposed an Alliance with Mexico
23:39
Intercepted Telegram
23:58
Unrestricted Submarine Warfare
24:07
The Home Front
24:21
The Lives of Ordinary Americans
24:58
Conscription
25:10
Doughboys
25:46
Slackers
25:53
We Want You!
26:03
Wartime Economy
27:24
War Industries Board
28:15
Bernard Baruch
28:26
The Food Administration
28:47
The Committee on Public Information
29:18
George Creel Directed the CPI
30:02
More Propaganda Posters and Songs
31:12
Opposition and Hope For Minorities
33:57
Conscientious Objectors
34:19
Women's Peace Party
34:39
The Women's International League for Peace and Freedom
34:46
Segregated Regiments
35:25
Crackdown on Dissent
37:28
Espionage Act
38:18
The Sedition Act
38:46
Example 1
39:39
Example 2
40:39
Example 3
42:50
The End of the Great War, Its Effect, and The Interwar Period

40m 27s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:08
The War Changes U.S. Society
1:02
More Opportunities for Women
2:15
American Women's Hospital Service
2:50
The Great Migration
4:07
Race Riots
4:19
Barrios
4:44
Protesters Finally Reach Their Goal
4:52
Great Migration
5:32
Wilson , War and Peace
6:46
Entering the War
6:50
Convoying
8:21
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
9:07
The End of the War
9:48
Eddie Rickenbacker
9:55
Compiegne, France
10:47
Casualties
11:10
Armistice
11:23
“Peace Without Victory”
11:59
The Morality of the Allied
12:11
Fourteen Points
12:47
League of Nations
13:55
Paris Peace Conference
14:26
Paris Peace Conference
14:32
A Peace Settlement that Punished Germany
14:40
War Guilt
14:52
The League of Nations as Part of the Treaty
16:02
Map, 1918
16:37
Many U.S. Citizens Reject Treaty
17:45
Irreconcilables
17:54
Reservationists
18:27
Article X viewed as Unconstitutional
18:48
The Aftermath of the War
20:04
Isolationism
20:20
Red Scare
20:58
A Creditor Nation
22:32
Schenck v. United States, 1919
22:42
Violation of the Espionage Act
22:58
Justice Wendell Holmes
22:41
Tools for Suppression
24:04
Stamping Out Radicalism
24:29
International Workers of the World
24:39
Eugene Debs
24:58
Emma Goldman
25:16
Margaret Sanger
25:37
Federal Bureau of Investigation
26:04
Red Scare
26:42
USSR
26:47
Palmer Raids
27:02
American Civil Liberties Union
28:04
ACLU: American Civil Liberties Union
28:12
Freedom of Speech and Expression
28:21
On Behalf of the American People
28:42
Sacco and Vanzetti
29:09
Trial for Murder
29:36
Defense Counsel
29:43
The Fairness of the Trial
30:35
Shift From Idealism to Normalcy
31:41
Return to Normalcy
32:11
Suppressed by Federal Troops
32:33
The Supreme Court
32:42
Example 1
33:07
Example 2
35:53
Example 3
37:45
Example 4
38:49
The Interwar Period

47m 7s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:05
Conservative Presidents
2:45
Harding's Presidency
2:50
Herbert Hoover
3:37
Republican-Dominated FTC
4:22
Calvin Coolidge
4:41
A Strong Pro-Business Stance
4:52
New Tax Cut
5:14
Interior Albert Fall
5:52
Mixed Economic Development
6:45
Postwar Recession
6:53
A Consumer Culture
8:25
Overproduction
9:08
Inflation
9:28
Consumer Culture
9:41
A New Pop Culture
10:23
Radios
10:28
Duke Ellington
11:00
New Consumer Goods
11:58
New Journalism
12:18
Images of the 1920s
12:40
The Jazz Age and “Modern” Culture
12:55
African Americans
13:03
Rebel Against Their Elders
13:57
Popular Heroes
14:22
Bath Ruth
14:37
Charles Lindbergh
15:08
First Solo Non-Stop Flight
15:20
New Literature: Stream of Consciousness
15:37
Gertrude Stein
15:59
The Waste Land
16:46
Victorian Era Culture
17:10
Art and Architecture
18:00
Art Deco Style
18:07
Edward Hopper
18:38
George Gershwin
18:51
Automat
19:43
Gender Roles, Family and Education
20:00
Flappers
21:02
Influence of Sigmund Freud
21:42
The New Woman
22:57
The Women's Joint Congressional Committee
23:38
The League of Women Voters
24:03
Women in the 1920s
24:32
Pop Culture
25:10
Leisure Time in Rural and Urban Areas
25:15
The Jazz Singer
25:33
Tin Pan Alley
26:20
Fox Trot and Charleston
26:33
Harlem Renaissance
26:40
A Cultural Identity with African Roots
26:53
NYC's Harlem
27:09
New Negro
27:30
Marcus Garvey and UNIA
28:25
Garvey Advocated Black Separatism
28:57
Four Million Followers
29:18
Negro World
29:27
Mail Fraud
29:50
Prohibition and Crime
30:13
18th Amendment
30:16
Volstead Act
30:46
Lucrative Bootlegging Trade
31:28
The Noble Experiment
31:43
Drys
32:06
Wets
32:10
Bathtub Gin
32:25
Roaring Twenties
32:58
Nativism, Pluralism and Racism
34:02
Mass Media
34:53
National Origins Act
35:43
Birth of a Nation
36:50
Fundamentalism and Modernism
37:40
The Monkey Trial
38:15
The Trial of John T. Scopes
38:42
Example 1
39:39
Example 2
41:58
Example 3
43:39
Example 4
45:07
The Foreign Policy During the Interwar Years, The Great Depression and The First New Deal

34m 4s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:09
Foreign Policy in the 1920s
0:48
A Retreat to Isolationism
1:09
Expansion of New Markets
1:14
United Fruit Company
1:47
The Dawes Plan
2:09
Reparation Payment
2:22
Financial Problems on Both Sides of the Atlantic
2:46
1929 Stock Market Crash
2:57
The Pursuit of Peace
3:42
Kellogg-Briand Pact of 1928
4:22
A Policy of Disarmament
4:38
League of Nations
4:47
The Causes of the Great Depression
4:59
Business Cycle
5:36
Black Thursday
6:35
The Agricultural Sector
7:04
THE GDP Fell
7:22
Weak Farm Economy
7:42
The Unequal Distribution of Wealth
8:26
Herbert Hoover
8:52
The Stock Market Crashed
9:32
Expand Public Works Spending
9:44
Reconstruction Finance Corporation
9:49
Hoover's Policies
10:24
Rugged Individualism
10:35
Hawley Smoot Tariff
11:17
The Revenue Act of 1932
12:11
The Scapegoat for the Depression
12:25
Debt Moratorium
12:58
Tough Times and Hoovervilles
13:08
Election of 1932
14:02
The Three Rs
14:38
A New Form of Liberalism
14:57
Social Welfare
15:24
Anti-Poverty Programs
15:56
The First Hundred Days
16:19
100-Day Long Special Session
18:28
Bank Holiday
18:42
Optimism of a Nation
19:04
Emergency Banking Act
19:40
Homeowners Loan Corporation
19:52
Glass-Steagall Act
20:12
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
20:20
Alphabet Agencies
20:32
Federal Emergency Relief Administration
21:06
Work Relief Over Cash Subsidies
21:22
Inflationary
21:41
International Gold Standard
22:15
The Securities and Exchange Commission
22:26
The Banking Act of 1935
22:38
NIRA and NRA
22:57
National Industrial Recovery Act
23:02
National Recovery Administration
23:08
Government Approved Codes
23:40
Outlawed Child Labor
24:00
Other Programs
24:21
Public Works Administration
24:29
Civilian Conservation Corps
25:33
Tennessee Valley Authority
25:58
TVA
26:25
CCC
26:45
PWA
27:11
Example 1
27:35
Example 2
29:55
Example 3
32:30
The Second New Deal

48m 10s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:05
New Deal Under Attack
1:21
Liberty League
1:49
Schechter v. United States
3:10
Unconstitutional Codes Created by NIRA
3:39
Father Charles Coughlin
4:31
Father Francis Townsend
4:54
Senator Huey Long
5:25
Share Our Wealth Society
5:37
Critiques From the Left
6:14
The New Deal
6:17
Nationalization of Businesses
7:25
United States v. Butler
7:35
The Second New Deal
7:45
Townsend's, Coughlin's and Long's Programs
8:12
Works Progress Administration
8:30
The Labor Movement
9:05
The Promise of the New Deal
9:17
New Deal Murals
9:48
New Deal Programs
10:12
The Second New Deal
10:50
The National Labor Relations Act
10:51
National Labor Relations Board
11:01
Social Security Act
11:15
Categorical Assistance Programs
11:47
W.P.A
12:29
1936 Politics
14:17
Solid South
14:36
Judicial Reorganization Bill
15:32
The Wagner Act and SSA
16:02
New Economic Policy: Deficit Spending
16:40
John Maynard Keynes
16:51
Deficit Spendings
16:55
Purposeful Government Intervention
17:23
Ended the Great Depression
18:01
John Maynard Keynes
18:34
Economist
18:43
The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money
18:46
The Rise of Unions and the CIO
18:53
John L. Lewis
19:25
The Congress of Industrial Organization
19:36
One Union
19:48
Steel Workers Organize
20:15
Strikes
20:32
Collective Bargaining
20:33
Resisted Union Demands
20:35
Effects of the New Deal
21:18
Expansion of the Federal Bureaucracy
21:20
Steel Workers Organizing Committee
21:47
Fair Labor Standards Act
22:25
Effects and Eleanor Roosevelt
23:32
A Recession
23:57
Government Policy
24:05
Eleanor Roosevelt
24:28
Eleanor Roosevelt
25:56
The Postwar Era
26:44
My Day
27:14
Press Conferences for Female Reporters
27:22
Anti-Lynching Campaigns
27:34
The Right to Organize
28:00
Images of Eleanor Roosevelt
28:26
Supporters of New Deal
29:34
Activist Executive Branch
29:44
The First Female Cabinet Member
30:23
Indian Reorganization Act
31:33
Mary McLeod Bethune and Amelia Earhart
32:04
A Member of the Advisory Committee of the NYA
32:14
Lady Lindy
33:00
New Deal Critics
33:21
Unemployment Rate
33:37
The Federal Deficit
33:57
A Critical View
34:57
Discrimination of Minorities
35:09
Okies
35:20
Cesar Chavez
35:39
National Farmworkers Association
36:22
Chinese Exclusion Act
37:06
The Tydings-McDuffie Act
37:18
The Scottsboro Case
37:45
The Dust Bowl
38:50
Severe Drought
38:55
The Grapes of Wrath
39:44
Dust Bowl Map
39:55
Dust Cloud
40:31
Farmer and Family, Dust Bowl
40:44
Example 1
41:03
Example 2
42:51
Example 3
44:36
Example 4
46:29
World War II

55m 16s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:05
Isolationist Foreign Policy of 1930s
1:13
The Washington Conference
1:28
Stimson Doctrine
2:48
Kellogg-Briand Pact
3:39
Good Neighbor Policy
4:10
The Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act
4:43
The Nye Commission
5:10
Investigation of the Munitions Industry
5:16
A Senate Committee
5:32
Non-Interventionist Movement
6:14
Neutrality Act
6:17
Quarantine Speech
6:45
Aggressive Militarism and Fascism Abroad
7:03
Treaty of Versailles
8:17
Lightening War
9:40
Withdrew from the League of Nations
10:38
Rome-Berlin Axis
10:55
Nazi Germany
11:18
Aggressive Militarism and Fascism Abroad
11:39
Ineffectiveness of League of Nations
11:56
Sinking of Panay
13:13
Appeasement
13:32
Before U.S. Enter War
14:49
Charles Beard
15:11
Four Essential Freedoms
16:09
Lend-Lease Act
17:19
The Atlantic Charter
17:33
“Four Freedoms” by Norman Rockwell
18:10
Attack on Pearl Harbor
18:35
The Bombing of Pearl Harbor
18:46
A Date Which Will Live in Infamy
18:53
Organizing for Total War
20:03
War Powers Act
20:10
War Production Board
21:40
Miracle Man
21:02
The Office of War Information
22:11
Wartime Propaganda
22:33
We Can Do It!
23:04
Large Scale Propaganda
23:06
Rosie the Riveter
23:48
Depression-Era Unemployment Disappeared
24:34
Unionized Jobs
25:00
Smith-Connally Labor Act
25:05
National War Labor Board
25:18
John Lewis
25:31
Internal Migration
25:42
Civil Rights Concerns
26:12
Negro Labor Relations League
26:37
Double V Campaign
27:38
A. Philip Randolph
28:20
League of United Latin American Citizens
29:17
Double V and Civil Rights
29:32
Effects on Minorities
29:57
The Status of Chinese Americans
30:00
Japanese immigrants
30:08
Zoot Suit
31:33
Japanese Internment
32:26
Executive order 9066
32:34
Korematsu v. United States
33:34
Ex Parte Endo Case
33:51
A Public Apology
34:34
Map of Relocation Camps
34:47
Manzanar Today
35:21
Instructions Posters
35:49
Major Military Events During WWII
36:09
Major Defeats on U.S. Forces
36:18
Battle of Coral Sea
36:54
Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower
37:37
General Douglas MacArthur
37:30
D-Day Invasion
37:57
Pacific Theatre
38:15
European Theatre
39:25
European Theatre, VE Day
40:39
The End of War in Europe
41:46
Final Solution of the Jewish Question
41:58
A War Refuge Board
43:09
United Nations
43:35
The Holocaust
43:46
Mass Extermination of Jews
43:56
Genocide of 6 Million Jews
44:12
In the Pacific
45:36
Island Hopping
46:12
Navajo Troops
46:29
Heavy Causalities
46:39
The Manhattan Project
47:17
Example 1
47:50
Example 2
49:18
Example 3
51:00
Example 4
52:20
The End of World War II and Cold War America

51m 21s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:06
The End of World War II
1:48
The Big Three Met at the Yalta Conference
1:58
Free and Unfettered Elections
2:40
Iron Curtain
3:15
2 Major Issues: Independence Movement in India
3:49
The Big Three
4:48
The Outcome of Yalta
5:26
Four Administrative Zones
5:37
United Nations Established That Would Have Security Council
5:48
Berlin Was Also Partitioned
6:42
Germany Divided Berlin Partitioned
6:48
FDR Dies and Truman as President
7:14
Franklin D. Roosevelt Couldn't Finish Presidency Term
7:30
Truman Took Over Presidency
7:45
Truman Chose to Use Bomb
7:55
Issued Warning to Surrender or Face Utter and Complete Destruction
8:14
Japanese Would Fight to Death Rather Than Surrender
9:00
Need Quick Way to End the War
9:46
Atomic Bomb
10:12
The Manhattan Project
10:29
Top-Secret Plan
10:35
J. Robert Oppenheimer
10:44
General Leslie Groves
10:55
First Atomic Bomb Successfully Tested
11:05
Other Factors that Influenced Truman
11:17
Potsdam with Stalin
11:22
U.S. Cryptographers
12:02
Why Did U.S. Decide to Flex It's Nuclear Muscle
12:08
The End of the War
13:26
U.S. Dropped Atomic Bomb on Hiroshima but No Japanese Response
13:45
Radiation Poisoning
14:04
Dropped a Second Atomic Bomb on Nagasaki
14:39
Emperor Hirohito Forced to Surrender
14:51
Peace Treaty
15:10
Number of Casualties
15:20
Postwar Devastation
16:00
The Cold War
16:38
What is the Cold War?
16:56
Two Countries Primarily Involved
17:21
Joseph Stalin
17:43
A Security Zone of Friendly Government
17:54
Yalta Conference: Sphere of Influence
18:15
No Move to Hold the Elections
18:43
Cold War in Europe
19:01
Potsdam Conference
19:53
President Harry Truman Decided U.S. Had to Take a Hard Line Against Soviet Expansion
19:59
Truman Took a Stance to Use Tough Methods
21:14
Allies Agreed to Disarm and Dismantle Germany
21:57
Baruch Plan
22:11
Baruch Plan
22:27
Failure of Baruch Plan
22:37
A Frenzied Nuclear Arms Race
22:54
Eastern Bloc Countries
23:18
Map of Eastern Bloc Areas
23:19
Winston Churchill
23:32
The Iron Curtain
23:39
George Kennan and Containment Policy
24:24
One of the First Policies: Containment Policy
24:30
U.S. Increasingly Perceived Soviet Expansion as a Threat
24:42
The Most Influential Proponent
24:54
Communist Guerrillas
25:00
Truman Doctrine
25:30
Large Scale Military and Economic Assistance
25:40
Domino Theory
26:05
Marshall Plan and Containment
26:34
Containment
26:44
Plan to Help Rebuild War-Torn Europe
26:55
Discontentment Encouraged the Communist
27:09
George Marshall and Economic Aid
27:17
Eastern Euros Refused Aid
27:43
Opposition in U.S. Congress
27:50
Motives of Marshall Plan
28:21
map of Czechoslovakia 1918-1992
28:29
Foreign Policy in Mid East
29:16
Zionist Leaders
29:21
Truman Recognized the State
29:51
Gamal Abdel Nasser Nationalizes the Suez
30:04
Arab Nationalism
30:30
Britain, France, Israel Attack Egypt
30:41
Berlin Airlift in 1948
30:52
Attempt to Push Out Allies
31:30
A Program of Economic Reform in West Berlin
31:42
A Symbol of Resistance to Communism
31:52
Containment in Asia
32:45
Civil War in China
32:51
Truman Attempted to Provide Funds
33:14
The People's Republic of China
33:35
Red China
33:56
Fall of China
34:08
Diplomatic Nonentity
34:37
The Korean War
34:55
Korean War, 1950-1953
35:46
The Map
35:47
Republican Challenge of Truman's Conduct of the War
37:26
Truman Fired MacArthur
37:45
An Armistice Was Signed and Korea was Divided
37:56
NATO and Warsaw Pact
38:20
Truman Era
38:29
Government and Consumer Spending
38:42
Civilian Production
38:54
The Office of Price Administration
39:02
Example: Strikes Closed Down Business in Numerous Cities
39:29
Backlash Against Unionism: Truman Ended a Strike by the United Mine Workers
39:39
Taft-Hartley Act
40:03
Taft-Hartley Act
40:08
Vetoed the Bill
40:25
The Secondary Boycott and Union Shop
40:35
Democrats Split
40:46
Henry Wallace
40:55
Strom Thurmond
41:00
Election of 1948
41:09
Domestic Issues During the Truman Era
41:34
The Fair Deal
42:01
New Deal's Liberalism
42:11
Possibility of a Higher standard of Living and Benefits for Americans
42:46
Liberal Consensus
43:09
The National Housing Act of 1949
43:55
What Was Blocked
43:58
Executive Order 9981 Ends Segregation in Military in July of 1948
44:14
Example 1
44:35
Example 2
47:15
Example 3
48:50
VIII. Period 8: 1945-1980
The Red Scare and The Eisenhower Years

49m 4s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:07
The Second Red Scare
1:31
The House of Un-American Activities Committee
2:35
The Movie Industry
3:24
Senator Joseph McCarthy
5:01
Alger Hiss and HUAC
5:51
Alger Hiss
5:52
Whittaker Chambers
6:04
Richard Nixon
6:33
Anti-Communist Hysteria
6:51
Anti-Communist Hysteria and McCarthyism
7:24
Resigned under Pressure
8:29
McCarran Internal Security Act
9:17
Investigate Subversion in the U.S. Army
10:22
Anti-Communism
11:03
The Red Scare
12:33
Protest of HUAC and “Red Channels”
13:24
Ethel and Julius Rosenberg
13:49
Julius
14:09
Electrocution
14:17
Dwight D. Eisenhower
14:55
Modern Republicanism
15:42
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
17:29
The New Look Army
18:59
Social Security
19:32
Termination
19:47
The Highway Act of 1956
20:14
A Broad Liberal Consensus
20:47
Promoted Tourism
21:23
Nuclear Missiles
21:31
The Space Race
22:23
The New Look in Foreign Policy
23:35
A Massive Nuclear Arsenal
23:50
U-2 Spy Plane
25:03
Hungarian Revolt
25:45
Containment the Third World
25:59
SEATO
26:19
A Coup of Arbenz
27:38
Proxy Wars
28:15
Domino Theory
28:48
Decolonization of the Third World
28:52
Containment in the Post-Colonial World
30:06
The Containment Policy
30:17
Failed to Recognize Indigenous or Nationalist Movements
30:31
Dictatorships or Repressive Right-Wing Regimes
31:41
U.S. Global Defense Treaties in Cold War
32:23
SEATO and The Role of the CIA
33:07
South Asia Treaty Organization
33:20
Central Intelligence Agency
33:20
Lebanon
33:59
Containment Policy
34:10
Overthrow Iran's Premier
34:28
Guatemala
34:31
Geneva Accords
34:44
Domino Theory
35:07
Military Industrial Complex
35:30
Eisenhower's Farewell Address
35:46
Military Industrial Complex
35:46
Military Industrial Map
36:51
Spending Graph
37:31
Example 1
37:59
Example 2
40:44
Example 3
43:25
Example 4
46:00
Postwar Prosperity and The 'Other' America

51m 55s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:09
Economic Realities
2:08
Huge Economic Growth
2:15
Postwar Boom
2:53
Defense Spending and Domestic Programs
3:10
Acceptance of Collective Bargaining
3:23
Rise in Gross Domestic Product
3:52
The Affluent Society
4:01
Or the “Other” America
5:14
U.S. Affluence
5:22
John Kenneth Galbraith
5:37
The Other America
6:16
Michael Harrington
6:51
Bretton Woods System
7:06
Third World Countries
7:19
The World Bank
8:08
The International Monetary Fund
9:10
Strongest Currency
9:45
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
10:00
Fixed Exchange Rates
10:17
Economic Trends in the 1950s
10:54
Consolidation of Corporations Continued
10:59
Rise in Consumerism
11:43
General Electric
12:24
Suburban Living
14:01
Levittowns
14:14
Henry J. Kaiser
15:09
The Federal Housing Administration
15:18
Veterans Administration
15:22
Levittowns and Tract Housing
16:13
Negative Effects of Suburbanization
16:34
The Downside of Suburbanization
16:52
Restrictive Covenants
18:03
Shelley v. Kramer
18:34
Changing Demographics
18:52
Baby Boom! “Gotta Make Up for Lost Time”
19:33
Highway Expansion
20:27
National Interstate and Defense Highways Act
20:33
Mass Transit Systems
20:39
City “Life Belts” and Car Culture
21:23
The Emerging Civil Rights Movement
21:53
Civil Rights Challenges
23:36
The NAACP
23:47
Thurgood Marshall
24:06
Linda Brown
24:23
Brown v. Board of Education, 1954
25:54
Plessy case
25:20
Racial Segregation in Schools and other Public Facilities
26:24
Violates the 14th Amendment
26:36
“Massive Resistance” Against the Case
27:33
A Southern Manifesto
28:08
KKK
28:41
Governor Orval Faubus of AR
28:47
Southern Universities
29:18
Segregationists and the Little Rock Nine
29:35
Nonviolent Protest and Civil Disobedience
30:31
Rosa Parks
30:38
A Local Segregation Ordinance
30:53
A Boycott of Montgomery's Bus System
31:16
Social Critics: The Beats
32:40
Rejected Conventional Society
33:10
Jack Kerouac and Allen Ginsberg
33:40
The Springboard for the Counterculture Movement
33:49
Be-Bop Jazz
34:03
Improvisational
34:14
Bebop Musicians
35:06
Other Culture Dissenters
35:19
Alienation from Mainstream Society
35:22
Abstract Expressionism
35:30
Jackson Pollock
35:41
Pop Art
35:53
Aspects of Mass Media
36:05
Mundane Cultural Objects
36:10
Andy Warhol
36:14
TV Culture and Rock and Roll
36:33
Television Sets
36:39
Rock and Roll
37:09
1950s: Conformity or Rebellion?
38:53
Women's Issues in the 1950s
40:14
Feminine Mystique
40:41
Motherhood
41:16
Glass Ceiling
42:04
The Feminine Mystique
42:24
Other Policies and Demographic Changes
43:05
Operation Wetback
43:09
Puerto Ricans
43:36
Second Migration
44:04
Immigration and Nationality Act
44:28
The Second Migration, 1940-1970
44:52
Other Demographic Changes
45:15
Inner Cities Declined
45:25
Suburban Affluence and the “Other America”
45:30
Example 1
45:49
Example 2
46:42
Example 3
48:07
Example 4
50:33
1960s, The Kennedy Years and The Liberal Consensus

55m 17s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:07
John F. Kennedy
1:17
The New Frontier Program
1:51
TV Debates
3:13
First Catholic President
4:15
Liberal Initiatives
4:55
Bay of Pigs
5:19
Funding for NASA
6:19
Alan Shepard
6:49
John Glenn
6:56
The Bay of Pigs Incident
7:02
U.S.-Cuban Relations
7:39
Castro Nationalized U.S. Owned Banks
7:46
CIA
8:26
Surrendered Within 24 Hours of Fighting
9:24
Cold War and Bay of Pigs
9:43
JFK: Cold Warrior
10:06
Turned to the USSR
10:10
The Berlin Wall
10:29
Cuban Missile Crisis
11:05
Nuclear Warfare
11:41
Flexible Response
12:34
The Civil Rights Movements Stirs
13:58
Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee
14:17
CORE
16:19
Attorney General Robert Kennedy
16:45
Bull Connors
17:12
Freedom Rides Map
17:41
Notorious Police Brutality Under “Bull Connors”
18:36
Civil Rights Movement
19:13
Kennedy's Response
20:08
Promise Civil Rights Legislation Banning Discrimination in Public
20:09
Second Emancipation Proclamation
20:32
MLK Jr.'s Response
21:49
A Massive Civil Rights
21:56
I Have a Dream
22:08
Civil Rights in the 1960s
22:50
More Radical
22:57
Southern Senators
23:16
Birmingham
23:27
Black Nationalism
23:43
Black Separatism
24:32
Uncle Tom
25:16
Black Muslims
26:44
Malcolm X
27:43
Nation Justice
28:43
Hajj
29:22
Pan-African Unity
29:44
Black Power
30:42
Stokely Carmichael
31:12
Honorary Prime Minister
32:26
Pan-Africanist
32:33
Black Panthers
33:03
Cesar Chaves, Farm Workers and Chicanos
34:04
Chavez and Dolores Huerta
34:25
United Farm Workers
34:48
La Causa
35:58
Chavez, Huerta and UFW
36:26
MAPA, Chicano Movement, Brown Berets
37:19
Mexican American Political Association
37:30
Brown Berets
38:00
Chicano
38:14
Bilingual Education
38:45
American Indian Movement (AIM)
39:46
Red Power
39:51
A Siege at Wounded Knee
40:40
We Shall Remain
41:20
Peace Corps
41:30
Third World Countries
41:47
Agency for International Development and the Alliance of Progress
42:06
The Liberal Warren Court
43:14
Mapp v. Ohio
43:55
Gideon v. Wainwright
44:03
Escobedo v. Illinois
44:12
Miranda v. Arizona
44:22
Engel v. Vitale
45:04
Griswold v. Connecticut
45:29
Baker v. Carr
45:53
One Man, One Vote
46:08
Beginning of Vietnam War
46:22
Green Berets
47:10
A Military Coup
47:20
Assassination of John F. Kennedy
48:07
Lee Harvey Oswald
48:17
Lyndon B. Johnson
49:33
Example 1
49:54
Example 2
51:47
Example 3
53:37
Lyndon B. Johnson, Civil Rights, and The Vietnam War

52m 54s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:09
Lyndon B. Johnson
1:55
A Huge Expansions of Social Welfare Programs
2:41
The Civil Rights Act
3:39
Title VII
4:01
1964 Election
4:58
Lyndon B. Johnson
5:52
The Civil Rights Act
6:10
Expansion of Civil Rights Movement
6:26
A Voting Rights Act
6:28
Freedom Summer
6:44
15 Civil Rights Workers
7:25
From Selma to Montgomery
7:32
Freedom Summer
7:49
March in Selma
9:10
Bloody Sunday
9:17
The Voting Rights Act
10:53
The 24th Amendment's Outlawing of the Federal Poll tax
11:35
Voter Registration in the South
12:00
Watts Riots: “Burn Baby, Burn”
12:40
Voting Rights Act
12:43
Arrested a Young Black Motorist
13:34
Legislation During LBJ Years
15:03
War on Poverty
15:45
Long-Established Social Insurance Programs
16:24
The Office of Economic Opportunity Act of 1964
16:57
The Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965
17:46
Influential Books of the 1960s
18:19
War on Poverty
20:02
Legislation During LBJ Years
20:43
Medicare for the Elderly and Medicaid for the Poor
20:47
National Endowment for the Arts
20:57
The Highway Beautification Act
21:15
Wartime Inflation
22:10
10% Surcharge on Income Taxes
22:18
LBJ Escalates the Vietnam War
23:18
A Quagmire
23:55
The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
24:40
The Americanization of the War
25:00
Operation Rolling Thunder
25:24
US Soldiers in Vietnam
26:06
War of Attrition
26:44
U.S. Military Personnel in S. Vietnam
26:57
The Anti-War Movement
27:16
Public Opinion Turn Against the War
27:22
The Impact of the Television
27:27
Credibility Gap
28:11
Television War and Image of Vietnam War
28:50
The New Left Movement
29:14
Implement a Broad Range of Reforms
29:22
Students for a Democratic Society
29:42
Michigan
30:05
Port Huron Statement
30:11
Students for a Democratic Society
30:21
Tom Hayden
30:25
The Port Huron Statement
30:27
Free Speech Movement
30:56
The Selective Service System
31:37
Closed Down Induction Centers
31:55
Stop the Draft Week
33:03
The Siege on the Pentagon
33:05
National Organization of Women
33:21
Betty Friedan
33:51
Women's Rights and Equality
33:57
The Counterculture
34:15
Hippies
35:07
Pete Seeger and Bob Dylan
35:41
Acid Rock
36:29
Woodstock
37:06
Images of Woodstock
37:15
1968: A Watershed Year
37:55
Tet Offensive
38:34
My Lai Massacre
39:08
Antiwar Platform
39:46
Tet Offensive
40:03
1968
40:20
MLK was Assassinated
40:23
Robert F. Kennedy
41:14
RFK Assassination
41:31
Democratic Convention in Chicago
41:45
Democratic Convention 1968
42:02
Backlash: Conservatism
42:26
Protest and Dissent
42:34
George Wallace
42:56
Silent Majority
42:39
Richard Nixon Elected
43:39
Example 1
44:23
Example 2
46:55
Example 3
49:53
The Rise and Fall of Richard Nixon and The End of the Vietnam War

35m 50s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:07
Richard Nixon
1:32
Office of Price Administration in Washington
1:50
Republican Representative
1:58
Alger Hiss Case
2:26
Winding Down the Vietnam War
2:33
No-Win Situation
3:26
Cambodia
3:42
Withdrawing from the War
4:24
Vietnam War vets
4:48
Violence at Kent State University
6:00
Ohio
6:16
National Guard
6:28
Images of Kent State
6:57
Nixon's Trip to China and the Cold War
7:16
A Bold Move
7:31
A Policy of Diplomacy
7:53
Ping-pong Diplomacy
8:25
Detente
8:55
Vietnamization
9:15
Detente
9:50
Henry Kissinger
10:15
National Security Advisor
10:22
Realpolitik
10:25
Nixon and Brezhnev
10:57
Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty
11:08
Antiballistic Missiles
11:19
ICBMS or SLBMS
11:24
The Silent Majority Speaks Out
11:49
Brown v. Board of Education
12:48
Miller v. California
14:00
Milliken v. Bradley
14:36
1972 Election
15:02
Disarray
15:14
George McGovern
15:35
Southern Strategy
16:10
George Wallace
16:52
Nixon and Civil Rights
17:12
Dixicrats
17:24
Warren Burger
17:57
Harry Blackmun
18:24
Domestic Policies
18:38
Inflation Problems and Economic Problems
18:49
Revenue Sharing
19:14
More Control of Where Federal Funding Allocated
19:16
Regulatory Laws Passed
19:26
Clean Air Act
20:30
Occupational Health and Safety Act
20:33
Water Pollution Control Act
20:41
Endangered Species Act
20:50
The Fall of Richard Nixon
21:16
Enemies
21:57
Imperial Presidency
22:32
Pentagon Papers
23:06
National Security
23:45
Theft, Conspiracy and Espionage
25:06
Nixon and the Plumbers
25:11
A Secret Special Unit
26:18
Illegal Campaigns
25:31
The Democratic National Committee Offices
25:52
Cover-up
26:04
The Tapes and the Cover-up
26:23
Illegal Deeds
26:56
Impeachment Hearings
27:09
First President to Resign
27:23
War Power Act
27:37
Reined in the Powers of President
27:50
Congressional Approval
28:00
Example 1
28:45
Example 2
29:56
Example 3
33:01
1970s, Ford and Carter

44m 35s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:06
Gerald Ford: President After Nixon Resigns
1:19
Stagflation
2:02
Whip Inflation Now
2:06
Highlights of Ford Presidency
2:20
Oil Embargo After Yom Kippur War
2:47
Politicized OPEC
3:04
Yom Kippur War
3:19
Declared Oil Embargo on U.S.
3:34
OPEC Oil Embargo
3:50
400% Increase in Oil Prices
4:08
Oil Price Shock
4:14
Long Lines at Gas Stations
4:38
Economic Decline
4:59
Japanese Cars
5:08
Speed Limit
5:36
Stagflation
6:00
Ford's Foreign Policy
6:22
Helsinki Accords
6:28
Limit Arms
6:40
Accused of Engineering the Assassination of Foreign Leaders
6:53
George Bush
7:02
Jimmy Carter, 1976-1980
7:28
Granted Amnesty
8:43
Domestic Challenges
9:00
Crisis in Confidence
9:40
Images of Jimmy Carter
10:33
Gas Shortages and Energy Crisis
11:14
Gas Prices Soared
11:19
Raise Taxes on Crude Oil
11:55
People's Lack of Faith in Government
12:06
Energy Consumption
12:15
Taking On Inflation
12:40
Paul Volcker
12:47
An End to Inflation
12:52
Three Mile Island
13:01
Nuclear Power Spill
13:05
No New Nuclear Plants
14:09
20% of all U.S. Power
14:13
Goldsboro, PA
14:28
Nervous Humor
14:38
Carter's Foreign Policy
15:25
Realism
15:30
Repressive Regimes
15:36
Panama Canal
16:50
Peace Talks between Sadat and Begin
17:25
The Women's Movement in the 1970s
20:17
Equal Rights Amendment
20:27
Ratification
20:54
A Reactionary Conservative Movement
21:04
States That Ratified ERA
21:15
Pro and Anti-ERA Marchers
22:39
Other Feminist Activities
23:30
Ms. Magazine
24:19
Gay Rights Movement
25:32
Stonewall Incident
25:52
Harvey Milk
26:07
Dan White
27:03
Rust Belt to Sun Belt
27:12
Demographic Changes Affect Politics
28:26
Latin America and Asia
28:38
1965 Immigration Law
28:45
The “Me Generation”
29:06
Self-Absorption
29:13
Huge Health Trend
29:16
Pop Culture
29:42
Televangelists and the New Right
30:22
Religious Right
30:42
A Constitutional Ban
30:45
Mandatory Death Penalty
31:05
The Bakke Case
32:03
University of California v. Bakke
32:28
Reverse Discrimination
33:23
Iran Hostage Crisis
34:02
The Iranian Revolution
34:26
Ayatollah Khomeini
34:35
66 U.S. Hostages
35:02
Economic Embargo and a Military Mission
35:14
Reagan's Inauguration
35:26
Images of Iran Hostage Crisis
36:24
Example 1
36:53
Example 2
40:07
Example 3
42:04
The Conservative Resurgence and The 1980s

46m 5s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:07
Free-Market Economics and Religious Conservatism
1:13
Anticommunism, Free-Market Economics and Religious Moralism
2:25
Regulatory Bureaucracy
5:02
PATCO Strikers
5:55
Supply-Side Economics
6:34
Reaganomics
6:48
Reducing Taxes and More Spending
7:00
Economic Recovery Act
7:26
Lowered Taxes
7:30
Images of Supply-Side Economics
8:20
Trickle Down Economics
9:57
Reaganomics
10:32
Reduced Income Tax Rates
10:50
Drop of the Highest Marginal Tax Rate
11:04
The Federal Deficit Increased
12:07
The Annual Federal Budget Deficit (or Surplus), 1940-2005
12:33
Presidential Landscaping
13:11
Budget Deficit
13:17
National Debt
13:35
The Savings and Loan
13:54
Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI)
14:49
Relations with the USSR Improve
16:33
Perestroika
17:28
Glasnost
17:58
Mr. Gorbachev, Tear Down This Wall
18:23
The Wall Comes Down in 1989
18:57
Reagan Aids Anticommunists and Israelis
20:36
A Right-Wing Government in El Salvador
21:14
Setbacks in the Middle East
22:40
Involvement in Latin America and Caribbean
23:11
Iran-Contra Affair and Scandal
23:38
Banned Sending Funds to the Contras
24:25
Oliver North
24:46
Iran-Contra
25:08
Foreign Policy After the Cold War
26:26
New World Order
26:32
War on Drugs
27:09
Disintegration of Yugoslavia
27:30
Social Issues
28:01
Sandra Day O'Connor
28:35
William Rehnquist
28:59
Roe v. Wade
29:14
Economic Changes
29:46
Service Oriented
30:12
Trade Imbalance
30:18
Widened Gap Between Rich and Poor
30:36
Apple Computers and Microsoft
31:28
The Income of Two-Wage Families Graph
31:43
Other Themes in the 1980s
33:15
Materialistic Values
33:28
AIDS Epidemic
33:53
Just Say No
36:28
Challenger Explodes
36:50
1987 March On Washington for Gay and Lesbian Rights
37:15
Example 1
37:53
Example 2
40:57
Example 3
43:41
IX. Period 9: 1980-present
The End of the Cold War and a Global Society

1h 6m 56s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:06
Election of 1988
1:40
George H.W. Bush
1:44
Jesse Jackson
2:00
New World Order
2:52
Uprisings in China and Eastern Europe
3:16
Beijing's Tiananmen Square
3:43
Anticommunist Movement in 1989
4:38
Solidarity Movement
4:50
Velvet Revolution in Czechoslovakia
5:07
1989
5:40
Breakup of the USSR
6:35
Commonwealth of Independent States
6:43
Boris Yeltsin
7:13
Yugoslavia Disintegrated
7:49
CIS
8:02
Other Foreign Policy Issues
9:16
Invasion of Panama
9:38
Persian Gulf War
10:11
Operation Desert Storm
10:13
Vietnam Syndrome
12:22
Domestic Issues Under Bush
12:49
Budget Deficits
13:52
No New taxes
14:10
A Kinder Gentler America
14:35
The Changing Economy
15:12
Globalization
16:37
Multinational Corporations
17:46
North American Free Trade Agreement
19:25
The Rise of the European Union
20:15
European Union
20:58
Nike Factory in China
21:51
Productivity, Family Income, and Wages 1973-2004
22:37
Imports and Exports
24:00
Bill Clinton
24:45
The Election of 1992
24:50
National Health Care
26:05
Avoiding Expensive Social-Welfare Proposals
27:38
Aid to Families with Dependent Children
27:53
New Democrat
28:05
Clinton's Second Term
28:17
Foreign Policy Challenges
29:52
NATO Intervened
30:01
Air Strikes Against Al Qaeda
30:39
Technological Revolutions
31:12
Digitization
31:26
World Wide Web
32:11
Internet
32:32
Percentage of Americans Using Internet
33:06
The Annual Federal Budget Deficit (or Surplus), 1940-2005
33:20
Election of 2000
34:32
Vice President Al Gore
34:43
Florida
35:04
George W. Bush's Presidency
36:00
Economic Growth and Tax Relief Act of 2001
36:13
Federal Expenditures
36:48
War on Terror
38:19
9/11
38:50
Bush
39:30
USA Patriot Act
40:32
An Axis of Evil
42:01
Iraq
43:22
John Kerry
44:19
New Orleans
45:09
Economic Issues and 2008 Election
46:30
Significant Decline
46:48
Emergency Economic Stabilization Act
48:35
Barack Obama Wins in 2008
49:17
Remaking America
51:07
Economic Stimulus Package
51:39
Regulate Wall Street
52:02
American Recovery and Reinvestment Act
52:18
Don’t Ask. Don’t Tell Policy
54:42
Elena Kagan
55:17
New Immigrants
55:31
Example 1
57:27
Example 2
1:00:08
Example 3
1:04:35
X. AP Practice Exam
AP Practice Exam, Section I: Multiple Choice and Short Answer

38m 33s

Intro
0:00
Overview of Exam
0:12
Multiple-Choice Section
1:57
What does It Include?
2:10
Background Information
2:43
Highlight
3:20
Completely Read the Question
4:33
Short-Answer Section
4:49
Four Questions
4:54
Complete Sentences
4:58
Thematic Learning Objectives
6:20
Sample AP U.S. History Test Answers
7:05
Multiple Choice Question 1
9:07
Multiple Choice Question 2
9:35
Multiple Choice Question 3
10:05
Multiple Choice Question 4
10:27
Multiple Choice Question 5
10:56
Multiple Choice Question 6
11:18
Multiple Choice Question 7
11:48
Multiple Choice Question 8
12:16
Multiple Choice Question 9
12:42
Multiple Choice Question 10
13:08
Multiple Choice Question 11
13:40
Multiple Choice Question 12
14:03
Multiple Choice Question 13
14:30
Multiple Choice Question 14
14:59
Multiple Choice Question 15
15:24
Multiple Choice Question 16
15:49
Multiple Choice Question 17
16:23
Multiple Choice Question 18
16:47
Multiple Choice Question 19
17:09
Multiple Choice Question 20
17:41
Multiple Choice Question 21
18:02
Multiple Choice Question 22
18:19
Multiple Choice Question 23
18:49
Multiple Choice Question 24
19:11
Multiple Choice Question 25
19:32
Multiple Choice Question 26
20:02
Multiple Choice Question 27
20:23
Multiple Choice Question 28
20:50
Multiple Choice Question 29
21:11
Multiple Choice Question 30
21:40
Multiple Choice Question 31
22:13
Multiple Choice Question 32
22:33
Multiple Choice Question 33
22:55
Multiple Choice Question 34
23:27
Multiple Choice Question 35
23:49
Multiple Choice Question 36
24:11
Multiple Choice Question 37
24:32
Multiple Choice Question 38
24:57
Multiple Choice Question 39
25:23
Multiple Choice Question 40
25:50
Multiple Choice Question 41
26:18
Multiple Choice Question 42
26:44
Multiple Choice Question 43
27:09
Multiple Choice Question 44
27:36
Multiple Choice Question 45
28:02
Multiple Choice Question 46
28:20
Multiple Choice Question 47
28:39
Multiple Choice Question 48
29:08
Multiple Choice Question 49
29:39
Multiple Choice Question 50
30:03
Multiple Choice Question 51
30:28
Multiple Choice Question 52
30:50
Multiple Choice Question 53
31:07
Multiple Choice Question 54
31:32
Multiple Choice Question 55
31:50
Short Question 1
32:35
Short Question 2
34:20
Short Question 3
36:11
Short Question 4
37:18
AP Practice Exam, Section II: Free Response

29m 24s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:10
Free-Response Section: DBQ
1:38
Brainstorm and Jot Down What You Already Know
2:20
Highlighter
2:57
Use Outside Knowledge
5:11
Assess and Cite the Documents
5:32
Free-Response Section: Long Essay
7:02
Historical Thinking Skills
7:20
Thematic Learning Objectives
7:42
Include an Introduction
8:04
Supporting Evidence
8:20
Free-Response Section: DBQ
8:25
Introduction
9:41
Thesis
9:44
Body Paragraphs
10:14
Support With Evidence
10:33
Historical Phenomena
10:49
Synthesize the Above Components
10:56
Conclusion
11:06
Restate Thesis
11:25
Synthesize the Evidence
12:02
Sample Thesis
12:16
Document 1
21:53
Document 2
22:13
Document 3-7
22:43
Free-Response Section: Long Essay
23:21
Sample Thesis
24:36
Continuity Over Time
25:37
Change Over Time
26:24
Historical Thinking Skills and Use of Evidence
27:36
Conclusion and Analysis
28:10
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England's Tobacco Colonies, Jamestown, Bacon's Rebellion

  • The first British permanent corporate colony was established in Jamestown in 1607. It was founded members of the Virginia Company, a joint-stock company. Their goal was trade and not settlement.
  • Maryland was established as a refuge for Catholics by the Calverts and Lord Baltimore.
  • Conditions were difficult in the Chesapeake colonies at first until the discovery and cultivation of tobacco.
  • Bacon’s Rebellion erupted when many “western” backwoods farmers became disgruntled b/c Sir William Berkeley, the royal governor of VA (1641-52, 1660-77), who adopted policies that favored large planters & the farmers didn’t feel protected from Indian attacks.
  • More about Jamestown: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part1/1p261.html

England's Tobacco Colonies, Jamestown, Bacon's Rebellion

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  • Intro 0:00
  • Overview 0:09
  • Areas Colonized by 1660 0:45
  • Early British Ventures in North America and Roanoke Island 1:48
    • Sir Humphrey Gilbert
    • Sir Ferdinando Gorge
    • Sir Walter Raleigh
  • Croatoan 3:57
  • The Chesapeake Colonies 4:51
    • Populous Colonies
    • Indentured Servants
    • Virginia
  • Jamestown 7:14
    • Virginia Company
    • Corporate Colony
    • Harsh Life
    • Finding Gold
  • The Man, the Myth, the Legend 10:17
  • Powhatan and Captain John Smith 11:51
    • Powhatan
    • Opechancanough
    • Captain Smith
  • Powhatan and Pocahontas 15:37
    • Marriage
    • Introduction of Tobacco
    • Jamestown Government
  • The “Starving Time” and Tobacco 18:35
    • Disease and Famine
    • Cannibalism
    • Brown Gold
  • The VA Company Encourages Settlement 20:40
    • Headright System
    • House of Burgesses
  • Backlash of Powhatan 22:51
    • War led by Opechancanough
    • Indian Fields seized by the English
  • Virginia Becomes a Royal Colony 24:40
    • A Royal Colony
    • The Church of England
  • Maryland Is Established 26:37
    • George Calvert
    • A Safe Haven for Catholics
  • Cecil Calvert Takes Over 28:54
    • Cecil Calvert
    • An Act of Toleration
    • Protestant Revolt
  • Hard Times and Labor Shortages 31:52
    • Raising Prices of Exports
    • Sir William Berkeley
    • Nathaniel Bacon
  • Bacon's Rebellion 35:17
    • Building Frontier Forts
    • Berkeley Arrested Bacon
    • Political Reforms and Restoring the Rights of Voting
  • Nathaniel Bacon and the Site That His Followers Occupied 37:36
  • Aftermath and Effects of Bacon's Rebellion 37:49
    • Manifesto and Declaration of the People
    • Sharp Class Difference
    • Early Indication of Colonial Resistance
  • The First African Workers Arrive and Slavery Supplants Indentured Servitude 40:12
    • The First African Workers
    • English Common Law
    • Lowering the Status of Africans
  • Analyzing Primary Sources 43:46
  • Example 1 44:26
  • Example 2 48:05
  • Example 3 51:10
  • Example 4 51:59

Transcription: England's Tobacco Colonies, Jamestown, Bacon's Rebellion

Welcome back to www.educator.com.0000

This lesson is on England’s tobacco colonies, Jamestown, and Bacon's rebellion.0002

We are going to talk about today, the early attempts of the English to settle the Chesapeake region.0011

At first, their settlements are going to fail but eventually they will be successful in creating tobacco colonies.0019

One thing I want you to keep in mind as you learn about these early English settlements is to think about how their approach,0027

that means the English, differed from the Spanish, French, and the Dutch, that we talked about in the last lesson.0036

To look at the map again here, just to highlight what we have talked about before,0048

we know that the Spaniards were the first to explore the southeastern and southwestern part of the United States.0053

They established the St. Augustine in Florida.0061

The French had colonized this region in the Saint Lawrence and established Quebec as one of their main settlements.0064

We also know that the Dutch had settlements in the Hudson River area and in New Amsterdam, what is now in New York City.0074

Today we are going to talk about England, focusing on this region.0084

Next time, we will get into New England but the first settlements0088

that the English participate in will be in the Chesapeake region, and this is what we are talking about.0093

We will be talking about Virginia and Maryland.0100

These two colonies will become known as tobacco colonies.0103

The first attempts by the British were not so successful.0111

They were one of the last European countries to really begin on the colonization process in the new world.0118

They were behind the Spaniards and the French, to a great extent as well.0126

The first few attempts we are going to talk about here, Sir Humphrey Gilbert settlement in Newfoundland.0135

Newfoundland is off the coast of Canada, in the northeast.0145

These settlement collapsed because of lack of funding.0153

This is really important to keep in mind because when they plan for future explorations,0157

they want to make sure that they have their finances in order and that0164

they have a stable stream of capital to make sure that these ventures are sustainable and successful.0168

Another failed example, Sir Ferdinando Gorge's colony along the coast of Maine.0178

This one did not last because of the harsh climate.0184

Again, in the northeastern part of North America, the winters are really harsh and long.0188

They did not have enough provisions to make this successful settlement.0195

And then, the other one that almost became successful but ended up failing,0200

this is probably the most famous, is Sir Walter Raleigh’s three expedition to North Carolina.0207

These ended in disaster, when over 117 disappeared without a trace.0215

This colony became known as the lost colony because the people just disappeared.0224

There was a lot of mysteries surrounding with their whereabouts.0231

There have been various theories and it is still something that is debated about by historians and anthropologists.0237

But anyway, most people would really conclude that these English settlers were more than likely killed by the local Native American people.0248

When the English sent explorers to come in and check on them, what they found is this inscription on a gate post croatoan,0260

which they could be construed as a Native American word that this is a kind of communication to let them know what happened to them.0273

This is something that has been debated even now amongst historians but mostly accepted still today.0283

We are going to talk about the Chesapeake colonies.0296

Unlike other European rivals, the English created populous colonies.0299

We talked about the Spaniards and the Dutch, and the French, that even though they did have settlements,0307

they were not as populated as we will see with the English.0313

They used force to take Indian lands, that is very similar like the other European powers.0321

They end up forming societies based on tobacco cultivation.0327

That is going to bring wealth to small class of families, those who will invest in this venture are going to become wealthy off of it.0333

They are going to do this off the backs of, by exploiting white indentured servants.0344

They are going to be the main source of labor for the first part of the history here.0351

We know later on, African slaves are also going to work in the tobacco fields and in other types of plantations as well.0357

But at first, we are going to see that poor Europeans who come in as indentured servants.0368

These are workers who were contacted for a period of time to work without wages, in exchange for a passage across the Atlantic.0375

They get room and board, they will be fed, but they really would not make too many profits for themselves.0386

But this was very good for the investors and for the owners, and for the people in the company.0392

Anyway, that is what is going to end up eventually making this a successful colony.0398

It does not mean that it was not going to be a struggle which we will get into.0405

Around the time 1600, King James I granted a group of London merchants a train monopoly,0410

from present day North Carolina to New York.0418

This region was named Virginia, in honor of the never married virgin queen.0422

You can see in here, where the name came from.0429

Another joint stock company is going to be really important in this colonial history, historic period of the United States.0436

In 1607, this is an important date to be familiar with, the Virginia company, a joint stock company,0445

they had various investors, sent an expedition of men to North America aboard three ships.0455

The Susan Constant, the Godspeed, and Discovery, under the leadership of Admiral Christopher Newport.0462

We are going see at first, the primary goal here is trade not settlement.0470

They are really looking to expand their trade opportunities and to learn about the area as well.0481

The people who were aboard the ship at first are actually more upper class, they are not workers.0489

They are all male, 104 male settlers arrived at the site.0497

This will eventually turn into the first permanent settlement for the English in the new world.0502

It will be called Jamestown, named after King James I, just like Virginia for the virgin queen.0512

Jamestown will be named after James I.0522

This becomes a corporate colony because it was operated by the Virginia company which is a joint stock company.0525

I have a funny abbreviation here.0538

Life in J town, Jamestown, was very harsh.0539

The conditions for these early settlers and explorers was very difficult.0544

There are high death rates because of disease.0550

Because the area was very swampy, there were a lot of mosquitoes.0558

The water was not really safe, in many cases, for people to drink.0564

People had malaria, they had dysentery.0567

They had access to the water but it was what they call brackish water.0572

The water had salt in it and people thought they were drinking fresh water.0576

They had little food which eventually will lead to famine and widespread suffering.0581

People die off like crazy.0588

The other issue is that the first wave here, these first groups of settlers were too preoccupied with finding gold and making riches,0592

instead of focusing on logistics of survival and sustaining their settlement.0604

That is going to be a misstep at first but they will eventually learn from their mistakes.0611

The man, the myth, the legend, this is him right here.0619

Again, James I, he is the one that Jamestown is going to be named after.0623

This is a picture of the Jamestown fort that was eventually created.0633

You will notice that they had to build a fence around the settlement because they were being attacked by Native Americans.0638

The Europeans were a minority, they were in a foreign land, and eventually they needed to create a fort to protect themselves.0648

And it also shows the defensive nature of these people at first.0658

When they start to become much more confident and arrogant,0665

and are larger numbers than they obviously will expand and not be as defensive.0670

But at first, they are pretty defensive and need to protect themselves in this fort.0674

This is a close up view of the Chesapeake Bay region.0682

You could see the various settlements that were established in this region, especially in here.0685

This is kind of the transition point, fresh to salt water transition point.0694

Again, many settlers had to learn the hard way and many died because they were not really aware of the water situation.0700

Very important and significant for the overall survival of the settlement.0708

The local people in the area are called the Powhatan.0717

We will see that at first, the chief was known as Powhatan.0723

There is the singular and the plural of Powhatan.0732

Powhatan, the chief of the tribal chieftains in the region, treated the English traders as potential allies and traders, at first.0735

They are willing to help them with food.0749

We will even see especially during the starving time, the relations are kind of mixed.0751

We are going to see that things will certainly turn more tense as English settlers increase and0760

there are more and more of them that are viewed as a threat by the local Native American peoples.0772

At first, the Powhatan wanted to trade and work with the English settlers.0780

We do see kind of a mixed examples of relations.0787

The chief, for instance, spared the life of Captain John Smith.0792

Captain John Smith was somewhat of an insignificant person on one of the first ships that came over to Jamestown.0797

But he will later become very important in the overall development and success of the settlement.0808

Anyway, he had been taken captive by Powhatan’s brother Opechancanough0815

who was perhaps not quite as trusting of the English settlers as the chief.0826

He will later become very powerful and become a major leader of the tribe.0835

We are going to see that Smith also is very distrustful of the Powhatan as well.0843

But we do see examples where the Powhatan were reaching out and even spared the life of Smith,0850

and even gave the hungry English corn, when they are starving and faced with famine.0856

A lot of what we know about Jamestown actually comes from the writings of Captain Smith.0863

He did quite a bit, even though, early on he was not as significant as many people thought his role was at first.0869

But he is multi skilled, he was a geographer, sailor, soldier, travel writer, etc.0881

Eventually, the important part here is that he is going to become a key administrator and leader of the settlement.0888

He will be the one that encourages Jamestown to work and not to be focused on gold,0896

that they need to farm and get organized and build a settlement.0915

It is not all about gold, it is not all about riches.0930

That is going to be a key difference between the first generation and the second generation,0933

when they start to really get serious after so many people died.0942

When relations get tense with the Powhatan, as more and more British end up settling in Jamestown,0946

we will see that in order to make a temporary truce,0956

Chief Powhatan will arrange a marriage between his daughter who was well revered in the tribe, her name was Pocahontas.0964

They have movies made about her and a lot of the information is not true.0973

She was very important and in some ways, a bargaining chip.0979

It was not so fair for her, obviously, because she was being married off.0984

But her language skills were very useful to both sides, she did learn some English and0994

she did also really advocate on behalf of some of the English settlers.1000

In fact, she even advocated supposedly for Smith to help spare his life.1007

But anyway, she ends up getting married to John Wolfe, who was also really important in Jamestown history.1012

He was an English colonist who introduced tobacco as a commercial crop.1020

Obviously, tobacco is going to be really important because that is what is going to make Jamestown successful and make it profitable.1027

Yes, this arrangement will help keep the peace for a while, but it would not be forever.1039

It would not be long lasting.1049

She is kind of a pawn in the game, you could say.1052

She is kind of in the middle of this conflict, but she will be important to certainly to the colonist.1056

She will even go with Wolfe back to England.1063

She will learn English and convert to Christianity.1067

Just a little Jamestown story that is pretty significant.1073

Wolfe is also important because he participated in Jamestown’s government.1078

In particular, Jamestown is known for having a representative government, and really the first representative government.1084

I have this actually on another slide as well, but just to introduce it,1096

known as the House of Burgesses, will be really important to keep in mind.1100

But as I was saying before, the settlers of Jamestown went through a really difficult time, very challenging.1115

It was so extreme that they actually called it starving time.1121

Their way out of the starving time will be tobacco cultivation.1126

Between 1609 and 1610, we are going to see huge numbers of people dying off because of all the problems I have discussed before.1131

Famine, disease, and also to a great extent, Native American attacks.1139

The numbers here, this will vary a bit but you get the idea.1147

Only 60 of the 500 colonists survived the period.1151

It was really tough, they were burying people left and right.1155

It was drought, famine, all these problems eventually took their toll, the settlers of Jamestown.1160

There have even been theories that people were so crazy for food, some people reduced to cannibalism.1174

This is a newer theory claimed by some anthropologists.1181

It was a really desperate situation.1189

Times are really tough, until the settlers start to change their attitude and work really hard.1192

The other issue is they start to realize that they can make profits, if they successfully farm tobacco that will become their brown gold.1199

Instead of finding gold, the currency in the metal, they will use this cash crop to become very wealthy and sustainable.1211

This will become the basis of economic life.1224

They can use it for trade, they can sell it to England.1228

This will become the impetus for permanent settlement in Jamestown.1232

The Virginia company will continue to encourage settlement because for them to be sustainable,1242

they need to have more people, they need to have workers.1248

They established a headright system which involves this.1252

We are going to see colonist were given two headrights which is about 50 acres of land.1259

Basically, they were expected to work the land, to cultivate the land.1267

Immigrant, colonist were given one headright.1271

An individual will receive one headright each time they paid for the passage of another individual, who would be an indentured servant.1276

The indentured servant would be working the land.1285

This system was a way to encourage people to get land and also to bring laborers over.1289

It was kind of a win-win situation.1297

Of course, it is going to be very harsh and not so fun for the indentured servants in particular,1299

because they are in a desperate situation.1306

And they are being taken advantage of for their labor.1308

This is really what is going to eventually make the company successful.1312

Besides this exploitative system, they also create a court system and a system of representative government under the House of Burgesses1320

which was really the first lawmaking body and legislature created in the new world.1330

This is going to have a really important impact and influence as democratic ideas evolve throughout U.S. history,1337

specially, once we start talking about the revolutionary period and also the early Federal period.1347

When a lot of the founding fathers start thinking about what type of government they want to have.1356

These examples are going to be drawn from.1363

Very important in early colonial history.1368

As the settlements continue to grow, we are going to see a backlash of the Powhatan.1375

The influx of settlers will spark war with the Indians but it did not stop the expansion by the English.1381

By 1630, the English settlement in the Chesapeake region was about 5,000.1388

Once they got through the starving time, once they were able to find tobacco and become prosperous,1395

the headright system, we are seeing more and more people settling this area.1402

Now the Powhatan are saying this is not good, they are staying here for a long time.1410

Our livelihood is being threatened.1417

War broke out in 1622, and led by, remember chief Powhatan, his brother, Opechancanough.1421

He was a successor and he was now in charge.1435

This is 15 years later or so, he is seeing that the English are not going away so that they need to really respond.1438

They do actually pummel the English and their huge casualties which is a huge loss for the English.1449

The English will retaliate, they will seize Indian fields.1459

Things become really ugly and much more aggressive.1463

The English seized Indian fields and food, and force them to flee.1468

They start pushing them further and further west.1476

Because of the instability and because of the violence that was breaking out,1483

we are going to see that eventually the crown over in England decides to have more direct control over the colony.1488

There are also problems with debt of the Virginia company.1499

James I, accused the company of mismanagement.1505

He it turns into a royal colony.1509

At first, it was a corporate colony that became successful off of tobacco.1512

And then eventually, we are going to see it is going to come under the direct control of the crown.1518

Royal colony, a colony under the direct authority of the king’s government.1528

The structure of the royal colony is as follows.1534

Each royal colony had a royal governor, an elected assembly, and an Anglican church.1539

Even though, we know that Jamestown was not as religious as, for instance, a lot of St. Augustine or some other of Spanish settlements.1548

We will certainly see in New England too, they were much more religious.1564

We do still see the influence in the presence of the Anglican church,1568

which again is the Church of England, Protestant church, that is very much tied to the king and queen of England.1572

This was the official church.1584

Church of England was established in Virginia and property owners were required to pay taxes to support the clergy.1586

This was really a part of the new model.1594

Then, after Virginia was really established, we are going to start to see efforts to create a new colony.1599

Maryland will be the next colony we are going to talk about in the Chesapeake.1606

In 1632, King Charles I subdivided the Virginia colony and chartered a new colony located on either side of the Chesapeake bay1611

and granted a proprietorship so that he would divest control of the land to George Calvert, who was also known as Lord Baltimore.1622

He was given this land, this proprietorship, as a reward for his efforts and loyal service to the crown.1634

He was a good Catholic man.1643

The king wanted, his experience from Virginia told him that he wanted more control and he trusted over the colonies.1646

He trusted Lord Baltimore to carry out the King’s wishes.1659

Keep in mind, there is a huge ocean between England and the colonies in North America.1664

He wants someone he can trust that will do what he wants to have done.1671

Lord Baltimore, he did not really live long enough to be able to achieve his goals.1677

To generate wealth and to create a safe haven for Catholics, that is really what his goal was,1689

to create a safe haven for Catholics because there was a struggle between Catholics and Protestants.1695

A lot of the Catholics in England were really feeling persecuted.1703

We are starting to see that many religious groups really want to start anew.1710

They want to come to the new world and live a peaceful life without having to deal with persecution by other groups.1717

Before he is able to really see this goal come to fruition, he is going to die which means that his son will take over.1727

His son is Cecil Calvert.1736

In 1634, Cecil Calvert who was the second Lord Baltimore, took control and implemented his father's plan to create this refuge for Catholics.1739

The other part of this is that we are going to see other groups come as well.1751

It is not going to be exclusively for Catholics which is going to cause problems on the road.1758

But anyway, the settlement grew rapidly because of ample land.1764

There is plentiful land there.1768

Besides the Catholics, even though it was supposed to be a refuge for Catholics, many Protestants also moved in.1772

They created an assembly similar to the Virginia colony, in order to avoid religious intolerance.1779

The assembly eventually passes a law called an act of toleration that was enacted in 1649.1791

This granted religious freedom to all Christians and that is very deliberate, keep that in mind.1801

Toleration at this point in history, you have to think of the perspective and the history of the time.1812

This means that if you are not a Christian, they did not tolerate you.1823

It was exclusive to Christians.1829

Perhaps, more tolerant than just accepting the Catholic way or the Protestant way but it is still very Christian centric.1833

This act of toleration that was intended to help foster toleration amongst all Christians,1845

the statute also called for, there was a punitive aspect to it.1852

The death of anyone who denied the divinity of Jesus.1856

If you are Jewish and you spoke out boldly against Christian ideas, you could be put to death.1863

It does not sound very tolerant, that is the irony about this.1874

But anyway, it is known as one of the first colonies that tries to promote religious toleration.1878

Nonetheless, it did not mean that religious strife was not boiling below.1888

We are going to see that a Protestant revolt breaks out in the late 1600’s, due to the resentment towards the Catholic proprietor.1894

Eventually, this toleration act was repealed, so much for that.1906

Now we are going to move to some other issues that continued to be a challenge in the Chesapeake region.1916

You had to be a hearty type of person to be able to sustain all of the conditions.1924

Those who were indentured servants, the hard work, the lack of resources, that got tattled after awhile.1932

Let us get into some of this.1942

In the 1600’s in Virginia and Maryland, there are a lot of economic problems because of over production of tobacco.1944

Tobacco had been very successful in turning things around for the colony,1954

but this is the early stages of mercantilism and global trade.1960

Once they started to over produce it, the price of tobacco started to go down in the long run.1969

When the House of Burgesses tries to raise the prices, the British merchants responded by raising prices of their exports.1978

And then, that is going to cause problems in the long run, where do not buy, then they have to lower their prices.1990

Then the whole system was kind of not working and it is breaking down,2001

which means that the poorest of the poor are the ones who are struggling the most.2006

They are not going to get paid and that is going to cause a lot of tension.2010

On top of that, there were political problems.2017

When we talk about western at this point, we are still east of the Appalachian Mountains.2022

We are still on the eastern part of the United States.2029

A little bit further west than the east coast.2034

But at this point, it is all relative.2038

A lot of the western backwoods farmers became disgruntled around the time, the late 1660’s.2043

Because Sir William Berkeley, who was the royal governor, you should be familiar with him, of Virginia,2051

between these years 1641 to 1652 and 1660 to 1677.2059

He adapted policies that favored large planters.2065

The farmers did not feel protected from constant Indian attacks.2070

They are trying to have successful farms and they do not have a lot of resources2075

but they keep getting attacked by Native Americans.2081

Eventually, they have to take matters into their own hands.2084

A rebellion was organized by Nathaniel Bacon.2088

He was an impoverished farmer who had enough of this.2093

He said that he needed to get people to fight with him, to band with him, and to put pressure on the governor.2097

To make some changes and to really protect them from Native American attacks.2106

He gets a group of volunteers and forms an army.2114

This eventually will become known as Bacon’s rebellion.2123

Poor freeholders, people of the small farms, and as well as propertyless men,2126

they formed a militia and began killing Indians on their own.2134

Like, if the government is not going to do it and not going to protect us, we have to do it on our own.2138

This obviously led to Indian’s fighting back, violence is breaking out back and forth.2144

Berkeley is angry at these poor people for waging these wars with Native Americans.2152

He does not want the fur trade disrupted.2159

He proposed building frontier forts.2165

Suspicious of Berkeley's strategy, as a plot to impose high taxes and to take control of the tobacco trade.2169

They saw it as a plot, they do not trust this guy.2181

He is an upper class guy, he is only interested in protecting his own interests not theirs.2183

Nathaniel Bacon, even though he was a poor farmer, he was also a member of the governor's council.2190

He helps to lead a protest against his strategy and does end up killing Native Americans, for which he ends up getting arrested.2196

Berkeley has him arrested.2210

This obviously, eventually, led to all of Bacon’s followers putting pressure on Berkeley.2214

When Bacon’s militant supporters, once they hear the news, they threatened to free Bacon by force.2222

They were able to successfully get change.2231

They were able to put pressure on Berkeley.2235

Berkeley agrees to the political reforms and restores voting rights to the landless free men.2237

That will empower them to be able to protect themselves against Native American attacks.2247

This is a very significant rebellion in the 1600’s.2254

This is Nathaniel Bacon, this is the site that his followers occupied during this time period.2259

After all that, we are going to see that Bacon’s men do not stop.2273

They eventually burn Jamestown and issue a manifesto and2278

declaration of the people demanding removal of all the Indians, and an end to the rule of wealthy parasites.2282

In many ways, you can see the class differences at this point, that are starting to emerge2292

and become a huge problem for this region because there was a divide.2303

They do not see things the same way and their policies do not always help all of them.2308

That is going to put them at odds with one another.2315

Although Bacon dies of disease in 1676, the rebellion did prompt tax cuts, a reduction of corruption in the government,2318

and the opening of public offices to yeomen, who felt that they were not represented,2330

they were not being heard, they were not being taken seriously, and expansion into Indian lands.2336

We are going to see that the population of indentured servants are getting really restless and willing to rebel.2347

To forestall another rebellion among former indentured servants,2357

we are going to start to see Chesapeake planters turning away from indentured servitude or indentured slavery in 1705.2360

We are going to see indentured servitude being replaced by slavery.2370

And then lastly, the other part that is really significant about this rebellion is that2379

this was an early indication of colonial resistance to royal control.2383

Meaning that when people live in an area, they want autonomy, they want to have control of their own destinies.2389

They do not want someone from far away to tell them what to do.2397

That is kind of at the root of later on having an influence on the American ethos.2402

We are pretty much at the end here.2416

We will start to see in the 1600’s, and in fact the first African workers who arrived will be in 1619.2419

Even though, it is debatable whether they were not technically slaves, and in fact,2430

many historians would say they were actually indentured servants.2436

It is really going to be a precursor for the new way, the new form of labor that is going to emerge.2442

And a new source of labor that is going to be exploited2452

and used by the plantation owners in the southeastern part of the United States.2457

But the first African workers arrived in 1619.2465

We will see in the long run, they are going to fare even worse than the indentured servants.2469

At first, their numbers are pretty small.2476

Later on, we are going to get into the expansion of slavery.2480

At first, we are going to see many Africans serve the English masters for life.2485

They were not legally enslaved.2490

This is kind of a transition period, if you will.2494

English common law did not acknowledge chattel slavery -2498

the ownership of human beings as property.2503

That will eventually change, we know when they make laws later on,2508

to clarify that and change that detail.2515

By becoming a Christian and a planter, an enterprising African could sometimes aspire2521

to near equality with English settlers, and even own slaves.2526

In some cases, yes, Africans could actually own African slaves.2531

That is something to keep in mind during this time period.2539

Beginning in the 1660’s, following the collapse, the tobacco industry, Chesapeake legislatures start to change the laws.2543

They began enacting laws that lowered the status of Africans, this was the change.2555

By the time period you see between 1619 and the 1660 is influx.2560

We do not see a full-fledged chattel slavery at this point.2567

But by the 1660’s, we are going to see the Chesapeake legislatures enacting laws that lowered the status of Africans2573

and being a slave was becoming permanent and a permanent and hereditary condition,2582

and synonymous with the African people, and ultimately with one's race.2588

That is going to be a huge game changer, and obviously, to the detriment of African Americans where2594

we are going to see that this form of labor is going to be exploited and utilized,2603

and makes these plantation owners, those planters very wealthy.2609

The Africans come to the new world against their will.2615

That brings a whole other element to it.2620

With that, I think we are going to conclude the lesson on early Jamestown and the early English settlement.2624

We are going to move onto the question portion and some of the examples that you might see on an AP test.2632

Again, I want to point out that you should use the silkstone handout that you can find in the quick notes below.2641

If you click, you will find it below and you can download the form.2651

It is a great guide that will help you when you analyze primary sources,2657

so you can train yourself on what questions to ask and what you should be looking for.2663

Let us go through this.2670

I have an example of a multiple choice question and a short answer question2673

both using this visual here, Smith taketh the king of paw monkey prisoner.2677

Let us start with number one, which of the following best describes the relationship2688

between the English colonies and the Native Americans?2695

Was it friendly, hostile, peaceful, or harmonious?2699

I will give you a few seconds, you may want to pause.2706

The answer is hostile, and hopefully you can see by that body language,2714

he is pulling his hair, he looks like he has some kind of weapon behind him.2721

Just between these two relations looked tough, and in the background, you can see there is fighting happening here as well.2730

The short answer question.2739

This does tie into this.2746

The short answer question, explain the point of view.2751

This is a very important concept that you will see on a lot of the AP questions.2754

You have to understand the perspective.2761

The point of view reflected in the image regarding one of the following.2764

You get a choice, A, B, or C.2769

I’m just going to go over this very briefly.2775

These need to be very succinct, answers in one sentence.2780

You could write about that the British settlers were hostile and violent, using guns to fight against the Native Americans.2793

That would be one example of the British point of view.2804

Answers will vary on this, I’m just trying to give you an example, if we did the Powhatan.2811

The Powhatan look defensive and that they are trying to protect their land.2819

The chief is communicating with John Smith who was pulling his hair which could be embarrassing and insulting to the chief.2826

That is something you can draw from, perhaps, if you see similar trends in this visual.2839

John Smith appears aggressive and arrogant, since he is advocating on behalf of other English settlers.2846

He views Powhatan as hostile so he tries to embarrass him by pulling his hair, something along those lines.2857

You can also tell by his body language that he is getting in his pace.2869

There are a lot of different ways that you can answer this.2875

I’m just trying to give you a general idea of how you could approach this question.2877

Let us go on, example 2.2884

This one is a reading passage.2887

One thing you should look at, even before you read it, you may want to see2890

this is something we just learn about today, the Maryland toleration act.2895

Then, you read through it.2899

That, whatsoever, person or persons within the province and the islands they are unto.2901

You will notice this is an actual typo, this is just an older style English, just to point that out.2906

Belonging shall from henceforth blaspheme God,2916

that is curse him or deny our savior Jesus Christ to be the son of God or shall deny the Holy Trinity,2920

the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, or the Godhead of any of the said three persons of the trinity, or the unity of the Godhead,2929

or shall use or utter any respectful speeches, words, or language, concerning the said Holy Trinity,2937

or any of the said three persons thereof, shall be punished with death,2945

and confiscation or forfeiture of all of his or her lands and goods to the Lord proprietary and his heirs.2950

That was a mouthful.2959

This is asking you to read an early text and sometimes they are difficult to read.2963

You should familiarize yourself with all different types of sources.2969

Try not to get intimidated.2974

Often, it is English, you should be able to decipher a lot of this.2976

I highlighted some of the keywords, just to model what you should be doing when you look at these questions.2980

Let us look at the question, What was the intention of the authors of the Maryland act of toleration?2986

To protect the rights of Jews.2994

To protect the rights of Puritans.2995

To protect the rights of Catholics.2997

To protect the rights of Native Americans.2999

This one, I would like to point out.3002

First of all, think about it, how you are going to answer those question.3006

I’m going to answer it.3014

It is to protect the rights of Catholics.3018

The answer to this question is not necessarily in this passage,3022

except for that you would be able to eliminate letter A and D, for sure, because it is not in here.3027

You could probably hone this down to B and C.3034

However, you do need some background knowledge to answer this question,3038

as far as what was the purpose of the Maryland toleration act.3042

You do have to remember that Maryland was really created as a refuge for Catholics.3046

The idea of the Trinity is something that is advocated by Catholics.3056

Something to keep in mind as you approach these questions.3063

The same passage, just for the sake so you could view it as we look at this question.3074

What was the penalty for those two spoke out against the Holy Trinity?3080

Exile, 10 year prison sentence, forced conversion to Christianity, or death?3084

This one is more of a reading comprehension type of question.3090

I will give you a minute to look at the text.3097

You can pause.3101

The answer is, you can see it in here, the answer would be death, D for death.3105

I have one more example for you.3120

This one is in a form of a short answer question.3123

These ones you have to answer parts A, B, and C.3128

For this question, it asks you to briefly explain one common characteristic and3133

the policies of two of these European nations towards Native Americans.3138

These are your choices and we have been talking about all three of these colonizing Europeans.3144

I will give you some examples.3151

If we found some common characteristics between France and Spain,3154

we could talk about how both French and Spanish colonizers both wanted to convert Native Americans to Catholicism.3159

That is a very straightforward one sentence answer.3174

Here is another example for part A.3182

Most of the settlers or colonizers from England and France looked down upon the Native Americans3185

and viewed them as uncivilized or inferior.3191

That is a succinct way to make a comparison and also to show the commonality3198

between the two colonizing forces and their relations with Native Americans.3205

Part B, briefly explain one difference between the policies of two European nations towards the Native Americans.3210

England in Jamestown was focused on expanding trade opportunities more than converting the Native Americans.3219

That is an example.3229

Whereas, Spain was very interested in converting Native Americans to Catholicism.3232

That was one of their primary goals.3241

France, here is another sentence you could include.3244

France had better relations with Native Americans and listen to their needs more than the Spanish,3248

who were very cruel and heavy handed in their approach.3255

As evidenced by the comprehensive orders of new discoveries.3257

Those are just some examples of how you can approach this question.3264

Letter C, briefly explain one reaction of Native Americans to European policies.3268

We have talked about several in this lesson.3273

I will just give you two examples here.3276

Pope's rebellion would be one example of how Pueblo people resisted Spanish colonization and forced labor, something like that.3278

Let us see, if you want to do the Hurons, asked the French to help them defend against the Iroquois,3294

when the Iroquois wanted to have a monopoly over the fur trade.3301

They asked for French assistance to fight against their rivals, something like that.3308

These are different examples of how you can approach the short answer question.3318

With that, thank you for watching www.educator.com.3322