In this lesson, our instructor Elizabeth Turro gives an introduction on the British Empire in North America. She talks about the imperial wars and the native people, the fighting in the North, Treaty of Utrecht, the imperial slave economy, Sugar Revolution, the Slave Trade and the Middle Passage. She also explains slavery in the Chesapeake and SC, how a black majority emerges in South Carolina, the images of slavery, resistance, accommodation and Stono Rebellion. Next, she illustrates the emergence of the southern gentry, the gentility, the northern urban shipbuilding economy, the rise of colonial assemblies and the power of the people began to grow. Last but not least, the other key points are the salutary neglect, the radical Whigs, Walpole, war against Spain and the America economic challenge.
Imperial Wars amongst England, France, and Spain are profound on the Americas; Native Americans caught in the middle and this led to increased tribalization
The S. Atlantic system brought wealth to Euro economy but it brought economic decline, political change & human tragedy to W. Africa & parts of East Africa
Sugar was the most profitable crop in Europe & America.
The Middle Passage and Beyond: torn from their villages, they were marched in chains to coastal ports, then packed in hideously overcrowded ships; shackled; subjected to starvation, dehydration, feces, urine, vomit; roughly 1 in 10 voyages had a violent slave rebellion; more than one million died of disease or illness en route to the Americas; surviving meant 10-hour workdays; poor living conditions, insufficient food, and sexual abuse for women.
Enslaved Africans resisted the horrific conditions and also adapted to the New World as best as they could.
Famous uprising: the Stono Rebellion in 1739, South Carolina saw the largest slave uprising in the mainland colonies. The Catholic governor of Spanish Florida instigated the revolt by promising freedom to runaway slaves; groups began fleeing to Florida. When war broke out between England and Spain, 75 Africans led a revolt near the Stono River. A well-armed, mounted force of South Carolina militia quelled the Stono rebels by killing 44 slaves to suppress the rebellion. Frightened South Carolinians cut slave imports and tightened plantation discipline.
Salutary neglect--a policy when royal bureaucrats relaxed their supervision of internal colonial affairs & focused instead on defense and trade—led to increased colonial independence
The British Empire in North America, Part II
Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.