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The Enlightenment and the Great Awakening in America

  • Enlightenment thinkers advanced four fundamental principles: the order of the natural world, the power of human reason, the natural rights of individuals (including the right to self-gov,) and the progressive improvement of society
  • Beginning in 1739, George Whitefield, an Anglican priest and powerful orator with charismatic appeal, was a follower of John Wesley’s preaching style who transformed local revivals into a “Great Awakening” a religious movement in the 1740s that led to growth of more Protestant churches
  • Religious emotionalism/revivalism/evangelicalism expanded & it helped people stop fearing the disobedience to authority & damnation
  • The Awakening undermined support of traditional churches & challenged their tax-supported status; “separatist” churches were founded that favored the separation of church & state
  • The Great Awakening helped foster religious toleration & encouraged unity among the different colonies: as “Americans”

The Enlightenment and the Great Awakening in America

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  • Intro 0:00
  • Overview 0:07
  • The Enlightenment 3:04
    • The Age of Reason
    • Empirical Research and Scientific Reasoning
  • Influential Enlightenment Ideas 6:45
    • Four Fundamental Principles
    • John Locke
    • Two Treaties of Government
    • Revolutionary Ideas
    • Two Non-clergy-led Universities
  • Deism 14:32
    • Accordance with the Law of Nature
    • Ben Franklin
  • Ben Franklin 16:02
    • Key Contributor of American Revolution
    • Founder of the Junto Club
    • American Philosophical Society
  • Franklin's Poor Richard's Almanak 18:16
    • Almanacs
    • Richard Saunders
    • Wise Maxims
  • American Pietism 19:53
    • Pietism
    • Evangelical Christian Movement
    • Jonathan Edwards
  • The Great Awakening 22:18
    • Christian Zeal
    • George Whitefield
    • New Light
  • George Whitefield 24:06
  • The Great Awakening 24:46
    • Growth of Churches
    • Emotionalism, Revivalism, Evangelicalism
    • Itinerant Ministers
    • New Colleges
  • Jonathan Edwards 26:14
    • Revivalist and Intellectual
    • Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God
    • Eternal Damnation
  • Religious Upheaval in the North 28:34
    • Old Light
    • Unconverted Sinners
    • Separatist Churches
  • Presbyterianism 31:26
    • Protestant Church Government
    • Geneva, Switzerland
    • Hostility of Irish Catholics
  • Reverend William Tennent 32:39
    • Scots-lrish Immigrant
    • Log College
    • Picture
  • Effects of the Great Awakening 34:08
    • Americans
    • Emotionalism
    • The Congregational and Presbyterian
    • Baptists and Methodists
  • Growth in the Number of Churches 37:35
  • Example 1 38:07
  • Example 2 41:09

Transcription: The Enlightenment and the Great Awakening in America

Welcome back to www.educator.com.0000

This lesson is on the enlightenment and the great awakening in America.0003

We are going to talk about the importance of enlightenment ideals and how these ideas influenced the colonists.0011

That is going to be really important during this colonial era and certainly when we get to the period of the American revolution,0021

and the period when we see the founding fathers trying to create a constitution.0029

That is going to be extremely important.0037

I cannot overstate the importance of enlightenment ideals and ideas.0039

We are also going to talk about some of the main enlightenment thinkers, both European as well as American such as Ben Franklin.0046

He is really a quintessential enlightenment thinker.0057

We are going to discuss his importance, and his role in this early stage0061

and development of enlightenment thought in the American Colonies.0066

We are also going to talk about some other belief systems, intellectual movements, and religious ideas, like deism and pietism.0071

We are also going to talk about a very important religious movement in the early to mid 1700’s called the great awakening.0080

When we talk about that, we are also going to talk about the struggles between the old lights and the new lights.0091

The new lights will be the ones who will embrace the ideas that are flourishing during the great awakening,0101

and the old lights are holding onto the way that things were done previously in churches.0109

Along the same lines, talking about the great awakening, we are going to talk about some important religious leaders and preachers0117

who helped to spread the word, and to get this thing going, and help these revivals become popular and influential in colonial America.0127

And tied to that, both the enlightenment and the great awakening will have a huge effect on this last one here,0138

the growth of education in colonial America.0147

As you know, with the founding of Harvard, the intention was to help train ministers.0152

In that same vein, we are going to see the emergence of even more universities and colleges during the colonial era,0162

that will be a result of this flourishing in intellectualism, as well as religious ideas and fervor, revivalism.0172

Let us get into it.0183

What is the enlightenment?0186

Perhaps, you have learned about this in a world history class or in global studies type of class.0188

Let us talk about the importance of the enlightenment.0197

It is oftentimes also called the age of reason, you definitely need to know about this movement, it is very important.0200

It also refers to an era in history.0209

This is an era in western philosophy, intellectual, scientific, and cultural life, centered around the 18th century.0215

Although, it does start in the late 17th century but it really grows in the 18th century.0222

The idea of the primary foundation in the enlightenment is that reason should be the primary source for legitimacy and authority.0232

That people must use reason in the way that they view the world.0244

That is going to have a revolutionary effect on the way people think about their relationship in society,0251

their relationship to government, what a government is.0260

That is going to be significant in the overall development of American ethos.0265

Our ideas about freedom, in many ways, stemmed from the enlightenment era.0273

Let us put this in the context, during this time, and we are talking 1700’s, many Americans,0281

many early Americans believed in folk wisdom while others relied on religion0291

that believed that the earth was the center of the universe.0295

And that God intervenes directly and continuously in all kinds of human affairs.0299

We will see that during the scientific revolution, several scientists will have new discoveries, and new knowledge is shared to several people.0307

This is a great example, in the century between Newton’s Principia Mathematica, and the French Revolution in 1789,0324

we will see the philosophers of the European enlightenment used empirical research and scientific reasoning0332

to study all aspects of life including social institutions and human behavior.0339

Scientific ideas are going to have an influence on the enlightenment period and when people start to analyze power relationships,0346

specially, in government and society, as well as in human nature.0359

They start to advocate to use reason, that you need to use the scientific method,0366

in order to prove something, in order for something to have legitimacy.0374

That is going to be really important.0381

Once people start to make new discoveries like the heliocentric theory, that kind of turns this folk wisdom on its head,0385

that is going to be revolutionary, as people are going to change the way that they think.0397

That will certainly challenge the church, specially, the Roman Catholic Church.0403

And of course, a lot of the critics during the scientific revolution were called heretics and punished,0410

but that did not stop the ball from rolling.0419

Intellectuals will continue to push the envelope and push the boundaries.0426

They want to be enlightened, they want to use reason to understand their world.0431

That is going to be a very important factor in the colonial period because especially amongst the educated classes.0440

Enlightenment thinkers will advance four fundamental principles, this is important.0452

The order of the natural world, the power of human reason, the natural rights of individuals including the right to self government,0457

and the progressive improvement of society.0470

This is the crux of what they are trying to advocate for.0477

One of the main enlightenment thinkers that you should certainly know is John Locke.0483

There are certainly others and we will talk about them a little bit later, like Hobbes and Montesquieu, and Voltaire.0489

Perhaps, you learned about them in a world history class,0498

when you learn about the French revolution at some point, or the American revolution.0503

You know that a lot of these enlightenment thinkers were very influential over with the type of government we have,0510

our declaration of independence, as well as the constitution.0517

Anyway, I’m getting ahead myself but stay tuned.0522

John Locke is really important enlightenment thinker.0529

He proposed that human lives were not fixed, but it can be changed thru education and purposeful action.0533

He had a very progressive view of human nature, a positive view of human nature, that sometimes we hear this nature vs. nurture.0543

He believed in nurture, that people could really change someone in a very positive way,0555

if they are educated and empowered, and given the skills.0564

That is going to be extremely important during this time period.0569

He wrote prolifically and one of his works into treaties of governments.0574

He advanced the theory that political authority was not divinely ordained0579

but rather sprang from social compacts people made to preserve their national rights to life, liberty, and property.0586

Sounds familiar, not pursuit of happiness but property, and that is really important.0597

A lot of things are important in this little section here.0604

He was against divine rights, that of course is a new way of thinking.0609

Again, he is going to say local authority sprang from social compacts, social agreements.0616

People coming together, reaching some kind of consensus agreement, and abandon this state of nature and create government.0622

That is going to be really important.0643

He also will emphasize the importance of protecting natural rights.0645

Rights, that we are all born with, just for being human, those rights to life, liberty, and property.0650

Property is very important to the enlightenment thinkers.0660

We will see that is going to also influence our law, as private property still is valued very much in our society.0664

Here are several of those other enlightenment thinkers.0679

European enlightenment ideas and writings not only of Locke but also of Montesquieu, Baron de Montesquieu, Thomas Hobbes,0681

as well, began to affect colonists beliefs about science, religion, and politics,0691

and added a secular, non religious dimension to colonial intellectual life.0697

That is really important.0705

These ideas influenced revolutionary ideas that affected the government,0707

and that was created under the constitution, as I was just saying before.0712

These enlightenment ideas will start amongst the most educated circles,0722

but it will eventually have a general influence over academia and among commoners, eventually.0728

Obviously, some of this sophisticated language will need to be broken down to the common people, and that will take some time.0736

But those who are most, who were very well educated, and0747

have access to these ideas and to these books, will certainly embrace a lot of the enlightenment ideas.0752

Here I have some more details, the importance of science, reason,0761

direct observation of natural phenomenon rather than god's revelations.0765

In this lesson, we are seeing two things happening at the same time.0772

We are seeing a secular movement, which I would say is the enlightenment happening around the same time as a religious movement.0777

That is also really interesting and that is part of our history, and that is many ways part of who we are today in the United States.0788

We have that tension like a secular element in our society, as well a religious aspect too.0797

Sometimes they work well together and then sometimes they clash.0807

That is another theme, I would say, throughout U.S. history, and even today in our culture.0810

Moving on, related to that, two non clergy led universities were founded.0820

As you could see, the influence of the enlightenment.0828

The College of Pennsylvania in 1751, later renamed as the University of Pennsylvania, today popularly known as Penn.0832

And, King's College in 1754, that was later Columbia.0845

That is going to be a shift from Harvard, as you remember, Harvard,0853

that believed in having a strong divinity school, still does, and they believed in training ministers.0859

We are going to start to see a kind of secularism making its way into universities and academia.0869

Tied into that, we are also going to see the idea of deism, like the deity.0880

This is a belief that God had created the world to run in accordance with the laws of nature and natural reason,0890

there it is again, without his intervention.0899

God does not intervene.0907

Deism also rejected original sin of man, although they did believe in a supreme being, they did not believe in Christ divinity.0911

That is significantly different than other traditional Christian religious ideas.0924

This is where we are going to see the influence of enlightenment ideas on religious beliefs.0933

The ideas is people have their religious beliefs in a much more personal way.0942

Some influential colonists, including inventor and printer Ben Franklin turn to deism.0950

Speaking of Ben Franklin, he is an all-round guy, he can do it all.0963

He was a brilliant man, enlightenment thinker, a scientist, inventor, printer, player.0970

He liked the ladies, he was kind of a wild man.0977

He was very talented though and he did have a bit of a troubled family life.0984

He is an interesting guy, you should read more about him.0989

He wrote the first newspaper, first national newspaper.0994

Ben Franklin, he is a big one.0999

He is on the $100 bill, you should know about him.1002

He is a key contributor during the American Revolution.1007

But he got a name from his self, his printing business and as a writer.1011

He definitely has a great sense of humor, but very much an intellectual.1020

He lived in New England but eventually worked his way down to Pennsylvania.1027

He was a founder of the Junto club where people could discuss morals, politics, or natural philosophy.1033

He also was a founder of the American Philosophical Society,1041

an institution devoted to the promotion of useful knowledge, which is quintessentially Ben Franklin.1047

Even though, he was very well educated and talented, he was not really a snob.1058

He believed that knowledge should be useful and practical.1064

In that way, he really is an American thinker, an early American thinker.1068

He was very practical in that regard and very wise, and simple ideas that he advocated.1075

He wrote Poor Richard's almanac.1087

Even with the name, you can see that his humor, and this is a good example of him1091

wanting to provide practical information to people.1101

Almanacs provide a wide variety of topics within these publications.1107

He used the pseudonym Richard Sanders and he used other ones as well, to try to hide his identity.1116

Anyway, back to the almanac, this served as a guide to weather forecasts.1127

It also included many wise maxims.1132

He liked having to say about pretty much everything.1136

I have a few for you, just for fun.1143

You probably heard that a penny saved is a penny earned.1145

Here are a couple of other ones.1151

By failing to prepare, you are preparing to fail, a famous Ben Franklin saying.1152

Either way it is something worth reading or do something worth writing.1160

Here is another fun one, wine is constant proof that God loves us and loves to see us happy.1166

Tell me and I forget, teach me and I remember, involve me and I learn.1174

One more, without continual growth and progress, such words as improvement, achievement, and success, had no meaning.1180

A little bit about Ben Franklin, interesting guy.1190

He will be really important during the Revolutionary period, and certainly,1193

a key contributor and founding father during the constitutional convention.1199

We are going to shift gears and talk about American Pietism.1210

While educated Americans turn to deism, other colonists turn to pietism,1213

which came to America with German migrants in the 1720’s, and sparked a religious revival.1219

Pietism which was an evangelical Christian movement that stressed the individual’s personal relationship with God,1227

emphasized pious behavior, religious emotion, and the striving for a mystical union with God.1236

This idea of emotion is going to be a key factor in the great awakening, which we are going to start transitioning to, in a minute here.1245

This is one of the movements that is going to emphasize individualism, the individual relationship to god.1258

Instead of, whereas, the Puritans were advocating for conformity and more of a communal approach to religion and the congregation.1267

This is moving away from that.1283

In Pennsylvania and in New Jersey, we will also see Dutch minister Theodore Jacob Frelinghuysen,1288

preach rousing emotional sermons to German settlers.1295

We are going to see that the ministers are going to show a lot of emotion, instead of being proper and more subdued.1302

That is going to be a game changer, that is going to be a significant shift in religious life, in the colonial era.1314

That is going to be important in New England.1325

Jonathan Edwards did the same for congregational churches in the Connecticut River Valley.1328

Let us talk about the great awakening.1341

In the 1730’s, this is a really important movement that you need to know about.1345

In the 1730’s, the strict Calvinist, New England minister Jonathan Edwards1351

restored Christian zeal to congregational churches in the Connecticut River Valley and helped to influence enlightenment thought,1355

by agreeing with Locke, that ideas are the product of experience.1363

We are going to see an interplay between enlightenment ideas and the great awakening which is really important.1371

Beginning in 1739, the compelling George Whitefield who was another influential priest,1379

Anglican priest and powerful order, had charismatic appeal.1386

He was another important person.1392

He was also a follower of Edward's and also a follower of John Wesley's preaching style,1395

who transformed local revivals into a great awakening.1403

The revival is when people come together and they are starting to show emotion during this time period.1409

It is indicative of the religious fervor that was emerging and spreading throughout the colonies.1421

Hundreds of colonists felt what they called the new light of God's grace,1428

and were eager to spread Whitefield's message throughout their communities.1436

This is the great awakening where we are going to see people looking to become saved,1443

and to feel this emotionalism, and strengthen their relationship to God.1453

Here is a picture of Whitefield, he actually looks a bit cross-eyed in this picture.1464

You can see that the artist is trying to portray how he is being dramatic, emotional.1470

The people are looking up at him, they are in amazement.1479

Yes, importance of how this new style of preaching, if you will, giving sermons.1485

These religious movements, certainly, lead to the growth of more churches.1493

Religious emotionalism, revivalism, and oftentimes called evangelicalism.1499

We still see that today.1504

We have modern evangelical churches who follow in the same vein in a modern sense.1507

Of course, they have different interpretations but the idea of showing out motion outward.1517

This helps people stop fearing the disobedience to authority and damnation.1527

People began criticizing itinerant ministers, however, at the universities.1533

New colleges were also founded during the great awakening such as College of New Jersey, now Princeton,1543

The College of Rhode Island now Brown; Queens College, Rutgers, that was founded by Dutch reformers,1552

and Dartmouth, founded by New Light Congregationalist.1561

Many new educational institutions are being established and coming out of this movement.1567

Here is a slide and this includes a picture that I actually took on one of my class trips to North Hampton, Massachusetts.1576

They had a little sign here that you could read about the history of Jonathan Edwards in the village of North Hampton.1586

As you could see, it is a beautiful fall day, in a nice perfect little quaint New England Town.1596

He was famous for this sermon called Sinners in the hands of an angry God.1604

Some more about Edwards, he is the most famous revivalist and intellectual of the great awakening.1614

Most active in North Hampton, Massachusetts, where he urges his congregation to be born again and made new creatures.1621

This is part of this new light approach.1635

Edwards initiated the great awakening with a series of sermons, notably the one I just mentioned,1641

Sinners in the hands of an angry God in 1741, very famous.1647

Invoking the Old Testament, Edwards argued that God was rightfully angry with human’s sinfulness.1653

This sounds kind of harsh, and that each individual who expressed deep penitence could be saved, this is the positive aspect.1661

There is this fearful, you may go to hell, type of message.1668

However, he also advocated that each individual who expressed deep penitence could be saved by God's grace.1677

But the souls who paid no heed to God's commandments would suffer eternal damnation.1686

He is going to speak with a lot of fervor and a lot of emotion,1695

and people are going to get really riled up by him, and be inspired to get involved in the church.1699

This is going to revive the church.1709

However, there will be a backlash.1716

Conservative or old light ministers condemned the preaching of traveling new light ministers for their emotionalism.1719

The old light did not like what the new lights were doing.1730

This was too cutting edge and scandalous, for allowing women to speak in public.1734

That was a change, more and more women were joining these new light churches,1744

and feeling the power of God, and feeling the power of the sermons.1749

What the new light revivalists, that traveling preachers were trying to do is to bring in more people1757

and to reach out to more ordinary people.1766

For instance, in Connecticut, travelling preachers, we will see a backlash against this.1769

They were prohibited from speaking, to establish congregations without the minister’s consent.1775

That was kind of a huge issue throughout New England, as this tension between new lights and old lights.1784

The old lights put more emphasis on the power of ministers and the new lights were trying to chip away at that.1792

In many ways, empower the congregation, empower the people, and put less emphasis in authority in the hands of the preacher, of the clergy.1802

It is like taking the Protestant Reformation even further, if you will.1818

But again, there were critics.1825

Some farmers, women, and artisans, condemned, this goes back and forth, the old lights as unconverted sinners.1826

We will see that the awakening undermined support of traditional churches and challenged their tax supported status.1838

That is pretty interesting.1846

We are seeing this progressive movement that is challenging the status quo and the elite, if you will.1847

More churches are going to form, separatist churches, in particular, were founded, that favored the separation of church and state.1857

You know that that is something that will be an influence later on in our constitution and in our Bill of Rights, the First Amendment.1867

That is something that was really a new development, something that was evolving in this colonial period.1878

Let us talk about another religious movement and church.1887

Presbyterianism, this is a form of Protestant church government in which the church is administered locally by the minister,1891

with a group of elected elders of equal rank, and regionally and nationally by representative courts of ministers and elders.1901

Presbyterianism was first introduced in Geneva, Switzerland, in 1541 under John Calvin,1911

in the belief that it best represented the pattern of the early church.1919

Many of the Scots who immigrated to North America were Presbyterians, as we talked about in the previous lesson.1924

We are going to see that they will continue to practice their faith, and they will come to America1936

because of the hostility of Irish Catholics toward them, and the unfair mercantilist laws imposed by the British.1942

These Scots-Irish will bring their Presbyterian beliefs as well, into the mix, which brings us to Rev. William Tennent,1954

led by the Presbyterians in Pennsylvania and New Jersey.1966

Rev. William Tennent, Scots-Irish immigrant and his family initiated revivals and established a seminary to train clergyman,1970

whose fervent heartfelt preaching would bring sinners to experience evangelical conversion.1981

We will see that the seminary that he advocated for, was established at the,1995

what was known back then, Log College, that is known today as Princeton University.2000

Gilbert Tennent asserted that minister’s authority should come not from theological training but from the conversion experience.2007

That is also going to be important, the experience.2020

How they are feeling it, the emotional aspect of the religion.2024

This was mentioned and discussed in his pamphlet called 'The Dangers of an Unconverted Ministry', where he outlines his ideas.2030

There he is, William Tennent.2044

Let us talk about the effects of the great awakening, very important movement in this colonial period.2050

It helped to foster religious toleration, obviously, to an extent, I would add, because we know that there were also divisions.2057

However, we are going to see that there is this progressive move, and there are more and more churches that are emerging.2068

Yes, it will help foster religious toleration and encourage unity among the different colonies.2079

We are starting to see during this time period, and many historians would actually point to this time period as a turning point,2089

where we start to see colonies come together and view themselves in a more unified way.2097

I might be overstating this a bit, but we are starting to see that they are starting to view themselves as American colonies.2107

We are seeing that shift.2117

It also spurred religious pluralism which ties in that idea and had an effect on the idea of separating church and state.2119

Emotionalism became a common part of Protestant services.2130

We still see that influence today, in a lot of Born Again movements and so forth, and other evangelical churches.2135

Ministers, in effect of the great awakening, had lost some of their formal authority among those who now study the Bible in their own homes.2147

Whereas, in previous times, the ministers where looked up to,2160

for their knowledge and their authority of the Bible, and looked to as important leaders.2167

We are going to see that the great awakening will disempower their role to a great extent,2179

and empower ordinary people to have a more personal relationship with the Bible and with God.2184

Although, we do see more pluralism and we see this diversity in thought, and we are seeing ideas being contested,2195

we also see a major division within churches such as the Congregational and Presbyterian churches.2205

Between those supporting the new light ideas went to backlash and those who were against those ideas, the old lights.2214

That will also be an effect of the great awakening that is pretty significant.2224

But we will see the continuation of new sects, the Baptists and the Methodist, who will attract large numbers.2230

In the next lesson, we will actually get into the spread of the great awakening, specially, into the southeastern part of the United States.2240

Stay tuned and come back to learn more.2250

We are just about finished here.2257

Here is another graph just to show you, once again, the huge growth in churches throughout the 1700’s.2259

Again, huge growth.2269

We looked at these types of statistics last time but just to give you a visual to show you.2271

Look, they grew tremendously, specially, Protestant churches, reformed churches, and Presbyterians.2278

Let us get into the practice questions.2289

We are doing multiple choice questions again here, the beginning.2293

Example 1, this is an excerpt from John Locke, that you should hopefully identify as an enlightenment thinker.2296

Here it goes, to understand political power right, and derive it from its original, we must consider what estate all men are naturally in,2305

and that is, a state of perfect freedom to order their actions, and dispose of their possessions and persons as they think fit,2316

within the boundaries of the law of nature, without asking leave or depending upon the will of any other man.2328

whosoever therefore out of a state of nature unite into a community,2337

must be understood to give up all the power, necessary to the ends for which they unite into society,2341

to the majority of the community.2349

And thus that, which begins and actually constitutes any political society,2353

is nothing but the consent of any number of freemen capable of a majority to unite.2357

And this is that, which did, or could give beginning to any lawful government in the world, John Locke.2365

Our questions -- according to John Locke, what is the primary force guiding men or humankind?2380

We will use that reading to base your answer.2390

God, freedom, the king, the world, or the majority?2394

The best answer here is freedom.2405

Let us look at number 2. Which of the following did Locke believe that political society was based on?2408

Agreement of the majority, traditional community values, divine right, unanimous agreement?2415

The answer is A, agreement of the majority.2428

Number 3, which of the following individuals in the colonies in the late 17th century would disagree with Locke’s idea?2437

A, a slave owner, B, a Puritan clergymen, C, a New England merchant, D, a woman?2448

The answer is a slave owner, they do not really advocate for freedom.2461

Our last example here.2472

Let us read through this.2484

Remember, we have to answer for the short answer questions.2489

We have to answer these, each with one complete sentence per letter.2493

A, identify and explain one way that the great awakening changed America socially.2500

Identify and explain one way that great awakening changed America socially.2508

You may want to pause this, do your own answer to increase yourself.2516

I will give you an example.2523

The great awakening led to greater religious toleration amongst the diverse religious groups2525

and the colonies began to embrace pluralism.2532

You can even add religious pluralism.2538

I have put pluralism generally because of pluralist ideas.2542

Let us look at B, identify and explain one way that the great awakening changed America politically.2550

My example, the great awakening had a democratizing effect by changing the way people viewed authority,2560

and they began to question authority, or question their government, you could even say.2569

The last piece, identify and explain one way that the great awakening changed America culturally.2580

Here is my example.2592

Again, there are a lot of different ways that you can approach this.2594

Do not get mad at yourself if you do not answer exactly the way that I do.2597

There are different ways and different examples you could use.2601

I’m just trying to give you an idea, how concise these answers really are.2605

Here it goes, the great awakening gave many American colonists, for the first time, an opportunity to have a shared experience.2610

I feel like that is a new cultural phenomenon called the great awakening, and how that will certainly affect the American ethos.2623

With that, I hope that you learned a lot in this lesson and please keep coming back.2635

And, thank you for watching www.educator.com.2642