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England's Tobacco Colonies, Jamestown, Bacon's Rebellion

  • The first British permanent corporate colony was established in Jamestown in 1607. It was founded members of the Virginia Company, a joint-stock company. Their goal was trade and not settlement.
  • Maryland was established as a refuge for Catholics by the Calverts and Lord Baltimore.
  • Conditions were difficult in the Chesapeake colonies at first until the discovery and cultivation of tobacco.
  • Bacon’s Rebellion erupted when many “western” backwoods farmers became disgruntled b/c Sir William Berkeley, the royal governor of VA (1641-52, 1660-77), who adopted policies that favored large planters & the farmers didn’t feel protected from Indian attacks.
  • More about Jamestown: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part1/1p261.html

England's Tobacco Colonies, Jamestown, Bacon's Rebellion

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  • Intro 0:00
  • Overview 0:09
  • Areas Colonized by 1660 0:45
  • Early British Ventures in North America and Roanoke Island 1:48
    • Sir Humphrey Gilbert
    • Sir Ferdinando Gorge
    • Sir Walter Raleigh
  • Croatoan 3:57
  • The Chesapeake Colonies 4:51
    • Populous Colonies
    • Indentured Servants
    • Virginia
  • Jamestown 7:14
    • Virginia Company
    • Corporate Colony
    • Harsh Life
    • Finding Gold
  • The Man, the Myth, the Legend 10:17
  • Powhatan and Captain John Smith 11:51
    • Powhatan
    • Opechancanough
    • Captain Smith
  • Powhatan and Pocahontas 15:37
    • Marriage
    • Introduction of Tobacco
    • Jamestown Government
  • The “Starving Time” and Tobacco 18:35
    • Disease and Famine
    • Cannibalism
    • Brown Gold
  • The VA Company Encourages Settlement 20:40
    • Headright System
    • House of Burgesses
  • Backlash of Powhatan 22:51
    • War led by Opechancanough
    • Indian Fields seized by the English
  • Virginia Becomes a Royal Colony 24:40
    • A Royal Colony
    • The Church of England
  • Maryland Is Established 26:37
    • George Calvert
    • A Safe Haven for Catholics
  • Cecil Calvert Takes Over 28:54
    • Cecil Calvert
    • An Act of Toleration
    • Protestant Revolt
  • Hard Times and Labor Shortages 31:52
    • Raising Prices of Exports
    • Sir William Berkeley
    • Nathaniel Bacon
  • Bacon's Rebellion 35:17
    • Building Frontier Forts
    • Berkeley Arrested Bacon
    • Political Reforms and Restoring the Rights of Voting
  • Nathaniel Bacon and the Site That His Followers Occupied 37:36
  • Aftermath and Effects of Bacon's Rebellion 37:49
    • Manifesto and Declaration of the People
    • Sharp Class Difference
    • Early Indication of Colonial Resistance
  • The First African Workers Arrive and Slavery Supplants Indentured Servitude 40:12
    • The First African Workers
    • English Common Law
    • Lowering the Status of Africans
  • Analyzing Primary Sources 43:46
  • Example 1 44:26
  • Example 2 48:05
  • Example 3 51:10
  • Example 4 51:59

Transcription: England's Tobacco Colonies, Jamestown, Bacon's Rebellion

Welcome back to www.educator.com.0000

This lesson is on England’s tobacco colonies, Jamestown, and Bacon's rebellion.0002

We are going to talk about today, the early attempts of the English to settle the Chesapeake region.0011

At first, their settlements are going to fail but eventually they will be successful in creating tobacco colonies.0019

One thing I want you to keep in mind as you learn about these early English settlements is to think about how their approach,0027

that means the English, differed from the Spanish, French, and the Dutch, that we talked about in the last lesson.0036

To look at the map again here, just to highlight what we have talked about before,0048

we know that the Spaniards were the first to explore the southeastern and southwestern part of the United States.0053

They established the St. Augustine in Florida.0061

The French had colonized this region in the Saint Lawrence and established Quebec as one of their main settlements.0064

We also know that the Dutch had settlements in the Hudson River area and in New Amsterdam, what is now in New York City.0074

Today we are going to talk about England, focusing on this region.0084

Next time, we will get into New England but the first settlements0088

that the English participate in will be in the Chesapeake region, and this is what we are talking about.0093

We will be talking about Virginia and Maryland.0100

These two colonies will become known as tobacco colonies.0103

The first attempts by the British were not so successful.0111

They were one of the last European countries to really begin on the colonization process in the new world.0118

They were behind the Spaniards and the French, to a great extent as well.0126

The first few attempts we are going to talk about here, Sir Humphrey Gilbert settlement in Newfoundland.0135

Newfoundland is off the coast of Canada, in the northeast.0145

These settlement collapsed because of lack of funding.0153

This is really important to keep in mind because when they plan for future explorations,0157

they want to make sure that they have their finances in order and that0164

they have a stable stream of capital to make sure that these ventures are sustainable and successful.0168

Another failed example, Sir Ferdinando Gorge's colony along the coast of Maine.0178

This one did not last because of the harsh climate.0184

Again, in the northeastern part of North America, the winters are really harsh and long.0188

They did not have enough provisions to make this successful settlement.0195

And then, the other one that almost became successful but ended up failing,0200

this is probably the most famous, is Sir Walter Raleigh’s three expedition to North Carolina.0207

These ended in disaster, when over 117 disappeared without a trace.0215

This colony became known as the lost colony because the people just disappeared.0224

There was a lot of mysteries surrounding with their whereabouts.0231

There have been various theories and it is still something that is debated about by historians and anthropologists.0237

But anyway, most people would really conclude that these English settlers were more than likely killed by the local Native American people.0248

When the English sent explorers to come in and check on them, what they found is this inscription on a gate post croatoan,0260

which they could be construed as a Native American word that this is a kind of communication to let them know what happened to them.0273

This is something that has been debated even now amongst historians but mostly accepted still today.0283

We are going to talk about the Chesapeake colonies.0296

Unlike other European rivals, the English created populous colonies.0299

We talked about the Spaniards and the Dutch, and the French, that even though they did have settlements,0307

they were not as populated as we will see with the English.0313

They used force to take Indian lands, that is very similar like the other European powers.0321

They end up forming societies based on tobacco cultivation.0327

That is going to bring wealth to small class of families, those who will invest in this venture are going to become wealthy off of it.0333

They are going to do this off the backs of, by exploiting white indentured servants.0344

They are going to be the main source of labor for the first part of the history here.0351

We know later on, African slaves are also going to work in the tobacco fields and in other types of plantations as well.0357

But at first, we are going to see that poor Europeans who come in as indentured servants.0368

These are workers who were contacted for a period of time to work without wages, in exchange for a passage across the Atlantic.0375

They get room and board, they will be fed, but they really would not make too many profits for themselves.0386

But this was very good for the investors and for the owners, and for the people in the company.0392

Anyway, that is what is going to end up eventually making this a successful colony.0398

It does not mean that it was not going to be a struggle which we will get into.0405

Around the time 1600, King James I granted a group of London merchants a train monopoly,0410

from present day North Carolina to New York.0418

This region was named Virginia, in honor of the never married virgin queen.0422

You can see in here, where the name came from.0429

Another joint stock company is going to be really important in this colonial history, historic period of the United States.0436

In 1607, this is an important date to be familiar with, the Virginia company, a joint stock company,0445

they had various investors, sent an expedition of men to North America aboard three ships.0455

The Susan Constant, the Godspeed, and Discovery, under the leadership of Admiral Christopher Newport.0462

We are going see at first, the primary goal here is trade not settlement.0470

They are really looking to expand their trade opportunities and to learn about the area as well.0481

The people who were aboard the ship at first are actually more upper class, they are not workers.0489

They are all male, 104 male settlers arrived at the site.0497

This will eventually turn into the first permanent settlement for the English in the new world.0502

It will be called Jamestown, named after King James I, just like Virginia for the virgin queen.0512

Jamestown will be named after James I.0522

This becomes a corporate colony because it was operated by the Virginia company which is a joint stock company.0525

I have a funny abbreviation here.0538

Life in J town, Jamestown, was very harsh.0539

The conditions for these early settlers and explorers was very difficult.0544

There are high death rates because of disease.0550

Because the area was very swampy, there were a lot of mosquitoes.0558

The water was not really safe, in many cases, for people to drink.0564

People had malaria, they had dysentery.0567

They had access to the water but it was what they call brackish water.0572

The water had salt in it and people thought they were drinking fresh water.0576

They had little food which eventually will lead to famine and widespread suffering.0581

People die off like crazy.0588

The other issue is that the first wave here, these first groups of settlers were too preoccupied with finding gold and making riches,0592

instead of focusing on logistics of survival and sustaining their settlement.0604

That is going to be a misstep at first but they will eventually learn from their mistakes.0611

The man, the myth, the legend, this is him right here.0619

Again, James I, he is the one that Jamestown is going to be named after.0623

This is a picture of the Jamestown fort that was eventually created.0633

You will notice that they had to build a fence around the settlement because they were being attacked by Native Americans.0638

The Europeans were a minority, they were in a foreign land, and eventually they needed to create a fort to protect themselves.0648

And it also shows the defensive nature of these people at first.0658

When they start to become much more confident and arrogant,0665

and are larger numbers than they obviously will expand and not be as defensive.0670

But at first, they are pretty defensive and need to protect themselves in this fort.0674

This is a close up view of the Chesapeake Bay region.0682

You could see the various settlements that were established in this region, especially in here.0685

This is kind of the transition point, fresh to salt water transition point.0694

Again, many settlers had to learn the hard way and many died because they were not really aware of the water situation.0700

Very important and significant for the overall survival of the settlement.0708

The local people in the area are called the Powhatan.0717

We will see that at first, the chief was known as Powhatan.0723

There is the singular and the plural of Powhatan.0732

Powhatan, the chief of the tribal chieftains in the region, treated the English traders as potential allies and traders, at first.0735

They are willing to help them with food.0749

We will even see especially during the starving time, the relations are kind of mixed.0751

We are going to see that things will certainly turn more tense as English settlers increase and0760

there are more and more of them that are viewed as a threat by the local Native American peoples.0772

At first, the Powhatan wanted to trade and work with the English settlers.0780

We do see kind of a mixed examples of relations.0787

The chief, for instance, spared the life of Captain John Smith.0792

Captain John Smith was somewhat of an insignificant person on one of the first ships that came over to Jamestown.0797

But he will later become very important in the overall development and success of the settlement.0808

Anyway, he had been taken captive by Powhatan’s brother Opechancanough0815

who was perhaps not quite as trusting of the English settlers as the chief.0826

He will later become very powerful and become a major leader of the tribe.0835

We are going to see that Smith also is very distrustful of the Powhatan as well.0843

But we do see examples where the Powhatan were reaching out and even spared the life of Smith,0850

and even gave the hungry English corn, when they are starving and faced with famine.0856

A lot of what we know about Jamestown actually comes from the writings of Captain Smith.0863

He did quite a bit, even though, early on he was not as significant as many people thought his role was at first.0869

But he is multi skilled, he was a geographer, sailor, soldier, travel writer, etc.0881

Eventually, the important part here is that he is going to become a key administrator and leader of the settlement.0888

He will be the one that encourages Jamestown to work and not to be focused on gold,0896

that they need to farm and get organized and build a settlement.0915

It is not all about gold, it is not all about riches.0930

That is going to be a key difference between the first generation and the second generation,0933

when they start to really get serious after so many people died.0942

When relations get tense with the Powhatan, as more and more British end up settling in Jamestown,0946

we will see that in order to make a temporary truce,0956

Chief Powhatan will arrange a marriage between his daughter who was well revered in the tribe, her name was Pocahontas.0964

They have movies made about her and a lot of the information is not true.0973

She was very important and in some ways, a bargaining chip.0979

It was not so fair for her, obviously, because she was being married off.0984

But her language skills were very useful to both sides, she did learn some English and0994

she did also really advocate on behalf of some of the English settlers.1000

In fact, she even advocated supposedly for Smith to help spare his life.1007

But anyway, she ends up getting married to John Wolfe, who was also really important in Jamestown history.1012

He was an English colonist who introduced tobacco as a commercial crop.1020

Obviously, tobacco is going to be really important because that is what is going to make Jamestown successful and make it profitable.1027

Yes, this arrangement will help keep the peace for a while, but it would not be forever.1039

It would not be long lasting.1049

She is kind of a pawn in the game, you could say.1052

She is kind of in the middle of this conflict, but she will be important to certainly to the colonist.1056

She will even go with Wolfe back to England.1063

She will learn English and convert to Christianity.1067

Just a little Jamestown story that is pretty significant.1073

Wolfe is also important because he participated in Jamestown’s government.1078

In particular, Jamestown is known for having a representative government, and really the first representative government.1084

I have this actually on another slide as well, but just to introduce it,1096

known as the House of Burgesses, will be really important to keep in mind.1100

But as I was saying before, the settlers of Jamestown went through a really difficult time, very challenging.1115

It was so extreme that they actually called it starving time.1121

Their way out of the starving time will be tobacco cultivation.1126

Between 1609 and 1610, we are going to see huge numbers of people dying off because of all the problems I have discussed before.1131

Famine, disease, and also to a great extent, Native American attacks.1139

The numbers here, this will vary a bit but you get the idea.1147

Only 60 of the 500 colonists survived the period.1151

It was really tough, they were burying people left and right.1155

It was drought, famine, all these problems eventually took their toll, the settlers of Jamestown.1160

There have even been theories that people were so crazy for food, some people reduced to cannibalism.1174

This is a newer theory claimed by some anthropologists.1181

It was a really desperate situation.1189

Times are really tough, until the settlers start to change their attitude and work really hard.1192

The other issue is they start to realize that they can make profits, if they successfully farm tobacco that will become their brown gold.1199

Instead of finding gold, the currency in the metal, they will use this cash crop to become very wealthy and sustainable.1211

This will become the basis of economic life.1224

They can use it for trade, they can sell it to England.1228

This will become the impetus for permanent settlement in Jamestown.1232

The Virginia company will continue to encourage settlement because for them to be sustainable,1242

they need to have more people, they need to have workers.1248

They established a headright system which involves this.1252

We are going to see colonist were given two headrights which is about 50 acres of land.1259

Basically, they were expected to work the land, to cultivate the land.1267

Immigrant, colonist were given one headright.1271

An individual will receive one headright each time they paid for the passage of another individual, who would be an indentured servant.1276

The indentured servant would be working the land.1285

This system was a way to encourage people to get land and also to bring laborers over.1289

It was kind of a win-win situation.1297

Of course, it is going to be very harsh and not so fun for the indentured servants in particular,1299

because they are in a desperate situation.1306

And they are being taken advantage of for their labor.1308

This is really what is going to eventually make the company successful.1312

Besides this exploitative system, they also create a court system and a system of representative government under the House of Burgesses1320

which was really the first lawmaking body and legislature created in the new world.1330

This is going to have a really important impact and influence as democratic ideas evolve throughout U.S. history,1337

specially, once we start talking about the revolutionary period and also the early Federal period.1347

When a lot of the founding fathers start thinking about what type of government they want to have.1356

These examples are going to be drawn from.1363

Very important in early colonial history.1368

As the settlements continue to grow, we are going to see a backlash of the Powhatan.1375

The influx of settlers will spark war with the Indians but it did not stop the expansion by the English.1381

By 1630, the English settlement in the Chesapeake region was about 5,000.1388

Once they got through the starving time, once they were able to find tobacco and become prosperous,1395

the headright system, we are seeing more and more people settling this area.1402

Now the Powhatan are saying this is not good, they are staying here for a long time.1410

Our livelihood is being threatened.1417

War broke out in 1622, and led by, remember chief Powhatan, his brother, Opechancanough.1421

He was a successor and he was now in charge.1435

This is 15 years later or so, he is seeing that the English are not going away so that they need to really respond.1438

They do actually pummel the English and their huge casualties which is a huge loss for the English.1449

The English will retaliate, they will seize Indian fields.1459

Things become really ugly and much more aggressive.1463

The English seized Indian fields and food, and force them to flee.1468

They start pushing them further and further west.1476

Because of the instability and because of the violence that was breaking out,1483

we are going to see that eventually the crown over in England decides to have more direct control over the colony.1488

There are also problems with debt of the Virginia company.1499

James I, accused the company of mismanagement.1505

He it turns into a royal colony.1509

At first, it was a corporate colony that became successful off of tobacco.1512

And then eventually, we are going to see it is going to come under the direct control of the crown.1518

Royal colony, a colony under the direct authority of the king’s government.1528

The structure of the royal colony is as follows.1534

Each royal colony had a royal governor, an elected assembly, and an Anglican church.1539

Even though, we know that Jamestown was not as religious as, for instance, a lot of St. Augustine or some other of Spanish settlements.1548

We will certainly see in New England too, they were much more religious.1564

We do still see the influence in the presence of the Anglican church,1568

which again is the Church of England, Protestant church, that is very much tied to the king and queen of England.1572

This was the official church.1584

Church of England was established in Virginia and property owners were required to pay taxes to support the clergy.1586

This was really a part of the new model.1594

Then, after Virginia was really established, we are going to start to see efforts to create a new colony.1599

Maryland will be the next colony we are going to talk about in the Chesapeake.1606

In 1632, King Charles I subdivided the Virginia colony and chartered a new colony located on either side of the Chesapeake bay1611

and granted a proprietorship so that he would divest control of the land to George Calvert, who was also known as Lord Baltimore.1622

He was given this land, this proprietorship, as a reward for his efforts and loyal service to the crown.1634

He was a good Catholic man.1643

The king wanted, his experience from Virginia told him that he wanted more control and he trusted over the colonies.1646

He trusted Lord Baltimore to carry out the King’s wishes.1659

Keep in mind, there is a huge ocean between England and the colonies in North America.1664

He wants someone he can trust that will do what he wants to have done.1671

Lord Baltimore, he did not really live long enough to be able to achieve his goals.1677

To generate wealth and to create a safe haven for Catholics, that is really what his goal was,1689

to create a safe haven for Catholics because there was a struggle between Catholics and Protestants.1695

A lot of the Catholics in England were really feeling persecuted.1703

We are starting to see that many religious groups really want to start anew.1710

They want to come to the new world and live a peaceful life without having to deal with persecution by other groups.1717

Before he is able to really see this goal come to fruition, he is going to die which means that his son will take over.1727

His son is Cecil Calvert.1736

In 1634, Cecil Calvert who was the second Lord Baltimore, took control and implemented his father's plan to create this refuge for Catholics.1739

The other part of this is that we are going to see other groups come as well.1751

It is not going to be exclusively for Catholics which is going to cause problems on the road.1758

But anyway, the settlement grew rapidly because of ample land.1764

There is plentiful land there.1768

Besides the Catholics, even though it was supposed to be a refuge for Catholics, many Protestants also moved in.1772

They created an assembly similar to the Virginia colony, in order to avoid religious intolerance.1779

The assembly eventually passes a law called an act of toleration that was enacted in 1649.1791

This granted religious freedom to all Christians and that is very deliberate, keep that in mind.1801

Toleration at this point in history, you have to think of the perspective and the history of the time.1812

This means that if you are not a Christian, they did not tolerate you.1823

It was exclusive to Christians.1829

Perhaps, more tolerant than just accepting the Catholic way or the Protestant way but it is still very Christian centric.1833

This act of toleration that was intended to help foster toleration amongst all Christians,1845

the statute also called for, there was a punitive aspect to it.1852

The death of anyone who denied the divinity of Jesus.1856

If you are Jewish and you spoke out boldly against Christian ideas, you could be put to death.1863

It does not sound very tolerant, that is the irony about this.1874

But anyway, it is known as one of the first colonies that tries to promote religious toleration.1878

Nonetheless, it did not mean that religious strife was not boiling below.1888

We are going to see that a Protestant revolt breaks out in the late 1600’s, due to the resentment towards the Catholic proprietor.1894

Eventually, this toleration act was repealed, so much for that.1906

Now we are going to move to some other issues that continued to be a challenge in the Chesapeake region.1916

You had to be a hearty type of person to be able to sustain all of the conditions.1924

Those who were indentured servants, the hard work, the lack of resources, that got tattled after awhile.1932

Let us get into some of this.1942

In the 1600’s in Virginia and Maryland, there are a lot of economic problems because of over production of tobacco.1944

Tobacco had been very successful in turning things around for the colony,1954

but this is the early stages of mercantilism and global trade.1960

Once they started to over produce it, the price of tobacco started to go down in the long run.1969

When the House of Burgesses tries to raise the prices, the British merchants responded by raising prices of their exports.1978

And then, that is going to cause problems in the long run, where do not buy, then they have to lower their prices.1990

Then the whole system was kind of not working and it is breaking down,2001

which means that the poorest of the poor are the ones who are struggling the most.2006

They are not going to get paid and that is going to cause a lot of tension.2010

On top of that, there were political problems.2017

When we talk about western at this point, we are still east of the Appalachian Mountains.2022

We are still on the eastern part of the United States.2029

A little bit further west than the east coast.2034

But at this point, it is all relative.2038

A lot of the western backwoods farmers became disgruntled around the time, the late 1660’s.2043

Because Sir William Berkeley, who was the royal governor, you should be familiar with him, of Virginia,2051

between these years 1641 to 1652 and 1660 to 1677.2059

He adapted policies that favored large planters.2065

The farmers did not feel protected from constant Indian attacks.2070

They are trying to have successful farms and they do not have a lot of resources2075

but they keep getting attacked by Native Americans.2081

Eventually, they have to take matters into their own hands.2084

A rebellion was organized by Nathaniel Bacon.2088

He was an impoverished farmer who had enough of this.2093

He said that he needed to get people to fight with him, to band with him, and to put pressure on the governor.2097

To make some changes and to really protect them from Native American attacks.2106

He gets a group of volunteers and forms an army.2114

This eventually will become known as Bacon’s rebellion.2123

Poor freeholders, people of the small farms, and as well as propertyless men,2126

they formed a militia and began killing Indians on their own.2134

Like, if the government is not going to do it and not going to protect us, we have to do it on our own.2138

This obviously led to Indian’s fighting back, violence is breaking out back and forth.2144

Berkeley is angry at these poor people for waging these wars with Native Americans.2152

He does not want the fur trade disrupted.2159

He proposed building frontier forts.2165

Suspicious of Berkeley's strategy, as a plot to impose high taxes and to take control of the tobacco trade.2169

They saw it as a plot, they do not trust this guy.2181

He is an upper class guy, he is only interested in protecting his own interests not theirs.2183

Nathaniel Bacon, even though he was a poor farmer, he was also a member of the governor's council.2190

He helps to lead a protest against his strategy and does end up killing Native Americans, for which he ends up getting arrested.2196

Berkeley has him arrested.2210

This obviously, eventually, led to all of Bacon’s followers putting pressure on Berkeley.2214

When Bacon’s militant supporters, once they hear the news, they threatened to free Bacon by force.2222

They were able to successfully get change.2231

They were able to put pressure on Berkeley.2235

Berkeley agrees to the political reforms and restores voting rights to the landless free men.2237

That will empower them to be able to protect themselves against Native American attacks.2247

This is a very significant rebellion in the 1600’s.2254

This is Nathaniel Bacon, this is the site that his followers occupied during this time period.2259

After all that, we are going to see that Bacon’s men do not stop.2273

They eventually burn Jamestown and issue a manifesto and2278

declaration of the people demanding removal of all the Indians, and an end to the rule of wealthy parasites.2282

In many ways, you can see the class differences at this point, that are starting to emerge2292

and become a huge problem for this region because there was a divide.2303

They do not see things the same way and their policies do not always help all of them.2308

That is going to put them at odds with one another.2315

Although Bacon dies of disease in 1676, the rebellion did prompt tax cuts, a reduction of corruption in the government,2318

and the opening of public offices to yeomen, who felt that they were not represented,2330

they were not being heard, they were not being taken seriously, and expansion into Indian lands.2336

We are going to see that the population of indentured servants are getting really restless and willing to rebel.2347

To forestall another rebellion among former indentured servants,2357

we are going to start to see Chesapeake planters turning away from indentured servitude or indentured slavery in 1705.2360

We are going to see indentured servitude being replaced by slavery.2370

And then lastly, the other part that is really significant about this rebellion is that2379

this was an early indication of colonial resistance to royal control.2383

Meaning that when people live in an area, they want autonomy, they want to have control of their own destinies.2389

They do not want someone from far away to tell them what to do.2397

That is kind of at the root of later on having an influence on the American ethos.2402

We are pretty much at the end here.2416

We will start to see in the 1600’s, and in fact the first African workers who arrived will be in 1619.2419

Even though, it is debatable whether they were not technically slaves, and in fact,2430

many historians would say they were actually indentured servants.2436

It is really going to be a precursor for the new way, the new form of labor that is going to emerge.2442

And a new source of labor that is going to be exploited2452

and used by the plantation owners in the southeastern part of the United States.2457

But the first African workers arrived in 1619.2465

We will see in the long run, they are going to fare even worse than the indentured servants.2469

At first, their numbers are pretty small.2476

Later on, we are going to get into the expansion of slavery.2480

At first, we are going to see many Africans serve the English masters for life.2485

They were not legally enslaved.2490

This is kind of a transition period, if you will.2494

English common law did not acknowledge chattel slavery -2498

the ownership of human beings as property.2503

That will eventually change, we know when they make laws later on,2508

to clarify that and change that detail.2515

By becoming a Christian and a planter, an enterprising African could sometimes aspire2521

to near equality with English settlers, and even own slaves.2526

In some cases, yes, Africans could actually own African slaves.2531

That is something to keep in mind during this time period.2539

Beginning in the 1660’s, following the collapse, the tobacco industry, Chesapeake legislatures start to change the laws.2543

They began enacting laws that lowered the status of Africans, this was the change.2555

By the time period you see between 1619 and the 1660 is influx.2560

We do not see a full-fledged chattel slavery at this point.2567

But by the 1660’s, we are going to see the Chesapeake legislatures enacting laws that lowered the status of Africans2573

and being a slave was becoming permanent and a permanent and hereditary condition,2582

and synonymous with the African people, and ultimately with one's race.2588

That is going to be a huge game changer, and obviously, to the detriment of African Americans where2594

we are going to see that this form of labor is going to be exploited and utilized,2603

and makes these plantation owners, those planters very wealthy.2609

The Africans come to the new world against their will.2615

That brings a whole other element to it.2620

With that, I think we are going to conclude the lesson on early Jamestown and the early English settlement.2624

We are going to move onto the question portion and some of the examples that you might see on an AP test.2632

Again, I want to point out that you should use the silkstone handout that you can find in the quick notes below.2641

If you click, you will find it below and you can download the form.2651

It is a great guide that will help you when you analyze primary sources,2657

so you can train yourself on what questions to ask and what you should be looking for.2663

Let us go through this.2670

I have an example of a multiple choice question and a short answer question2673

both using this visual here, Smith taketh the king of paw monkey prisoner.2677

Let us start with number one, which of the following best describes the relationship2688

between the English colonies and the Native Americans?2695

Was it friendly, hostile, peaceful, or harmonious?2699

I will give you a few seconds, you may want to pause.2706

The answer is hostile, and hopefully you can see by that body language,2714

he is pulling his hair, he looks like he has some kind of weapon behind him.2721

Just between these two relations looked tough, and in the background, you can see there is fighting happening here as well.2730

The short answer question.2739

This does tie into this.2746

The short answer question, explain the point of view.2751

This is a very important concept that you will see on a lot of the AP questions.2754

You have to understand the perspective.2761

The point of view reflected in the image regarding one of the following.2764

You get a choice, A, B, or C.2769

I’m just going to go over this very briefly.2775

These need to be very succinct, answers in one sentence.2780

You could write about that the British settlers were hostile and violent, using guns to fight against the Native Americans.2793

That would be one example of the British point of view.2804

Answers will vary on this, I’m just trying to give you an example, if we did the Powhatan.2811

The Powhatan look defensive and that they are trying to protect their land.2819

The chief is communicating with John Smith who was pulling his hair which could be embarrassing and insulting to the chief.2826

That is something you can draw from, perhaps, if you see similar trends in this visual.2839

John Smith appears aggressive and arrogant, since he is advocating on behalf of other English settlers.2846

He views Powhatan as hostile so he tries to embarrass him by pulling his hair, something along those lines.2857

You can also tell by his body language that he is getting in his pace.2869

There are a lot of different ways that you can answer this.2875

I’m just trying to give you a general idea of how you could approach this question.2877

Let us go on, example 2.2884

This one is a reading passage.2887

One thing you should look at, even before you read it, you may want to see2890

this is something we just learn about today, the Maryland toleration act.2895

Then, you read through it.2899

That, whatsoever, person or persons within the province and the islands they are unto.2901

You will notice this is an actual typo, this is just an older style English, just to point that out.2906

Belonging shall from henceforth blaspheme God,2916

that is curse him or deny our savior Jesus Christ to be the son of God or shall deny the Holy Trinity,2920

the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, or the Godhead of any of the said three persons of the trinity, or the unity of the Godhead,2929

or shall use or utter any respectful speeches, words, or language, concerning the said Holy Trinity,2937

or any of the said three persons thereof, shall be punished with death,2945

and confiscation or forfeiture of all of his or her lands and goods to the Lord proprietary and his heirs.2950

That was a mouthful.2959

This is asking you to read an early text and sometimes they are difficult to read.2963

You should familiarize yourself with all different types of sources.2969

Try not to get intimidated.2974

Often, it is English, you should be able to decipher a lot of this.2976

I highlighted some of the keywords, just to model what you should be doing when you look at these questions.2980

Let us look at the question, What was the intention of the authors of the Maryland act of toleration?2986

To protect the rights of Jews.2994

To protect the rights of Puritans.2995

To protect the rights of Catholics.2997

To protect the rights of Native Americans.2999

This one, I would like to point out.3002

First of all, think about it, how you are going to answer those question.3006

I’m going to answer it.3014

It is to protect the rights of Catholics.3018

The answer to this question is not necessarily in this passage,3022

except for that you would be able to eliminate letter A and D, for sure, because it is not in here.3027

You could probably hone this down to B and C.3034

However, you do need some background knowledge to answer this question,3038

as far as what was the purpose of the Maryland toleration act.3042

You do have to remember that Maryland was really created as a refuge for Catholics.3046

The idea of the Trinity is something that is advocated by Catholics.3056

Something to keep in mind as you approach these questions.3063

The same passage, just for the sake so you could view it as we look at this question.3074

What was the penalty for those two spoke out against the Holy Trinity?3080

Exile, 10 year prison sentence, forced conversion to Christianity, or death?3084

This one is more of a reading comprehension type of question.3090

I will give you a minute to look at the text.3097

You can pause.3101

The answer is, you can see it in here, the answer would be death, D for death.3105

I have one more example for you.3120

This one is in a form of a short answer question.3123

These ones you have to answer parts A, B, and C.3128

For this question, it asks you to briefly explain one common characteristic and3133

the policies of two of these European nations towards Native Americans.3138

These are your choices and we have been talking about all three of these colonizing Europeans.3144

I will give you some examples.3151

If we found some common characteristics between France and Spain,3154

we could talk about how both French and Spanish colonizers both wanted to convert Native Americans to Catholicism.3159

That is a very straightforward one sentence answer.3174

Here is another example for part A.3182

Most of the settlers or colonizers from England and France looked down upon the Native Americans3185

and viewed them as uncivilized or inferior.3191

That is a succinct way to make a comparison and also to show the commonality3198

between the two colonizing forces and their relations with Native Americans.3205

Part B, briefly explain one difference between the policies of two European nations towards the Native Americans.3210

England in Jamestown was focused on expanding trade opportunities more than converting the Native Americans.3219

That is an example.3229

Whereas, Spain was very interested in converting Native Americans to Catholicism.3232

That was one of their primary goals.3241

France, here is another sentence you could include.3244

France had better relations with Native Americans and listen to their needs more than the Spanish,3248

who were very cruel and heavy handed in their approach.3255

As evidenced by the comprehensive orders of new discoveries.3257

Those are just some examples of how you can approach this question.3264

Letter C, briefly explain one reaction of Native Americans to European policies.3268

We have talked about several in this lesson.3273

I will just give you two examples here.3276

Pope's rebellion would be one example of how Pueblo people resisted Spanish colonization and forced labor, something like that.3278

Let us see, if you want to do the Hurons, asked the French to help them defend against the Iroquois,3294

when the Iroquois wanted to have a monopoly over the fur trade.3301

They asked for French assistance to fight against their rivals, something like that.3308

These are different examples of how you can approach the short answer question.3318

With that, thank you for watching www.educator.com.3322