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Period IV: James Madison and the War of 1812

  • James Madison won the presidency (Jefferson’s Secretary of State) despite discontent over Embargo Act that was passed during Jefferson’s presidency
  • Before leaving office, Jefferson approved a bill ending this “peaceable coercion”
  • Foreign policy challenges from France and Britain for Madison
  • The British continued to assist Indians in Ohio River Valley, a violation of the Treaty of Paris
  • The War of 1812 broke out and exposed sectional tensions
  • The war threatened the unity of the nation but the union stayed together & as result the U.S. gained respect of other nations

Period IV: James Madison and the War of 1812

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  • Intro 0:00
  • Overview 0:06
  • Election of 1808 2:24
    • Non-Intercourse Act in 1809
    • Macon's Bill No. 2 in 1810
  • Madison Faces Challenges 4:24
    • France Stop interfering with US Shipping
    • Indians in Ohio River Valley
  • Westward Expansion and Clashes With Native Americans 5:34
    • Treaty of Grenville in 1795
    • The Harrison Land Law
    • William Henry Harrison
  • Tenskwatawa, “The Prophet” 8:18
    • Shawnee Leader
    • Spiritual Revival
  • Tecumseh: “The Shooting Star” 10:29
    • Against White Civilization
    • Battle of Tippecanoe
  • Florida and War Fever 12:04
    • War Hawks
    • Henry Clay of Kentucky
    • John C. Calhoun of SC
  • Causes of War and Divisions 14:50
    • Naval Blockade
    • A Divided Nation
    • Anti-War Groups
  • The War of 1812 18:53
    • Land Campaign
    • Invaded Canada through Detroit
    • General Hull
  • The War of 1812: “Mr. Madison's War” 21:05
  • Map of the War 24:16
  • The White House Burns in 1814 27:05
  • The Revolt of New England 28:04
    • Daniel Webster
    • Talk of Secession
    • Hartford Convention
  • The Effects of the War of 1812 31:07
    • Respect Canada as a Neighbor
    • Debate over Missouri Territory
    • Rise of Sectionalism
    • Territorial Expansion for Anglo-Americans
    • The Treaty of Ghent
    • The Rush-Bagot Agreement of 1817
  • Example 1 35:12
  • Example 2 37:59
  • Example 3 42:15

Transcription: Period IV: James Madison and the War of 1812

Welcome back to

This lesson is on James Madison and the war of 1812.0003

We are going to talk about one of the most famous presidents, James Madison, fourth President.0008

You may remember him as the major architect of the constitution.0014

He is part of what we call in U.S. history the Virginia dynasty because he was from Virginia.0019

Many Federalist or members of other political parties believed that the Virginians were dominating the presidency, so they called it the Virginia dynasty.0027

We are going to talk about the major characteristics of his presidency,0042

with the focus on the war of 1812 and the major challenges domestically, as well as in terms of foreign policy.0046

A lot of the problems certainly revolve around westward expansion of white Americans into western lands or areas,0054

what we call at this point in U.S. history, northwestern lands around Ohio but also south of Ohio,0064

past the Appalachian Mountains, into areas such as Illinois and Indiana.0073

We are going to see, as a result, several clashes with Native Americans.0080

We will talk about various treaties such as the treaty of Grenville, the Harrison land law,0085

and some of the major Native American figures who will challenge U.S. migration into regions that were occupied by Native Americans.0091

We will talk about the prophet, Tucemseh.0103

We will cover the major events in the war of 1812.0108

We will also start to see with these challenges, two major things happening at the same time.0115

An increase in nationalism, as a result of the war.0124

We will also see an increase in sectionalism, divisiveness, and regionalism, due to these problems.0129

We will wrap it up talking about the effects of the war of 1812.0139

Let us get into it here.0146

In 1808, James Madison won the presidency.0147

Even though, he was Jefferson’s Secretary of State.0152

Many Americans were certainly discontented over the effects of the embargo because it hurt the economy.0156

We are going to see that he was popular enough to have support and to be elected.0164

Before leaving office, however, Jefferson did approve of a bill ending this peaceable coercion, meaning the embargo act,0171

that again, was very unpopular and very disastrous on the economy overall.0178

This was repealed because of widespread economic hardship.0187

However, we will see some other laws being put into place such as the non-intercourse act of 1809.0193

This was put into place before Madison took office.0201

Then, this does reopen trade with all nations except Great Britain and France.0205

Eventually, we will see that trade relations with these two nations will resume.0210

Things will be back to normal, for the most part.0216

Although, there will certainly be some strain.0220

Another important bill that was passed was Macon's bill number 2, in 1810.0223

This bill called for restoring trade with Britain and France.0228

But if Britain or France formally agreed to respect U.S. neutral rights at sea, then the U.S. would prohibit trade with that nation's foe.0232

Again, we are seeing that the United States is trying to play off Britain and France, play them off one another.0241

This is a difficult situation that will eventually create the situation0249

where the United States is back into a corner and it has to go to war, or it feels obligated to go to war.0257

Along those same lines, once Madison is in power, he is going to face several challenges.0268

Napoleon promised that France would no longer interfere with the U.S. shipping.0274

And then, we will see with the British, they did not renounce restrictions on U.S. shipping.0279

We will also see that going back to France, that France did not keep their promise,0288

and they continued to harass U.S. shippers and sailors out at sea, that became a big problem.0294

We are going to see that even though, we kind of see a back and forth with these policies,0302

there was a repeal that it came too late to prevent war.0308

Meanwhile, the British will continue to assist Indians in the Ohio River Valley,0315

that was a clear violation of the treaty of Paris.0321

That is going to exacerbate the situation between British and the Americans, and Native Americans who are in the middle of it.0325

Speaking of Native Americans and westward expansion.0336

We will see continued clashes in those regions that the British were supposed to evacuate after the revolutionary war,0340

but there are still a lot of influences.0350

The Americans view the British as provoking these conflicts between Native Americans and the U.S. government, especially.0355

The treaty of Fort Stanwix did force pro-British Iroquois to relinquish much of their land in New York and Pennsylvania.0366

We will see this pattern of Native Americans being pushed farther and farther to the west.0374

Afterwards, Indians formed a western confederacy to defend themselves.0380

And eventually, they were forced to sign the treaty of Grenville.0385

We talked about that previously.0394

This eventually brought the transfer of millions of acres of Indian land to the U.S. government.0397

This is going to spark huge white migration into the territory.0402

That is not going to go over very well with the Native Americans in that region.0407

After the treaty of Grenville, we are also going to see another law being passed, the Harrison land law.0413

This enabled white settlers to acquire farms from the public domain much more easily.0419

The U.S. Federal government, in other words, is encouraging white settlement.0425

This is going to provoke Native Americans because they will be losing land and they are being attacked by these settlers.0430

We will see also that William Henry Harrison will be an important figure in this region.0443

He is appointed governor of the Indiana territory which is just west of Ohio,0449

to administer the President's proposed solution to the so called Indian problem.0457

That they are there and they need to move westward.0463

We are starting to see the lack of tolerance.0468

Here Native Americans did not have a choice.0473

They had to either assimilate or migrate west of the Mississippi River.0477

Another choice would be, or they will be destroyed by U.S. government soldiers.0483

These are not a lot of your choices for the Native Americans, so that is going to cause problems.0493

There is a lot of resistance that we are going to see to the white American encroachment upon these lands.0501

Some important leaders will arise as a result, such as Tenskwatawa or popularly known as the prophet.0507

He is an important person to remember, in this early history.0518

He was a charismatic, religious, Shawnee leader, and a very strong order.0523

Many people in this region admired him and looked up to him.0529

He has a mystical experience after recovering from alcoholism.0535

Alcoholism was a problem that was brought by the white man,0539

because Native Americans had not used alcohol before European-American started to introduce Native Americans to alcohol.0545

They were unable to consume it and digest it in efficient way.0559

This became a huge problem in Native American communities.0570

Anyway, he eventually recovered from this disease, from alcoholism.0573

And he began preaching about superior virtues of Indian civilization and the sinfulness of the white world.0579

Ultimately, starts to preach self sufficiency, and the wants to empower Native Americans to rise up against the white U.S. government,0587

that is supporting this westward expansion, and that is destroying his people's livelihood.0599

His prophetic leadership is going to help to inspire and lead this spiritual revival,0608

that will help unify several different tribal groups in the region.0620

He is going to be a very important voice in this history.0626

The prophet’s brother, Tecumseh, who is also known as the shooting star.0632

He is the prophet’s brother, he was a Chief of the Shawnees.0640

He also will be a huge advocate for Native American resistance against the advances of white civilization.0645

He helped to unify various tribes in the west to form an alliance and resist.0652

We will see obviously that these two leaders will become enemies of William Harrison,0657

and other U.S. officials who are looking to eradicate, push out Native Americans.0665

William Henry Harrison does take the opportunity, when Tecumseh left prophet’s town.0671

He provoked a fight in 1811.0679

And as a result, he ended up driving off many Native Americans, burn the town, very destructive.0682

This became known as the battle of Tippecanoe.0690

This left a bad taste in the Native American’s lives and left a horrible legacy.0696

At the same time, we are seeing that the British are supporting the uprising on the Native American side,0705

which is going to further enrage the U.S. government, and make relations more tense between the U.S. and the British.0711

We are going to see many people started to become more pro-war during this time, as a result.0727

This is kind of a culmination of issues that are starting to snowball and surface,0736

and cause people to want to put pressure on the government to start war.0744

That is going to happen, we will see down here, we are going to see a war hawk constituency.0750

Those who were advocating for the president to support actions to go to war, and Congress to declare war.0759

That is going to happen.0767

We will also see farther to the south and southeast, in fact, Americans in the south wanted to acquire Spanish Florida.0769

As we are expanding westward, we are also seeing the desire to expand into the southeast.0776

The issue of slavery is going to be a major factor.0785

Slaves escaped and ran across the border because they were technically free, once they arrived in the Spanish Florida.0787

There were also lots of Indian raids in white settlements.0796

This was a constant problem, that they would hide in the Spanish region, Florida.0799

That was another reason for those expansionists to want to acquire Florida, so they could nip that in the bud.0807

There is also desire to have access to valuable ports.0817

There are those who are getting more aggressive, much more adamant,0822

and looking to expand in an aggressive way to help the economy, to build the country, and so forth.0827

War fever became prevalent, and we will see this group of war hawks, those who are pro-war vs. the dogs who were antiwar,0839

were led by Henry Clay of Kentucky and John C. Calhoun of South Carolina.0851

These congressmen are going to be extremely influential in making the case to go to war with Great Britain, in particular.0856

They believe that the only way to defend U.S. honor was to gain Canada and destroy Native American resistance on the frontier.0864

And that, the United States had to prove itself.0873

Even though, it was a young nation, and just starting to build up its military,0877

It had to flex its muscle and show the other imperial powers that it was a force to be reckoned with,0881

that we are going to stand up for ourselves.0888

On top of that, U.S. trade rights were continuing to be violated.0893

This had been building and building back to the Washington administration.0898

But certainly during the Adams administration and the Jefferson administration, impressments are a huge problem.0904

It was just restricting our trade opportunities.0911

We felt that our free trade rights were being violated all the time.0915

This was something that was a major reason that people were calling for war.0921

U.S. trade rights were being violated.0927

The British delayed meeting U.S. demands over neutral rights.0929

They were not responding appropriately.0933

War hawk pressure persuaded Madison to seek a declaration of war against Great Britain.0938

Although, the British government, had by this time, in June of 1812 agreed to suspend its naval blockade.0945

But news of this decision reached the White House after Congress had declared war.0954

That is right, technically, this could have been avoided.0961

However, it was too late because the wheels were already set in motion.0964

Some of this was politicized as well.0972

In the election of 1812, Madison won reelection defeating DeWitt Clinton, who was the candidate of federalists and antiwar republicans.0975

Madison felt like he had a mandate from the American people, the people behind him, to support this war.0989

It will be Congress that has to declare war, that is their power.0998

But we will see oftentimes, it does help having presidential leadership and support during war being commander in chief.1004

However, the nation was very divided.1013

We will see these divisions in many ways were along lines of sectional divisions and economic divisions too, to a certain extent.1016

The hawks were primarily federalists and some republicans.1028

In fact, they have a few examples here, Whigs or old republicans.1034

Some of the republicans were war hawks.1040

The antiwar groups were New England merchants.1045

Excuse me, I'm jumping around here, let me start over.1048

The hawks were mostly federalists and some republicans.1051

The other side is the antiwar groups that were made up of New England merchants.1056

Who, although, you would think would not impressments hurt their economic well being?1063

The answer is yes, to a great extent.1069

But, they had been actually been benefiting, since those previous laws had been repealed,1071

like the embargo, for instance, they actually were doing well economically.1082

Now this possibility of going to war, definitely looked very bleak for them.1088

They felt that this would hurt their economy.1095

Anyway, antiwar groups center on the New England merchants, federalist politicians,1098

especially those in New England, and Whigs or old republicans.1104

Those who wanted to stay more isolated, I guess you could say.1109

Also, I like to add to this list a little bit.1114

Besides of New England states, New Jersey, New York, also were mostly against the war.1118

Pennsylvania and Vermont, pretty much joined the southern and western states in their pro-war stance.1125

We are going to actually get into the war of 1812.1136

On June 18th, the U.S. declared war against Great Britain.1139

Again, this culmination of all the different issues that aiding the Native Americans, impressments at sea.1144

The United States is looking to stand up for itself.1152

At first, they wanted to attack Canada which was still affiliated with Great Britain.1156

Madison also hoped for victory.1168

Obviously, this would boost the morale of the nation and helped build this nationalist spirit,1170

and propelled the United States on the world stage as a major power.1175

Even though Napoleon had not always been the best ally, and sometimes he is a little bit unreliable in terms of leaving the U.S. alone at sea,1182

we will see during this particular war, that we will see that Madison will actually hope for Napoleon’s success in Europe.1199

That would hurt Great Britain, since we are attacking Great Britain in this war.1206

He believed that the United States should launch a land campaign against Canada.1213

Maybe that was a bit over ambitious.1220

But nonetheless, we are going to see that was the tactic.1222

U.S. forces invaded Canada thru Detroit, in what today we know it now as Detroit Michigan.1226

Some invasion efforts failed, even though they thought it would be an easy defeat.1233

By July of 1812, U.S. troops under General Hull, launched an assault aiming to conquer Canada,1237

against Tecumseh’s braves and British Canadian troops.1244

This ends up being unsuccessful.1250

Hull was later court martialed and sentenced to death, but he was later pardoned by Madison.1252

We are going to see that the war actually was unleashed.1263

In fact, even though the war of 1812 is known as the war of 1812, it actually took place on 1812 until 1815.1266

The last major battles are in 1814, but it was more than one year which is kind of interesting to keep in mind.1280

Here is a map of the war and here is James Madison.1288

And I put a picture of him with the map, just to remind you that those critics of the war,1293

the antiwar activists and politicians called it Mr. Madison's war.1301

They believed that he was to blame for this war.1306

Continuing on with some of the major events.1312

In the late spring between April and June of 1813,1317

we will see that U.S. forces will capture what was known as York at the time, in this region in Canada.1323

They will burn government buildings there.1331

U.S. forces under Winfield Scott will take Fort George, and the British will withdraw.1335

Meanwhile, the U.S. Chesapeake was captured.1342

Do keep in mind that this battle was fought on land, it was fought at sea.1346

As you can see here, there was a British blockade which is going to have an effect on global trade, at the time.1352

By the summer, late summer, August through September,1362

there were a series of U.S. sea victories by the USS Constitution that was known as old ironsides.1366

There were some U.S. wins and defeats, but it was mostly disastrous for U.S. forces.1373

There was a stalemate in Canada along the Canadian border.1380

You could see in this region, there are several battles that ensued in between the United States and Canada, in that region.1386

By September 1813, Oliver Hazard Perry defeated a small British flotilla on Lake Eerie.1399

Here is Perry in this region here.1407

This was viewed as a major boost.1413

By October, General William H. Harrison triumphed over a British and Indian Force at the Battle of Thames, in this region here.1417

We will see around this time that Harrison does eventually kill Tecumseh, his old rival,1427

who had become a British General in the army, at this point.1436

By November, we will see that U.S. were defeated at Montreal, and the British were successfully blockading New York.1443

We are moving on, this mainly focuses on during the years of 1812, here in this key.1457

But you can also see some of the other areas where the major conflicts took place.1466

I will continue.1472

By the spring of 1814, the defeat of Napoleon in Europe, enabled the British to increase their forces in North America.1473

In March of 1814, we will see, meanwhile, in the south, Andrew Jackson,1482

who will later become a famous congressmen and president.1489

He was a very of powerful general and very aggressive.1494

General Jackson, he was from Tennessee, and the Tennessee Militia, fought against the Creeks,1500

a Native American tribe from the southeast, and won a key battle at the battle of Horseshoe Bend.1508

That is going to propel him on the military stage.1516

That was in this region here, that will later become the state of Alabama.1523

Another thing to add to this is that, as a result of this major win, the Creeks were forced to cede 23,000,000 acres of land.1534

This is an example we can see foreshadowing of Jackson's policy toward the Native Americans.1542

A lot of these experiences as a general and his fight against, his battles against Native Americans,1550

and his cruel attitude towards Native Americans, helped shape his ethos as a general,1559

but also as a president, as we will see later on.1567

Finishing up here, we will see by April, Napoleon was overthrown and about 14,000 British troops were released.1573

The British blockade did extend into New England.1582

The U.S. eventually retaliates by privatering and capturing 825 British vessels.1588

Just to point that this war did involve several naval battles.1596

We will also see in July, Winfield Scott and U.S. forces were able to defeat the British in the Battle of Chippawa.1602

By August of 1814, we are going to see that eventually peace negotiation will begin in Ghent.1613

It is also during this time when the British set fire to the White House,1621

and the White House actually burned in 1814, in the month of August.1628

Also during this time, the British attempted to take Baltimore but Fort McHenry held out after the night’s bombardment.1636

This is what is going to inspire the famous Francis Scott Key to write the Star-Spangled Banner, that becomes our national anthem.1646

It is during the war of 1812, where we get our inspiration for our national anthem, the Star-Spangled Banner.1655

By 1815, we will see a few more battles but the war is over, so they were really pointless.1663

That was unnecessary but it continued.1672

The battle of New Orleans was probably the last famous battle of the war of 1812, and the war officially ended.1677

Before we talk about the treaty and the terms of the peace,1687

I also would like to mention what was happening in New England toward the end of the war.1692

You know there was a very strong antiwar constituency in opposition.1698

There was a group led by federalists, and Daniel Webster, in particular, who led this movement called the revolt of New England.1705

Daniel Webster, he wanted to embarrass the administration, and show that they do not have unity.1717

They did not support this war.1729

Boston merchants prohibited their states militias from attacking Canada.1731

In Congress, Webster led Federal opposition to higher taxes and tariffs, international conscription of state militia men.1735

He did not want them to be drafted.1745

He did not want them to partake in this war that he did not support.1746

He was looking to prevent people in New England for participating.1750

Anyway, he uses any means necessary to get his message across.1756

There was even talk of secession in the years between 1814 and 1815.1761

It never happened but just illustrates how serious they were about their antiwar position.1767

The Hartford convention was held in 1814 where federalists discussed their strategy.1775

The moderate majority did not want to secede, while most wanted to revise the constitution instead.1781

That would prevent these types of wars from breaking out.1789

They also want an end to the Virginia domination of the presidency.1796

They use this term the Virginia dynasty, they wanted an end to it.1800

They felt that there was this southern bias that was not in favor their interests in New England.1804

You can see that sectionalism is ripping apart, especially New England, from the south and the west, at this point in time.1813

That is happening, while at the same the United States was surviving the war of 1812,1824

and holding its own is also going to have a nationalist effect.1832

Even though, this was a well concerted effort by the federalist,1837

we will see that the federalists are going to eventually fade from Congress and from the executive branch.1843

We know that the legacy in the judicial branch will be important.1854

But overall, we will see that the federalist movement will dissolve after the Hartford convention.1858

The effects of the war of 1812.1871

We will see that there is no doubt about it that the war threatened the unity of the nation, but the union stayed together.1873

We see this sectionalism and this nationalism at the same time, but we are seeing that the United States is still holding together.1882

Even though, there are certainly challenges.1893

Yes, to a great extent, the U.S. does gain the respect of other nations.1895

The United States, in turn, came to respect Canada as a neighbor.1902

We will not attack Canada, after the war of 1812.1906

We will formally recognize it as part of the British Empire and their new geographical changes.1913

However, we will see that the debate over the Missouri territory is going to be a very controversial issue,1920

that will cause some sectional tension, on whether it would allow slavery or not.1926

This of course is going to be a major problem because of the balance of power, which we will talk about very soon.1933

Sectionalism and nationalism.1941

We will also see that concept of nullification of a state, being able to nullify a law1946

that they believe is unconstitutional, that was first suggested by Thomas Jefferson.1952

That idea will be revived time and time again.1964

That idea would set a precedent that would later be used by the south, as we will see.1968

Another effect, we will see economic growth, more U.S. factories will be built post war of 1812.1975

We will see increased industrial self sufficiency where we are building our own economy and not relying on England or France.1983

This is going to have a positive effect economically, especially in the cities.1992

More effects, we will see a continued territorial expansion for Anglo-Americans.1998

But for Native Americans, they will lose a lot of land.2006

And of course, with the British being kicked out, once and for all,2010

that is going to make things much more decisive regarding Native American lands in the northwest.2014

We will see the federalist will decline as a national force.2023

Although, huge legacy in the Supreme Court, John Marshall, we will get to that next time or in two lessons, actually.2027

The treaty of Ghent is the official treaty that will end the war,2036

but it did not say anything about the grievance that led to the war, impressments.2040

The British made no concessions concerning impressments, blockades, or other maritime differences.2046

Some people may say, what was the point of this war?2052

Anyway, in many ways, who won this war, it is kind of hard to tell.2058

No gain for either side, it was a stalemate.2064

I think the major lesson to be learned from this, for the United States, is that we survived.2067

We held our own and we were respected.2074

We are still the United States of America, which was a major accomplishment at this point in time.2077

We will also see that after the treaty, long-term relations between the United States and Great Britain will improve.2083

There is no talk of war after this.2091

The Rush-Bagot agreement of 1817 will also provide for mutual disarmament in the Great Lakes area, once and for all.2094

We will see the British pulling out of that region which will definitely help relations.2104

And the boundary was restored, which I think I have talked about previously.2110

With that, we are going to move on to the questions, multiple choice questions and some short answer questions as well.2114

Let us get to it, this one.2124

This is from Tecumseh.2126

Here we go, to read the passage first.2129

It is true I am Shawnee, my forefathers were warriors.2132

Their son is a warrior.2137

From them I take my existence, from my tribe I take nothing.2138

I come to Governor Harrison to ask him to tear the treaty, but I would say to him, Sir, you have liberty to return to your country.2144

Once, nor until likely there was no white man on this continent.2156

It then all belong to red men, once a happy race, since made miserable by the white people who are never contented but always encroaching.2160

The way, and the only way to check and to stop this evil, is for all the red men to unite in claiming a common and equal right in the land.2174

For it was never divided, but belongs to all for the use of each.2183

For no part has a right to sell.2188

I’m sorry, for no part has a right to sell.2192

That is from Tecumseh, a letter to Governor William Henry Harrison, in August of 1810.2196

Let us look at the question, which of the following best describes Tecumseh?2206

Which of the following best describes what Tecumseh believed should be the response to white expansion?2213

Signing a treaty with the U.S.2221

Relocating to western lands unoccupied by American Indians.2223

Allying with the British in order to stop westward expansion.2227

Or joining American Indians into a confederacy.2231

You may want to flip back to the text.2239

The answer.2244

Second question, Tecumseh was against the treaty selling Indian land because,2250

He thought the prize offered by the U.S. was too low.2255

American Indians were always fighting over the land.2258

The white settlers would divide the land among them.2261

No individual or a single tribe had the right to sell the land.2264

The answer.2270

Moving on, here we go.2277

I’m just going to get this situated here, short answer questions.2283

Remember for the short answer questions to follow the directions very carefully.2289

Sometimes they will have them broken into A, B, and C.2294

Sometimes it will be A and B, but usually there are two questions within A or B.2298

But there are always three components within the short answer question.2303

Make sure you pay attention to that.2309

Choose one of the choices below, and explain why your choice best illustrates how Presidents Jefferson and Madison,2312

mostly relied on economic policies to carry out their foreign policies.2319

You may want to practice doing all of these.2329

I will give you an example.2332

Here it goes, I’m going to choose this one.2335

Actually, I can give you a little example of this too.2339

The Louisiana Purchase resulted from President Jefferson's fear that so long as a foreign power controlled the river at New Orleans,2342

the United States was in danger of becoming involved in European affairs.2353

That will, I think, definitely support that idea.2364

Obviously, having the port of New Orleans allowed the United States economic opportunities to trade,2368

and connected other major cities to New Orleans via the Mississippi river.2379

You could include that as well.2390

I could also talk about Macon’s bill number 2.2393

Macon’s bill number 2 stated that if Britain or France agreed to respect U.S. neutral rights at sea,2398

then the U.S. would prohibit trade with that nation's foe.2404

Again, that is showing how we were putting economic pressure on either Britain or France.2411

In order to show our muscle, in terms of foreign policy, flex our muscle.2420

Let us look at B, contrast your choice against one of the other options, demonstrating why their option is not as good as your choice.2428

I will choose the Embargo Act.2438

The Embargo Act was a flawed policy that had a negative impact on the U.S. economy and was not sustainable.2440

It was an effort to show that we have strong foreign policy but it hurt the economy, and was not a good choice economically.2451

Let us look at the last one here.2466

Provide one piece of evidence involving one of the choices provided or another situation during this period of presidents,2467

Jefferson and Madison, that either supports or contradicts their reliance on economic policies to carry out their foreign policies.2475

It is a little bit wordy, this one.2484

This is what I have.2488

Jefferson avoided war with Britain and France by supporting the embargo act, whereas, under Madison's leadership,2489

the war of 1812 pulled the U.S. into war with Britain, mainly because of impressments.2498

Federalist merchants were against the war and wanted to continue making profits.2504

They viewed the war as Mr. Madison’s war, and also blamed the war hawks and Congress for their role in supporting war with Britain.2508

Short answer responses, usually two sentence.2520

Give or take, depending on your writing style.2526

You will have to make sure that you keep your answers within the box that they provide.2529

I have one more set of short answer questions.2535

Here we go, briefly explain how one of the following either supports or contradicts the statement.2541

From the point of view of President Madison, none of the goals for the war of 1812 had been achieved.2547

Provide at least one piece of evidence to support your explanation.2554

I am going to choose this, foreign relations.2562

Foreign relations had improved to a certain extent.2568

On one hand, the U.S. gained respect of other nations and survived two wars with Britain.2572

Yet, they did not settle the impressments issue in the treaty of Ghent.2578

B, briefly explain how one of the following goals of the U.S. in the war of 1812 would continue after the war,2585

to play a major role in the politics and policies of the nation.2594

The response that I just gave, in many ways, is going to tie into this question,2599

and that sometimes happens, which is kind of the nature of the short answer questions.2603

That is okay, sometimes you can build upon it even more.2608

Here is my answer, I’m going to do this one.2613

In many ways, this one kind of leads into this question or lead into this question, and often will connect to it.2616

Lookout for that, when you read the short answer questions.2624

Impressments of sailors was not part of the war settlement but gradually became a nonissue, as relations with Britain improved.2629

Then, I will actually give another agreeable.2639

My answer for this was pretty succinct but I added the part that relations with Great Britain will improve.2641

It ultimately was a nonissue.2649

I will give you another example with the American Indians.2652

American Indians conflicts would continue to be a major concern,2655

as white Americans continue to migrate west and the Native Americans were pushed off their land.2658

They were forced to assimilate or face destruction.2663

These, in many ways, can connect.2668

With that, I think we are done with this lesson.2672

Thank you for watching