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Abolitionism

  • Abolitionism had an appeal to free African Americans especially in the cities (in 1850, about 250,000)
  • Despite difficulties, northern blacks were proud of their freedom but also wanted to help those of whom were still enslaved; many subscribed to the Liberator
  • Abolitionist and founder of The Liberator, William Lloyd Garrison, believed opponents of slavery should view slavery from the black man’s point of view (not the slave owner’s), rejected “gradualism,” and demanded immediate abolition of slavery and citizenship to blacks
  • Garrison’s followers took an uncompromising moral stance and helped runaway slaves find refuge via the underground railroad (to the North or Canada). Harriet Tubman was a “conductor” of the underground railroad.
  • David Walker, a free black from Boston, published an outspoken pamphlet: Walker’s Appeal to the Colored Citizens in which he justified slave rebellion, warning of a slave revolt if their freedom was delayed; he called for a violent black rebellion in Boston around the time that Nat Turner’s revolt took place in Southampton County, VA
  • Frederick Douglass was born into slavery but then later escaped, became one of the most powerful abolitionists & orators
  • Douglass purchased his freedom & founded the antislavery newspaper the North Star in Rochester, NY, wrote an autobiography: Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, became the most influential force & led the first national convention in 1830.
  • Backlash against abolitionist movement especially white southerners but also white northerners; some warned that abolitionism would produce a sectional war

Abolitionism

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  • Intro 0:00
  • Overview 0:05
  • Free Blacks Urge Others to “Elevate” 1:17
    • Social Uplift
    • Whites Led Mob Attack Against Blacks
    • Moderates and Extremists
  • The Antislavery Movement 4:04
    • American Colonization Society
    • Gradual Manumission of Slaves
    • Decline of Antislavery Movement
  • Abolitionists 5:36
    • Free African Americans
    • Threat of Being Kidnapped
    • Liberator
  • Moderate and Extreme Approaches 8:20
    • Advocating for Moderate Approach
    • Radical Abolitionists
    • Evangelical Christians
  • William Lloyd Garrison 11:01
    • Newspaper: Liberator
    • Reject Gradualism
    • New England Antislavery Society
  • David Walker 13:36
    • Walker's Appeal to the Colored Citizens
    • National Convention in Philly
    • Collective Equality for All Blacks
  • Nat Turner 16:06
    • Bloody Revolt in Southampton Country, Virginia
    • Turner's Men
    • The Virginia Legislature
    • Southern States Toughened their Slave Codes
  • The Underground Railroad 20:21
  • Frederick Douglass 23:10
    • Most Powerful Abolitionists and Orators
    • North Star in Rochester, NY
    • Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass
    • Friend with Garrison
  • Douglass and the North Star 27:01
  • Other Evangelical Abolitionists 27:11
    • Theodore Dwight Weld
    • Angelina and Sarah Grimke
    • American Anti-Slavery Society
    • Sojourner Truth
  • Anti-Abolitionism 32:12
    • Backlash Against Abolitionist Movement
    • Prudence Crandall
    • Abolitionist Headquarters
  • Amistad 33:35
    • The Spanish Slave Vessel Amistad
    • Prigg v. PA
    • Federal Fugitive Slave Laws
  • Abolitionists and Politics 35:04
    • Ban Interstate Slave Trade and Abolish Slavery
    • Restrict the Use of Mail
    • The Liberty Party
    • James G. Birney
    • Free Soil
    • Women's Rights
  • Example 1 38:09
  • Example 2 40:46
  • Example 3 43:09

Transcription: Abolitionism

Welcome back to www.educator.com.0000

In this lesson, we are going to focus on abolitionism.0002

We are going to talk about the cracks of the movement which began in the north,0008

as many African-Americans will start to advocate for their fellow African-Americans to elevate themselves,0014

especially the free blacks who tasted freedom, and are looking to help out their African-American brothers and sisters.0023

We are also going to talk about the growth of the antislavery movement throughout the antebellum era.0031

We will talk about the American colonization society, as well as other moderate and extreme abolitionists.0037

Those who are looking to abolish and get rid of slavery, and make it illegal.0045

We are also going to talk about resistance movements that African-Americans, 0056

as well as other abolitionist will partake in to advocate for the abolitionist cause, such as the Underground Railroad.0060

And then, we will also talk about some examples of anti-abolitionism and the backlash against these efforts.0068

Free blacks in the north, especially, will look to encourage their fellow African-Americans0079

to lift up themselves and to look in within their selves, and to become more disciplined and to educate.0088

To make sure that they are living clean lives and advocate for temperance, moral discipline, hard work, securing respectability,0102

and that all African-American should make a concerted effort to work toward equality, despite the very grim conditions in the north.0115

Even though, there were packets where slavery was not legal, and in the north, there were definitely more abolitionist.0128

There still is discrimination.0139

African-Americans were oftentimes marginalized and not allowed a lot of the opportunities as whites.0142

Black Americans felt that they had to go above and beyond to prove themselves as a people.0150

They had to look out for one another, and also encourage each other to live moral disciplined lives.0157

And to buy into this self made man and this protestant work ethic, in order to be respected by other Americans.0166

That will be important but we are going to see that despite these efforts, 0177

that oftentimes some whites felt threatened by the idea of African-Americans, living in the north and being neighbors alongside the whites.0182

We will see several attempts to suppress these efforts.0199

And oftentimes, mob attacks against blacks had resulted and a lot of violence was perpetrated against African-Americans.0205

As a result, we are seeing that increasingly the abolitionists cause, the antislavery cause is going to start to kick out0216

because it is becoming more and more necessary to address the slavery issue.0228

Many people who are very critical of slavery, moderates and extremist will start to take a stand one way or another against the institution.0234

I have mentioned this previously, when we talked about Monroe, 0247

but it is worth mentioning it in the overall chronology of the antislavery movement.0250

We know that as early as 1817, the American colonization society came up with the idea of what later will be known as the Back to Africa movement.0255

But this was an organization that was determined to resettle African-Americans in Africa, and in particular, in West Africa in Liberia.0267

In some cases, for the most part it was in Africa.0283

In some cases, it would be in the Caribbean.0286

In 1817, this is much earlier, the ACS proposed gradual manumission of slaves.0289

And masters, in return would receive compensation from charity or state funds.0295

They had some success with this program, they did establish Liberia, although, it was very difficult to maintain in the long run.0301

The logistics of it, getting African-Americans out of the United States and transporting them to Africa,0313

having the funding to not only transport them there, but to also compensate the slave owners was very difficult.0320

It had limits, and in many ways, led to the decline of the antislavery movement for the time being.0328

But we will see resurgence as again a lot of violence was perpetrated against blacks.0336

Of course, the great awakening is also going to encourage a lot of Christian minded Americans to walk the walk,0344

and to try to help the situation, and to call out slavery as an immoral institution, 0355

that had no place in a country that advocated for freedom and liberty.0365

Obviously, slavery is the antithesis of those values that had been respected, and is supposed to be part of the fabric of the United States.0371

We are going to see that more and more abolitionism will have an appeal to free African-Americans, especially, in the cities.0384

In 1850, there were about 250,000 free African-Americans.0393

Again, like I was mentioning previously, the conditions in the north is very difficult, poverty, poor living conditions,0399

limited housing opportunities, violence and oppression made life very difficult.0407

Yet, many free blacks are going to be able to transcend.0414

They are going to still feel motivated and obligated to help others who are in bondage.0419

And of course, even if you were free, there is a threat of being kidnapped by whites and forced back into slavery.0430

If you did not have your free papers on you, you can be at risk for being taken away and sent back into slavery.0436

Such as the case, there is a great movie that just came out last year, 12 Years A Slave, that is based on the true life story of Solomon Northup.0446

It is not a feel good kind of movie, although, there is a positive end, I do not want to spoil it for you, 0457

it does show the horrific reality of slavery.0463

Anyway, very similar situation, he was a free black and ends up getting caught up and spends 12 years as a slave.0469

Again, it is very difficult even if you were free, and risky, during the antebellum era.0480

But despite these difficulties, northern blacks were proud of their freedom and will also want to help those of whom who were enslaved.0487

Many subscribed to The Liberator which was an abolitionist newspaper that was founded by William Lloyd Garrison.0495

We will talk about him a little bit more later.0504

We will see that many will advocate for the moderate approach.0508

The idea here is to be patient, gradual, work within the system, 0513

try to fight through legal institutions to make the institution illegal, without using violence.0518

And also, to try to elevate the cause, you could say, that will perhaps bring more people in and bring more whites in.0525

We will see the others will reject this approach and take a more radical approach.0535

I used the term radical in a couple different ways here, meaning that there will be those who are considered immedious, 0544

They believe that slavery must be abolished immediately.0552

And that, slave owners do not need to be compensated for their loss.0557

That would perhaps be considered a radical approach at this point in time, putting in the historic context.0564

Yes, we will see radical abolitionist, we will take that approach and0573

some will even go a step further and look to inflict violence upon masters or those who support slavery.0576

A couple different types of radical abolitionist.0588

Some would directly attack or challenge government policies and the constitution.0591

That is going to become extremely important.0598

Some also will attack other institutions that were related to how African-Americans were being treated.0602

Others attacked other institutions like prison system, the mental health system that we will get into as well.0611

Garrison's followers, Garrison was much more of a radical abolitionist.0618

They took an uncompromising moral stance and helped runaway slaves find refuge0624

through the Underground Railroad, to the north or to Canada.0628

Where in 1833, slavery was abolished in Canada, consistent with what was happening in the British Empire.0633

Growing out of the second great awakening, we will see many religious peoples will get involved in the abolitionist movement, 0644

believing that that was their moral duty.0654

And this became ultimately a crusade to end slavery.0656

One such leader was William Lloyd Garrison, a very influential key abolitionist of the time, and founder of The Liberator.0663

This became widely read, here is an example of the heading here, and would include articles about the cruelties of slavery.0676

It would help to publicize important works such as Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin 0688

which became a very widely read novel that depicted the cruelties of slavery.0698

Anyway, back to Garrison, and also pictures of the wounds that a lot of slaves were beaten by their masters that they had to live with.0706

This was supposed to shock a lot of the readers, so that they would be drawn into the abolitionists cause, would advocate to end slavery.0719

Anyway, Garrison becomes very outspoken and very involved in the abolitionist movement, 0730

and his philosophy that opponents of slavery should view slavery from the black mans point of view, 0736

not the slave owners point of view.0741

Instead of trying to accommodate them and take a much more modern approach, be more flexible, and see both sides.0744

He who was like there is no way of rationalizing this at all,0752

and that we should not be sympathetic or empathetic to the slave owners perspective.0757

He totally rejects gradualism, and in fact demands immediate abolition of slavery.0762

And that also, the Federal government should extend citizenship to blacks.0771

He is very adamant about his position.0780

And he eventually attracts a large following in the north and helps to found the New England Antislavery Society in 1832.0784

He will end up going on circuits throughout, especially the north, to rally up a lot of support 0797

and eventually their activity flourishes from 1835 to about 1838.0804

Another important abolitionist is David Walker, he was a free black from Boston.0818

You may have noticed that William Lloyd Garrison was a white American.0824

You could see whites, blacks, all people were involved in the abolitionist movement.0830

David Walker was a free black from Boston who published an outspoken pamphlet that was quite harsh and quite radical.0836

It was called Walker’s appeal to colored citizens.0846

Of course, this is the older language, we do not use this word today, but a term that was widely used at that point in time.0849

His appeal in which he justified a slave rebellion warning of a slave revolt, if their freedom was delayed.0858

He is taking a very radical approach, and saying that African-American slaves should rise up 0867

and take matters into their own hands to fight against this unjust system.0874

He calls for a violent black rebellion in Boston, around the time that Nat Turner's revolt took place in Southampton County, Virginia.0879

I will be talking about that in a bit, because that is also going to be a very important slave revolt 0888

that is another example of a very radical approach to dealing with the slavery issue.0895

We will saved a backlash, of course, yet, we will see continued efforts by abolitionist.0903

Anyway, in 1830, African-American activists called the national convention in Philadelphia, 0910

and of course, Pennsylvania was considered free territory.0918

Slavery was banned.0925

Philadelphia will become an important hub in the Underground Railroad, and ultimately in the abolitionist movement.0929

During the convention, the delegates did not endorse Walker’s radical call for revolt, 0937

but they made collective equality for all blacks, their fundamental demand.0945

We will see that there are different approaches in this.0951

In some ways it divided the abolitionist movement and created challenges, because some are more radical than others.0957

Divisiveness can oftentimes hurt movements, when there isn't a unified vision.0966

A little bit about Nat Turner, he was a slave who believed that he was chosen to carry Christ's burden of suffering in a race war.0974

And in fact, he had several instances when he had religious experiences and visions, 0984

where he wholeheartedly believed that his purpose, he was looking for signs in life and became deeply religious and spiritual,0994

and believed that he was on this earth to help African-Americans fight for freedom.1006

He will become instrumental in staging a crucial but futile revolt in South Hampton County Virginia.1015

We will see that he will be involved in fighting against several of, specifically, the Travis farm,1028

which was his own master, and a lot of the slave owners in the region.1045

He will help to coordinate several other slaves to rise up, and this was a very violent uprising.1053

Turner's men end up killing about 60 whites in 1831.1061

They go at night and they just kill families, and this is very radical.1068

He was hoping that, what he viewed was brave, this brave action to inflict violence to how awful this institution was, and that it was immoral.1073

And that, African-American slaves had to take matters into their own hands and fight back,1088

in order to change and eradicate this system.1097

He was hoping that others would join in and rally to his cause.1105

He views himself as a martyr but eventually there is going to be a huge backlash,1110

and we will see a concerted effort to capture Turner and his men.1116

He will eventually, he hid for awhile, he has hid in several places.1123

But eventually on October 30th, he was discovered and captured.1132

His supposed confession that was dictated to Thomas Gray was taken while he was imprisoned in the county jail.1137

On November 5th, Nat Turner was trialed in South Hampton County court and sentenced to execution.1145

He was hanged then skinned on November 11.1152

This caused a tizzy in Virginia.1161

Obviously, extremely violent both ways, and a huge reaction.1167

Shaken by Turner's rebellion, we will see the Virginia legislature debated a bill for emancipation.1171

Even considered ending slavery and colonization.1179

But the bill was rejected by a very small margin.1185

The possibility that southern planters would legislate an end to slavery will essentially fade after this vote.1190

Instead, we will see southern states, not only Virginia but other states too, 1199

will toughen their slave codes and prohibited anyone from teaching a slave to read.1205

They were reactionary and became even more oppressive and repressive in their efforts to prevent more outbreaks from happening.1211

Another key abolitionist and activist during the antebellum era, and even into the Civil war, was Harriet Tubman.1226

She was known as Moses of the people.1237

Tubman who had been a slave, perhaps the most famous of the conductors,1241

people who helped runaway slaves, helped accompany them to the free territory or to Canada.1251

During a 10 year span, she made 19 trips into the south and escorted over 300 slaves to freedom.1260

As she once proudly pointed out to Frederick Douglass in all of her journeys, she never lost a single passenger.1269

She was a very brave woman who went through tremendous difficult times.1277

Even ended up having a terrible injury, when one of the overseers ended up throwing this some type of weighted object1284

that gave a blow to her head and she was never the same ever since.1297

But she was really a tough lady who went back for her family and went back for other people time and time again, 1303

and was instrumental in bringing people to freedom.1312

The Underground Railroad not a real railroad, but this is a great map to show you the major routes of the escape to the north.1319

One of the major hubs was like Rochester because very close to the Canadian border.1331

This was a series of safe houses and a network of people who were involved in helping slaves escape to free territory.1338

But very risky and they had to have secretive codes for communication,1347

because there were slave catchers who are looking to return slaves to the south.1356

Because slave owners were concerned about investments and their property,1361

and very much inspired to make more money on their plantations.1366

There are also fugitive slave laws in place that required even in the north and free territories, 1373

that government is to return runaway slaves, fugitive slaves.1381

It was a very risky undertaking to get involved in the Underground Railroad.1385

Frederick Douglas, he was born into slavery but then later escaped and became one of the most powerful abolitionists and orders.1391

Extremely important.1400

He was very influential because he had, under the institution of slavery, he was a slave himself, and lived to tell the horrific stories.1402

He eventually was able to purchase his freedom and founded the antislavery newspaper, the Northstar in Rochester New York.1415

I should also mention, actually related to the Underground Railroad, 1426

that the Northstar is very important because if people did not have maps during these times of escape, 1429

they would look for the north star to lead them to the north.1438

Very important to African-Americans and runaway slaves.1441

Frederick Douglass actually was very much enamored by the efforts of William Lloyd Garrison.1447

Garrison actually takes him under his wing at first and helps to give him a lot of encouragement in his ability to speak,1459

even though he had been enslaved for so many years.1471

But he eventually, Douglass, that is, wrote an autobiography, The Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass.1476

Despite apprehensions that the information would endanger his life for telling the truth about slavery, 1487

and that perhaps his former slave owners could hunt him down or something, 1499

he was brave enough to express his experiences in his book, as well as in his speeches.1503

Three years later after he actually wrote the book, in 1845, he ended up speaking in England, Ireland, Scotland,1515

and became very much involved in the newspaper that he founded.1524

We are going to see that eventually he and Garrison will diverge over a few issues.1533

In fact, Garrison was much more radical than Douglass.1542

Douglass did not believe that the constitution was necessarily a pro slavery document,1547

whereas Garrison is going to be quite outspoken and even rips up the constitution at some point, 1555

and believes this to be an evil force.1563

Douglass also did not advocate for the dissolution of the union, since it would isolate slaves in the south.1569

In many ways, Douglass was much more pragmatic and that is going to cause a strain in their relationship.1578

That will dishearten Garrison who feels that he helped bring him to prominence and so forth.1586

But they do eventually make amends at the end but they did have a bit of rivalry, 1593

and did have some disagreement over the vision of the abolitionist movement.1601

But both very instrumental and influential overall, and that is the main point.1607

We will see besides Douglass, besides Garrison, even more evangelical abolitionists speaking out and getting involved, 1615

that we will talk about in a second.1623

Here is a picture of a young Frederick Douglass and his Northstar.1627

Some other abolitionists who are evangelicals, Theodore Dwight Weld, who wrote the bible against slavery, 1634

inspired a group of students at Lane Theological Seminary in Cincinnati to form an antislavery society.1644

And in fact, throughout, especially, the north, but in a few places in the south as well, we will see antislavery societies emerge.1651

Angelina and Sarah Grimke were active in also advocating for the abolitionist cause 1660

and they compiled evidence of cruel conditions of slaves in American slavery as it is a testimony of a thousand witnesses.1668

The Grimke sisters from the south will become involved in the abolitionist movement, 1678

as they just become against slavery, and it is very outputting and they are very religious women.1685

They are also involved to a great extent, in the women's rights movement.1700

As in fact, what we are going to see is that the abolitionist movement is going to make many Christian women, 1704

especially, involved in the public sphere, they are going to advocate for this important reform to end slavery.1712

And then, they are going to experience sexism, even in the abolitionist circles,1720

that will help to inspire them to start advocating for themselves and advocating for women's suffrage.1727

There is a huge connection during the antebellum era between abolitionism and women's rights.1734

In the next lesson, we are going to focus on women's rights.1742

But a lot of these different reforms intertwine and a lot of these protestant minded, reform minded, specially women,1745

but other reformers who were looking to improve society on many different levels,1757

improved race relations, economic conditions, social relations as well.1764

Anyway, the Grimke sisters, they helped to form the American Antislavery Society in Philadelphia.1771

This is a national antislavery society and related to what I was just saying, we will see more local level, 1778

many women will help found their own antislavery societies and organizations.1789

Sojourner Truth is another great example of a religious woman, 1797

who became very much involved in both the abolitionist movement and the women's movement.1802

She was actually born in 1797 as Isabella, she was a Dutch speaking slave in Ulster New York.1809

But she eventually ends up becoming free and moves to New York City, 1823

and soon thereafter became a preacher in the perfectionist or Pentecostal tradition.1830

Her fate actually brought her into contact with abolitionists, as well as women's rights crusaders.1838

She ends up traveling extensively and even publishes the narrative of Sojourner Truth which detailed the suffering that she witnessed as a slave.1845

Her speeches were not political but they were based on a unique interpretation, as a woman and a former slave, of the bible.1861

She was very much inspired by religious ideas and she wrote the famous poem called Ain't I a Woman.1871

In this, she advocates for women's rights and also shows her toughness as a human being.1881

And even refutes a lot of the arguments that women are inferior to men, and just uses plain old common sense to get her point across.1891

That actually will come up a little bit more in the next lesson.1910

Please come back, she ends up giving this famous speech Ain't I a Woman at the Ohio women's rights convention.1913

She shows how the abolitionist movement and the women's movement are inextricably linked.1923

We will also see a backlash against efforts to abolish slavery, anti-abolitionism.1935

This will be prominent amongst white southerners but also white northerners.1944

Some warned that abolitionism would produce a sectional war or a civil war.1953

Violence was oftentimes directed against abolitionists in the 1830’s.1959

Even if you were white, white black, especially if you are African-American 1964

but even if you were white abolitionists, you could also be targeted.1969

Another example of this would be when Prudence Crandall admitted African-American girls to a private school.1975

We are going to see she is going to receive a lot of backlash.1982

Local citizens had her arrested, they threw filth in her well, and her school was closed down.1985

People were pretty nasty, they were discriminatory, they were racist, 1992

and not supportive of people who were trying to improve the lives of African-Americans.2000

Abolitionists headquarters and abolitionist themselves were attacked.2009

The Amistad incident, abolitionist also help fund the legal battle over the Spanish slave vessel Amistad.2017

During this incident, Africans destined for slavery in Cuba, seized the ship and tried to return it to Africa in 1839 2026

but the U.S. Navy seized the ship and held the slaves as pirates.2035

To make a long story short, this ends up going to the Supreme Court, 2040

where the antislavery position was argued by former president John Quincy Adams, who was very much against slavery.2044

The court ends up declaring that the Africans were free in 1841.2052

However, we are going to see a year later in Prigg vs. Pennsylvania, 2057

the court ruled that states do not have to aid the enforcement of the 1793 law requiring the return of fugitive slaves to their owners.2062

This is also going to show the illegal conflicts that we are starting to see between states and Federal law.2074

This is the other thing that is conflicting here.2085

Free states also could not pass laws negating Federal fugitive slave laws within their borders.2088

This is becoming a huge contentious issue that is going to blow up and causes tensions between the north and the south.2095

Politics are also going to be affected by slavery.2106

Abolitionists will pressure the government to ban slave trade and that is kind of like stage 1.2111

Eventually that will happen, and abolish slavery in DC but they had limited success.2117

In fact, going back to the administration of Jackson, you may remember that 2124

he also asked Congress to restrict the use of mail by abolitionist groups,2130

which could perhaps be considered unconstitutional that would restrict people's free speech.2136

Yet, Jackson was a slave owner, he was no friend to abolitionists.2143

We will see that in many ways, the abolitionist were working at the grassroots level.2149

And they did not form a political party until 1840, and it was appropriately named the Liberty Party.2156

We are going to see that they are not going to have a huge following and will not be able to win an election.2165

More of the most famous candidates ran on the Liberty Party ticket was James G. Bernie, who ran as a presidential candidate.2172

They did not campaign for true abolition, however.2182

They campaigned for free soil.2185

This will become part of the free soil movement which means keeping slavery out of the new territories.2188

We will get into this when we talk about westward expansion, manifest destiny,2197

and when western territories will start to come into the union.2201

And there are going to be territories that are not officially states.2208

There is a big contentious debate whether slavery should be extended or banned.2212

Anyway, the free soil position was that wherever slavery was legal, it should remain.2219

But in the new territories, it should not be legal.2226

It should be banned, it should not be allowed.2230

That is the idea, keep the new territories free, free soil movement.2232

And in fact, Abraham Lincoln will buy into this movement at first, although he will later change to the Republican Party.2237

But more about that later.2245

Nonetheless, we will see the abolitionist movement is diverse.2248

It is sometimes divided which will cause problems.2254

And even with the female members, we are going to see that the abolitionist movement will certainly overshadow issues related to gender.2258

But we will see many cases, many male abolitionist will also support women's rights.2269

Like Frederick Douglass, he will be a huge advocate of women's rights and will even participate in the Seneca Falls convention.2277

We will talk about that next time.2284

Let us get into the assessments.2288

Example 1, this is from Garrison, the declaration of sentiments of the American antislavery society.2292

Here we go, with entire confidence in the overruling justice of God, we plant ourselves upon the Declaration of Independence and upon the truths of divine revelations.2300

We shall organize the antislavery societies if possible, in every town and village of our land.2315

We shall send forth agents to lift up the voice of remonstrance, of warning, of entreaty, and rebuke.2321

We will do all that it is as lies, consistently with this declaration of our principles,2329

to overthrow the most execrable system of slavery that has ever been witnessed upon earth.2336

To deliver our land from its deadliest curse.2347

to wipe out the foulest stain which rests upon our nation, 2351

and to secure to the colored population of the United States all the rights and privileges which belong to them as men and as Americans,.2354

whether we live to witness the triumph of justice, liberty, and humanity, 2366

or perish untimely as martyrs in this great, benevolent and holy cause.2369

Which of the following does Garrison use to justify his cause?2383

The constitution, the Declaration of Independence, the Mayflower compact, or Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God?2391

The answer.2402

Garrison could best be understood as,2407

A radical abolitionist, a moderate abolitionist, a gradualist, a pro slavery.2412

The answer.2422

Which of the following groups was Garrison mostly associated with?2427

The Underground Railroad, the antislavery societies, the American colonization society, or the free soil movement?2431

The answer.2439

Moving on, the Christian women of the south embody themselves in societies 2447

and send petitions up to the different legislatures entreating their husbands, fathers, brothers, sons, to abolish the institution of slavery.2458

No longer to tear husband's from their wives, and children from their parents.2471

No longer to make men, women, and children work without wages.2475

No longer to make their lives bitter in hard bondage, no longer to reduce American citizens to the abject conditions of slaves, of chattels personnel.2479

No longer to barter the image of god in human shambles for corruptible things such as silver and gold.2494

Angelina Grimke, appeal to the Christian women of the south, 1836.2506

Which of the following groups does Grimke mostly advocate to oppose slavery in this passage?2521

Males, children, northerners, or women?2528

Just to qualify, this is actually asking within the passage.2539

She is appealing to women but she is directly referring to men in the actual body of the appeal.2559

The Grimke sisters were most influenced by,2572

The first great awakening, the second great awakening, the Shakers, the temperance movement?2576

The answer is the second great awakening.2583

Short answer, briefly explain why one of the following best supports the view that by the mid 19th century, 2594

the antislavery movement had gradually become more radical.2599

The American colonization society, The Liberator, or Nat Turner?2605

You may remember this was the movement back to Liberia, back to Africa.2612

This was also looking to compensate slave owners for their loss of their property, their slaves.2620

I’m going to actually choose this one.2632

You can try one on your own.2638

The Liberator was an abolitionist newspaper that was published by William Lloyd Garrison,2640

where he advocated for his immediate stance on the abolition of slavery throughout the United States,2645

without compensation for the slave owners.2654

Contrast your choice against one of the other options demonstrating why that option is not as good as your choice.2659

Let us do the American colonization society that was founded in 1817, 2681

advocated for a move back to Africa and to establish the colony of Liberia.2695

This was not as radical as The Liberator which called for the abolition of slavery without compensation for slave owners.2704

Therefore, not quite as radical as what The Liberator was calling for.2712

Let us do letter C, briefly explain one critical response to the changes during this period.2725

In response to the antislavery movement becoming gradually more radical, any antislavery sentiment and discussion in the south ended.2731

The Nat Turner rebellion brought swift retaliation and whites killed hundreds of African-Americans, and put down the revolt.2740

That is kind of focusing on the backlash against these movements to end slavery 2751

or to rebel and encourage African-Americans to rise up and kill their masters.2758

With that, we are done talking about abolitionism.2766

But we will certainly pick up this theme once we get into the civil war, that is for sure.2770

Stay tuned.2777

Anyway, thank you for watching www.educator.com.2779