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Elizabeth Turro

Elizabeth Turro

Immigration, Urban, Culture and Politics

Slide Duration:

Table of Contents

I. Period 1: 1491 - 1607
The First Americans

53m 30s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:06
“American” History?
3:12
Controversies with the Term, “America”
3:24
The Origin of the Term, “America”
4:10
The Peopling of the Americas
4:40
The Land Bridge Theory
6:33
How the First Americans come to the Continent
6:44
Evidence of the First Americans
7:50
The Three Major Waves of the First Americans
8:27
The First Wave
8:40
The Second Wave
8:50
The Third Wave
8:57
The Controversial of Kennewick Man
9:12
The Native Americans
9:47
The Three Sisters
9:50
The Effects of Agricultural Surplus
10:26
The Three Sisters
11:09
Mayas and Aztecs of Mesoamerica
11:57
Olmec Civilization
11:45
Subsequent
12:36
Mayan Society
12:52
Jaguar Temple in Tikal (Mayan Temple)
13:17
Mayan Calendar
15:11
Mayans
15:43
Priests Ruled Society
15:53
The Decline of the Mayan Civilization
16:03
Aztecs
16:40
Tenochtitlan
16:51
Aztec Priests and Warrior Nobles
17:12
Incas
17:39
Introduction of the Incas
18:06
Summary of Mayans, Aztecs and Incas
18:29
Map of Native American Cultural Areas
18:55
The Indians of the North of Rio Grande
20:15
Clan-Based and Egalitarian Society
20:36
Why the Indians did not Develop into an Advanced Group?
21:22
Self-Governing Tribes
22:28
Southwest Settlements
22:51
Hohokam, Anasazi, Pueblos
23:00
The Decline of the Southwest Settlements
23:47
Architectural Site of a Southwest Settlement
24:01
Underground Kivas of the Anasazi
24:05
Zunis, Acomas and Hopis
24:36
Artifacts From the Southwest
24:49
Lives of the Pueblo People
25:10
Ancient Apartment buildings of Anasazi and Petroglyph
25:42
Midwest Settlements
26:39
Adena-Hopewells
26:42
Cahokia
27:25
The Decline of the Mississippian Civilization
28:07
Muskogean and Algonquian Speaking Societies
28:18
Hopewell Mound
28:51
The Great Serpent Mound
29:07
The Culture of Mississippians
29:15
Animists
29:53
Northeast Settlements
30:33
Hunting and Farming-Based Society
30:48
Iroquois Confederation
30:57
Iroquois Women at Work, 1724
32:42
Matrilineal Society
33:27
Iroquois Creation Myth
33:38
Dominant Economic Activity
35:35
The “New World”
36:27
Example 1
37:26
Example 2
43:15
Example 3
44:44
Example 4
50:59
Interactions of Europeans, Native Americans and Africans

55m

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:50
Europeans Encounters Africans and the Americans 1450-1550
2:51
European Agricultural Society - Yeomen
3:42
Hierarchical Social Order
4:39
Hierarchy
4:59
Inheritance and Religious Influences
5:32
Dower and Primogeniture
5:33
Religious Influences
6:00
Importance of Religious History
6:43
Pagans and Animists
6:53
Crusades
7:20
Christian Identity of Europeans
7:56
Absorption of Arab Knowledge
8:08
The Renaissance and The Age of Exploration
8:57
The Black Death
9:16
The Renaissance
9:34
Improvements in Technology
11:15
Prince Henry the Navigator
11:51
Gunpowder
13:00
West Africa and the Mediterranean in the 15th Century
13:50
Sea of Darkness
14:28
Madeira and Azore Islands
14:47
The Development of the Slave Trade System
15:00
Trade Routes in the Sub-Saharan Region
15:21
Trade Routes in the Globe
16:45
West African Society and Slavery
17:31
Geographical Location
18:21
Trading of Goods
18:50
Languages
19:22
Spiritual Beliefs
20:01
Effects of European Traders
20:16
Europeans and Africans Trade
20:56
Vasco da Gama
21:28
Slave Trade
22:00
War Captives and Criminals
23:15
Portuguese Traders and Slavery
24:19
Elmina, Foree, Mpinda and Loango
24:30
Sugar Plantations
25:13
Shipping to the America
25:56
Europeans Explore America
26:19
Spanish Monarchs, King Ferdinand of Aragon and Queen Isabel of Castile
26:26
Arranged Marriage
26:52
The Capture of Granada
27:33
Ferdinand and Isabella
27:42
Christopher Columbus
27:58
Two Goals
28:26
Christopher Columbus
28:47
Native Inhabitants
29:12
The Three Expeditions
29:31
Colonization of the West Indies
30:22
Amerigo Vespucci
30:40
The Spanish Conquest
31:02
Reconquista
31:18
Hernan Cortes
31:37
Moctezuma
31:50
Superior European Military Technology
32:11
Conquistadors and Disease
32:44
Francisco Pizarro
33:30
Conquistadors and Encomiendas
33:43
Columbian Exchange Map
34:52
Columbian Exchange
36:20
The Definition of Columbian Exchange
36:21
The Gold and Silver from Aztecs
36:46
Spanish Colonization of Americas
37:15
Spaniards Migration
37:22
Mestizo Population
37:51
Effects of Spanish Conquest
38:27
Introduction of Pigs
38:36
Steel Weapons
38:48
Smallpox
38:57
European Treatment of Native Americans
39:20
“Inferiority”
39:35
Spanish Policy
40:25
Latin American Social Hierarchy
41:21
Las Casas and Missionaries
42:20
Bartolome de Las Casas
43:06
In Defense of the Indians
43:10
Enslavement of Africans
43:58
Example 1
44:32
Example 2
47:45
Example 3
49:56
Example 4
52:21
The Protestant Reformation, Early Dutch and British Colonization and The Price Revolution

45m 42s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:10
The Protestant Reformation (Early 16th Century) and the Rise of England
2:00
Protestant Reformation
3:33
Spain's Loss of its Position
4:16
The Protestant Movements and Religious Conflicts
4:23
Religious Wars
4:32
Protestant Nations
4:49
Catholic Church
5:02
Martin Luther
5:16
Martin Luther
5:47
Grace
6:07
Dismissed the Need for Priests
6:24
Bible as the Ultimate Authority
6:48
Peasants' Social Protests
7:11
The Peace of Augsburg
7:30
John Calvin and Calvinism
7:58
Calvinism
8:50
Institutes of the Christian Religion and Predestination
9:13
The Chances of Salvation
9:33
The New Creed
9:49
The Anglican Church
10:09
The Presbyterian Church
11:15
Puritans
11:33
Religious Diversity in Europe, 1600
11:53
Radical Religious Groups
13:09
Migration to America
13:57
The Dutch and English Challenge Spain
14:32
John Cabot
15:12
King Philip II of Spain
15:46
Dutch (Holland)
16:05
Queen Eliz. I
16:28
Holland on the Rise
17:17
The Spanish Armada
17:48
Philip II
18:12
The Rise of the Dutch
18:48
Henry Hudson
18:58
Amsterdam
19:55
West India Company
20:28
Furtrading Colony of New Netherland
20:42
Dutch Colonies and Hudson River Valley
21:22
Mercantilism
22:01
Parliamentary Policies
23:36
Enrichment of Britain
23:48
Mercantilist Policies
24:48
Rise of Economy
24:50
Queen Eliz
25:48
The Domestic English Textile Industry
26:11
Merchant-Oriented Policies
26:48
Triangular Trade
27:00
Complex View of the Atlantic Trade System
28:05
The Social Causes of English Colonization
28:57
Merchant Fleets and Manufactures
29:26
Price Revolution
29:39
Creating Representative Government
30:08
Price Revolution Graph
30:36
Price Revolution
31:10
Expansion of the Textile Industry
31:21
Indentured Servants
31:58
A New Collision
33:00
Example I
33:21
Example II
36:43
A Comparison of Colonization and Settlement Patterns

57m 28s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:10
Spanish Settlements in North America
1:46
Spanish Adventurers
1:50
Francisco Vasquez de Coronado
3:02
Hernan de Soto
4:45
St Augustine
5:24
Spanish Exploration in North America
5:38
St. Augustine
8:00
Indian Attacks and Spanish Response
8:49
Comprehensive Orders of New Discoveries
9:10
Pacification of Indians
9:48
Franciscan Friars
10:38
Images Related to Spanish Colonization
12:13
San Antonio Mission
12:29
Pope
13:29
Native American Response to Spanish Policies
14:28
Attitude towards Franciscans
14:39
Sante Fe
16:03
Pueblo Revolt
16:23
Pueblos Joining the Spaniards
18:15
What did Spain Achieve?
19:05
Settled San Diego and San Francisco
19:50
Development of the Rigid Class System
20:17
New Spain
22:21
Spanish Class System
22:51
The French Explore and Settle in North America
24:20
Giovanni da Verrazano
24:30
Voyages of Jacques
25:33
Quebec
26:20
Louisiana
27:42
Fur trade and Relations with Native Americans
28:09
The Hurons
28:20
Devastating Indian Wars
30:22
The New York Iroquois
31:30
The Confederation of Five Nations
31:43
Iroquois Five Nations
32:07
The French Also Sought Converts
32:30
The Needs of the Indians
33:20
Threat to Native Population
33:48
The Dutch Explore and Settle in North America
34:29
Joint-Stock Company
36:14
The Town of New Amsterdam
38:01
Encouragement of Migration
38:25
New Amsterdam, Dutch Style, Fort-Like Trading post
39:08
New Amsterdam
39:42
Fort Orange
39:46
Taverns Outnumbered Churches
40:10
Seizing Farming Land
41:11
Welcoming Settlers from Other Nations
42:31
The Brits Take Over and Rename the Settlement New York
43:07
Ignoring the Requests for Representative Government
43:18
Second Anglo-Dutch War
44:08
The Duke of York
44:17
Hudsob River and Dutch Colonies in Green
45:35
New York Divided and New Jersey is Formed
46:12
Lord John Berkeley and Sir George Carteret
46:50
East and West Jersey
47:03
Quakers
48:22
Queen Anne
48:38
Example 1
49:10
Example 2
54:24
England's Tobacco Colonies, Jamestown, Bacon's Rebellion

55m 26s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:09
Areas Colonized by 1660
0:45
Early British Ventures in North America and Roanoke Island
1:48
Sir Humphrey Gilbert
2:20
Sir Ferdinando Gorge
2:57
Sir Walter Raleigh
3:20
Croatoan
3:57
The Chesapeake Colonies
4:51
Populous Colonies
4:59
Indentured Servants
5:27
Virginia
6:49
Jamestown
7:14
Virginia Company
7:16
Corporate Colony
8:44
Harsh Life
8:57
Finding Gold
9:51
The Man, the Myth, the Legend
10:17
Powhatan and Captain John Smith
11:51
Powhatan
12:06
Opechancanough
13:12
Captain Smith
14:22
Powhatan and Pocahontas
15:37
Marriage
16:03
Introduction of Tobacco
16:59
Jamestown Government
17:58
The “Starving Time” and Tobacco
18:35
Disease and Famine
19:27
Cannibalism
19:32
Brown Gold
20:05
The VA Company Encourages Settlement
20:40
Headright System
20:50
House of Burgesses
21:57
Backlash of Powhatan
22:51
War led by Opechancanough
23:40
Indian Fields seized by the English
24:15
Virginia Becomes a Royal Colony
24:40
A Royal Colony
25:05
The Church of England
26:23
Maryland Is Established
26:37
George Calvert
27:02
A Safe Haven for Catholics
28:09
Cecil Calvert Takes Over
28:54
Cecil Calvert
28:58
An Act of Toleration
29:51
Protestant Revolt
31:33
Hard Times and Labor Shortages
31:52
Raising Prices of Exports
32:55
Sir William Berkeley
34:11
Nathaniel Bacon
34:43
Bacon's Rebellion
35:17
Building Frontier Forts
36:02
Berkeley Arrested Bacon
36:47
Political Reforms and Restoring the Rights of Voting
37:15
Nathaniel Bacon and the Site That His Followers Occupied
37:36
Aftermath and Effects of Bacon's Rebellion
37:49
Manifesto and Declaration of the People
37:58
Sharp Class Difference
38:15
Early Indication of Colonial Resistance
39:38
The First African Workers Arrive and Slavery Supplants Indentured Servitude
40:12
The First African Workers
40:18
English Common Law
41:24
Lowering the Status of Africans
42:23
Analyzing Primary Sources
43:46
Example 1
44:26
Example 2
48:05
Example 3
51:10
Example 4
51:59
II. Period 2: 1607 - 1754
Puritan New England, The Pequots And Metacom's Rebellion

1h 3m 53s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:09
Puritan Migration
1:20
Pilgrim Separatists Sail to North America
2:29
Elizabeth I
2:47
Separatists
4:10
Mayflower
4:20
The Mayflower and Pilgrims
5:25
64-Day Voyage
5:43
Pilgrims
6:00
The Mayflower Compact
6:35
Self-Government
7:12
Just and Equal Laws
8:06
Grim Conditions for the Pilgrims at Plymouth
9:55
William Bradford
10:28
The Local Wampanoag Tribe
11:12
Thanksgiving Holiday
12:59
Puritans Arrive in MA Bay Colony in 1630
14:00
Arabella
14:13
John Winthrop
14:18
More Puritans Follow the Pilgrims
16:15
The Anglican Church
16:28
Massachusetts Bay Colony
17:19
Joint-Stock Corporation
17:53
Puritan Governance and Society
19:19
John Winthrop
19:24
Holy Commonwealth
20:30
Creation of the Theocracy
21:19
The Role of Church and the Bible
22:16
Pious, Patriarchal Puritans
23:57
Patriarchal Society
24:57
Predestination
26:04
Three Ways to Deal With Uncertainties
26:40
Puritan Dissenters
27:21
Roger Williams
28:05
Anne Hutchinson
29:34
Antinomianism
30:42
More Dissent and New Colonies
31:24
Thomas Hooker
31:40
The Fundamental Orders
31:51
Puritanism and Witchcraft
33:21
Witchcraft
37:45
European Enlightenment
39:16
Puritans Value Education
39:53
Puritan Law
40:19
Harvard College
40:32
Tight-Knit Yeoman Society
41:14
Town Meeting
42:42
Proprietors
43:51
A Socioeconomic Hierarchy
44:22
Puritan Town and Village Map
44:45
Halfway Covenant
46:03
Clergy
46:30
New England Congregationalists
46:46
Partial Church Members
47:25
Map of Algonquian Peoples In MA
48:17
Puritans and Pequots
49:36
Pequot Warriors
50:00
Savages
50:32
Praying Towns
51:12
The Wampanoag and Metacom's Rebellion
51:40
Peaceful Relations with Wampanoag
51:50
Metacom
52:47
The White Settlements
53:20
Losses of the Rebellion
54:15
Metacom
55:24
Example 1
56:06
Example 2
59:10
Example 3
1:01:13
The British Empire in North America, Part I

1h 3m 58s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:08
Restoration Colonies
1:43
Charles II
2:17
South and North Carolina
2:49
Feudal Manors
3:13
Map
4:49
Georgia Founded Later in 1732
5:55
A Buffer
6:10
James Oglethorpe
6:20
Charles II Grants Proprietorships
7:58
A Gentry Class
8:41
Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina
9:25
The Carolinas
10:15
Rebellion of the English Quakers
10:40
South Carolinians
11:58
Pennsylvania
13:15
William Penn
14:48
Inner Light
15:08
Church Services
16:14
William Penn
17:00
The Society of Friends
17:35
Holy Experiment
18:04
City of Brotherly Love
18:17
Pennsylvania's Frame of Government
18:36
Guaranteed Religious Freedom
19:32
Persecuted Protestants
20:50
Political Factionalism
21:53
The British Increase Pressure on the Colonies
22:52
Navigation Act in 1651
24:19
Navigation Act in 1660
25:56
Navigation Act in 1663
26:30
English Domination of Commerce
27:02
The Revenue Act of 1673
27:22
Commercial Wars
27:58
A Punitive Legal Strategy
28:57
Divine Right
30:10
The Dominion of New England
30:46
The Dominion
31:11
Sir Edmund Andros
31:42
English Law and Customs
32:53
Excerpts From the Commission of Sir Edmund Andros
33:20
Imposing Levy Rates and Taxes
33:44
Executing Martial Law
34:22
Britain's American Empire in 1713
34:45
Dominion of New England and Sir Edmund Andros
37:27
The Glorious Revolution and Its Effects
38:30
Glorious Revolution
38:56
Mary and Williams of Orange
39:12
Constitutional Monarchs
39:28
The English Bill of Rights in 1689 and the Enlightenment
41:43
The English Bill of Rights
41:50
British Parliament
42:05
Two Treatises of Government
42:59
The Leviathan Absolutist State
44:28
The Demise of the Dominion of New England
46:03
Broke Up of the Dominion of New England
46:42
A New Royal Colony
47:06
The Restoration of Internal Self-Government
47:59
Board of Trade
48:16
Example 1
48:54
Example 2
51:29
Example 3
54:36
The British Empire in North America, Part II

1h 58s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:06
Imperial Wars and Native People
3:13
Carolinas Armed with the Creek
3:50
Fighting in the North
5:03
The Abenakis and Mohawks
5:08
Aggressive Neutrality
6:09
Treaty of Utrecht
6:37
Western Indian Trade
7:03
Britain's Supremacy
7:24
The Imperial Slave Economy
7:40
The South Atlantic System
7:53
The Sugar Plantations
9:27
Sugar Revolution
10:09
Most Profitable Crop
10:21
Negative Effects
11:06
Africa, Africans and the Slave Trade
12:03
Changing the West African Society
12:36
Benin
13:02
The Imbalance of the Sexes
13:33
Slave Trade
14:00
Middle Passage
15:09
Slavery in the Chesapeake and SC
17:58
A Slave Society
18:10
An African American Community
20:28
The Gullah Dialect
21:06
A Black Majority Emerges in South Carolina
21:50
Images of Slavery
22:40
Resistance and Accommodation
26:34
Drastic Limits on African Americans
26:45
Slave Protests
27:35
Stono Rebellion of 1739
29:24
Stono Rebellion
29:58
The Emergence of the Southern Gentry
30:49
Patriarchal Society
31:03
The Planter Elite
31:08
Owning a Slave
32:33
Gentility
33:41
Gentility
33:46
The Profits of the South Atlantic System
34:42
The Northern Urban Shipbuilding Economy
35:01
Bills of Exchange
35:48
Shipbuilding and the Distilling of Rum
36:33
Commerce in Lumber and Shipbuilding
36:55
Wealthy Landowners and Merchants
37:13
The Rise of Colonial Assemblies
37:55
Ruling With Gentle Hand
37:13
American Representative Assemblies
39:02
The Rising Power of the Colonial Assemblies
39:20
The Power of the People Began to Grow
40:18
Crowd Actions
40:22
Representative Political Institutions
40:33
Salutary Neglect
41:07
Constitutional Monarchism
42:07
The Prime Minister
42:50
Radical Whigs
43:07
Faction
43:12
Incompetent Royal Bureaucracy
43:41
Walpole
44:24
Navigations Act
44:34
A Degree of Independence
44:44
Walpole's Concerns
45:04
War Against Spain
45:29
War of Jenkin's Ear
46:30
War of Austrian Succession
46:52
The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle
48:36
The America Economic Challenge
49:04
Navigations Act
49:07
The Molasses Act of 1733
49:52
The Currency Act
50:20
Example 1
51:48
Example 2
55:42
Example 3
59:52
Freehold New England and Diverse Middle Colonies

32m 29s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:08
Freehold Society in New England
1:03
Freeholders
2:25
Women and the Rural Household
2:42
Patriarchal Society
3:06
Farm Property and Inheritance
4:58
Laborer to Freeholder
5:39
Women Relinquished Ownership
6:43
Whole Communities
7:25
Challenges for Freehold Society
7:30
Double of the NE Population
7:44
Families' Petition
8:56
Livestock Economy
10:15
Preserving the Freehold Ideal
10:28
The Hudson River Manors
10:49
The Middle Atlantic Colonial Society
12:23
Grain Exports
13:07
The Hudson River Valley
13:56
Rural Pennsylvania and New Jersey
14:45
Economic Changes in Mid Atlantic
15:03
Social Division
15:17
“Outwork” Manufacturing System
15:42
Cultural and Religious Diversity
16:13
Cultural Diversity: Quakers and Germans
18:47
Preserving Cultural Identities of Migrants
19:02
German Cultural Heritage
20:25
Scots-Irish
20:39
Movement of Scots-Irish
20:50
Presbyterian Faith
21:28
Religious Identity and Political Conflict
21:52
Demanding a More Aggressive Indian Policy
22:15
Opposition to the Quakers
22:51
Economic and Demographic Changes in Mid Atlantic
24:18
Example 1
25:51
Example 2
28:00
Example 3
29:38
The Enlightenment and the Great Awakening in America

44m 4s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:07
The Enlightenment
3:04
The Age of Reason
3:33
Empirical Research and Scientific Reasoning
5:25
Influential Enlightenment Ideas
6:45
Four Fundamental Principles
7:29
John Locke
8:03
Two Treaties of Government
9:28
Revolutionary Ideas
11:46
Two Non-clergy-led Universities
13:39
Deism
14:32
Accordance with the Law of Nature
14:50
Ben Franklin
15:50
Ben Franklin
16:02
Key Contributor of American Revolution
16:45
Founder of the Junto Club
17:12
American Philosophical Society
17:22
Franklin's Poor Richard's Almanak
18:16
Almanacs
18:25
Richard Saunders
18:35
Wise Maxims
18:49
American Pietism
19:53
Pietism
20:12
Evangelical Christian Movement
20:27
Jonathan Edwards
22:04
The Great Awakening
22:18
Christian Zeal
22:24
George Whitefield
23:10
New Light
23:48
George Whitefield
24:06
The Great Awakening
24:46
Growth of Churches
24:52
Emotionalism, Revivalism, Evangelicalism
24:58
Itinerant Ministers
25:32
New Colleges
25:42
Jonathan Edwards
26:14
Revivalist and Intellectual
27:01
Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God
27:20
Eternal Damnation
27:42
Religious Upheaval in the North
28:34
Old Light
28:38
Unconverted Sinners
30:22
Separatist Churches
30:35
Presbyterianism
31:26
Protestant Church Government
31:31
Geneva, Switzerland
31:50
Hostility of Irish Catholics
32:13
Reverend William Tennent
32:39
Scots-lrish Immigrant
32:49
Log College
33:16
Picture
34:02
Effects of the Great Awakening
34:08
Americans
34:45
Emotionalism
35:30
The Congregational and Presbyterian
36:45
Baptists and Methodists
37:10
Growth in the Number of Churches
37:35
Example 1
38:07
Example 2
41:09
The Great Awakening Spreads to the South and the French and Indian War

39m 53s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:10
Social and Religious Conflict in the South
1:48
Challenging the Church of England and the Planter Elite
2:01
Freeholders
2:51
Religious Pluralism
3:16
Baptist Revivals
4:02
Baptist Revivals
4:41
Free Born Male Members
5:37
A New Religious identity
6:14
The First Three Wars
6:40
King William’s War
7:22
Queen Anne's War
8:46
King George's War
8:47
The Seven Years' War
9:42
French and Indian War
9:50
Iroquois Strategy
11:10
Beginning of French and Indian War
12:05
Ohio Valley
12:40
Fort Necessity
13:17
Join, Or Die
13:49
Pennsylvania Gazette
16:30
Ben Franklin's Albany Plan
16:50
The Board of Trade
17:39
One General Government
17:54
Significance of the Albany Plan
18:53
Demands for American Independence
18:56
Stamp Act Congress
19:37
Map of Conflicting Imperial Claims
21:04
The French and Indian War
21:35
Nova Scotia
21:39
Seven Years' War
22:17
William Henry
22:31
French and Indian War Map
22:56
End of War
23:36
Treaty of Easton
23:38
Quebec
24:02
The Treaty of Paris
24:30
Boundaries After Treaty of Paris
25:40
Pontiac's Rebellion
26:33
Ottawa Chief Pontiac
26:37
Indian Alliance
27:49
British Era
28:11
Other Effects of the War
28:49
American Military Ineptitude
29:27
Huge Debt
30:10
Defied the New Treaty
31:15
Paxton Boys
32:10
Example 1
32:53
Example 2
35:44
Example 3
37:55
III. Period 3: 1754-1800
British Reorganization After the French and Indian War and Colonial Protest

42m 59s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:10
British Shift in Policy Toward Colonists
1:00
Higher Import Duties
1:46
Discriminatory British Policies
3:44
British Expenditures and Revenue
4:04
British Law and Imperial Reform
4:57
The Supremacy of Parliamentary Laws
5:02
Second-Class Subjects
5:22
Currency Act
6:02
The Sugar Act
6:46
Navigation Act Loophole
7:01
Vice-Admiralty Court
7:45
The Stamp Act and Quartering Act Passed
8:28
Stamp Act
8:39
First Direct Tax
9:06
Quartering Act
10:06
Declaratory Act
10:33
Colonists Begin to Rebel
11:21
Virtual Representation
11:38
Patriots
12:23
Enlightenment Ideas
12:51
The Colonial Response
15:06
James Otis of MA
15:24
Stamp Act Congress
15:32
The Sons of Liberty
16:18
The Bostonians Paying the Exciseman or Tarring and Feathering
17:08
Extreme Measures
17:46
A British View
19:02
The Repeal or the Funeral Procession of Miss Ame-Stamp
19:49
Stamp Act Repealed
22:01
Declaratory Act
22:15
The Townshend Acts
22:52
Refuse to Drink Tea
23:03
More Acts, More Restrictions
23:30
The Revenue Act
23:38
Quartering Act
24:24
More Forms of Resistance
24:56
Daughters of Liberty, Boycotts and Homespuns
25:06
Boycotts of British Goods
26:50
Trade as a Political Weapon
27:26
Some Notable Patriots
27:57
Patrick Henry
28:04
John Adams
28:49
The Boston Massacre
30:11
The Boston Massacre
30:19
Paul Revere
31:28
Committees of Correspondence
32:11
The Rights and Grievances of the Colonists
32:36
More Organized Attempt
32:47
The Boston Tea Party: Reaction to Tea Act
33:07
Mohawk Indians
33:23
Crates of Tea
33:47
Sons of Liberty
34:04
British Reaction to Boston Tea Party
34:43
Closing Down the Port
35:07
Coercive Acts
35:35
Example 1
36:06
Example 2
38:47
The Road to Revolution

42m 3s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:05
Coercive or “Intolerable” Acts
1:54
Self-Rule Acts
2:52
The Quebec Act
3:40
King George and Parliament
4:07
Colonial Response
4:18
Committees of Correspondence
4:20
The House of Burgesses
5:25
Thomas Jefferson
6:08
First Continental Congress
7:02
Rejection of Colonial Union
7:25
Stop all Trades with England
7:37
A Statement of Grievances
8:02
The Suffolk Resolves
9:20
James Galloway
9:59
The Declaration of the Rights and Grievances
11:16
Greater American Autonomy
11:31
Violations of the Rights of the Colonists
12:18
Rebellion Spreads to the Countryside
12:47
Changing Attitudes to Imperial Issues
13:35
Yeoman Tradition of Land Ownership
13:59
British Response
14:13
Illegal Assembly
14:29
Payment of Defense and Administration
14:55
Conciliatory Propositions
15:54
Lexington and Concord
16:26
Minutemen of Concord
16:37
Huge Losses
17:28
John Lodge's “View of the Attack on Bunker Hill, with the burning of Charles Town, June 17, 1775”
17:57
Loyal Americans Feared “Mob Rule”
18:24
Sons of Liberty
18:50
Pacifist Beliefs
19:04
The Second Continental Congress Organizes
20:05
Continental Army
20:38
John Dickinson of PA
21:10
Olive Branch Petition
21:33
Declaration of the Causes and Necessity of Taking Up Arms
23:09
Patriots Mobilize and Loyalists Join British
24:05
Zealous Patriots
24:11
Patriot Planters
26:45
Thomas Paine's “Common Sense”
26:52
Called for Independence
27:16
Common Sense
28:09
Against British Rule
28:39
Example 1
29:17
Example 2
31:48
Example 3
34:11
Independence Declared and the Revolutionary War

30m 41s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:08
Independence Declared
1:01
Declaration of Independence
1:14
Thomas Jefferson
1:27
Principle of Individual Liberty
6:01
The Legitimacy of Republican State Government
7:05
War in the North
7:20
Patriots
7:27
The Loyalist Strongholds
8:02
Native Americans' Preference
8:17
The British Military and Strategy
8:46
Powerful Navy
8:52
Joseph Brant
9:15
The American Army and Strategy
10:15
Economically and Militarily Weak
10:25
New Continental Army
10:28
Guerilla Tactics
11:34
British Tactics
12:12
General Howe
12:19
Battle of Long Island
13:20
Trenton
13:34
1776-1777 Map
14:04
African-American Role in the War
14:30
Loyalists and Americans
14:42
Enslaved During the War
15:10
Women's Role in the War
15:32
Boycott of English Good
15:58
Abigail Adam's Letters
17:51
The Ladies Association
19:49
Washington’s Sewing Circle
20:00
Edenton Ladies Tea Party
20:11
Philadelphia on the Eve of the Revolution
21:15
General William Howe
21:39
Starvation at Valley Forge
21:58
Thomas Jeffery's, After George Heap. “ An East Prospect of the City of Philadelphia”
22:11
Turning Point: Battle of Saratoga
23:26
Saratoga
23:45
Captured British Troops and Equipment
24:18
End of War
24:36
Dutch Declared War Against Britain
24:44
Marquis de Lafayette
25:05
Yorktown
25:39
Treaty of Paris
26:28
Treaty of Paris in 1783
26:49
Example 1
27:33
Example 2
29:09
Creating Republican Institutions

44m 52s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:06
Creating Republican Institutions
1:39
Sacred Fire of Liberty
2:04
The Destiny of the Republican Model
2:11
Experiment Entrusted to the hands of the American People
2:26
The State Constitutions, 1776-1787
2:41
Republicanism
3:22
New Constitutions
4:27
Voting Rights
5:48
John Adam's Influence
6:21
Thoughts on Government
6:56
PA Unicameral Legislature
7:08
Bicameral Legislature
8:07
Bicameral Legislature
8:43
Restricting Popular Power
8:49
Middling Circumstances
9:56
Women Seek a Public Voice
10:35
Second-Class Citizens
11:12
Abigail Adams
12:12
Vindication of the Rights of Woman
12:55
On the Equality of the Sexes
13:42
The Loyalist Exodus
14:21
Structure of Rural Communities
14:36
A Traditional-Oriented Economic Elite
15:00
Entrepreneurial-Minded Republican Merchants
15:13
In Search of a National Government
15:48
Weak Central Government
16:26
Continental Congress
16:39
First Constitution
17:34
Congressional Powers in the Articles
18:34
Conduct Wars and Foreign Relations
18:53
Adjudicate Disputes
19:38
Land Ordinances
20:04
The Confederation and the “Northwest”
20:17
Westward Expansion
20:50
Creation of Several Ordinances
21:49
Secessionist Movements
22:10
The Northwest Territory
22:46
Refused Morris's Proposal
23:18
Trans-Appalachian West
23:29
Native American Tribes
23:44
Map of Northwest and Southwest Territories
24:20
Ordinance of 1784
24:43
Ordinance of 1785
25:28
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
26:50
A Single NW Territory
27:12
Inhabitants
27:22
Weaknesses of the Articles
27:47
No Power to Tax
28:26
No Executive
28:53
Single Vote for Each State
29:02
Diplomatic Features
30:05
Great Lake Area
30:20
John Adams
31:10
Example 1
31:35
Example 2
34:28
Example 3
36:55
The Constitutional Convention and Debate Over Ratification

45m 59s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:07
Debts, Taxes and Shays
3:31
Postwar Depression
3:41
Resentment of Farmers
4:00
Abolition of Imprisonment for Debt
4:33
Effects of Shays' Rebellion
5:29
Sentenced to Death
5:37
No Federal Army
5:54
A Riot Act
6:30
What Type of Government to Create?
7:20
A Stronger Central Government
8:07
Money Questions
8:16
Alexander Hamilton
9:15
James Madison
11:06
Madison's Virginia Plan
12:06
3-Tiered National Government
13:41
Lower House
13:58
Upper House
14:10
Patterson's New Jersey Plan
14:47
William Patterson
15:18
One-House Legislature
15:57
Tax and Regulate Commerce
16:06
The Great Compromise
16:30
Roger Sherman
16:43
Connecticut Plan
17:07
Legislature
17:30
Other Important Decisions
19:56
In One Supreme Court
20:00
The Electoral College
20:23
A Fugitive Clause
22:50
The Supreme Law of the Land
23:17
National Supremacy
23:28
The Constitution
24:19
Fear of Abuse of People's Rights
24:58
Federalism, Enlightenment and Republicanism
25:34
Federalism
25:47
Enlightenment Ideas
26:27
Enumerated Powers
27:04
Federalists V.S. Antifederalists
28:42
Federalists
28:55
The Federalist Papers
29:30
Antifederalists
30:25
A Bill of Rights
30:41
Completing the Structure
30:57
First Elections
31:25
Ratification
31:31
Washington and John Adams
31:35
First Ten Amendments
31:44
The Judiciary Act of 1789
31:58
Map of State Ratification of Constitution
32:17
Creation of a Cabinet and Three Departments
33:33
Example 1
34:32
Example 2
35:25
Example 3
42:23
The Early Nation and the Washington Administration

43m 18s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:07
Status of Native Americans
1:55
Conflicts over Land
2:04
Nation Within a Nation
3:09
Tribal Sovereignty
3:20
Domestic Dependent Nations
4:54
Native American Conflicts 1780s
5:25
Trans-Appalachian West
5:43
Treaty of Fort Stanwix
6:02
Native Americans in Ohio
6:52
Native American Conflicts 1790s
7:01
Northwest Confederacy
7:24
Miami Warrior Little Turtle
7:45
Battle of Fallen Timbers
8:51
Treaty of Greenville
9:09
Hamilton and the Federalist Influence
9:30
Federalists
10:02
Alexander Hamilton
10:26
Public Credit
11:37
Alexander Hamilton's Economic Plan
12:06
Assume the Debts of the States
12:16
A National Bank
12:56
Excise Tax
13:13
The Federalist Program
14:24
The Funding Bill
14:32
Potomac River
15:48
National Bank of the US
16:08
Public Credit
16:15
The Republican Opposition
16:39
The Emerging of the Republican Party
17:30
Agrarian Republic
18:17
Decentralization
19:20
Strict V.S. Broad Constructionism
20:11
Strict Constructionism
21:39
Elastic Clause
22:45
Loose or Broad Constructionism
24:01
Washington Wins 1792 Election
25:14
The Whiskey Rebellion
25:50
The Militia
26:21
Early Foreign Policy
26:51
Neutral Policy
27:23
Diplomat Edmond Genet
28:05
French West Indies
29:19
Jay's Treaty
29:48
Federalist John Jay
30:17
Opposition to Jay's Treaty
31:44
Pinckney's treaty in 1795
31:56
Thomas Pinckney
32:08
Mississippi River
32:27
Executive Privilege
33:15
Downfall of the Federalists
33:37
Republicans Rose in Power
33:44
Preserving Stability
34:03
The Election of 1796
35:08
Farewell Address
35:46
John Adams
37:13
Example 1
37:46
Example 2
40:50
IV. Period 4: 1800-1848
Adams and The Jeffersonian Era

48m 14s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:05
John Adams
1:48
Political Philosopher
2:40
French Revolution and Haitian Revolution
3:13
Not a Slave Owner
3:46
Falling out with Jefferson
4:34
Relations with France Deteriorate
5:32
XYZ Affair
7:12
A Huge Backlash
7:33
New Warships
7:59
Rejected the Federalist Approach
8:33
Alien and Sedition Acts
9:06
Alien Act
9:23
French Revolution
9:48
1st Amendment's Prohibition
11:19
Republican Response
12:21
VA and KY Resolutions
12:26
Undelegated Powers
12:40
States' Rights Interpretation of the Constitution
13:06
Jefferson Becomes President in 1800
13:50
Election of 1800
14:34
Burr
15:15
Voting for Jefferson
15:35
Jefferson Elected
15:51
Electoral College
15:58
Revolution of 1800
16:44
Judiciary Act of 1801
17:37
Midnight Appointments
18:08
Marbury V. Madison
19:26
Marbury V. Madison
19:41
Judicial Review
20:17
John Marshall
21:29
Samuel Chase
21:40
Thomas Jefferson
21:51
Architect, Intellectual, Writer
22:00
Urbanization
22:52
Expansion of US Territory
23:57
Monticello
24:23
Limits on Government
25:06
Abolishing Internal Taxes
15:15
The U.S. Military Academy at West Point
26:06
U.S. French Relations
26:25
Secret Treaty of San Ildefonso of 1800
27:03
Unrest in the Caribbean Islands
28:02
New Republic of Haiti
28:35
Napoleon and L'ouverture
29:44
Other Foreign Policy Challenges
30:05
Pinckney Treaty of 1795
30:28
Robert Livingston
30:42
Louisiana Purchase of 1803
31:46
Proposal of Buying Louisiana
32:17
Signed the Agreement
32:30
Louisiana Admitted as a State
32:57
Louisiana Purchase
33:07
Lewis and Clark
33:34
Missouri River
34:15
Records to Geography and Civilizations
34:43
Lewis, Clark and Sacajawea
35:07
The Burr Conspiracy
35:24
Essex Junto
36:00
Aaron Burr
36:23
Other Challenges for Jefferson
37:27
War of 1812
37:44
Napoleonic War
37:51
Chesapeake-Leonard Incident
39:03
Jefferson's Proposal: Embargo
39:35
Embargo
41:02
A Controversial Policy
41:53
Exports
42:17
Example 1
42:35
Example 2
44:46
Period IV: James Madison and the War of 1812

44m 36s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:06
Election of 1808
2:24
Non-Intercourse Act in 1809
3:12
Macon's Bill No. 2 in 1810
3:43
Madison Faces Challenges
4:24
France Stop interfering with US Shipping
4:34
Indians in Ohio River Valley
5:14
Westward Expansion and Clashes With Native Americans
5:34
Treaty of Grenville in 1795
6:25
The Harrison Land Law
6:57
William Henry Harrison
7:25
Tenskwatawa, “The Prophet”
8:18
Shawnee Leader
8:42
Spiritual Revival
10:07
Tecumseh: “The Shooting Star”
10:29
Against White Civilization
10:43
Battle of Tippecanoe
11:12
Florida and War Fever
12:04
War Hawks
13:58
Henry Clay of Kentucky
14:10
John C. Calhoun of SC
14:13
Causes of War and Divisions
14:50
Naval Blockade
15:44
A Divided Nation
16:53
Anti-War Groups
17:36
The War of 1812
18:53
Land Campaign
20:11
Invaded Canada through Detroit
20:25
General Hull
20:37
The War of 1812: “Mr. Madison's War”
21:05
Map of the War
24:16
The White House Burns in 1814
27:05
The Revolt of New England
28:04
Daniel Webster
28:36
Talk of Secession
29:20
Hartford Convention
29:35
The Effects of the War of 1812
31:07
Respect Canada as a Neighbor
31:42
Debate over Missouri Territory
32:01
Rise of Sectionalism
32:20
Territorial Expansion for Anglo-Americans
33:21
The Treaty of Ghent
33:56
The Rush-Bagot Agreement of 1817
34:54
Example 1
35:12
Example 2
37:59
Example 3
42:15
Period IV: The Growing Economy, The American System and The 'Era of Good Feelings'

35m 25s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:08
The Growing Economy
2:32
Manufacturing Increased
2:39
The Bank of the U.S.
2:59
Building of a National Network of Roads and Waterways
3:24
Tariff of 1816
4:04
Transportation System Improvements
6:01
Potomac River to the Ohio River
6:09
President Madison
7:54
Conestoga Wagon
8:25
Henry Clay's American System
8:35
Protective Tariffs
8:43
National Bank
8:52
Internal Improvements
8:55
The Panic of 1819
9:56
The First Major Financial Panic
10:26
Tight Credit Policy
10:37
Debt Increased Sharply
10:53
Westward Expansion
11:14
The Population Doubled
11:30
The Factor System
12:08
The Plantation System in the Southwest
13:17
Black Belt
14:15
Cotton Plantations and Slavery
14:31
Four States Admitted to the Union
15:25
Trade and Trapping in the Far West
15:45
Mexico Gained Independence
16:08
U.S. Traders
16:39
Jedediah Smith
17:37
Exploration of the West
18:03
Plattee
18:36
The Great American Desert
18:56
James Monroe
19:13
Virginia Dynasty
19:22
John Quincy Adams
20:25
John C. Calhoun
20:32
John Quincy Adams and Florida
21:04
A Committed Nationalist
21:16
Negotiations with Spain
21:25
Andrew Jackson
21:41
Adams-Onis Treaty of 1819
22:52
Adams-Onis Treaty
24:02
Sectional Conflicts
24:57
The Extension of Slavery
25:06
The Tallmadge Amendment
26:32
Missouri Compromise
27:14
A Free State
27:21
A Slave State
28:11
MO Compromise
28:29
Example 1
30:16
Example 2
31:53
John Marshall, the Federalist Legacy and James Monroe's Foreign Policy

35m 22s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:09
John Marshall and the Federalist Legacy
1:10
Judicial Authority, the Supremacy of Laws and Traditional Property Rights
1:51
The Interests of Propertied and Commercial Classes
2:25
Long Term Mark on the Court
3:02
Fletcher v. Peck in 1810
3:30
Land Frauds
3:42
Contract Clause
5:42
Property Rights
7:00
Dartmouth College v. Woodward in 1819
7:40
College's Charter
8:04
Expanded the Meaning of Contract Clause
8:27
The Corporate Charter
8:48
McCulloch v. Maryland in 1819
9:20
Constitutionality of the Bank of the United States
11:16
Implied Powers
11:34
Power to Destroy
12:05
Gibbons v. Ogden in 1824
12:23
A State Grant
14:29
Interstate Commerce
14:38
Johnson v. McIntosh in 1823
15:01
Sold Land to White Settlers
16:19
Take Land from Tribes
16:44
Worcester v. Georgia in 1823
17:49
Establish Native American Sovereignty
18:51
Marshall Affirmed the Rights of Tribes
19:32
Foreign Policy Under Monroe
20:39
U.S.-Latin American Trade Relations
22:46
Neutrality
23:40
Establish Diplomatic Relations
25:08
Monroe Doctrine in 1823
25:53
“Backyard” of the U.S.
27:05
Nationalistic Policy
28:26
Secretary o State John Q. Adams
28:40
Example 1
30:00
Example 2
32:43
John Quincy Adams, Growing Sectional Tension, and the Capitalist Commonwealth

47m 41s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:08
The Election of 1824
1:17
State Legislatures
1:52
William H. Crawford
3:08
The Demise of the Caucus System
3:49
House of Representatives
4:43
Henry Clay as Secretary of State
6:14
Corrupt Bargain
6:30
John Quincy Faces Obstacles
7:05
Partisan Tensions Emerged
7:16
International Issues
7:33
Conflict with Georgia
8:36
The Controversial Tariff of 1828
9:29
Tariff on Imported Goods
9:32
Tariff of Abominations
10:01
A Huge Backlash in New England
10:37
Capitalism and the Commonwealth
10:55
Common-wealth
11:42
Abrupt Drop in Worldwide Prices
12:50
Business Cycle
13:23
Transportation Improvements
13:58
The Sale of Privately Owned Land
14:43
Marshall Court
15:37
First Railroad Lines
15:48
Transportation Innovations
16:24
Trade Ventures
16:30
Shipping Industry
16:37
James Watt
16:42
Robert Fulton and Robert Livingston
16:51
Turnpikes
17:13
Erie Canal Project
17:17
George Harvey's “Pittsford on the Erie Canal” in 1837
18:37
Erie Canal
18:53
Growth of U.S. Industry
20:14
Factory System
20:27
Eli Whitney
22:35
Changes in Corporate Law
24:08
Trade/Craft Unions
25:00
Commonwealth v. Hunt in 1842
26:32
Peaceful Unions
26:59
Labor Contracts
27:08
Cities Continue to Grow
28:09
Northerners
29:00
Agriculture and the Rise in Immigrants
29:13
Peculiar Institution
30:01
Effects of the Market Revolution
31:31
Isolated Lives
32:29
Women's Rights
32:40
Less Arranged Marriages
33:17
The Growth of the Cotton Industry
34:07
Example 1
34:18
Example 2
36:55
Example 3
39:18
Republicanism, The Second Great Awakening and Antebellum Reform Movements

40m 4s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:51
A Democratic Republican Culture
1:54
Republican Marriages
2:44
Republican Motherhood
4:56
Raising Republican Children
7:10
Promoting Cultural Independence
8:32
Aristocratic Republicanism and Slavery
9:55
Necessary Evil
11:32
Wages-Slaves
11:50
Gabriel Prosser
12:35
Outlawed Slave Trade
13:47
Voting Rights Expand
14:05
The Antislavery Movement Early 1800s
15:06
Black Abolitionists
15:24
Haitian Revolution
15:42
The American Colonization Society
17:43
Liberia
18:19
Richard Allen
20:04
The Second Great Awakening
21:33
Huge Evangelized Hubs
22:27
Evangelic Methodist and Baptist Churches
23:09
Timothy Dwight and Charles Finney
23:33
Revival Meetings Could Last Up to a Week
23:53
Effects of the Second Great Awakening
26:01
A Fervently Protestant People
26:30
Academies
27:56
Women's Rights and Temperance Movements
28:22
Revivalism
29:20
Camp Meeting
29:27
Rationalism/Enlightenment (Deism)
29:45
Charles Grandison Finney
30:53
Finney and Revival
31:32
Other Religious Groups Arise
31:51
The Shakers
32:15
The United Society of Believers in Christ's Second Appearing
33:10
Utopian Society
34:22
The Shakers
35:27
Example 1
36:17
Example 2
38:43
Utopian Communal Societies, the Temperance Movement, and Nativism

47m 18s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:10
Rural Communalism and Utopian Societies
2:24
Fourierism
4:06
Utopian Socialism
5:05
Members of Phalanxes
5:37
100 Cooperative Communities
5:42
Other Communal Experiments
6:26
The Amana Colonies in Iowa
6:29
New Harmony
6:53
Utopian Socialist Community
7:10
Major Communal Experiment Before 1860
8:39
The Oneida Community
10:11
John Humphrey Noyes
10:18
Complex Marriage
10:22
Female Followers
11:38
Silverware Production
13:17
The Mormons, 1830
14:01
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints
14:11
Joseph Smith
14:14
Brigham Young
16:23
The Mormon Trail
16:45
Immigration and Cultural Conflict
17:10
Potato Famine
19:27
German/Irish
20:15
Cholera Epidemic
21:26
Immigrant Communities
21:41
The Surge in Immigration, 1854-1855
22:14
Backlash Against Immigrant Groups
23:04
Low Wages
23:18
Nativist groups
26:11
Immigrants were Scapegoats
26:54
Alcoholism
27:02
Samuel F.B. Morse
28:00
The Temperance Movement
28:33
Reform Movement Against Drunkenness
29:07
The American Society for the Promotion of Temperance
30:56
Temperance Legislation
31:37
The Drunkard's Progress
32:27
Carrie Nation, The Bar Room Smasher
33:58
Conservative Social Reform
35:30
Congregational and Presbyterian Ministers
35:46
Prison Discipline Society
36:24
Regular Habits
36:32
Sabbatarian Values
37:10
Example 1
38:45
Example 2
41:20
Example 3
42:46
Jacksonian Democracy

40m 25s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:07
The Rise of Popular Politics
2:21
Expansion of the Vote
2:30
Presidential Electors
3:17
No Franchise
4:01
The Political Machine
4:38
Martin Van Buren
5:58
Patronage
6:30
Spoils System
6:46
Jacksonians
8:32
Changing in Voting Patterns
8:52
Jackson Runs a Tough Campaign
10:57
Age of Jackson
11:42
Jackson's Inauguration
13:23
Reign of King Mob
13:45
Economic Equality
14:41
First Days in Office
15:14
Whigs
15:54
Against Jackson
17:09
Like a Monarch
17:18
Northern Whigs
18:02
Southern Whigs
18:57
President of the Common Man
19:22
Self-Made man from TN
19:27
Equal Protection and Equal Benefits
19:31
No Region
19:58
Permanent Office Holders
21:07
Frugal Jeffersonian
21:43
To the Victors Belong the Spoils
21:48
Spoils System
21:50
A Central, Corrupting Feature
22:40
To the Victors Belong the Spoils
23:44
Jackson's Political Rivals: Clay
24:14
Four Internal Improvement Bills
24:44
The Bank of the United States
25:22
Vetoing Numerous Bills
25:40
The Rise of Martin Van Buren and Jackson's Scandalous Cabinet
26:05
Kitchen Cabinet
26:54
Albany Regency
27:18
Senator Eaton
27:28
The Rats Leaving a Falling House
28:50
Calhoun and Nullification
29:33
John C. Calhoun of South Carolina
29:40
Nullification
30:04
Tariff of Abominations
30:20
Sectional Controversy
31:15
Nullification Crisis
31:45
Preserve Federal Union
32:54
A Force Bill
33:45
Compromise Reached
34:09
Henry Clay
34:14
Passed the Compromise and Force Bill
34:33
Nullification of the Tariffs
34:40
Example 1
35:09
Example 2
37:54
Four Internal Improvement Bills
24:44
The Bank of the United States
25:22
Vetoing Numerous Bills
25:40
The Rise of Martin Van Buren and Jackson's Scandalous Cabinet
26:05
Kitchen Cabinet
26:54
Albany Regency
27:18
Senator Eaton
27:28
The Rats Leaving a Falling House
28:50
Calhoun and Nullification
29:33
John C. Calhoun of South Carolina
29:40
Nullification
30:04
Tariff of Abominations
30:20
Sectional Controversy
31:15
Nullification Crisis
31:45
Preserve Federal Union
32:54
A Force Bill
33:45
Compromise Reached
34:09
Henry Clay
34:14
Passed the Compromise and Force Bill
34:33
Nullification of the Tariffs
34:40
Example 1
35:09
Example 2
37:54
Jackson, The Removal of Native Americans and The Bank Veto

43m 48s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:08
“King” Jackson and Native Americans
2:01
Vetoed 12 Bills
2:45
Abusing Power
3:13
Land-Hungry Citizens
4:30
“King Jackson”
4:55
Attitudes Toward Native Americans
6:42
White Expansion
6:49
Get Rid of Indian Landholdings
7:26
Indian Removal Act
7:48
The “Five Civilized Tribes”
8:08
Cherokees
9:23
Southern Indians
10:11
Tribal Map in Southeast
10:37
The Indian Removal Act, 1830
11:00
The Resettlement of Many Thousands of American Indians
11:06
Bureau of Indian Affairs
11:28
The Black Hawk War
12:01
Chief Black Hawk
12:12
Last Battle
12:26
70 Indian Nation to Sign Treaties
13:02
Portrait of Black Hawk by Charles Bird King
13:26
Worcester v. Georgia in 1832
13:55
Worcester
15:27
Native American Sovereignty
15:54
The Rights of Tries to Remain Free from the State Government
16:11
Jackson's Response
16:54
Let the Court Enforce It
16:56
Removal Continued
17:26
Johnson v. McIntosh in 1823
17:32
Illinois and Pinakeshaw
17:50
Buy Land from Tribes not from Individuals
18:11
Indian Removal
18:33
Trail of Tears
20:07
Trail of Tears, a 1200 Mile Journey
20:44
The Seminole War
21:37
The Seminoles of Florida
21:55
The Struggle Dragged on for Years
22:18
Uprising in 1835
22:30
Osceola
23:24
“The Indians and Negroes Massacre the Whites in Florida, in January 1836”
23:30
Result of Removal
25:07
Less Hospitable Lands of the Mississippi
25:26
Disease or Exhaustion
26:37
Alien Environment
26:46
Jackson's Bank Veto
27:03
Most Powerful Financial Institution in the Nation
27:30
Nicholas Biddle
27:50
The “Soft Money” Faction
28:12
The Hard money Position
28:33
Henry Clay
29:56
Private Monopoly
30:19
Jackson's Second Term
31:13
Destroy the “Monster” Bank
31:26
Attorney General Roger B. Taney
31:56
Raising Interest Rates and Calling in Loans
32:10
Chronically Unstable Banking System
32:46
Jackson Cartoon
33:14
Jackson's Species Circular
35:52
Inflated Prices for Land and Various Goods
36:01
Specie Circular
36:12
The Panic of 1837
36:38
Example 1
37:41
Example 2
40:09
Democrats, Whigs, and the Second Party System

36m 37s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:06
Taney Appointed to the Court
1:32
Charles River Bridge v. Warren Bridge
2:19
Promote General Happiness
2:44
Exercising a Monopoly
3:18
Expansion of Economic Opportunity
3:35
The Whigs Respond to the Democrats
4:03
Second Party System
5:14
Laissez-Faire Capitalism
5:53
Irish and German Catholics
6:35
Whig Ideology
6:52
Expanding the Power of the Federal Government
6:53
Supporters of Legislation
7:37
Anti-Mason Movement
8:10
The “Great Triumvirate”
8:20
Henry Clay
8:40
Daniel Webster
8:53
John Calhoun
9:01
Election of 1836
9:28
Van Buren
9:34
Nominating Four Candidates From Different Regions
10:14
An Affecting Scene in Kentucky
10:35
1836 Election Cartoon
12:48
Divided Leadership Affects 1836 Election
14:51
Martin Van Buren and Democrats
14:58
Individual Rights
15:05
The Failed Plan
15:22
The Panic of 1837
15:49
Distribution Act
16:45
Land Speculative Fever Resulted
16:54
Independent Treasury System
17:56
Image of the Panic of 1837
18:50
Depression of 1837
21:25
The Ideology of Artisan Republicanism
21:41
Unions to Bargain for Higher Wages
22:06
Closed Shops Agreements
22:23
Effects of the Depression
23:09
Prohibited “Conspiracies” in Restraint of Trade
23:12
The Democratic Party
24:22
Commonwealth v. Hunt in 1842
24:35
Peaceful Unions
24:50
Upheld the Rights of Workers
25:06
Ten-Hour Day for Federal Employees
25:30
Log Cabin Campaign of 1840
25:50
Penny Press
26:50
The Party of the Common People
27:30
William Henry Harrison
27:47
Log Cabin Campaign
28:02
Harrison Wins
28:24
234 V.S. 60 Electoral Votes
28:40
Re-Charter bank
29:19
Preemption Act of 1841
29:32
Foreign Policy Highlights
30:09
Caroline
30:23
Aroostook war
30:41
Creole
30:55
Webster-Ashburton Treaty
31:32
Extraterritoriality
31:53
Example 1
33:05
Example 2
35:36
Transcendentalists and the American Renaissance

37m 43s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:06
Individualism
0:54
Alexis de Tocqueville
1:14
Individualism
1:48
Transcendentalism
3:12
Intellectual Movement
3:19
Individuality Self-Reliance and Nonconformity
3:48
Instincts and Emotion
4:32
Transcendentalists
4:55
Understanding
5:05
Transcend the Limits of the Intellect
5:22
Concord, MA
5:55
Images of Transcendentalists
6:07
Ralph Waldo Emerson
7:11
Leading Spokesman of this Movement
7:35
The American Scholar
8:31
Outpouring of First Class novel, Poetry and Essays
9:18
Original Relation with Nature
10:39
Ordinary Middle-Class Americans
10:56
New Industrial Society
11:35
Henry David Thoreau
12:04
Lives of Quiet Desperation
12:16
Self-Realization
12:34
Walden and Life in the Woods
13:10
Resistance to Civil Government
13:36
The Defense of Nature
16:34
The Rapid Economic Development
17:00
Inspiration and Spirituality
17:17
Gender Roles Redefined
17:49
Woman in the Nineteenth Century
17:59
Mystical Relationship with God
18:53
The Questioning of Gender Roles
19:23
Emergence of a Broad Array of Movement
19:49
Romanticism
19:57
Order and Control
20:33
Slavery Overshadowed
21:25
Romanticism and Nationalism
21:49
The Need to Improve the American Culture
21:55
Romanticism for Inspiration
22:05
Literature and the Quest for Liberation
22:19
Washington Irving's James Fenimore Cooper
22:59
Walt Whitman
23:43
Democracy, The liberation of the Individual and the Pleasures of the Flesh
24:04
Herman Melville
24:28
Strength of Individual Will
24:47
Edgar Allen Poe
25:09
BrookFarm: A Utopian Experiment
25:33
Nathaniel Hawthorne
25:35
Brook Farm
25:56
Form of Socialism
26:13
All Share in the Leisure
26:36
Southern Literature
27:40
Historical Romances of the Plantation System
27:50
William Gilmore Simms
28:13
The Lives of Ordinary People and Poor Whites
28:49
Mark Twain
29:09
American Landscape Painting
29:15
Hudson River School
29:25
Nature is the Source of Wisdom
29:50
Albert Bierstadt and Thomas Moran
30:45
Examples of Landscape Painting
30:53
Example 1
31:45
Example 2
34:08
Abolitionism

46m 20s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:05
Free Blacks Urge Others to “Elevate”
1:17
Social Uplift
1:19
Whites Led Mob Attack Against Blacks
3:25
Moderates and Extremists
3:48
The Antislavery Movement
4:04
American Colonization Society
4:15
Gradual Manumission of Slaves
4:48
Decline of Antislavery Movement
5:30
Abolitionists
5:36
Free African Americans
6:21
Threat of Being Kidnapped
7:10
Liberator
8:07
Moderate and Extreme Approaches
8:20
Advocating for Moderate Approach
8:29
Radical Abolitionists
8:56
Evangelical Christians
10:32
William Lloyd Garrison
11:01
Newspaper: Liberator
11:08
Reject Gradualism
12:42
New England Antislavery Society
13:04
David Walker
13:36
Walker's Appeal to the Colored Citizens
14:01
National Convention in Philly
15:10
Collective Equality for All Blacks
15:40
Nat Turner
16:06
Bloody Revolt in Southampton Country, Virginia
16:55
Turner's Men
17:40
The Virginia Legislature
19:30
Southern States Toughened their Slave Codes
20:00
The Underground Railroad
20:21
Frederick Douglass
23:10
Most Powerful Abolitionists and Orators
23:13
North Star in Rochester, NY
23:35
Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass
24:35
Friend with Garrison
25:34
Douglass and the North Star
27:01
Other Evangelical Abolitionists
27:11
Theodore Dwight Weld
27:18
Angelina and Sarah Grimke
27:39
American Anti-Slavery Society
29:31
Sojourner Truth
29:56
Anti-Abolitionism
32:12
Backlash Against Abolitionist Movement
32:14
Prudence Crandall
32:56
Abolitionist Headquarters
33:27
Amistad
33:35
The Spanish Slave Vessel Amistad
33:39
Prigg v. PA
34:18
Federal Fugitive Slave Laws
34:47
Abolitionists and Politics
35:04
Ban Interstate Slave Trade and Abolish Slavery
35:10
Restrict the Use of Mail
35:28
The Liberty Party
35:55
James G. Birney
36:11
Free Soil
36:21
Women's Rights
37:38
Example 1
38:09
Example 2
40:46
Example 3
43:09
Women's Rights Movement and Antebellum Reform

46m 20s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:07
Education Reforms
1:05
Horace Mann
1:56
Reorganized the School System
2:25
Literacy Rate
2:54
Experimental Schools
5:17
Self-Realization
5:23
Perkins School
5:44
Social Value and Democratize the U.S.
6:03
Rehabilitation
6:19
The Asylum Movement
6:34
Dorothea Dix
6:45
The Rise of Feminism
8:09
Sarah and Angelina Grimke
9:11
Other Reformers
9:37
Married Women's Property Acts
10:09
Seneca Falls
10:40
Society of Friends
10:44
Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions
11:39
The Women's Right
13:11
Declaration of Sentiments
13:38
Quakers Influence Feminist Movement
14:36
Sexual Equality
14:47
Stanton Were Quakers
15:25
Lucy Stone
16:26
Emma Willard
17:08
Catherine Beecher
17:21
Feminist Style of Clothing
17:39
Bloomer
17:42
Amelia Bloomer
17:54
Example 1
18:54
Example 2
21:08
Example 3
23:30
V. Period 5: 1844-1877
Manifest Destiny, Westward Expansion, And Increased Sectionalism

43m 51s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:08
Westward Expansion
3:17
Manifest Destiny
5:25
Penny Press
7:10
Empire of Liberty
7:50
John Gast's American Progress
8:05
Americans in Texas
10:03
Interested in Texas
10:14
American Immigration Into Texas
12:02
Stephen Austin
12:47
Revolt Broke Out
13:20
Stephen Austin: “The father of Texas” and Sam Houston, the First President of the Republic of Texas
13:36
Tensions between U.S. and Mexico
14:02
Legalize Slavery
14:10
Instability in Mexico
15:33
Independence of Texas
16:07
Battle of San Jacinto
16:20
U.S. Settlements and The Texas War of Independence
17:09
U.S. Annexation of Texas
17:09
Southern Democrats
17:38
Election of 1844
17:47
President martin Van Buren Refused
18:30
Main Battles in the Texas War of Independence
18:55
Oregon
19:51
U.S. and British Sovereignty
19:58
The Catholic Missionaries From Canada
20:30
Oregon Fever
20:55
A Measles Epidemic
21:32
Huge Westward Migration and Trails
21:50
Great Overland Trails
22:13
Gender Lines
23:26
Expansion Issue Politicized
23:37
The Election of 1844
23:39
President Tyler
23:48
James Polk
24:27
Fifty Four Forty or Fight
24:38
Compromise over Oregon And The Southwest
25:26
Border 49th Parallel
25:30
The Northern Border of Oregon
25:50
Zachary Taylor
26:13
The Mexican American War
26:30
Map of the U.S.-Mexican War
26:43
U.S.-Mexican War
28:30
John Slidell
28:34
Whig Critics
28:54
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
29:19
Mexican Cession
29:42
Polk Supports Extending the Missouri Compromise Line
30:43
Banning Slavery North of the Line and Permitting it South of the Line
31:19
Popular Sovereignty
31:31
The Sectional Debate Heats Up
31:41
Polk's Expansionist Agenda
32:05
The Wilmot Proviso
32:44
A Threat to Republican Liberties and White Yeoman Farming
33:38
Dissent and Divergence
34:08
Dissenter of the U.S.-Mexican War
34:27
Frederick Douglass
35:46
Diverging Views of Douglass and Garrison
36:46
Example 1
37:32
Example 2
40:54
Example 3
41:50
The Expansion of Slavery and Resistance to its Expansion

1h 5m

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:09
Election of 1848
1:10
Free-Soil Party
2:04
Taylor Won
2:38
Antislavery Democrats: “ Barnburners”
2:54
The California Gold Rush
4:26
Increased in Non-Native American Population
5:39
Forty-Niners
5:56
Chinese Migrants
6:38
The California Gold Rush Images and Map
7:27
California and Gold Rush Map
9:41
Effects of the Gold Rush
10:34
A Labor Shortage
10:36
Indian Hunters
11:17
Heterogeneous Population
11:50
Rising Sectional Differences
12:05
The Balance of Slave and Free States
12:12
Personal Liberty Laws and Fugitive Slave Laws
12:34
A Series of Compromises
13:14
Compromise of 1850
13:30
Fillmore
14:48
California Join the Union as a Free State
14:55
Fugitive Slave Law
15:17
Temporarily Preserved the Union
16:37
Map of the Compromise of 1850
16:43
Crisis of the 1850s
17:39
Franklin Pierce
17:45
Young America
19:59
The Ostend Manifesto
19:24
Railroads, Slavery, and Sectionalism
20:02
Westward Expansion
20:11
Better Communication
20:28
Gadsen Purchase
20:50
Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854
21:45
Popular Sovereignty
22:03
Missouri Compromise was Repealed
23:01
A Scramble of Pro- and Anti-slavery Settlers
23:42
Republican Party
24:05
Anti-Nebraska Dems
24:25
Map of the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854
24:48
Bleeding Kansas
25:39
Pro-Slavery Forces
26:23
Free-Staters
26:29
President Pierce
26:51
John Brown
28:16
Pottawatomie Massacre
28:42
Tragic Prelude
29:04
Charles Summer's “The Crime Against Kansas”
30:46
Free-Soil Ideology
32:40
Northern Whites Believed that Slavery was Dangerous
32:52
Antithesis of Democracy
33:57
The Free Soil Party
34:34
A Critical View: “The Hurly-Burly Pot”
34:55
The Pro-Slavery Argument
37:52
Uncle Tom's Cabin
37:58
The Pro-Slavery Argument
38:37
Superior Southern Way of life
39:03
“Cotton is King”
39:19
Election of 1856
39:51
John Fremont
40:13
Increasing the Support of the Republican Party
41:17
Sectionalism of the Realigned Political Parties
42:14
A Surge in Nativism
42:26
Nativism
43:13
The American Party
44:11
Know-Nothing Party
44:20
The Dred Scott Decision
44:16
An Army Surgeon
45:04
Circuit Court
45:26
John Sanford
45:29
Chief Justice Taney's Stance
46:28
No Claim to Citizenship
46:35
The MO Compromise
47:33
Great Controversy
47:48
Deadlock Over Kansas
48:11
Buchanan Timidly Endorsed the Dred Scott Case
48:18
Lecompton Constitution
48:28
Buchanan Pressured Congress
48:55
KS as a Free State
49:18
Significant Congressional Election of 1858
49:28
Sectional Crisis
49:36
Lincoln-Douglas
50:30
House Divided
51:38
The Spread of Free Labor
53:03
The Rise of Lincoln
53:18
Freeport Doctrine
53:36
A National Following
54:47
Lost the Majority of Democrats of the House
55:10
Lincoln and Douglas
55:21
John Brown's Raid
55:34
John Brown's Statement
56:08
Seized a Mountain Fortress
56:50
Brown Surrendered
57:07
Example 1
57:40
Example 2
1:00:29
Example 3
1:02:25
The Civil War, Part 1

44m

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:05
The Election of 1860
1:53
Divided Democrats
2:45
A Free-Soil Platform
2:56
Momentous Consequences
3:58
Storming the Castle
4:26
The National Game, Three “Outs” and One “Run”
7:12
The Election of 1860 Voting Results
7:53
The Appeal of Abraham Lincoln
8:52
Reputation for Eloquence
9:02
Signal to White Southerners
9:36
Secession and the Fire-eaters
9:44
South Carolina Convention
9:48
Confederate States of America
10:18
Jefferson Davis
10:27
Buchanan's Response and the Crittenden Plan
10:39
Fort Sumter
11:30
The Crittenden Compromise
11:53
Constitutional Amendment
12:10
Extension of Missouri Compromise Line
12:25
Lincoln Inaugurated and In Command
12:49
Refuse the Extension of Missouri Compromise Line
13:05
Union Constituted Insurrection
13:49
The Upper South Chooses Sides
14:01
State Militiamen
14:14
Border States
14:50
Setting Wars Objectives and Strategies
15:41
Defense of Confederacy
15:45
Unconditional Surrender
16:09
George B. McClellan
16:50
Battle Of Shiloh
17:20
The Anaconda Plan
17:43
Blockading the Gulf of Mexico
18:40
Starve the South into Submission
18:48
Seizing the Mississippi River
19:07
The Defensive Strategy of the Confederacy
20:06
Strategy of the South
20:13
General Robert E. Lee
20:21
Problems with Military Generals for the Union
20:28
Confederate Army under “Stonewall” Jackson
21:12
Battle at Antietam Creek
21:50
Joseph Fighting Joe Hooker
22:57
Both Sides Forced Into “Total War”
23:11
The First Legally Binding Draft
24:03
Rich Man's War and a Poor Man's Fight
24:45
Unenforceable Southerners
25:02
The Union and Total War
25:15
The Union's Militia Act of 1862
25:20
German and Irish Immigrants
26:10
15000 Confederate Sympathizers
27:05
Draft Riots of 1863
28:06
Aftermath of Draft Riots
29:16
Riots in New York City
29:52
A Plea for Churches
29:55
Financial Relief
29:58
Medical Services During the War
30:42
The Union Army Medical Bureau
31:27
U.S. Sanitary Commission
31:36
Dorothea Dix
32:06
Women Participated in Military Duties
33:00
Women and the Civil War
33:15
Mobilizing Resources
34:00
Mass Production
34:11
King Cotton
34:55
Rebel Government as a Belligerent Power
35:05
Federal Subsidies for Railroads
35:48
The Homestead Act
36:10
Economic Differences
36:59
Less Coherent Economic Policy
37:03
Legal Tender Act of 1862
37:41
Inflation Increased
38:03
Example 1
38:32
Example 2
40:03
Example 3
42:15
The Civil War, Part 2

43m 47s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:05
The Road to Emancipation
1:50
Struggle Against Slavery
2:44
Contrabands
3:35
First Confiscation Act in 1861
4:28
Wilmot Proviso
5:17
Wilmot Proviso Map
5:30
Contrabands
5:49
Union Lines
5:52
Slavery Began to Disintegrate
6:03
Lincoln Plans to Emancipate
6:34
Second Confiscation
6:38
Initial Draft of Emancipation
7:10
Emancipation Proclamation
8:12
Urged Slaves to Abstain from all Violence
10:13
Freedom to Slaves!
10:25
Abe Lincoln's Last Card Or Rouge-et-Noir
12:31
Vicksburg and Gettysburg
14:09
Vicksburg
14:46
The Battle at Gettysburg
15:30
Davis Supporters
16:39
Gettysburg Address
17:09
Dedication of the Cemetery for the Union War Dead
17:40
New Birth of Freedom
17:48
A War for Union and Freedom
17:59
The Turning Point
20:35
Own Regiments
20:48
The Emancipation Proclamation
21:01
White Resistance to Conscription
21:22
Segregated Military
21:53
Ulysses S. Grant Charge
22:04
Ulysses S. Grant
22:15
Fight a Modern War
23:00
Union and Confederate Soldiers
23:33
Barren Waste
23:52
General Philip H Sheridan
23:57
The Definition of Conventional Warfare
24:08
African American Man Picks Up Skeletons
24:52
The Elections of 1864
25:29
Constitutional Amendment to Abolish Slavery
25:37
National Union Party
25:45
Map of the Election of 1864
26:45
Post-Election
27:18
Potential Invalidity of Emancipation Proclamation
27:30
Legality of Abolishing Slavery
27:53
Sherman's March
28:10
Accelerated the Pace of Emancipation
28:23
The 13th Amendment
28:33
General William Tecumseh Sherman
29:00
Sherman's March Map
29:12
The Aftermath of Sherman's March
30:17
Destruction brought by Sherman
30:20
Wreak Vengeance
30:45
A Manpower Shortage
30:58
Lee's Surrender at Appomattox Court House
31:11
Appomattox Court House
31:32
Cost of Victory
31:48
The Conquest of the South, 1861-1865
32:35
Casualties and Loss
33:10
The Lost of the South
33:32
Destroyed Cities
33:46
The Thirteenth Amendment Passed
34:14
Jurisdiction
35:07
Abolish Slavery
35:12
Example 1
36:19
Example 2
38:36
Example 3
41:33
VI. Period 6: 1865-1898
Reconstruction, Part 1

49m 57s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:06
Reconstruction
1:32
Readmitting the Southern States
2:15
Bind Up the Nation's Wounds
4:27
Freedom Beyond Emancipation
5:24
Rebellious States
6:22
Presidential Reconstruction
6:29
Separation of Power
6:59
Ten Percent Plan
7:41
Lenient Policy
8:33
Congressional Reconstruction
9:37
Wade-Davis Bill
10:00
An Oath of Allegiance
10:13
Pocket veto
10:54
Lincoln Was Assassinated
11:34
Ford's Theater
11:45
The Four Co-conspirators
12:19
Andrew Johnson's Reconstruction
13:16
Andrew Johnson
13:25
Appointed Provisional Governors
14:56
Rejoining the Union
15:20
Black Codes and Backlash
15:34
Black Codes
16:10
Refuse to Admit the Southern Delegations
18:31
The Black Codes
19:08
Freedmen's Bureau
20:08
Lyman Trumbull
21:34
Securing the Civil Rights of the Freedmen
22:26
What Type of Labor System
22:52
Battles in the Sea Islands
22:56
True Freedom
23:52
Gang-Labor System
25:08
White Man's Government
25:33
White Supremacy
26:55
Turned to Washington
27:06
Congress Versus the President
27:17
Freedmen's Bureau Bill
27:24
Trumbull's Civil Rights Bill
27:39
14th Amendment to the Constitution
29:12
Fourteenth Amendment
29:24
All Persons Born or Naturalized in the United States
29:34
The Equal Protection of the Laws
29:53
Civil Rights Act
31:38
Johnson's Response
32:00
The Fourteenth Amendment Became a Campaign Issue
32:45
Waving the Bloody Shirt
32:57
The Civil Rights of Ex-Slaves
33:54
Radical Republicans
34:07
Party's Abolitionist Strain
34:21
Remaking Southern Society
35:55
Thaddeus Stevens and Charles Sumner
36:52
The Reconstruction Act of 1867
36:54
Five Military Districts
37:12
Prewar Political Class
37:32
The Tenure of Office
37:48
Replace Edwin M. Stanton by General Ulysses S. Grant
38:18
Impeachment of Johnson
38:47
Impeachment
39:03
Tenure of Office Act
39:31
Horatio Seymour
40:31
Impeachment of Johnson, 1867
40:49
Example 1
41:22
Example 2
44:09
Example 3
47:15
Reconstruction, Part 2

50m

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:06
Women's Suffrage Denied
1:24
Women's Suffrage
2:35
National Women's Suffrage Association
3:17
Modern Feminist Movement
3:37
Out in the Cold
3:57
Republican Rule in the South
5:38
Congressional Stipulations
5:57
Scalawags
6:47
Carpetbaggers
7:09
Martial Law in the South
8:36
The Republican Program
9:39
Black Officeholders
9:54
Modernized State Constitutions
10:04
Tax Assessors and Collectors
10:58
Republican Reconstruction
11:20
Public Credit Collapsed
11:26
Education as the Foundation
13:12
New African American Churches
13:31
African Americans Take a Greater Role in Politics
14:16
Greater Role in Politics
14:18
The Assemble will Demand Revenge
15:13
Robert Brown Elliot
15:47
African Americans in Government
16:15
Hiram Revels
16:26
Robert Smalls
16:32
Blanche K. Bruce
16:40
African American Majority
17:11
The Quest of Land
18:00
Overcome Poverty
18:20
Southern Homestead Act of 1866
19:15
Ex-Confederates
19:40
Sharecropping
20:04
Sharecropping
20:32
A Lien on the Crop
21:37
A Pretext for Peonage
21:54
Barrow Plantation
22:55
Ownership of Land after Reconstruction
23:55
Devastating to Southern Agriculture
24:29
Violence in the South: Backlash
25:02
Counterrevolution
25:35
A Threat to White Supremacy
26:33
Nathan Bedford Forrest
27:15
The KKK Act of 1871
28:13
Worse Than Slavery
28:36
One Vote Less
29:51
Democratic Backlash
30:21
Prosecuting the KKK
30:56
The Klan
31:02
Prosecuting Klansmen
31:40
Democrats Overthrew Republicans Government
32:51
The Undoing of Reconstruction
33:04
Redeemers
33:17
Massive Black Barbarism
33:53
The Civil Rights Bill
34:48
The End of Reconstruction
35:08
Selling Their Votes for Money
35:14
Refashioned Themselves as Liberals
35:48
Grant Turned a Blind Eye
36:45
Grant Wins and Scandals Ensue
37:11
Whiskey Ring
37:54
White House
38:07
Credit Mobiler
38:49
Depression
39:20
The Bankruptcy of the Northern Pacific Railway
39:28
Freedman's Savings and Trust Company
40:05
Lost its Moral Claim on the Country
40:39
Grantism
41:13
Scandal-Ridden Administration
41:18
Triumphant Foreign Tour
41:35
The Political Crisis of 1877
41:46
Home Rule
42:02
Disputed Votes to Hayes
42:45
Hayes was Inaugurated
43:03
The End of Reconstruction
43:23
Compromise of 1877
43:28
3 Rights-Defining Amendments
44:00
Example 1
45:01
Example 2
46:12
Example 3
47:52
The American West

58m 16s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:05
The U.S. Frontier and Industrialism
2:47
Post Civil War Republican Vision
4:05
Laissez-Faire Approach
5:04
Spread of American Industrialism Movement
6:50
The Great Plains and The West
7:05
Semiarid Great Plains
7:13
Arid West
7:20
Small Pox and Measles
7:43
Map of the U.S.
8:13
Native American Tribes and Lands Ceded
9:26
The Sioux
10:48
Antelope and Buffalo
11:03
Pawnees, Mandans and Euro-Americans
11:34
Westward Migration Into “Indian Country”
11:42
American Fever
12:24
Exodusters and Kansas
13:00
Union Pacific and Central Pacific
13:29
Telegraph Lines
13:56
Farming and Railroads in the West
14:05
Cattle Raising
14:06
New Technologies
15:22
Settlement of the Great Plains
16:37
The Transcontinental Railroad
17:03
Promontory Point, UT
17:18
Gold Rush in 1849
17:36
The Increase of Non-Native American Population
18:14
Hit the Trails
18:26
Chinese
18:48
Gold Rush and Cattle Ranching
19:18
Silver Mining and Other Industries
20:15
Open-Range Ranching
21:05
Long Drive
21:56
Cowboys and Buffalo Bill's Wild West
22:57
Buffalo Bill
23:22
The Wild West Show
23:56
Little Annie Oakley
24:40
The Wild West Show
25:59
Homesteaders and Homestead Act of 1862
27:24
Homestead Act of 1862
27:40
The U.S. Geological Survey
29:08
Department of the Interior
29:14
Farming and the Grange
29:23
Meat Packing Industry
29:41
National Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry
31:07
Oliver H. Kelley
31:20
Montgomery Ward
31:41
Oliver Kelley, Founder of the Grange
32:13
Native Americans and the West
32:36
A Peace Commission in 1867
32:58
Bureau of Indian Affairs
33:30
Reservations
34:03
SW Dakota Territory
35:05
Apaches, Navajos and Utes
35:22
Fort Laramie Treaty
35:45
Chief Joseph of the Nez Perce
36:16
Battle of Little Big Horn
37:45
The Nez Perce
37:48
George Custer
38:37
Little Big Horn
38:54
Assimilation Polices
39:49
Education and Religious Indoctrination of American Indians
40:13
The Carlisle Boarding School
40:33
Helen Hunt Jackson
41:26
A Century of Dishonor
41:31
Helen Hunt Jackson and Dawes Severalty Act
42:03
Private Property and Severalty
42:17
The Dawes Act
43:07
Indian Education
43:37
The Ghost Dance
44:11
Native American Civilization
44:26
Wovoka
44:32
Wounded Knee, 1890
45:21
The Long War of Suppression of the Plains Indians
46:07
The End of Indian Wars
46:22
Railroad Workers, Miners and Cowboys
46:56
The Diverse West and California
47:12
The High Sierras
47:31
Asian Migration
47:48
The Six Companies
47:55
Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882
48:10
Chinese Exclusion Act
48:43
Japanese Immigrants
49:10
Biased Anti-Chinese Imagery
49:34
Golden California
50:25
Mark Twain and Bret Harte
50:50
Southern Pacific Railroad
51:12
John Muir
51:26
Sierra Club
51:45
Public Parks Established
52:03
Rampant Overdevelopment
52:32
Yosemite Valley
52:38
Yellowstone Valley
52:47
Example 1
53:20
Example 2
55:48
The Rise of the Industrial U.S.

50m 27s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:06
The Age of Steel
2:37
The Bessemer Process
3:54
Andrew Carnegie
4:36
U.S. Steel Corporation
5:04
Andrew Carnegie
5:16
Rags to Riches
5:31
Vertical Integration
6:22
Carnegie Steel
6:53
Two Carnegeian Influential Ideologies
7:38
Social Darwinism
8:18
William Graham Sumner
10:37
Gospel of Wealth
11:07
Philanthropy
11:30
The Railroad Business
12:26
Increase of Railroad Construction
12:58
John Murray Forbes, Cornelius Vanderbilt and James Hill
13:52
Investment Banks
14:12
Map of Railroad Development
14:44
Corporate Consolidation
15:44
Scarcity of Jobs and Money
16:24
The Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890
17:53
Corporate Consolidation
18:38
Corporations
18:54
Corporation
19:03
Limited Liability
19:39
Dominated by a Few Individuals
20:36
Big Four
21:11
Cornelius Vanderbilt
21:40
Robber Baron
22:08
Horatio Alger
23:47
Synonym for Enormous Wealth and Excessive Corporate
24:42
“Modern Colossus of Roads” by Joseph Keppler in Puck in 1879
24:56
The Great Strike of 1877
25:28
Railroad Mogul
25:34
The Great Strike of 1877
25:47
Fall of Railroad Building
27:25
Manufacturing Output Increased
28:10
John D. Rockefeller
28:35
Black Gold
28:43
Horizontal Integration
29:36
Cut-Throat Competition
29:49
Vertical and Horizontal Integration
30:29
Gustavus Swift and Philip Armour's Meatpacking
31:45
Dominated Meatpacking
31:56
Refrigerator Cars
32:12
Other Businesses
32:31
Tobacco, Farm Machinery, Sewing Machine and Cereals
32:35
Cartels
32:44
Trusts
32:53
Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890
33:50
The Basic Federal Antimonopoly Law
34:04
Congress Government Intervention in the Free Economy
34:43
United States v. E.C. Knight
35:52
Standard Oil Company v. United States
36:19
Laissez-Faire, and the Gilded Age
37:48
Laissez-Faire Approach
38:14
Industrial Giant
38:49
The Gilded Age: A Tale of Today
38:58
Democratic Vistas
39:43
Chromo Civilization
39:50
The Gilded Age
39:58
Glittery
40:09
Crass Corruption
40:27
Robber Barons: History Repeats Itself
41:26
Robber Barons
42:31
Example 1
43:13
Example 2
45:29
Example 3
46:53
Working People and the Labor Movement in the Gilded Age

38m 41s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:07
The World of Work
2:14
Farm Folk and Artisans
2:37
White-Collar Jobs
3:03
Negative Aspects of Urban Life
4:19
Outside Labor For Industries
5:13
Types of Jobs
6:53
Working Trends
8:10
Women Working More for Wages
8:24
Race, Ethnicity and Gender
9:04
Mechanized Jobs
9:43
Collective Bargaining
10:00
Immigration Affects the Working World
10:53
Huge Migration from the old World
11:04
Austrian, Hungarians and other Slavic People
11:20
The Labor Movement
12:09
The Knights of Labor
12:22
Cooperative Commonwealth
13:30
Social Reforms
13:55
Collective Bargaining and Closed Shops
14:02
Terence Powderly
14:16
Closed Shops
15:15
Open to all who Toiled
15:47
The Woman's Bureau of the Knights
15:55
The Knights Boycotted Against Gould
16:15
Boycott Against Unfair Employers
16:34
Jay Gould's Southwestern Railway System
16:39
Disorganized Strike
17:20
Haymarket Square Incident
17:38
Blamed on Anarchists
16:20
An Antiunion Hysteria
18:52
Yellow-Dog Contracts
19:30
The Knights of Labor
20:21
The AFL
20:28
American Federation of Labor
20:35
National Trade Unions
21:26
Bread and Butter Issues
21:39
Samuel Gompers
22:15
Samuel Gompers, Unions and Modern Strikes
22:53
Homestead Strike
24:21
Henry Frick
24:41
Put an End to Trade Unions in the Steel Industry
25:45
Pullman Strike
26:13
President Cleveland
26:57
Secondary Labor Boycott
27:16
Contempt of Court
28:24
In re Debs in 1895
28:50
The use of Injunctions against Strikes
29:04
Socialism and the American Socialist Party
29:15
The IWW
30:07
The Wobblies
30:13
Marxist Class Struggle
30:19
General Strike
30:27
Syndicalism
30:33
Influence of Socialism and Debs
31:06
Social Darwinists
31:28
Eugene Debs
32:02
Labor Unions
32:19
Example 1
33:02
Example 2
35:40
Example 3
37:09
Immigration, Urban, Culture and Politics

48m 51s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:07
Ward Politics and Political Bosses
0:56
Urban Political Machines
1:40
Tammany Hall in New York
1:56
Grassroots Constituency
3:10
Boss Tweed
4:30
The Political Machine and Corruption
5:34
George Plunkitt
7:13
Regular System
7:21
Honest Graft
7:43
Social Changes
10:54
Class Society
11:00
Increase in Suburbanization
11:25
American Woman's Home Journal
12:19
A Clash of Values
12:51
The Victorian Ideal of Domesticity
13:09
Clash of Victorian Ideas
13:59
Comstock Law
14:35
Religion and Secularism in the City
15:26
Orthodox Judaism
16:15
Catholic Church
17:25
Protestant Churches
18:04
Working-Class Culture and Journalism
19:10
Working-Class Culture
19:28
Joseph Pulitzer
20:05
Heart's New York Journal
20:14
The Higher Culture
21:58
The Corcoran Gallery of Art
22:12
Symphony Orchestras
22:53
Increase in Public Libraries
23:08
The Gilded Age
24:46
Ellis Island and Angel Island
25:31
Ellis Island
26:15
Angel Island
27:02
Paper Sons and Paper Daughters
28:00
The Immigrant Experience
28:36
“Old” and “New” Immigrants
31:12
Immigrant Challenges and Opportunities
32:06
Fraternal Organizations
32:34
Labor Force in Factories
35:25
Backlash Against Immigrants
35:57
The “Land of Milk and Honey”
37:18
Old Immigrants
38:05
Push and Pull
38:19
Immigration Cartoons
38:25
Urban Life: Technology Improves Life
39:49
New Forms of Transportation
40:25
Suburbs
40:45
Public-Works Programs
40:50
Skyscrapers and Subways
41:03
Frederick Law Olmsted's Central Park
41:18
Designed in 1860s
42:14
Inspired Other Parks
42:18
Urban Problems
42:29
Tenements
42:33
Poor Conditions
42:45
Example 1
43:32
Example 2
44:42
Example 3
45:57
The New South and The Farmers Mobilize

45m 21s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:07
Frontier Thesis
3:07
Jackson Turner
3:48
The Significance of the Frontier in American History
4:25
The Decline of the Dominance of Rural America
6:17
A “New South”
7:19
Economic Growth in the South
7:34
Henry Grady
8:31
Tax Exemptions
8:43
The “New South”
9:10
Poverty in the South
10:02
Mostly Agricultural
10:06
Lacked Technological Skills
10:17
Cycle of Poverty
10:46
George Washington Carver
11:09
Class, Race and Politics in the New South
11:50
Inequality
12:14
Redeemers
12:32
Gerrymandering
13:10
Readjusters
13:24
The Colored Farmers' Alliance
15:04
Discrimination and Jim Crow
15:21
White Man's Party and the Solid South
15:57
Problems at the Polls
16:17
Court Cases and Discrimination
18:09
Civil Rights Cases of 1883
18:44
Plessy v. Ferguson
19:11
Williams v. Mississippi
21:42
Civil Rights Activists Fight Back
22:22
Boycotts of Streetcars
22:48
Ida Wells-Barnett's Anti-Lynching Campaign
23:03
Booker T. Washington and W.E.B Du Bois
24:33
Farmers Face Problems
25:11
Grange Movement
25:41
The Farmers' Alliances
26:14
The National Alliance
26:48
The Populist Movement
27:44
A Catalyst for Political Crisis
28:25
A Class Ideology
29:13
Omaha Convention
29:44
The Texas Alliance's Subtreasury Plan
30:03
Women Populists
30:37
Populist Movement
30:48
Raise Less Corn and More Hell
30:56
Election of 1862 Map
31:18
The Texas Alliance's Subtreasury System
32:09
Public Warehouse
32:26
Subtreasury
32:40
Rejected by the Democrats
33:05
Railroad Regulations
33:23
Munn v. Illinois
33:57
For the Common Good
34:22
Richard B. Olney and Roscoe Conkling
34:46
Replaced by Judges with Pro-Business Records
34:58
The Wabash Case
35:08
Infringed on the Exclusive power of Congress
35:27
Only the Federal Government Could Regulate Railroads
36:21
The Interstate Commerce Act of 1887
36:32
The Interstate Commerce Act of 1886
36:39
ICC
36:41
Harrison, Cleveland and McKinley
38:12
Ineffective for the First 20 Years
38:23
Example 1
38:44
Example 2
40:51
Example 3
43:06
Politics of the Gilded Age

48m 1s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:06
Campaign Strategy of “Do-Little” Government
2:46
Close Elections
3:30
Campaigning
4:30
Senator Roscoe Conkling
5:53
Waving the Bloody Shirt
6:40
Big City Political Machines
6:58
Presidential Politics
7:24
Rutherford B. Hayes
7:28
James Garfield
8:31
The Great Presidential Puzzle
9:58
Roscoe Conkling
10:01
James A. Garfield
10:27
Presidential Politics
10:42
Chester A. Arthur
10:46
Pendleton Act
11:08
Grover Cleveland
11:59
Grover the Good
12:10
Another President Who Had a Rise in the World
13:11
The Toe-Path to the White House
13:16
New York Customs House
13:19
The Politics of the Status Quo
13:53
The Pendleton Act
14:11
Civil Service Commission
14:16
Excise Tax and tariff
14:47
Cultural Politics and the People
15:29
Politics Became a Form of Entertainment
15:51
Party Loyalty
15:54
Ethnocultural Issues
16:25
Republican Factions
16:47
Stalwarts
17:18
Roscoe Conkling's Faction
17:24
Half-breeds
17:41
James G Blaine
17:47
Blaine Covered in Scandals
18:14
Mugwumps
20:14
Mugwumps
20:27
Fence-Sitters
21:11
The Adoption of the Secret Ballot
21:40
Images of Mugwumps
21:54
Grover Cleveland
23:18
First Democrat
23:23
Treasury Crisis
23:50
The Money Question
24:29
Sound-Money
24:38
An Era of Chronic Deflation
25:02
Bland-Allison Act of 1878
25:14
Coxey's Army
25:46
Jacob Coxey
25:48
The Creation of Government Jobs
26:33
The Issus of Government Bonds
26:53
Assist the Unemployed
26:59
Women and Politics
27:49
National American Woman Suffrage Association
28:34
State Campaigns
29:06
Separate Spheres
29:38
Women and Temperance
30:31
Woman's Christian Temperance Union
30:34
Frances Willard
31:00
Carry Nation
32:01
Prohibition Supporters
32:39
Election of 1896
33:21
Wilson-Gorman Tariff of 1894
34:20
J.P. Morgan
34:35
William Jennings Bryan
35:07
Bryan's “Cross of Gold” Speech
35:41
The Democratic Silver Campaign
36:07
The Paralyzing Equilibrium
37:22
“Cross of Gold” Speech
37:50
Laboring Interests
38:00
The Toilers
38:02
Election of 1892 and 1896
38:43
McKinley's Consolidation
39:12
Republican Dominance in National Politics
39:43
Example 1
40:14
Example 2
42:55
Example 3
45:12
VII. Period 7: 1890 - 1945
Progressive Era, Part 1

45m 1s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:05
Progressivism
1:23
Social Justice
2:27
Industrialization or Urbanization
3:32
Corrupt Government Officials
4:02
Urban Middle Class
4:29
Jane Addams and Hull House
4:48
Jane Addams
4:58
Hull House
5:06
A New Sense of Urgency
5:25
Alleviate Social Problems
5:34
Settlement Movement
5:51
Progressive Ideas
6:33
William James
7:19
Walter Rauschenbusch
8:05
Muckrakers
8:36
Muckrakers
9:53
McClure's and Collier's
10:07
New Kind of Reform
10:19
Progress and Poverty
10:48
Effects of Laissez-Faire Economics
11:04
Inequalities Wealth
11:13
Looking Backward
11:28
A Cooperative Society
11:37
Greater Government Regulation
11:47
How the Other Half Lives
12:01
Jacob A. Riis
12:04
A Danish Immigrant
12:06
Immigrant Ghettoes
12:23
Women Progressives
13:17
Humanitarian Work
13:22
Josephine Shaw Lowell
13:28
National Consumers' League
14:10
A Wave for Protective Laws
15:07
Louis D. Brandeis
15:30
The People's Attorney
15:38
Brandeis Brief
16:17
Supreme Court Justice
17:37
Other Female Reformers
17:47
Margaret Sanger
17:52
American Birth Control League
18:23
National Association of Colored Women
18:42
National Women's Trade Union League
18:57
Suffrage Movement
19:22
The National Woman's Party
19:56
Woman Suffrage Association
20:54
The 19th Amendment
21:17
Images of Suffrage Movement
21:45
Urban Liberalism
22:02
The Needs of the Poor
22:08
Voluntarism
23:02
The Industrial Hazards and Accidents
23:35
Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire
23:49
New York State Factory Commission
26:31
Tammany
27:10
Cultural Pluralism Embattled
27:32
Progressive Goal
28:35
The Anti-Saloon League
29:01
Populist Ideas Implemented Into Politics
30:05
The Direct Primary
31:12
Initiative
31:30
Referendum
31:35
Recall
31:50
From the State to the Federal Level
32:09
Progressive Governors
32:43
Robert La Follette
32:55
Hiram Johnson
33:17
Theodore Roosevelt
33:29
Woodrow Wilson
33:39
Progressivism and National Politics
33:54
Teddy Roosevelt
35:08
Dakota Territory
35:22
Teddy Roosevelt
35:38
Civil Service Commission
35:47
Secretary of the Navy
35:50
Rough Riders
36:15
Trust Buster
36:37
Square Deal
36:38
Example 1
36:53
Example 2
40:20
Example 3
43:07
Progressive Era, Part 2

38m 58s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:04
TR's Square Deal, 1901-1909
1:04
Taking Advantage of Small Business
1:21
Trustbusting and Regulating
1:51
Coal Strike in 1902
2:34
Regulating the Railroads
3:16
Interstate Commerce Commission
3:20
Elkins Act in 1903
4:03
Hepburn Act in 1904
4:17
Regulating Food Industry
4:45
The Jungle
5:02
The Meat Inspection Act in 1906
7:26
The Pure Food and Drug Act and FDA
7:38
Slaughterhouse
8:11
The “Trust Buster”?
8:42
Bad Trusts
9:47
Good Trusts
9:54
Other Regulations
11:04
Sherman Antitrust Act
11:32
The Bureau of Corporations
12:02
Northern Securities Company
12:14
Standard Oil, American Tobacco and DuPont
12:41
Teddy's gentlemen's Agreement
13:06
Trans-Missouri Decision
13:19
Gentlemen's Agreement
14:36
The Infant Hercules and the Standard Oil Serpents
14:52
Environmental Regulations
15:02
Environmentalist or Conservationist
15:14
National Parks
15:22
Rational Use of Gifford Pinchot
15:51
National Reclamation Act
16:31
Republican Progressives Fracture
16:53
William Howard Taft
17:19
Payne-Aldrich Act
17:46
Whistle-Blowing on a Conspiracy
18:23
Joseph Cannon
18:42
Congress's Leading Conservative
19:01
Dictator
19:06
The Progressive Faction
19:14
Dissident Faction
19:29
Progressives or Insurgents
19:31
Standard Oil
19:51
Pursued Monopolies
20:46
Progressive Amendments Under Taft
20:54
16th Amendment
21:16
17th Amendment
21:20
Roosevelt Strikes Back
21:36
New Nationalism
21:38
Child Labor Law
21:53
Strong As a Bull Moose
22:10
Civil Rights Movement Heats Up
22:21
Booker T. Washington
22:38
Atlanta Compromise
23:10
W.E.B. Du Bois
23:41
The Soul of Black Folk
24:06
Niagara Movement
24:58
William Monroe Trotter
25:03
Niagara Falls
25:15
Comprehensive Education
25:30
The NAACP
25:45
The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
25:53
Challenge Unfair Laws
26:09
The Urban League
26:31
Providing Welfare to Black Migrants
26:45
A Network Created
27:06
Woodrow Wilson's “New Freedom”
27:25
A Middle Way that Bears the Powers Of Government
27:42
Place Strict Government Controls on Corporation
28:13
New Freedom
28:20
Triple Wall of Privilege
28:26
The Underwood Tariff Act of 1913
28:38
Federal Reserve Act of 1913
29:07
The Federal Trade Commission
29:34
The Clayton Antitrust Act of 1914
30:00
The Federal Farm Loan Act
30:54
A Federal Child Labor Law
31:06
Example 1
31:18
Example 2
33:18
Example 3
36:20
Example 4
37:36
The U.S. Becomes a World Power

56m 1s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:08
The Roots of U.S. Imperialism
2:12
Abandon the Policy of Neutrality
4:00
Upgraded Navy
5:04
The Influences of Sea Power Upon History
5:16
Latin America and Asia
8:38
Economics Interests
8:54
Extractive Economies
9:10
Natural Resources and Raw Material
9:49
GDP Quadrupled and Businesses
10:09
Imperialist Nations
11:09
The Economy of Expansion
11:40
The Purchase of Alaska
13:19
William Seward
13:45
Natural Resources
14:19
U.S. In Asia and in the Pacific
15:05
Commodore Matthew Perry
15:14
Hawaiian Islands
16:46
Midway Islands
16:56
Pearl Harbor
17:25
Perry's Squadron in Japan
17:31
U.S. Possessions in the Pacific
17:54
The U.S. Annexes Hawaii
19:05
Sugar Plantations
19:32
Voting Rights
19:39
McKinley Tariff
20:14
An official U.S. Territory
21:41
William McKinley and Imperialist Influences
22:55
Assistant Secretary of the Navy
24:34
Henry Cabot Lodge
24:45
William Jennings Bryan and Grover Cleveland
25:51
Causes of Spanish-American War
26:10
Spain as a Declining Imperial Power
26:32
Cuban Independence Movement
27:42
Guerilla Tactics
28:00
Yellow Journalism
28:52
Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst
29:11
Yellow Press
29:18
The Maine
30:47
Hearst and Pulitzer
31:03
Cartoon of Hearst and Pulitzer
31:04
You Furnish the Pictures, and I'll furnish the war
31:49
Jingoism
32:08
Maine Blows Up
32:32
War with Spain
33:19
Remember the Maine
33:20
The Teller Amendment
33:36
Enlisted in the Army
34:15
The Duty of the Hour
34:36
Spanish-American Cuban War
35:54
Two Theaters of War
37:18
Commodore Dewey
37:20
The Rough Riders
37:46
Deaths in the War
38:17
Battle of San Juan Hill
38:38
Treaty of Paris and Aftermath
38:51
The U.S. bought Philippines
39:04
An Imperial Power
40:18
Splendid Little War
40:48
U.S. Foreign Policy
41:17
Anti-Imperialist concerns
41:39
Filipinos Rebel Against U.S. Rule
43:36
Emilio Aguinaldo
43:58
An Insurrection Against U.S. Rule
44:26
Death in the Fighting
44:52
U.S. Policy in Puerto Rico and Cuba
45:32
Puerto Rico
45:40
The Foraker Act
45:51
Insular Cases
46:58
The Jones-Shafroth Act
47:29
The Platt Amendment
47:56
The Platt Amendment
48:07
Lease Naval Stations to U.S.
48:36
Cuban Constitution
49:14
Example 1
50:01
Example 2
51:18
Example 3
53:21
U.S. Foreign Policy Under Theodore Roosevelt, William H. Taft, and Woodrow Wilson

47m 55s

Intro
0:00
Overview
1:06
Roosevelt's “Big Stick” Policy
2:21
Strong Military Action
4:35
Civilize or Uplift Weaker Nations
5:00
Anglo-American Friendship
5:42
Speak Softly and Carry a Big Stick
6:45
The U.S. Builds the Panama Canal
7:57
Ferdinand de Lesseps
8:08
Panama Route
9:16
Declared its Independence
9:25
Canal Zone
9:38
The Panama Canal
9:52
Commanding Commercial and Strategic Position
10:12
Control Malaria
10:41
Combat Several Tropical Diseases
11:04
Panama Canal
11:24
Roosevelt Corollary
11:47
Age of Economic Imperialism
12:11
Police Power
13:25
Latin Americans' Reactions
14:34
Aggressive Form with Mr. Roosevelt
15:27
Sovereignty and Liberty of Nicaraguans
15:33
U.S. Pursues Interests in China
16:10
Spheres of Influence
17:34
Secretary of State John Hay
18:35
Spheres of Influence
19:05
Chinese Response to Imperialism
20:24
The Boxer Rebellion
20:42
Western Devils
21:28
U.S. and Japanese Troops
21:55
Hay Reaffirms the Open Door Policy
22:26
Support Chinese Students
22:37
A Trade Relationship
22:57
Scholarships for Chinese Students
23:02
Tensions Between U.S. and Japan Rise
23:36
The Spheres of Influence in China
23:44
A Peace Treaty
24:17
The Root-Takahira Agreement of 1900
25:02
Anti-Asian Backlash in the U.S.
25:21
Prejudice Against Asian-Americans
26:09
Gentlemen's Agreement
26:58
Taft's Dollar Diplomacy
27:18
Increase U.S. Investments in Businesses
27:51
The Rationale
28:36
Chinese Revolution
29:17
Woodrow Wilson Shifts the Foreign Policy
29:52
Anti-Imperialist William Jennings Bryan
30:57
Moral Diplomacy
31:17
Agreement with Haiti
32:15
Dominican Republic and Mexico
32:35
U.S. and Mexican Revolution
32:43
Caudillos and Coup d'etats
33:46
Counsel Mexico for its Own Good
34:47
Venustiano Carranza
35:08
U.S. “Punitive Expedition”
35:50
Francisco Poncho Villa and Emiliano Zapata
35:58
Punitive Expedition
37:10
Tension Were Brewing in Europe
37:55
Triple Alliance and Dual Alliance
38:24
Triple Entente
38:44
The Apostle of Peace
39:50
Triple Alliance and Triple Entente
40:13
International Efforts for Peace
40:29
Hague Peace Conference of 1899
40:31
Erosion of the Nation's Sovereignty
40:47
Cooling Off Treaties
40:59
Example 1
41:32
Example 2
43:33
Example 3
46:03
The Great War

45m 12s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:06
Causes of the Great War
0:47
A Brutal War Between European Nations
2:32
Franco-Prussian War
3:02
Nationalism
3:28
Europe Map, 1914
4:40
Assassination Hurtles Europe Toward WW1
6:11
Archduke Francis Ferdinand
6:24
Young Bosnia
7:57
Kaiser William II
8:41
Fighting Breaks Out
8:56
Ultimatum
9:07
Austria-Hungary Declares War
9:22
Pan-Slavism
9:26
Trench Warfare and Deadly Weapons
10:28
No Man's Land
11:32
War of Attrition
11:47
Western Front
12:09
Modern Weapons
12:47
Wilson Urges For Neutrality
13:09
U.S. Exceptionalism
13:29
Isolationists, Interventionists and the Internationalists
15:10
Key Events in 1915 and 1916
15:57
No Longer Attack Passenger Ships Without Warning
16:17
German Invasion of Neutral Belgium
16:29
A Slim Margin
17:03
Early Anti-War Sentiments
17:30
Domestic Divisions
17:40
Cancellation of Irish Home Rule
17:48
Robert La Follette of Wisconsin and George Norris of NE
18:08
Andrew Carnegie and Henry Ford
18:59
Pro-War Propaganda
19:08
Wilson Abandons Neutrality
20:43
Blockade Against Britain
20:48
Lusitania
21:13
Sussex
22:30
The National Defense Act
22:48
The Naval Construction Act
22:52
Sinking of Lusitania
23:00
The Zimmermann Note
23:27
Germans Proposed an Alliance with Mexico
23:39
Intercepted Telegram
23:58
Unrestricted Submarine Warfare
24:07
The Home Front
24:21
The Lives of Ordinary Americans
24:58
Conscription
25:10
Doughboys
25:46
Slackers
25:53
We Want You!
26:03
Wartime Economy
27:24
War Industries Board
28:15
Bernard Baruch
28:26
The Food Administration
28:47
The Committee on Public Information
29:18
George Creel Directed the CPI
30:02
More Propaganda Posters and Songs
31:12
Opposition and Hope For Minorities
33:57
Conscientious Objectors
34:19
Women's Peace Party
34:39
The Women's International League for Peace and Freedom
34:46
Segregated Regiments
35:25
Crackdown on Dissent
37:28
Espionage Act
38:18
The Sedition Act
38:46
Example 1
39:39
Example 2
40:39
Example 3
42:50
The End of the Great War, Its Effect, and The Interwar Period

40m 27s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:08
The War Changes U.S. Society
1:02
More Opportunities for Women
2:15
American Women's Hospital Service
2:50
The Great Migration
4:07
Race Riots
4:19
Barrios
4:44
Protesters Finally Reach Their Goal
4:52
Great Migration
5:32
Wilson , War and Peace
6:46
Entering the War
6:50
Convoying
8:21
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
9:07
The End of the War
9:48
Eddie Rickenbacker
9:55
Compiegne, France
10:47
Casualties
11:10
Armistice
11:23
“Peace Without Victory”
11:59
The Morality of the Allied
12:11
Fourteen Points
12:47
League of Nations
13:55
Paris Peace Conference
14:26
Paris Peace Conference
14:32
A Peace Settlement that Punished Germany
14:40
War Guilt
14:52
The League of Nations as Part of the Treaty
16:02
Map, 1918
16:37
Many U.S. Citizens Reject Treaty
17:45
Irreconcilables
17:54
Reservationists
18:27
Article X viewed as Unconstitutional
18:48
The Aftermath of the War
20:04
Isolationism
20:20
Red Scare
20:58
A Creditor Nation
22:32
Schenck v. United States, 1919
22:42
Violation of the Espionage Act
22:58
Justice Wendell Holmes
22:41
Tools for Suppression
24:04
Stamping Out Radicalism
24:29
International Workers of the World
24:39
Eugene Debs
24:58
Emma Goldman
25:16
Margaret Sanger
25:37
Federal Bureau of Investigation
26:04
Red Scare
26:42
USSR
26:47
Palmer Raids
27:02
American Civil Liberties Union
28:04
ACLU: American Civil Liberties Union
28:12
Freedom of Speech and Expression
28:21
On Behalf of the American People
28:42
Sacco and Vanzetti
29:09
Trial for Murder
29:36
Defense Counsel
29:43
The Fairness of the Trial
30:35
Shift From Idealism to Normalcy
31:41
Return to Normalcy
32:11
Suppressed by Federal Troops
32:33
The Supreme Court
32:42
Example 1
33:07
Example 2
35:53
Example 3
37:45
Example 4
38:49
The Interwar Period

47m 7s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:05
Conservative Presidents
2:45
Harding's Presidency
2:50
Herbert Hoover
3:37
Republican-Dominated FTC
4:22
Calvin Coolidge
4:41
A Strong Pro-Business Stance
4:52
New Tax Cut
5:14
Interior Albert Fall
5:52
Mixed Economic Development
6:45
Postwar Recession
6:53
A Consumer Culture
8:25
Overproduction
9:08
Inflation
9:28
Consumer Culture
9:41
A New Pop Culture
10:23
Radios
10:28
Duke Ellington
11:00
New Consumer Goods
11:58
New Journalism
12:18
Images of the 1920s
12:40
The Jazz Age and “Modern” Culture
12:55
African Americans
13:03
Rebel Against Their Elders
13:57
Popular Heroes
14:22
Bath Ruth
14:37
Charles Lindbergh
15:08
First Solo Non-Stop Flight
15:20
New Literature: Stream of Consciousness
15:37
Gertrude Stein
15:59
The Waste Land
16:46
Victorian Era Culture
17:10
Art and Architecture
18:00
Art Deco Style
18:07
Edward Hopper
18:38
George Gershwin
18:51
Automat
19:43
Gender Roles, Family and Education
20:00
Flappers
21:02
Influence of Sigmund Freud
21:42
The New Woman
22:57
The Women's Joint Congressional Committee
23:38
The League of Women Voters
24:03
Women in the 1920s
24:32
Pop Culture
25:10
Leisure Time in Rural and Urban Areas
25:15
The Jazz Singer
25:33
Tin Pan Alley
26:20
Fox Trot and Charleston
26:33
Harlem Renaissance
26:40
A Cultural Identity with African Roots
26:53
NYC's Harlem
27:09
New Negro
27:30
Marcus Garvey and UNIA
28:25
Garvey Advocated Black Separatism
28:57
Four Million Followers
29:18
Negro World
29:27
Mail Fraud
29:50
Prohibition and Crime
30:13
18th Amendment
30:16
Volstead Act
30:46
Lucrative Bootlegging Trade
31:28
The Noble Experiment
31:43
Drys
32:06
Wets
32:10
Bathtub Gin
32:25
Roaring Twenties
32:58
Nativism, Pluralism and Racism
34:02
Mass Media
34:53
National Origins Act
35:43
Birth of a Nation
36:50
Fundamentalism and Modernism
37:40
The Monkey Trial
38:15
The Trial of John T. Scopes
38:42
Example 1
39:39
Example 2
41:58
Example 3
43:39
Example 4
45:07
The Foreign Policy During the Interwar Years, The Great Depression and The First New Deal

34m 4s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:09
Foreign Policy in the 1920s
0:48
A Retreat to Isolationism
1:09
Expansion of New Markets
1:14
United Fruit Company
1:47
The Dawes Plan
2:09
Reparation Payment
2:22
Financial Problems on Both Sides of the Atlantic
2:46
1929 Stock Market Crash
2:57
The Pursuit of Peace
3:42
Kellogg-Briand Pact of 1928
4:22
A Policy of Disarmament
4:38
League of Nations
4:47
The Causes of the Great Depression
4:59
Business Cycle
5:36
Black Thursday
6:35
The Agricultural Sector
7:04
THE GDP Fell
7:22
Weak Farm Economy
7:42
The Unequal Distribution of Wealth
8:26
Herbert Hoover
8:52
The Stock Market Crashed
9:32
Expand Public Works Spending
9:44
Reconstruction Finance Corporation
9:49
Hoover's Policies
10:24
Rugged Individualism
10:35
Hawley Smoot Tariff
11:17
The Revenue Act of 1932
12:11
The Scapegoat for the Depression
12:25
Debt Moratorium
12:58
Tough Times and Hoovervilles
13:08
Election of 1932
14:02
The Three Rs
14:38
A New Form of Liberalism
14:57
Social Welfare
15:24
Anti-Poverty Programs
15:56
The First Hundred Days
16:19
100-Day Long Special Session
18:28
Bank Holiday
18:42
Optimism of a Nation
19:04
Emergency Banking Act
19:40
Homeowners Loan Corporation
19:52
Glass-Steagall Act
20:12
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
20:20
Alphabet Agencies
20:32
Federal Emergency Relief Administration
21:06
Work Relief Over Cash Subsidies
21:22
Inflationary
21:41
International Gold Standard
22:15
The Securities and Exchange Commission
22:26
The Banking Act of 1935
22:38
NIRA and NRA
22:57
National Industrial Recovery Act
23:02
National Recovery Administration
23:08
Government Approved Codes
23:40
Outlawed Child Labor
24:00
Other Programs
24:21
Public Works Administration
24:29
Civilian Conservation Corps
25:33
Tennessee Valley Authority
25:58
TVA
26:25
CCC
26:45
PWA
27:11
Example 1
27:35
Example 2
29:55
Example 3
32:30
The Second New Deal

48m 10s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:05
New Deal Under Attack
1:21
Liberty League
1:49
Schechter v. United States
3:10
Unconstitutional Codes Created by NIRA
3:39
Father Charles Coughlin
4:31
Father Francis Townsend
4:54
Senator Huey Long
5:25
Share Our Wealth Society
5:37
Critiques From the Left
6:14
The New Deal
6:17
Nationalization of Businesses
7:25
United States v. Butler
7:35
The Second New Deal
7:45
Townsend's, Coughlin's and Long's Programs
8:12
Works Progress Administration
8:30
The Labor Movement
9:05
The Promise of the New Deal
9:17
New Deal Murals
9:48
New Deal Programs
10:12
The Second New Deal
10:50
The National Labor Relations Act
10:51
National Labor Relations Board
11:01
Social Security Act
11:15
Categorical Assistance Programs
11:47
W.P.A
12:29
1936 Politics
14:17
Solid South
14:36
Judicial Reorganization Bill
15:32
The Wagner Act and SSA
16:02
New Economic Policy: Deficit Spending
16:40
John Maynard Keynes
16:51
Deficit Spendings
16:55
Purposeful Government Intervention
17:23
Ended the Great Depression
18:01
John Maynard Keynes
18:34
Economist
18:43
The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money
18:46
The Rise of Unions and the CIO
18:53
John L. Lewis
19:25
The Congress of Industrial Organization
19:36
One Union
19:48
Steel Workers Organize
20:15
Strikes
20:32
Collective Bargaining
20:33
Resisted Union Demands
20:35
Effects of the New Deal
21:18
Expansion of the Federal Bureaucracy
21:20
Steel Workers Organizing Committee
21:47
Fair Labor Standards Act
22:25
Effects and Eleanor Roosevelt
23:32
A Recession
23:57
Government Policy
24:05
Eleanor Roosevelt
24:28
Eleanor Roosevelt
25:56
The Postwar Era
26:44
My Day
27:14
Press Conferences for Female Reporters
27:22
Anti-Lynching Campaigns
27:34
The Right to Organize
28:00
Images of Eleanor Roosevelt
28:26
Supporters of New Deal
29:34
Activist Executive Branch
29:44
The First Female Cabinet Member
30:23
Indian Reorganization Act
31:33
Mary McLeod Bethune and Amelia Earhart
32:04
A Member of the Advisory Committee of the NYA
32:14
Lady Lindy
33:00
New Deal Critics
33:21
Unemployment Rate
33:37
The Federal Deficit
33:57
A Critical View
34:57
Discrimination of Minorities
35:09
Okies
35:20
Cesar Chavez
35:39
National Farmworkers Association
36:22
Chinese Exclusion Act
37:06
The Tydings-McDuffie Act
37:18
The Scottsboro Case
37:45
The Dust Bowl
38:50
Severe Drought
38:55
The Grapes of Wrath
39:44
Dust Bowl Map
39:55
Dust Cloud
40:31
Farmer and Family, Dust Bowl
40:44
Example 1
41:03
Example 2
42:51
Example 3
44:36
Example 4
46:29
World War II

55m 16s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:05
Isolationist Foreign Policy of 1930s
1:13
The Washington Conference
1:28
Stimson Doctrine
2:48
Kellogg-Briand Pact
3:39
Good Neighbor Policy
4:10
The Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act
4:43
The Nye Commission
5:10
Investigation of the Munitions Industry
5:16
A Senate Committee
5:32
Non-Interventionist Movement
6:14
Neutrality Act
6:17
Quarantine Speech
6:45
Aggressive Militarism and Fascism Abroad
7:03
Treaty of Versailles
8:17
Lightening War
9:40
Withdrew from the League of Nations
10:38
Rome-Berlin Axis
10:55
Nazi Germany
11:18
Aggressive Militarism and Fascism Abroad
11:39
Ineffectiveness of League of Nations
11:56
Sinking of Panay
13:13
Appeasement
13:32
Before U.S. Enter War
14:49
Charles Beard
15:11
Four Essential Freedoms
16:09
Lend-Lease Act
17:19
The Atlantic Charter
17:33
“Four Freedoms” by Norman Rockwell
18:10
Attack on Pearl Harbor
18:35
The Bombing of Pearl Harbor
18:46
A Date Which Will Live in Infamy
18:53
Organizing for Total War
20:03
War Powers Act
20:10
War Production Board
21:40
Miracle Man
21:02
The Office of War Information
22:11
Wartime Propaganda
22:33
We Can Do It!
23:04
Large Scale Propaganda
23:06
Rosie the Riveter
23:48
Depression-Era Unemployment Disappeared
24:34
Unionized Jobs
25:00
Smith-Connally Labor Act
25:05
National War Labor Board
25:18
John Lewis
25:31
Internal Migration
25:42
Civil Rights Concerns
26:12
Negro Labor Relations League
26:37
Double V Campaign
27:38
A. Philip Randolph
28:20
League of United Latin American Citizens
29:17
Double V and Civil Rights
29:32
Effects on Minorities
29:57
The Status of Chinese Americans
30:00
Japanese immigrants
30:08
Zoot Suit
31:33
Japanese Internment
32:26
Executive order 9066
32:34
Korematsu v. United States
33:34
Ex Parte Endo Case
33:51
A Public Apology
34:34
Map of Relocation Camps
34:47
Manzanar Today
35:21
Instructions Posters
35:49
Major Military Events During WWII
36:09
Major Defeats on U.S. Forces
36:18
Battle of Coral Sea
36:54
Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower
37:37
General Douglas MacArthur
37:30
D-Day Invasion
37:57
Pacific Theatre
38:15
European Theatre
39:25
European Theatre, VE Day
40:39
The End of War in Europe
41:46
Final Solution of the Jewish Question
41:58
A War Refuge Board
43:09
United Nations
43:35
The Holocaust
43:46
Mass Extermination of Jews
43:56
Genocide of 6 Million Jews
44:12
In the Pacific
45:36
Island Hopping
46:12
Navajo Troops
46:29
Heavy Causalities
46:39
The Manhattan Project
47:17
Example 1
47:50
Example 2
49:18
Example 3
51:00
Example 4
52:20
The End of World War II and Cold War America

51m 21s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:06
The End of World War II
1:48
The Big Three Met at the Yalta Conference
1:58
Free and Unfettered Elections
2:40
Iron Curtain
3:15
2 Major Issues: Independence Movement in India
3:49
The Big Three
4:48
The Outcome of Yalta
5:26
Four Administrative Zones
5:37
United Nations Established That Would Have Security Council
5:48
Berlin Was Also Partitioned
6:42
Germany Divided Berlin Partitioned
6:48
FDR Dies and Truman as President
7:14
Franklin D. Roosevelt Couldn't Finish Presidency Term
7:30
Truman Took Over Presidency
7:45
Truman Chose to Use Bomb
7:55
Issued Warning to Surrender or Face Utter and Complete Destruction
8:14
Japanese Would Fight to Death Rather Than Surrender
9:00
Need Quick Way to End the War
9:46
Atomic Bomb
10:12
The Manhattan Project
10:29
Top-Secret Plan
10:35
J. Robert Oppenheimer
10:44
General Leslie Groves
10:55
First Atomic Bomb Successfully Tested
11:05
Other Factors that Influenced Truman
11:17
Potsdam with Stalin
11:22
U.S. Cryptographers
12:02
Why Did U.S. Decide to Flex It's Nuclear Muscle
12:08
The End of the War
13:26
U.S. Dropped Atomic Bomb on Hiroshima but No Japanese Response
13:45
Radiation Poisoning
14:04
Dropped a Second Atomic Bomb on Nagasaki
14:39
Emperor Hirohito Forced to Surrender
14:51
Peace Treaty
15:10
Number of Casualties
15:20
Postwar Devastation
16:00
The Cold War
16:38
What is the Cold War?
16:56
Two Countries Primarily Involved
17:21
Joseph Stalin
17:43
A Security Zone of Friendly Government
17:54
Yalta Conference: Sphere of Influence
18:15
No Move to Hold the Elections
18:43
Cold War in Europe
19:01
Potsdam Conference
19:53
President Harry Truman Decided U.S. Had to Take a Hard Line Against Soviet Expansion
19:59
Truman Took a Stance to Use Tough Methods
21:14
Allies Agreed to Disarm and Dismantle Germany
21:57
Baruch Plan
22:11
Baruch Plan
22:27
Failure of Baruch Plan
22:37
A Frenzied Nuclear Arms Race
22:54
Eastern Bloc Countries
23:18
Map of Eastern Bloc Areas
23:19
Winston Churchill
23:32
The Iron Curtain
23:39
George Kennan and Containment Policy
24:24
One of the First Policies: Containment Policy
24:30
U.S. Increasingly Perceived Soviet Expansion as a Threat
24:42
The Most Influential Proponent
24:54
Communist Guerrillas
25:00
Truman Doctrine
25:30
Large Scale Military and Economic Assistance
25:40
Domino Theory
26:05
Marshall Plan and Containment
26:34
Containment
26:44
Plan to Help Rebuild War-Torn Europe
26:55
Discontentment Encouraged the Communist
27:09
George Marshall and Economic Aid
27:17
Eastern Euros Refused Aid
27:43
Opposition in U.S. Congress
27:50
Motives of Marshall Plan
28:21
map of Czechoslovakia 1918-1992
28:29
Foreign Policy in Mid East
29:16
Zionist Leaders
29:21
Truman Recognized the State
29:51
Gamal Abdel Nasser Nationalizes the Suez
30:04
Arab Nationalism
30:30
Britain, France, Israel Attack Egypt
30:41
Berlin Airlift in 1948
30:52
Attempt to Push Out Allies
31:30
A Program of Economic Reform in West Berlin
31:42
A Symbol of Resistance to Communism
31:52
Containment in Asia
32:45
Civil War in China
32:51
Truman Attempted to Provide Funds
33:14
The People's Republic of China
33:35
Red China
33:56
Fall of China
34:08
Diplomatic Nonentity
34:37
The Korean War
34:55
Korean War, 1950-1953
35:46
The Map
35:47
Republican Challenge of Truman's Conduct of the War
37:26
Truman Fired MacArthur
37:45
An Armistice Was Signed and Korea was Divided
37:56
NATO and Warsaw Pact
38:20
Truman Era
38:29
Government and Consumer Spending
38:42
Civilian Production
38:54
The Office of Price Administration
39:02
Example: Strikes Closed Down Business in Numerous Cities
39:29
Backlash Against Unionism: Truman Ended a Strike by the United Mine Workers
39:39
Taft-Hartley Act
40:03
Taft-Hartley Act
40:08
Vetoed the Bill
40:25
The Secondary Boycott and Union Shop
40:35
Democrats Split
40:46
Henry Wallace
40:55
Strom Thurmond
41:00
Election of 1948
41:09
Domestic Issues During the Truman Era
41:34
The Fair Deal
42:01
New Deal's Liberalism
42:11
Possibility of a Higher standard of Living and Benefits for Americans
42:46
Liberal Consensus
43:09
The National Housing Act of 1949
43:55
What Was Blocked
43:58
Executive Order 9981 Ends Segregation in Military in July of 1948
44:14
Example 1
44:35
Example 2
47:15
Example 3
48:50
VIII. Period 8: 1945-1980
The Red Scare and The Eisenhower Years

49m 4s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:07
The Second Red Scare
1:31
The House of Un-American Activities Committee
2:35
The Movie Industry
3:24
Senator Joseph McCarthy
5:01
Alger Hiss and HUAC
5:51
Alger Hiss
5:52
Whittaker Chambers
6:04
Richard Nixon
6:33
Anti-Communist Hysteria
6:51
Anti-Communist Hysteria and McCarthyism
7:24
Resigned under Pressure
8:29
McCarran Internal Security Act
9:17
Investigate Subversion in the U.S. Army
10:22
Anti-Communism
11:03
The Red Scare
12:33
Protest of HUAC and “Red Channels”
13:24
Ethel and Julius Rosenberg
13:49
Julius
14:09
Electrocution
14:17
Dwight D. Eisenhower
14:55
Modern Republicanism
15:42
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
17:29
The New Look Army
18:59
Social Security
19:32
Termination
19:47
The Highway Act of 1956
20:14
A Broad Liberal Consensus
20:47
Promoted Tourism
21:23
Nuclear Missiles
21:31
The Space Race
22:23
The New Look in Foreign Policy
23:35
A Massive Nuclear Arsenal
23:50
U-2 Spy Plane
25:03
Hungarian Revolt
25:45
Containment the Third World
25:59
SEATO
26:19
A Coup of Arbenz
27:38
Proxy Wars
28:15
Domino Theory
28:48
Decolonization of the Third World
28:52
Containment in the Post-Colonial World
30:06
The Containment Policy
30:17
Failed to Recognize Indigenous or Nationalist Movements
30:31
Dictatorships or Repressive Right-Wing Regimes
31:41
U.S. Global Defense Treaties in Cold War
32:23
SEATO and The Role of the CIA
33:07
South Asia Treaty Organization
33:20
Central Intelligence Agency
33:20
Lebanon
33:59
Containment Policy
34:10
Overthrow Iran's Premier
34:28
Guatemala
34:31
Geneva Accords
34:44
Domino Theory
35:07
Military Industrial Complex
35:30
Eisenhower's Farewell Address
35:46
Military Industrial Complex
35:46
Military Industrial Map
36:51
Spending Graph
37:31
Example 1
37:59
Example 2
40:44
Example 3
43:25
Example 4
46:00
Postwar Prosperity and The 'Other' America

51m 55s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:09
Economic Realities
2:08
Huge Economic Growth
2:15
Postwar Boom
2:53
Defense Spending and Domestic Programs
3:10
Acceptance of Collective Bargaining
3:23
Rise in Gross Domestic Product
3:52
The Affluent Society
4:01
Or the “Other” America
5:14
U.S. Affluence
5:22
John Kenneth Galbraith
5:37
The Other America
6:16
Michael Harrington
6:51
Bretton Woods System
7:06
Third World Countries
7:19
The World Bank
8:08
The International Monetary Fund
9:10
Strongest Currency
9:45
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
10:00
Fixed Exchange Rates
10:17
Economic Trends in the 1950s
10:54
Consolidation of Corporations Continued
10:59
Rise in Consumerism
11:43
General Electric
12:24
Suburban Living
14:01
Levittowns
14:14
Henry J. Kaiser
15:09
The Federal Housing Administration
15:18
Veterans Administration
15:22
Levittowns and Tract Housing
16:13
Negative Effects of Suburbanization
16:34
The Downside of Suburbanization
16:52
Restrictive Covenants
18:03
Shelley v. Kramer
18:34
Changing Demographics
18:52
Baby Boom! “Gotta Make Up for Lost Time”
19:33
Highway Expansion
20:27
National Interstate and Defense Highways Act
20:33
Mass Transit Systems
20:39
City “Life Belts” and Car Culture
21:23
The Emerging Civil Rights Movement
21:53
Civil Rights Challenges
23:36
The NAACP
23:47
Thurgood Marshall
24:06
Linda Brown
24:23
Brown v. Board of Education, 1954
25:54
Plessy case
25:20
Racial Segregation in Schools and other Public Facilities
26:24
Violates the 14th Amendment
26:36
“Massive Resistance” Against the Case
27:33
A Southern Manifesto
28:08
KKK
28:41
Governor Orval Faubus of AR
28:47
Southern Universities
29:18
Segregationists and the Little Rock Nine
29:35
Nonviolent Protest and Civil Disobedience
30:31
Rosa Parks
30:38
A Local Segregation Ordinance
30:53
A Boycott of Montgomery's Bus System
31:16
Social Critics: The Beats
32:40
Rejected Conventional Society
33:10
Jack Kerouac and Allen Ginsberg
33:40
The Springboard for the Counterculture Movement
33:49
Be-Bop Jazz
34:03
Improvisational
34:14
Bebop Musicians
35:06
Other Culture Dissenters
35:19
Alienation from Mainstream Society
35:22
Abstract Expressionism
35:30
Jackson Pollock
35:41
Pop Art
35:53
Aspects of Mass Media
36:05
Mundane Cultural Objects
36:10
Andy Warhol
36:14
TV Culture and Rock and Roll
36:33
Television Sets
36:39
Rock and Roll
37:09
1950s: Conformity or Rebellion?
38:53
Women's Issues in the 1950s
40:14
Feminine Mystique
40:41
Motherhood
41:16
Glass Ceiling
42:04
The Feminine Mystique
42:24
Other Policies and Demographic Changes
43:05
Operation Wetback
43:09
Puerto Ricans
43:36
Second Migration
44:04
Immigration and Nationality Act
44:28
The Second Migration, 1940-1970
44:52
Other Demographic Changes
45:15
Inner Cities Declined
45:25
Suburban Affluence and the “Other America”
45:30
Example 1
45:49
Example 2
46:42
Example 3
48:07
Example 4
50:33
1960s, The Kennedy Years and The Liberal Consensus

55m 17s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:07
John F. Kennedy
1:17
The New Frontier Program
1:51
TV Debates
3:13
First Catholic President
4:15
Liberal Initiatives
4:55
Bay of Pigs
5:19
Funding for NASA
6:19
Alan Shepard
6:49
John Glenn
6:56
The Bay of Pigs Incident
7:02
U.S.-Cuban Relations
7:39
Castro Nationalized U.S. Owned Banks
7:46
CIA
8:26
Surrendered Within 24 Hours of Fighting
9:24
Cold War and Bay of Pigs
9:43
JFK: Cold Warrior
10:06
Turned to the USSR
10:10
The Berlin Wall
10:29
Cuban Missile Crisis
11:05
Nuclear Warfare
11:41
Flexible Response
12:34
The Civil Rights Movements Stirs
13:58
Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee
14:17
CORE
16:19
Attorney General Robert Kennedy
16:45
Bull Connors
17:12
Freedom Rides Map
17:41
Notorious Police Brutality Under “Bull Connors”
18:36
Civil Rights Movement
19:13
Kennedy's Response
20:08
Promise Civil Rights Legislation Banning Discrimination in Public
20:09
Second Emancipation Proclamation
20:32
MLK Jr.'s Response
21:49
A Massive Civil Rights
21:56
I Have a Dream
22:08
Civil Rights in the 1960s
22:50
More Radical
22:57
Southern Senators
23:16
Birmingham
23:27
Black Nationalism
23:43
Black Separatism
24:32
Uncle Tom
25:16
Black Muslims
26:44
Malcolm X
27:43
Nation Justice
28:43
Hajj
29:22
Pan-African Unity
29:44
Black Power
30:42
Stokely Carmichael
31:12
Honorary Prime Minister
32:26
Pan-Africanist
32:33
Black Panthers
33:03
Cesar Chaves, Farm Workers and Chicanos
34:04
Chavez and Dolores Huerta
34:25
United Farm Workers
34:48
La Causa
35:58
Chavez, Huerta and UFW
36:26
MAPA, Chicano Movement, Brown Berets
37:19
Mexican American Political Association
37:30
Brown Berets
38:00
Chicano
38:14
Bilingual Education
38:45
American Indian Movement (AIM)
39:46
Red Power
39:51
A Siege at Wounded Knee
40:40
We Shall Remain
41:20
Peace Corps
41:30
Third World Countries
41:47
Agency for International Development and the Alliance of Progress
42:06
The Liberal Warren Court
43:14
Mapp v. Ohio
43:55
Gideon v. Wainwright
44:03
Escobedo v. Illinois
44:12
Miranda v. Arizona
44:22
Engel v. Vitale
45:04
Griswold v. Connecticut
45:29
Baker v. Carr
45:53
One Man, One Vote
46:08
Beginning of Vietnam War
46:22
Green Berets
47:10
A Military Coup
47:20
Assassination of John F. Kennedy
48:07
Lee Harvey Oswald
48:17
Lyndon B. Johnson
49:33
Example 1
49:54
Example 2
51:47
Example 3
53:37
Lyndon B. Johnson, Civil Rights, and The Vietnam War

52m 54s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:09
Lyndon B. Johnson
1:55
A Huge Expansions of Social Welfare Programs
2:41
The Civil Rights Act
3:39
Title VII
4:01
1964 Election
4:58
Lyndon B. Johnson
5:52
The Civil Rights Act
6:10
Expansion of Civil Rights Movement
6:26
A Voting Rights Act
6:28
Freedom Summer
6:44
15 Civil Rights Workers
7:25
From Selma to Montgomery
7:32
Freedom Summer
7:49
March in Selma
9:10
Bloody Sunday
9:17
The Voting Rights Act
10:53
The 24th Amendment's Outlawing of the Federal Poll tax
11:35
Voter Registration in the South
12:00
Watts Riots: “Burn Baby, Burn”
12:40
Voting Rights Act
12:43
Arrested a Young Black Motorist
13:34
Legislation During LBJ Years
15:03
War on Poverty
15:45
Long-Established Social Insurance Programs
16:24
The Office of Economic Opportunity Act of 1964
16:57
The Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965
17:46
Influential Books of the 1960s
18:19
War on Poverty
20:02
Legislation During LBJ Years
20:43
Medicare for the Elderly and Medicaid for the Poor
20:47
National Endowment for the Arts
20:57
The Highway Beautification Act
21:15
Wartime Inflation
22:10
10% Surcharge on Income Taxes
22:18
LBJ Escalates the Vietnam War
23:18
A Quagmire
23:55
The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
24:40
The Americanization of the War
25:00
Operation Rolling Thunder
25:24
US Soldiers in Vietnam
26:06
War of Attrition
26:44
U.S. Military Personnel in S. Vietnam
26:57
The Anti-War Movement
27:16
Public Opinion Turn Against the War
27:22
The Impact of the Television
27:27
Credibility Gap
28:11
Television War and Image of Vietnam War
28:50
The New Left Movement
29:14
Implement a Broad Range of Reforms
29:22
Students for a Democratic Society
29:42
Michigan
30:05
Port Huron Statement
30:11
Students for a Democratic Society
30:21
Tom Hayden
30:25
The Port Huron Statement
30:27
Free Speech Movement
30:56
The Selective Service System
31:37
Closed Down Induction Centers
31:55
Stop the Draft Week
33:03
The Siege on the Pentagon
33:05
National Organization of Women
33:21
Betty Friedan
33:51
Women's Rights and Equality
33:57
The Counterculture
34:15
Hippies
35:07
Pete Seeger and Bob Dylan
35:41
Acid Rock
36:29
Woodstock
37:06
Images of Woodstock
37:15
1968: A Watershed Year
37:55
Tet Offensive
38:34
My Lai Massacre
39:08
Antiwar Platform
39:46
Tet Offensive
40:03
1968
40:20
MLK was Assassinated
40:23
Robert F. Kennedy
41:14
RFK Assassination
41:31
Democratic Convention in Chicago
41:45
Democratic Convention 1968
42:02
Backlash: Conservatism
42:26
Protest and Dissent
42:34
George Wallace
42:56
Silent Majority
42:39
Richard Nixon Elected
43:39
Example 1
44:23
Example 2
46:55
Example 3
49:53
The Rise and Fall of Richard Nixon and The End of the Vietnam War

35m 50s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:07
Richard Nixon
1:32
Office of Price Administration in Washington
1:50
Republican Representative
1:58
Alger Hiss Case
2:26
Winding Down the Vietnam War
2:33
No-Win Situation
3:26
Cambodia
3:42
Withdrawing from the War
4:24
Vietnam War vets
4:48
Violence at Kent State University
6:00
Ohio
6:16
National Guard
6:28
Images of Kent State
6:57
Nixon's Trip to China and the Cold War
7:16
A Bold Move
7:31
A Policy of Diplomacy
7:53
Ping-pong Diplomacy
8:25
Detente
8:55
Vietnamization
9:15
Detente
9:50
Henry Kissinger
10:15
National Security Advisor
10:22
Realpolitik
10:25
Nixon and Brezhnev
10:57
Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty
11:08
Antiballistic Missiles
11:19
ICBMS or SLBMS
11:24
The Silent Majority Speaks Out
11:49
Brown v. Board of Education
12:48
Miller v. California
14:00
Milliken v. Bradley
14:36
1972 Election
15:02
Disarray
15:14
George McGovern
15:35
Southern Strategy
16:10
George Wallace
16:52
Nixon and Civil Rights
17:12
Dixicrats
17:24
Warren Burger
17:57
Harry Blackmun
18:24
Domestic Policies
18:38
Inflation Problems and Economic Problems
18:49
Revenue Sharing
19:14
More Control of Where Federal Funding Allocated
19:16
Regulatory Laws Passed
19:26
Clean Air Act
20:30
Occupational Health and Safety Act
20:33
Water Pollution Control Act
20:41
Endangered Species Act
20:50
The Fall of Richard Nixon
21:16
Enemies
21:57
Imperial Presidency
22:32
Pentagon Papers
23:06
National Security
23:45
Theft, Conspiracy and Espionage
25:06
Nixon and the Plumbers
25:11
A Secret Special Unit
26:18
Illegal Campaigns
25:31
The Democratic National Committee Offices
25:52
Cover-up
26:04
The Tapes and the Cover-up
26:23
Illegal Deeds
26:56
Impeachment Hearings
27:09
First President to Resign
27:23
War Power Act
27:37
Reined in the Powers of President
27:50
Congressional Approval
28:00
Example 1
28:45
Example 2
29:56
Example 3
33:01
1970s, Ford and Carter

44m 35s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:06
Gerald Ford: President After Nixon Resigns
1:19
Stagflation
2:02
Whip Inflation Now
2:06
Highlights of Ford Presidency
2:20
Oil Embargo After Yom Kippur War
2:47
Politicized OPEC
3:04
Yom Kippur War
3:19
Declared Oil Embargo on U.S.
3:34
OPEC Oil Embargo
3:50
400% Increase in Oil Prices
4:08
Oil Price Shock
4:14
Long Lines at Gas Stations
4:38
Economic Decline
4:59
Japanese Cars
5:08
Speed Limit
5:36
Stagflation
6:00
Ford's Foreign Policy
6:22
Helsinki Accords
6:28
Limit Arms
6:40
Accused of Engineering the Assassination of Foreign Leaders
6:53
George Bush
7:02
Jimmy Carter, 1976-1980
7:28
Granted Amnesty
8:43
Domestic Challenges
9:00
Crisis in Confidence
9:40
Images of Jimmy Carter
10:33
Gas Shortages and Energy Crisis
11:14
Gas Prices Soared
11:19
Raise Taxes on Crude Oil
11:55
People's Lack of Faith in Government
12:06
Energy Consumption
12:15
Taking On Inflation
12:40
Paul Volcker
12:47
An End to Inflation
12:52
Three Mile Island
13:01
Nuclear Power Spill
13:05
No New Nuclear Plants
14:09
20% of all U.S. Power
14:13
Goldsboro, PA
14:28
Nervous Humor
14:38
Carter's Foreign Policy
15:25
Realism
15:30
Repressive Regimes
15:36
Panama Canal
16:50
Peace Talks between Sadat and Begin
17:25
The Women's Movement in the 1970s
20:17
Equal Rights Amendment
20:27
Ratification
20:54
A Reactionary Conservative Movement
21:04
States That Ratified ERA
21:15
Pro and Anti-ERA Marchers
22:39
Other Feminist Activities
23:30
Ms. Magazine
24:19
Gay Rights Movement
25:32
Stonewall Incident
25:52
Harvey Milk
26:07
Dan White
27:03
Rust Belt to Sun Belt
27:12
Demographic Changes Affect Politics
28:26
Latin America and Asia
28:38
1965 Immigration Law
28:45
The “Me Generation”
29:06
Self-Absorption
29:13
Huge Health Trend
29:16
Pop Culture
29:42
Televangelists and the New Right
30:22
Religious Right
30:42
A Constitutional Ban
30:45
Mandatory Death Penalty
31:05
The Bakke Case
32:03
University of California v. Bakke
32:28
Reverse Discrimination
33:23
Iran Hostage Crisis
34:02
The Iranian Revolution
34:26
Ayatollah Khomeini
34:35
66 U.S. Hostages
35:02
Economic Embargo and a Military Mission
35:14
Reagan's Inauguration
35:26
Images of Iran Hostage Crisis
36:24
Example 1
36:53
Example 2
40:07
Example 3
42:04
The Conservative Resurgence and The 1980s

46m 5s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:07
Free-Market Economics and Religious Conservatism
1:13
Anticommunism, Free-Market Economics and Religious Moralism
2:25
Regulatory Bureaucracy
5:02
PATCO Strikers
5:55
Supply-Side Economics
6:34
Reaganomics
6:48
Reducing Taxes and More Spending
7:00
Economic Recovery Act
7:26
Lowered Taxes
7:30
Images of Supply-Side Economics
8:20
Trickle Down Economics
9:57
Reaganomics
10:32
Reduced Income Tax Rates
10:50
Drop of the Highest Marginal Tax Rate
11:04
The Federal Deficit Increased
12:07
The Annual Federal Budget Deficit (or Surplus), 1940-2005
12:33
Presidential Landscaping
13:11
Budget Deficit
13:17
National Debt
13:35
The Savings and Loan
13:54
Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI)
14:49
Relations with the USSR Improve
16:33
Perestroika
17:28
Glasnost
17:58
Mr. Gorbachev, Tear Down This Wall
18:23
The Wall Comes Down in 1989
18:57
Reagan Aids Anticommunists and Israelis
20:36
A Right-Wing Government in El Salvador
21:14
Setbacks in the Middle East
22:40
Involvement in Latin America and Caribbean
23:11
Iran-Contra Affair and Scandal
23:38
Banned Sending Funds to the Contras
24:25
Oliver North
24:46
Iran-Contra
25:08
Foreign Policy After the Cold War
26:26
New World Order
26:32
War on Drugs
27:09
Disintegration of Yugoslavia
27:30
Social Issues
28:01
Sandra Day O'Connor
28:35
William Rehnquist
28:59
Roe v. Wade
29:14
Economic Changes
29:46
Service Oriented
30:12
Trade Imbalance
30:18
Widened Gap Between Rich and Poor
30:36
Apple Computers and Microsoft
31:28
The Income of Two-Wage Families Graph
31:43
Other Themes in the 1980s
33:15
Materialistic Values
33:28
AIDS Epidemic
33:53
Just Say No
36:28
Challenger Explodes
36:50
1987 March On Washington for Gay and Lesbian Rights
37:15
Example 1
37:53
Example 2
40:57
Example 3
43:41
IX. Period 9: 1980-present
The End of the Cold War and a Global Society

1h 6m 56s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:06
Election of 1988
1:40
George H.W. Bush
1:44
Jesse Jackson
2:00
New World Order
2:52
Uprisings in China and Eastern Europe
3:16
Beijing's Tiananmen Square
3:43
Anticommunist Movement in 1989
4:38
Solidarity Movement
4:50
Velvet Revolution in Czechoslovakia
5:07
1989
5:40
Breakup of the USSR
6:35
Commonwealth of Independent States
6:43
Boris Yeltsin
7:13
Yugoslavia Disintegrated
7:49
CIS
8:02
Other Foreign Policy Issues
9:16
Invasion of Panama
9:38
Persian Gulf War
10:11
Operation Desert Storm
10:13
Vietnam Syndrome
12:22
Domestic Issues Under Bush
12:49
Budget Deficits
13:52
No New taxes
14:10
A Kinder Gentler America
14:35
The Changing Economy
15:12
Globalization
16:37
Multinational Corporations
17:46
North American Free Trade Agreement
19:25
The Rise of the European Union
20:15
European Union
20:58
Nike Factory in China
21:51
Productivity, Family Income, and Wages 1973-2004
22:37
Imports and Exports
24:00
Bill Clinton
24:45
The Election of 1992
24:50
National Health Care
26:05
Avoiding Expensive Social-Welfare Proposals
27:38
Aid to Families with Dependent Children
27:53
New Democrat
28:05
Clinton's Second Term
28:17
Foreign Policy Challenges
29:52
NATO Intervened
30:01
Air Strikes Against Al Qaeda
30:39
Technological Revolutions
31:12
Digitization
31:26
World Wide Web
32:11
Internet
32:32
Percentage of Americans Using Internet
33:06
The Annual Federal Budget Deficit (or Surplus), 1940-2005
33:20
Election of 2000
34:32
Vice President Al Gore
34:43
Florida
35:04
George W. Bush's Presidency
36:00
Economic Growth and Tax Relief Act of 2001
36:13
Federal Expenditures
36:48
War on Terror
38:19
9/11
38:50
Bush
39:30
USA Patriot Act
40:32
An Axis of Evil
42:01
Iraq
43:22
John Kerry
44:19
New Orleans
45:09
Economic Issues and 2008 Election
46:30
Significant Decline
46:48
Emergency Economic Stabilization Act
48:35
Barack Obama Wins in 2008
49:17
Remaking America
51:07
Economic Stimulus Package
51:39
Regulate Wall Street
52:02
American Recovery and Reinvestment Act
52:18
Don’t Ask. Don’t Tell Policy
54:42
Elena Kagan
55:17
New Immigrants
55:31
Example 1
57:27
Example 2
1:00:08
Example 3
1:04:35
X. AP Practice Exam
AP Practice Exam, Section I: Multiple Choice and Short Answer

38m 33s

Intro
0:00
Overview of Exam
0:12
Multiple-Choice Section
1:57
What does It Include?
2:10
Background Information
2:43
Highlight
3:20
Completely Read the Question
4:33
Short-Answer Section
4:49
Four Questions
4:54
Complete Sentences
4:58
Thematic Learning Objectives
6:20
Sample AP U.S. History Test Answers
7:05
Multiple Choice Question 1
9:07
Multiple Choice Question 2
9:35
Multiple Choice Question 3
10:05
Multiple Choice Question 4
10:27
Multiple Choice Question 5
10:56
Multiple Choice Question 6
11:18
Multiple Choice Question 7
11:48
Multiple Choice Question 8
12:16
Multiple Choice Question 9
12:42
Multiple Choice Question 10
13:08
Multiple Choice Question 11
13:40
Multiple Choice Question 12
14:03
Multiple Choice Question 13
14:30
Multiple Choice Question 14
14:59
Multiple Choice Question 15
15:24
Multiple Choice Question 16
15:49
Multiple Choice Question 17
16:23
Multiple Choice Question 18
16:47
Multiple Choice Question 19
17:09
Multiple Choice Question 20
17:41
Multiple Choice Question 21
18:02
Multiple Choice Question 22
18:19
Multiple Choice Question 23
18:49
Multiple Choice Question 24
19:11
Multiple Choice Question 25
19:32
Multiple Choice Question 26
20:02
Multiple Choice Question 27
20:23
Multiple Choice Question 28
20:50
Multiple Choice Question 29
21:11
Multiple Choice Question 30
21:40
Multiple Choice Question 31
22:13
Multiple Choice Question 32
22:33
Multiple Choice Question 33
22:55
Multiple Choice Question 34
23:27
Multiple Choice Question 35
23:49
Multiple Choice Question 36
24:11
Multiple Choice Question 37
24:32
Multiple Choice Question 38
24:57
Multiple Choice Question 39
25:23
Multiple Choice Question 40
25:50
Multiple Choice Question 41
26:18
Multiple Choice Question 42
26:44
Multiple Choice Question 43
27:09
Multiple Choice Question 44
27:36
Multiple Choice Question 45
28:02
Multiple Choice Question 46
28:20
Multiple Choice Question 47
28:39
Multiple Choice Question 48
29:08
Multiple Choice Question 49
29:39
Multiple Choice Question 50
30:03
Multiple Choice Question 51
30:28
Multiple Choice Question 52
30:50
Multiple Choice Question 53
31:07
Multiple Choice Question 54
31:32
Multiple Choice Question 55
31:50
Short Question 1
32:35
Short Question 2
34:20
Short Question 3
36:11
Short Question 4
37:18
AP Practice Exam, Section II: Free Response

29m 24s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:10
Free-Response Section: DBQ
1:38
Brainstorm and Jot Down What You Already Know
2:20
Highlighter
2:57
Use Outside Knowledge
5:11
Assess and Cite the Documents
5:32
Free-Response Section: Long Essay
7:02
Historical Thinking Skills
7:20
Thematic Learning Objectives
7:42
Include an Introduction
8:04
Supporting Evidence
8:20
Free-Response Section: DBQ
8:25
Introduction
9:41
Thesis
9:44
Body Paragraphs
10:14
Support With Evidence
10:33
Historical Phenomena
10:49
Synthesize the Above Components
10:56
Conclusion
11:06
Restate Thesis
11:25
Synthesize the Evidence
12:02
Sample Thesis
12:16
Document 1
21:53
Document 2
22:13
Document 3-7
22:43
Free-Response Section: Long Essay
23:21
Sample Thesis
24:36
Continuity Over Time
25:37
Change Over Time
26:24
Historical Thinking Skills and Use of Evidence
27:36
Conclusion and Analysis
28:10
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Immigration, Urban, Culture and Politics

  • Ward politics: race & ethnicity oftentimes divided newcomers & this led to a system of urban political machines (organizations that rendered services that communities would not otherwise receive) like Tammany Hall in NY. The “machines” were led by “bosses.”
  • Increase in suburbanization during the late 19th century: the farther from the city, the finer the house & larger the lot
  • Working-class culture and entertainment: amusement parks, vaudeville theaters, baseball, newspapers
  • For upper-class Americans, they invested in and enjoyed various art galleries and symphony orchestras that were founded
  • Immigrants enter via Ellis Island in NYC where majority of immigrants arrived from 1892 on; govt clerks asked a series of questions & did health checks; by 1924, estimated about 17 million passed through EIlis Island
  • “Old” and “New” Immigrants: huge migration from the Old World that started in 1840s: Irish (potato famine,) Germans & Swedes, & then later Austrians, Hungarians, and other Slavic peoples in the late 1890s into the early 20th century
  • Exclusionary acts such as Chinese excluded – Chinese Exclusion Act (1882) barred workers from entering country; was not repealed until 1943; Korean and Japanese immigrants began arriving at the turn of the century; 1906 ruling stated that these new immigrants were not eligible for citizenship; Chinese were nation’s first “illegal immigrants.”
  • Various “push and pull” factors that bring people to the U.S.: religious, economic, political reasons

Immigration, Urban, Culture and Politics

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  • Intro 0:00
  • Overview 0:07
  • Ward Politics and Political Bosses 0:56
    • Urban Political Machines
    • Tammany Hall in New York
    • Grassroots Constituency
    • Boss Tweed
  • The Political Machine and Corruption 5:34
  • George Plunkitt 7:13
    • Regular System
    • Honest Graft
  • Social Changes 10:54
    • Class Society
    • Increase in Suburbanization
    • American Woman's Home Journal
  • A Clash of Values 12:51
    • The Victorian Ideal of Domesticity
    • Clash of Victorian Ideas
    • Comstock Law
  • Religion and Secularism in the City 15:26
    • Orthodox Judaism
    • Catholic Church
    • Protestant Churches
  • Working-Class Culture and Journalism 19:10
    • Working-Class Culture
    • Joseph Pulitzer
    • Heart's New York Journal
  • The Higher Culture 21:58
    • The Corcoran Gallery of Art
    • Symphony Orchestras
    • Increase in Public Libraries
    • The Gilded Age
  • Ellis Island and Angel Island 25:31
    • Ellis Island
    • Angel Island
    • Paper Sons and Paper Daughters
  • The Immigrant Experience 28:36
  • “Old” and “New” Immigrants 31:12
  • Immigrant Challenges and Opportunities 32:06
    • Fraternal Organizations
    • Labor Force in Factories
    • Backlash Against Immigrants
  • The “Land of Milk and Honey” 37:18
    • Old Immigrants
    • Push and Pull
  • Immigration Cartoons 38:25
  • Urban Life: Technology Improves Life 39:49
    • New Forms of Transportation
    • Suburbs
    • Public-Works Programs
    • Skyscrapers and Subways
  • Frederick Law Olmsted's Central Park 41:18
    • Designed in 1860s
    • Inspired Other Parks
  • Urban Problems 42:29
    • Tenements
    • Poor Conditions
  • Example 1 43:32
  • Example 2 44:42
  • Example 3 45:57

Transcription: Immigration, Urban, Culture and Politics

Welcome back to www.educator.com.0000

This lesson is on immigration, urban culture, and politics.0003

In this lesson, we are going to focus on the importance of the political machine in the city, particularly in New York.0009

Some of the most famous political bosses, party bosses sometimes they are called as well, Boss Tweed and George Plunkitt.0017

We are also going to talk about social trends and increased urbanization,0026

and how industrialization is going to very much influence how cities are being shaped.0031

We will also talk about the continuing expansion of cities that will grow into the suburbs,0039

talk about some of the class differences as well, in those different regions.0045

And then, we are going to focus on various topics related to immigration during the Gilded Age, in particular.0050

First, let us talk about ward politics and political bosses.0058

In many ways, we are going to see that politics is going to be very much influenced by these different ethnic groups throughout the Gilded Age.0065

It is going to be very important.0075

In many ways, this is what is going to have a huge influence over party identification.0077

We will actually expand upon this more in one of the next lessons, stay tuned.0084

Within cities, as well, because they were the most diverse areas, we are going to see little cultural enclaves being established.0092

Race, as well as ethnicity, will oftentimes divide newcomers and this led to a system of urban political machines.0101

These are organizations that rendered services that communities would not otherwise receive.0111

The most famous one being Tammany Hall in New York.0117

These political machines were led by, they were called bosses at the time.0122

I want to build up the point I made in the last lesson, that many of the cities during the Gilded Age did not various services.0128

The political machine made sure that those jobs were done, like putting out fires, and actually helping list services for schools even,0138

and helping people get jobs, and this type of thing.0149

Even in construction types of jobs and so forth, different contracts.0155

We are going to see that the political machine is going to be very much involved in that process and very influential.0162

If you wanted to be someone, if you needed something to be addressed, you wanted to befriend the party boss and the political machine.0170

There was an expectation that if you vote for them, they will take care of you.0182

This idea that one hand washes the other.0186

Anyway, we are going to see that this is a very dependent relationship.0191

As the bosses will depend on the grassroots constituency.0195

They recruited captains, ward bosses, and alderman to serve the needs of the party faithful.0200

And the boodle or the money, in other words, could be very corrupting.0208

Many of these bosses, people who are involved in these rings, as they were known, received kickbacks by contractors.0212

The idea is that, I will give you the job but you need to charge more for your service and give us a kickback.0222

Give us some profit from getting that job and for taking on a contract.0232

Protection money from gamblers, saloon keepers, and prostitutes.0241

People who were involved in organized crime and some of these other unsavory activities,0246

they could carry on if they would pay off the political machine.0257

There were payoffs from gas and toll way companies.0261

Everyone was very much wrought up in the system and it became increasingly corrupt.0264

Boss Tweed was the quintessential corrupt political boss of the era.0271

He was extremely dishonest.0278

He had various offices in New York City.0281

It came to a head when he actually was brought down in 1871 because of graft in0288

the building of a courthouse that was named the Tweed Courthouse.0295

He actually asked all of the contractors who were building the courthouse to add on a 100%,0299

basically pad the cost by 100%, and that he would get some of that kickback from padding those costs.0309

He ends up making big bucks here.0319

Eventually, he is going to be exposed.0322

He ends up pocketing about 65% of the building funds.0326

And eventually, he will flee and try to escape from the law.0330

Here is a picture of the famous Boss Tweed.0337

There were a lot of political cartoons that were quite critical of Boss Tweed.0342

Here you will probably be able to pick him out, here he is.0346

Oftentimes, the cartoonist exaggerate people's weight, and I believe that that is supposed to emphasize they are fat cats, fat capitalists.0353

In this case, this corrupt boss.0366

This is supposed to be a jewel that is shining, showing how he is living high on the hog at the poor peoples expense.0369

Within this ring, you will see everyone who is tied in, again, who stole the people's money, do tell.0379

It was him, they are all kind of, but they are all involved, even the poor people in the neighborhood.0386

Many of the political machines, in fact, for instance, were Irish.0395

A lot of early Irish immigrants who had hard time finding jobs had to befriend people within the political machines.0400

Here you can see under the thumb, the boss, well, what are you going to do about it?0410

Which is indicative of how much power these political bosses had over their neighborhoods and the city.0416

Here is another example of another key important political boss, and his name was George Plunkitt.0426

He was not quite as corrupt as Tweed. We will see that ward politics will shift somewhat,0436

when he develops what is known as the regular system.0444

When fires broke out in his district, he declared that he had no reason for kickbacks or bribes.0447

He had a moral element to his approach to taking care of people in the neighborhood.0454

Plunkitt did preach the values of hard work, sobriety, and even what he called honest graft.0463

I have a little excerpt that I will read to you, just so you can get a sense of his perspective and what a character he was.0473

There are some similar themes that we could see with his system,0483

yet perhaps a little more good natured and a little bit more practical for the people that were being affected.0489

We will see these political machines reward their supporters.0500

You vote for me, I will take care of you, this type of thing.0503

But Plunkitt played no favorites and was much more inclusive, in terms of different ethnic groups, for instance.0507

He reached out to different peoples of the increasingly diverse 50th District.0513

He will reach out to people not just the Irish, he will stay within his own group.0521

Even though he was actually Irish himself, he was open to helping out people from all different types of backgrounds.0529

His idea of honest graft, that profits came to those who are savvy insiders.0538

He made most of his money building wards on Manhattan's waterfront.0547

He has a very famous view of what he called honest graft, unlike dishonest graft.0553

Everybody is talking these days about Tammany man going rich on graft,0562

but nobody thinks of drawing the distinction between honest graft and dishonest graft.0566

There is all the difference in the world between the two.0572

Yes, many of our men had grown rich in politics. I have myself, I have made a fortune out of the game and I'm getting richer everyday.0574

But I have not gone in for dishonest graft, blackmail and gamblers, saloon keepers, disorderly people, etc.0583

And neither has any of the men who have made big fortunes in politics bears an honest graft.0590

I’m an example of how it works.0597

It might sum up the whole thing by saying, I see many opportunities and I took them.0599

Just let me explain by examples, my party is empowering the city and it is going to undertake a lot of public improvements.0607

Well, I’m tipped off say, that they are going to lay out a new park at a certain place.0616

I see my opportunity and I take it.0622

I go to that place, and I buy up all the land that I can in the neighborhood, then the board of this or that makes its plan public,0624

and there is a rush to get my land which nobody cared particularly for before.0634

In a perfectly honest, charged a good price and make a profit on my investment in foresight, of course it is.0638

Well, that is honest graft.0645

Just to give you a little insight into George Plunkitt's perspective on graft.0648

Other things that were changing during the Gilded Age.0657

We know that it was very much class society made up of urban elite, as well as middle class.0661

And this will be very much reflected in the neighborhoods.0668

Many will leave the city center to the suburbs, for many preferred the heart of the city, for instance,0671

5th Avenue in New York City that became extremely popular, especially for the well to do.0678

We do see an increase in suburbanization during the late 19th century, and generally speaking,0686

we see a trend that farther from the city, the finer the house and the larger the lot.0692

This is going to be indicative of status, social status, economic status, etc.0698

A typical middle class family during the time of the Gilded Age, consisted of a husband, wife, and three children.0705

Bigger families than certainly today.0711

The duties of domesticity fell on the wife.0715

This is for upper class people and in many cases middle class families as well.0719

For the working class that both the mother and father would be working outside of the home, I should say.0725

Some important magazines that were influential.0737

American Women's Home Journal, Good Housekeeping, Ladies Home Journal.0741

All of these important magazines told wives that their responsibilities included bringing sensibility, love, and beauty to the household.0748

Obviously, a bit biased, it was very limiting.0758

We are seeing the idea of women staying in the home is still an idea that was very prominent especially with the upper class.0763

We do see however, a lot of these values starting to be challenged0773

and increasingly a clash between more progressive minded people and very conservative minded people.0779

Tying into this, the Victorian idea of domesticity called for masculine restraint and female moral influence.0789

There is this belief that women were more virtuous, they are more honest, and they are more nurturing,0799

and therefore better people, that they have higher moral standards.0808

But we are starting to see that those stereotypes and those constructs are being challenged more and more throughout the Gilded Age.0814

Industrialization is having an impact and starting to transform domesticity.0824

This is ultimately going to cause a clash between Victorian ideas and modern ideas.0831

As we see, more and more, especially women, pushing the boundaries0838

and getting involved in the public sphere, we will see a backlash against that as well.0842

Some families wanting to restrict their size, they will start to take action to have birth control,0847

so that they can live within their means and not bring children into the world if they cannot take care of them.0858

We are going to see a fundamentalist, very conservative, and oftentimes Protestant backlash against a lot of that activity.0865

Here is a great example of that, the Comstock Law of 1873.0876

This law that prohibited the circulation of almost any information about sex and birth control.0880

It was considered vulgar.0887

This was something that many people who are very practical minded will say no, this is my health care, this is my own personal choice.0890

But again, many of these issues are still around today, if you think about it.0901

The idea of, we know birth control can sometimes be very controversial, even this day and age, and even abortion.0910

We have similar debates, this day and age.0922

Let us move on, talking more about two opposing trends that are clashing, you could say,0927

and having a huge influence but perhaps in different ways.0935

We do see a long history of religious influence throughout the United States,0939

and this will also tie into many of the different ethnic groups identity and how they are to practice their religion.0944

And also how that is going to inform them to what extent they are going to assimilate into mainstream U.S. society.0954

And that could be a huge challenge for a lot of immigrant groups.0965

We will see that some religious groups will adapt, once they do come to the United States.0969

Orthodox Judaism, for instance, survived by reducing its claim on the lives of the faithful,0977

since the communal environment could not be reenacted in the city.0982

The push for individualism in American culture, perhaps a little bit of a clash with the communal idea that many Jews embraced.0987

We are going to see that this is going to have an impact on the Jewish community,1001

causing a split between the Orthodox and Reformed Jews, that differentiated Eastern European Jews and Germans.1005

Those who practice Reformed Judaism did not follow all of the kosher rules, for instance,1015

and modified a lot of the beliefs, in order to adapt to mainstream U.S. society.1021

Even though, they still would identify as Jewish.1033

That is something that you can see the impact of immigration and assimilation on some of the religious practices.1036

The Catholic Church will have an Americanization movement that embraced teaching republican principles to immigrant groups,1045

will oftentimes also help to set up language courses, to help people learn English, to get them set up with schools, etc.1054

This type of idea and this type of approach was much more about embracing people1069

and kind of incorporating them into American mainstream society.1080

Protestant churches, although very important, started to decline to a certain extent.1085

They turn to evangelizing and new organizations were created, that reached out to the community and addressed people's ordinary needs.1092

This is when will see the YMCA and the YWCA decline, but other groups will be founded like the Salvation Army.1103

Actually I think, this should not be here.1117

What I want to say is a lot of new groups actually will be formed at this time like YMCA, YWCA,1121

that will provide athletic services, and the Salvation Army that has a lot of opportunities for giving people clothing and food,1127

and other types of necessities that they need, if they are struggling.1141

That is going to help the Protestant Church come back to a certain extent.1146

A little bit on working class culture and journalism.1154

We will see that based on social class, we will see some marked differences.1158

Working class culture, we will see that people go to amusement parks for fun, they will go to vaudeville theaters.1169

These had a lot of different variety shows that could range from singing and dancing, comedy, very informal types of theater.1179

Baseball, newspapers were also very entertaining.1190

This is where I have a few examples here.1195

A new particular style of journalism became very popular, yellow journalism, in fact.1197

Inflammatory journalism that was popularized by Joseph Pulitzer in his St. Louis Post Dispatch and New York World.1203

Hearst was another famous newspaper publisher, and his famous New York Journal1215

was another great example of a newspaper that embraced yellow journalism.1223

The name came from this particular comic.1229

The first comic strip that appeared colored in 1895, that had these comic called the Yellow Kid.1233

It actually is not oftentimes my students would ask me, is this kind of a racial slur, but it is actually not.1243

This, if you actually look at some of the cartoons then I do recommend that you look these up and you look at the dialogue here.1255

It actually makes fun of working class people.1262

But there is some humor to it, that this was known as the Yellow Kid, and it was this whole series that became very popular,1268

and in many ways, reached out to people and connected with people, so they would buy the newspaper, I should say.1275

Later on, we will talk about the importance of journalism and specially coming up with these very sensationalist headlines.1283

And sometimes, more often times, what was written in these newspapers was not always true.1292

The idea was to sell newspapers not to publish true stories, and to have excellent quality journalism.1304

But nonetheless, we will see a lot of people getting pulled into this and a lot of money1313

was made by Pulitzer and Hearst, as a result, because it was ultimately entertaining.1318

The higher culture, we see various galleries opening up during the Gilded Age.1326

The Corcoran Gallery of Art in 1869, we see the famous Metropolitan Museum of Art in 1871, New York City.1333

The Boston Museum of Fine Arts in 1876, Chicago’s Art Institute, all of these important institutions,1344

galleries, will provide many opportunities for the public to enjoy arts and learn the various artworks from the United States,1352

as well as around the world.1363

This is very appealing for people to travel to, and it is an expression of culture.1365

We also see that various musical opportunities expand as well,1374

various symphony orchestras appeared in New York, Boston, Chicago, throughout the Gilded Age in 1870’s and 1880’s.1379

We also see a major increase in public libraries, they were established in every city with the help of Carnegie.1389

You may remember Andrew Carnegie who was a very successful businessmen in the steel industry.1397

He was a well-known philanthropist, and this was his baby, investing in public libraries.1403

We will see as well that he will also invest in many universities, as well.1410

He believes that that is how he could contribute to help being a part of the social gospel, if you will,1416

helping people to help themselves to become educated, without the government intervening.1423

This emphasis on self reliance, if you make a lot of money you can donate and participate as a philanthropist.1433

But he did not believe in much of government intervention into the economy.1444

There are also a lot of important pieces of literature that were written throughout the Gilded Age.1453

And increasingly, we are going to see that others start to focus on some of the downside, some of the ugly aspects of the Gilded Age.1460

And people are going to increasingly become much more critical.1469

And in fact, once we get to, this will culminate in the progressive era where1473

we will see a lot of muckrakers starting to highlight a lot of the social political problems, corruption that is occurring.1478

This started, I would say, during the Gilded Age with authors like Twain and Warner, who wrote this famous book,1486

as I have mentioned before that satirize America as a land of money grabbers and speculators.1495

Mark Twain, again, who was originally from the south, and had traveled throughout the country,1502

liked to focus on ordinary people, their struggles.1507

If you have heard about the adventures of Huckleberry Finn as well, famous novel.1510

Increasingly, we are seeing this new sub genre, I guess you could say, of literature1517

becoming more and more popular along with naturalism, as well, becomes a new theme in literature.1523

Now we are going to talk about immigration, the two major points of entry that we are going to focus on,1533

the Ellis island which was the biggest one and which is in New York City and Angel Island that was off the coast of California.1540

In New York City, where a majority of immigrants arrived in the 1890’s, will become the major hub for immigrants to enter the country.1550

We will see that government clerks will ask a series of questions and they did very rigorous health checks.1560

As time goes on, these become even more intense.1566

We will start to see a backlash to a certain extent, and more and more restrictions being put into place.1570

By 1924, an estimated 17,000,000 people passed through Ellis Island.1576

Most Americans have a story, that they have some relative that passed through Ellis Island.1583

For instance, both of my great grandparents who came from Czechoslovakia, came through Ellis Island.1590

My father's side has much longer history of his family being in the United States.1597

That is not the case on the other side of the family.1604

But on my mother’s side of the family, Irish, so I am an American mutt, a mixture of immigrant relatives and connections.1606

And some of them certainly passed through Ellis Island.1618

They were also immigrants who arrived at Angel Island, in San Francisco Bay area,1622

where they experienced much harsher conditions than in Ellis Island.1627

This is something that is oftentimes highlighted by historians.1630

Perhaps, this was because most of the immigrants that were coming through Angel Island were in fact Chinese immigrants.1634

There was a bit of a backlash against the Chinese that will culminate with the Exclusion Act.1644

They tended to be a bit more harsh and restrictive on the west coast.1654

But generally speaking, the process could be very lengthy.1662

Some had to wait for months, they had a series of questions that they had to answer.1668

And of course, on the west coast, again, we see lots of Chinese.1673

And I wanted to bring this in as well, that the term 'paper son' means that supposed sons on paper would come to the United States.1677

They claim to be sons of a current Chinese-American, we will say.1682

This is what will became a new trend as well during this time period, paper sons, paper daughters.1688

Meaning they were not really their sons and daughters in reality, but just on paper.1695

This was a technique that many people used to come in to the United States.1714

And of course, they did not have as extensive of a custom service and immigration agency that we have today, that is much more strict.1719

Many immigrants came to the United States.1733

Here are some images of the immigrant experience, and of course the famous Statue of Liberty that was given to us by the French.1738

And at the bottom of the statue in New York City, is a famous poem that called the New Colossus that was written by Emma Lazarus.1746

I’m going to read it for you.1761

Not like the brazen giant of Greek fame, with conquering limbs astride from land to land.1762

Here at our sea-washed, sunset gates shall stand a mighty woman with a torch,1768

whose flame is the imprisoned lightning, and her name Mother of Exiles.1773

From her beacon-hand glows world-wide welcome,1779

her mild eyes command the air-bridged harbor that twin cities frame.1783

Keep ancient lands, your storied pomp, cries she with silent lips.1788

Give me your tired, your poor, your huddled masses yearning to breathe free, the wretched refuse of your teeming shore.1795

Send these, the homeless, tempest-tossed to me, I lift my lamp beside the golden door.1804

Here we see the Statue of Liberty is a huge symbol of coming to the United States,1811

oftentimes, the first visual statue that people see when they would come to Ellis Island, and this is where they would be processed.1820

Here are some pictures here that show you people just literally getting off the boat,1830

and they look a little bit in shock because they just came to the United States.1836

And a lot of people are sacrificing and starting a whole new life with barely any English and barely any monies.1841

They are quite vulnerable but yet full of hope to build a new life.1847

Here you can see this is from Angel Island. In fact, you could see the process of being checked for your health,1853

checking his eyes, checking his hair, making sure you are healthy, etc.1861

A lot of the physicals that took place were quite extensive and lengthy.1865

I brought up these two comparative maps, again, just also to emphasize that1874

we are going to see continued immigration throughout the late 19th century and into the early 20th century.1879

We still are as in United States, a land of immigrants.1889

And of course, in many ways, we have this tension because we have mixed races, we are very welcoming to immigrant groups.1893

We have a history of diverse peoples, yet we also know that under the surface, there are certain groups that are very anti immigrant.1900

This continues even today to cause tension and controversy within our government, specially.1909

Just to emphasize that we are seeing new immigrant groups coming into the United States.1922

The new immigrants primarily coming from southern and eastern Europe,1928

whereas the old immigrants came from Western and Northern Europe, for the most part.1934

Lots of challenges for the immigrants.1942

There were a lot of families that helped the transition for immigrants to assimilate into mainstream U.S. society.1944

There were a lot of fraternal organizations that were formed that helped different ethnic groups.1955

Here a few examples, the Irish Hibernian Association or the Italian Knights of Columbus,1960

these were groups that helped their fellow, brothers and sisters, in this transition to living in the United States.1967

They would help them with jobs, they would help them with providing a sense of community,1976

give them suggestions, perhaps, give them access to a job, in some cases.1982

This played a important role.1988

Adjustment to urban life could be very difficult, often the cities were overcrowded and1991

there were poor working and living conditions that people had put up with.1998

There was discrimination, people had limited English abilities that could oftentimes be a roadblock.2002

But we also know there is a positive side of immigrants coming to the United States,2010

that bring their own culture and foods and traditions, making it very rich and pluralistic, in many ways.2016

That is for many people in the United States, the goal is that, back then, they would have considered this the melting pot.2024

Sometimes we have this debate, do we have a melting pot where everybody kind of melts into one2033

and creates this new American identity or are we a salad bowl where we have different ethnic groups stay in their own communities?2038

Like Korea town or little Tokyo, or little Italy, this type of thing.2051

That is something for you to wrap your head around and think about which way you think we are, are we a melting pot or are we a salad bowl?2060

Anyway, the richness of culture, the diversity, that many people would say today that it is a huge strength,2069

I believe it is a strength in the United States.2076

It can make things challenging sometimes, as not all cultural groups see things the same way.2080

There are different practices and they can sometimes lead to misunderstanding.2088

But in this American experiment where we are seeing different groups coming together,2093

we oftentimes see that people do kind of like learning from different types of people.2102

They like trying different types of food and they like being open to different cultures, and so forth.2107

There are obviously positive aspects and challenging aspects to this whole process of immigration,2113

assimilation, and adapting, and so forth.2121

We will see throughout the Gilded Age that immigrants, especially poor immigrants will provide much of the labor force in factories.2127

It is like the right time, they are at the right time, at the right place, when industrialization is booming2136

and there are lots of opportunity, there are lots of jobs.2142

The corporations and the factories need workers, and it benefits some to pay workers as little as they can,2148

so they can make huge profits.2155

The backlash, there is this negative aspect where there is competition for jobs, especially during severe depression,2159

when the economy is really bad, as immigrants will be scapegoated.2165

You are taking my job, if someone who believes they are a Native American, that they lived here first,2170

that they should have first dibs to those jobs.2177

Again, we will see many restrictions being put into place.2180

We have talked about this before, just to remind you of an example.2184

On the West Coast, in particular, this will become a national policy, there is a policy against Chinese.2188

And then, we will also see in 1906, ruling stated that these new immigrants were not eligible for citizenship.2196

That is going to happen for the Japanese.2212

Chinese come in and then they are going to be banned until 1943.2215

That is a long period of time.2221

And then, we will start to see more Japanese and Korean people even coming into the United States.2223

But we will see laws being put into place that justify these restrictions to protect workers.2230

Nonetheless, immigrants continue to come to the United States that promises to be the land of milk and honey.2240

That it is sweet, it is the land of opportunity.2249

Many want to pursue their American dream, that you can be poor but if you work hard,2252

you could save up money and have a successful life.2258

Or at least your children will have a better life than you had.2262

And that is part of this whole narrative and theme throughout U.S. history.2266

And of course, for some people, they are able to achieve this.2274

For others, they think that this is unachievable and not a reality.2276

It depends on your perspective.2282

From the 1840's to the 1850's, millions of European immigrants come to the United States.2286

Here is another map to show you the change.2296

We see various push and pull factors that influence this shift.2300

Here are some popular cartoons at the time, related to immigration.2307

This one highlighting the diversity of American citizens.2313

This one showing a positive view of Uncle Sam, welcoming the different groups into the U.S. acting as a refuge.2319

Welcoming all of these different ethnic groups.2332

Here we see, perhaps, a grim scene, we see a whole family here struggling, that perhaps they are not living the American dream.2335

But you see the fat capitalist here collecting money from some other people who are tied up in this corruption.2346

Here we see a very skeptical Uncle Sam looking down on these different groups.2358

Here it says something about mafia in New Orleans, anarchists in Chicago, socialists in New York.2365

Some of these negative stereotypes that scapegoating immigrants.2372

You see the Statue of Liberty here, the American flag, showing how increasingly United States is becoming restrictive.2380

A little bit more on urban life.2392

During this age of industrialization, we will see a lot of the infrastructure improving.2395

Technology will improve life.2400

Electric street lights are installed, electricity is going to be a major game changer,2402

as the lights of the city are going to have a very magical effect, to light up the city and also lead to people having a quality nightlife.2410

We will see new forms of transportation being created.2425

The trolley and also different subways, and so forth.2430

Frank’s, Bragg’s, Trolley became very popular.2434

We will also see because of these trains, we will see an infrastructure being created that people can commute from the suburbs and access the city.2440

There will be public works programs eventually put into place, that will create sewers and underground pipes for water.2450

This will make cities cleaner and improve the water quality and so forth.2457

Skyscrapers were being created.2464

Louis Sullivan designed a steel frame skyscraper based on the philosophy that form follows function.2467

All of these important contributions are going to improve life in the city.2475

This was also a major contribution, Frederick Law Olmsted’s designs for parks in major city centers.2481

This is kind of a neat picture where we can see, this was his plan for what became Central Park,2492

that is still one of the most popular spots in New York City.2499

When people feel that they need to get out of the concrete jungle, they can seek refuge in Central Park and then have a piece of nature,2505

and this is an area that is protected where people can kind of get away from the noises and the crowded city streets.2516

Perhaps that the air is a bit cleaner in Central Park, than it is in the industrial areas of the city.2527

Central Park was designed in the 1860’s, and this ultimately will set the foundation for other parks being established in other U.S. cities.2536

Olmsted will actually go in to design other parks throughout the U.S.2546

There were problems, a lot of poor immigrant groups, especially, poor people living in cities had to live in these tenements.2552

This is an important term to be familiar with.2560

These kind of tell it all, these were crowded apartment buildings that had poor conditions.2563

And in fact, in New York City, you can actually go to the tenement museum where they reenact what a tenement was like.2568

This would be a typical situation where you would see huge families living in very small space, the ventilation was bad.2578

There was no air conditioning back then.2588

It was very dirty, a very difficult situation.2591

There are tough times for people, they did not have privacy.2598

But people will sacrifice, in many ways, to come to the United States and to try to improve their lives.2603

With that, we are going to actually go into the assessment section of the lesson.2611

Another graph here, and we have seen this one before.2620

Southeastern Europeans, Northern Europeans are on the decline.2624

In the chart, the new immigrants include those who arrived in the U.S. from,2633

Northern and Western Europe, Southern and Eastern Europe, Latin America, or Asia?2639

The answer.2648

Which of the following most likely explains a significant reduction of immigration during the 1870’s and 1890’s to the U.S.2651

Conflicts between old and new immigrants, competition for jobs from Asian immigrations,2659

financial panics and depressions, military conflicts in Europe?2665

This is reduction.2671

The answer, such as the Panic of 1873.2675

Who do we have here, Boss Tweed.2684

As long as I count the votes, what are you going to do about it, say?2687

That is what is the matter, in counting, there is strength.2693

The brains that achieved the Tammany victory at the Rochester Democratic Convention.2698

These are both Nast cartoons who is very critical of our famous Boss Tweed.2709

Based on the Nast cartoon, it is evident that the artist was most critical of?2716

The effects of the capitalist system, The problems with Unions,2720

The consolidation of power in major cities that led to corruption, The influx of immigrants into U.S. cities.2724

The answer.2733

Which of the following is the artist trying to depict?2736

Party bosses and the political machine, captains of industry and entrepreneurs,2739

The sentiment of the socialist movement, The positive aspects of U.S. democracy.2744

There we go, one last question.2754

Actually, this is a three part question within a question because it is a short answer.2758

Briefly explain how the development in three of the following areas in the years 1860 to 1900 had an impact on U.S. culture.2765

Architecture, education, visual arts, music and literature.2773

We did not focus a lot on education, in this, we did a little bit but not probably enough to feel confident about writing a few sentences.2777

We will talk about education more.2790

I’m going to choose one, this one, literature, visual arts, and music.2792

I did not talk about music.2807

I should take a little bit about music.2808

You are going to learn about music, you could actually do arts as well.2809

I will give you an example using both of these.2817

Let us start with architecture.2822

Architecture changed immensely during the post Civil War era.2823

Louis Sullivan designed a steel-frame skyscraper based on the philosophy that form follows function.2829

And increasingly, we will start to see that skyscraper having a huge impact on the landscape of cities.2835

Let us do literature next.2842

Literature of the post Civil War era included a movement from romanticism to focus on realism,2844

as found in the works of Mark Twain or Jack London.2850

Mark Twain's Huckleberry Finn in the Gilded Age revealed the greed, violence, racism, negative aspects of life in the United States.2854

I’m going to teach you about music through the sentence.2867

Some of the great musical styles at the time included early ragtime jazz and blues2870

that was popularized in New Orleans and spread to other major U.S. cities.2876

Upper class Americans enjoyed opera and symphony orchestras in cities,2882

and many art museums were established in some of the major U.S. cities.2887

I actually forgot that I did talk about briefly symphonies and operas, but I did forgot to mention about jazz and blues.2893

They are uniquely American styles of music. It should be mentioned that they are starting to evolve and becoming more and more popular,2904

starting in New Orleans and spreading to places like Memphis, in Chicago, and New York as well, and other cities too.2916

I think with that, we are done with this lesson on immigrants and urban life.2924

Thank you for watching www.educator.com.2929