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Lecture Comments (2)

1 answer

Last reply by: Elizabeth Turro
Fri Dec 4, 2015 11:02 PM

Post by Kathleen Etzel on December 4, 2015

Dear Ms. Turro,

    I am absolutely loving your course and I find it greatly enthralling.  I have one quick question though:  where the Navigation Acts and the Revenue Act of 1673 repealed after the Glorious Revolution?  This would kind of make sense after the break up of the Dominion of New England and the following years of Salutary Neglect, but I just wanted to be sure.

Thank you

The British Empire in North America, Part I

  • Restoration Colonies: following restoration of the monarchy (Charles II, r. 1660-1685) in 1660, England sought greater control over its colonies. These colonies included SC, NC, PA, NY NJ, and DE.
  • GA founded as a buffer between the rice-producing Carolinas & Spanish settlements in FL. James Oglethorpe, a social reformer in England, hoped to resettle England’s poor, especially those in debtor’s prison, in the New World
  • PA: Designed as a refuge for Quakers persecuted in England, Quaker settlers developed a pacifistic policy toward the Native Americans & became prosperous. It was named after William Penn.
  • Quakers believed that people were imbued by God w/ an “inner light,” the holy spirit, of grace & understanding that opened salvation to everyone
  • In the 1650s the English gov. imposed mercantilism, via the Navigation Acts, which regulated colonial commerce & manufacturing
  • The Dominion of New England was established (and CT & RI colonies were merged w/those of MBC & Plymouth) under Sir Edmund Andros, governor of the Dominion, and was empowered to abolish existing legislative assemblies & rule by decree. It was unpopular with most colonists and led to resentment.
  • The Glorious Revolution, Enlightenment ideas, and other democratic influences impact the colonists to begin questioning unfair policies and demanding for representation in government in North America.

The British Empire in North America, Part I

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  • Intro 0:00
  • Overview 0:08
  • Restoration Colonies 1:43
    • Charles II
    • South and North Carolina
    • Feudal Manors
    • Map
  • Georgia Founded Later in 1732 5:55
    • A Buffer
    • James Oglethorpe
  • Charles II Grants Proprietorships 7:58
    • A Gentry Class
    • Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina
  • The Carolinas 10:15
    • Rebellion of the English Quakers
    • South Carolinians
  • Pennsylvania 13:15
    • William Penn
    • Inner Light
    • Church Services
  • William Penn 17:00
    • The Society of Friends
    • Holy Experiment
    • City of Brotherly Love
  • Pennsylvania's Frame of Government 18:36
    • Guaranteed Religious Freedom
    • Persecuted Protestants
    • Political Factionalism
  • The British Increase Pressure on the Colonies 22:52
    • Navigation Act in 1651
    • Navigation Act in 1660
    • Navigation Act in 1663
  • English Domination of Commerce 27:02
    • The Revenue Act of 1673
    • Commercial Wars
    • A Punitive Legal Strategy
    • Divine Right
  • The Dominion of New England 30:46
    • The Dominion
    • Sir Edmund Andros
    • English Law and Customs
  • Excerpts From the Commission of Sir Edmund Andros 33:20
    • Imposing Levy Rates and Taxes
    • Executing Martial Law
  • Britain's American Empire in 1713 34:45
  • Dominion of New England and Sir Edmund Andros 37:27
  • The Glorious Revolution and Its Effects 38:30
    • Glorious Revolution
    • Mary and Williams of Orange
    • Constitutional Monarchs
  • The English Bill of Rights in 1689 and the Enlightenment 41:43
    • The English Bill of Rights
    • British Parliament
    • Two Treatises of Government
  • The Leviathan Absolutist State 44:28
  • The Demise of the Dominion of New England 46:03
    • Broke Up of the Dominion of New England
    • A New Royal Colony
    • The Restoration of Internal Self-Government
    • Board of Trade
  • Example 1 48:54
  • Example 2 51:29
  • Example 3 54:36

Transcription: The British Empire in North America, Part I

Welcome back to

This lesson is on the British Empire in North America.0003

In this lesson, we are going to talk about the restoration colonies and Penn’s Holy experiment that he will create in Pennsylvania.0009

We are also going to talk about how England’s policy of mercantilism is going to evolve and become much more aggressive.0021

In fact, England is going to start dominating global trade and trade relations, specially, with the colonies.0032

We are also going to talk about specifically the establishment of the dominion of New England0044

that will solidify some of the Middle Atlantic, but mostly Northeastern colonies.0050

We will also talk about the effects of the Glorious Revolution and the Enlightenment.0061

These two major movements are going to change the way that the colonists view themselves.0068

We are going to talk about the significance of that.0077

Lastly, we will talk about the demise of the dominion of New England.0080

Why it was unsuccessful and why the colonists did not like it,0085

and beginning of a new stage in economic relations between the mother country England and its colonies in North America.0089

With that, we will get started.0101

We are going to talk about the Restoration colonies at first.0105

One thing to keep in mind, looking at the actual word Restoration.0109

You can see the root word restore.0114

First of all, I want to explain what that means.0120

These particular colonies were founded during the time of the Restoration in the late 17th century,0125

during a period of English history known as the Restoration, when Charles II in 1660 was restored to the crown.0134

This was after a brief period of Puritan rule under Oliver Cromwell.0149

During this time period, we are going to see he is going to look to strengthen England and its empire,0155

if you will, the early stage of its empire in the Americas, and in particular in North America.0161

The colonies that we are going to talk about and focus on today will include South Carolina, North Carolina.0169

These two colonies not states yet, are in this southeastern part of today's United States0179

between Virginia and at the time Spanish Florida.0188

We will see that these were proprietary colonies.0194

The proprietors of the Carolina Coast eventually ended up, drawing up the fundamental constitutions in the Carolinas.0199

Ultimately, they try to create a manorial system that we are going to talk about in greater depth later.0209

Essentially, this is kind of a quasi-feudal system where they are dividing up the land into quartiles.0217

We are going to see that rents are going to be charged to these different farmers0230

who will work the land and try to grow different crops for profit.0236

They will also establish the Church of England, where you can see the influence of English culture0244

and religious ideas, the official Anglican church.0254

That is going to be a significant contribution to these new colonies in the southeastern part of the United States.0260

These proprietorships were really run by aristocrats, especially in South Carolina,0269

we are going to see many planters who invested already and own land in Barbados.0278

They are going to actually look to transfer that system here in North America.0286

Sugar, at the time, was extremely profitable, sugar plantations in the Caribbean.0299

We are going to see that they are going to attempt to grow cash crops and use that model.0305

We will see that they are going to have to adapt in many ways,0312

to the climate and also the social situation in this region that will be different than in the Caribbean.0316

Here is a map of the Restoration Colonies.0329

These would include the Carolinas, as well as New York,0334

we have talked about previously, Pennsylvania, and the Jerseys, and Delaware too.0340

Georgia will actually be founded much later in 1732, it is often times called the last colony,0357

the last of the 13 colonies that was established.0367

This was founded as a buffer, as a buffer colony, between the rice producing Carolinas and the Spanish settlements in Florida.0370

The main founder of Georgia was James Oglethorpe.0382

You should be familiar with him.0386

He was a social reformer in England who hoped to resettle England’s poor,0388

what he called the deserving poor, in fact, especially, those in debtor’s prison.0395

He was really looking to try to rehabilitate them and give them another opportunity to better their lives and also to improve the colony.0401

His theory was that hard work and founding of the colony would cure them.0413

What we will actually see is that his dream is not really going to be fulfilled.0419

In fact, really their purpose will essentially be to protect the colonies from the Spaniards, that is going to be their main role.0426

They will actually require, one thing I should add here, they will require military service.0437

Really, the draft, it is mandatory for them to participate, again, to protect colonies from the Spaniards.0451

Remember, England and Spain were very competitive and looking to expand their own empires.0469

Spain was certainly a threat in the South.0478

That is going to be a major concern.0480

Let us also look at some of the others here, other characteristics.0485

We have already talked about New Jersey and New York.0491

We know that those were also part of the Restoration Colonies and were gifts to the Duke of York.0495

Then, the Duke of York gave his land to some of his friends in the Jerseys.0504

We will see from that region, all the way in the northeast, all the way to the south, that the proprietors,0515

those who were controlling the land, are looking to create traditional social order or the gentry class.0523

And then, establish the Church of England.0535

The gentry are like upper class people.0538

In many ways, they are trying to duplicate what they had in England but that is not necessarily going to work 100%.0544

We will see certain aspects transfer over to North America but some things are not going to jive.0551

A lot of that is because of there is a lot of lower class people that are going to rebel against that hierarchical system.0556

I will get into this a little bit more later.0566

I have mentioned this previously, the fundamental constitutions of Carolina that prescribe a manorial system with nobility and serfs.0571

Like a feudal system governed by a small number of powerful nobles.0580

Again, thinking of a hierarchy.0586

A small amount of people who have control of the land and really have the major power.0589

Not really democratic.0594

Yes, we will see that people will rent out the land and also have these various plots that they would farm the land and pay rent to use.0598

We are going to see that this is going to have mixed results.0617

In the Carolinas, poor families, for instance, in North Carolina, refuse to work on large manors.0621

They chose to live on modest farms.0629

We are going to see a different approach and kind of that feudal model being challenged.0633

This will collimate and then the uprising in 1677, inspired by, if you remember, Bacon’s rebellion,0641

where the equality minded English Quakers, that is another group, the English Quakers.0649

We are going to talk about another Protestant group, rebelled against the wealthy Anglican landowners.0657

We are going to see that these new settlers are going to look to create a fair land system,0668

where more people have opportunity to gain wealth and prosper.0675

This group will rebel in 1677 and also later in 1708.0681

This ultimately led to a situation where proprietors had to give up on that type of system.0692

However, one thing to keep in mind is that overall influence however, of the gentry class,0699

this very aristocratic tradition, will have a huge influence in the southeastern part of the United States.0710

Moving on, South Carolinians impose their own design of government and attacked Indian settlements to acquire slaves for trade.0719

The colonist refused to accept the fundamental constitutions.0728

They had their own system in using both slaves and Native Americans to raise cattle and crops for export.0732

We will see primarily in this region that they are going to grow rice, which I may include here.0742

Early on, that is going to be an important cash crop.0751

Again, keep in mind that in the deep south, I guess you can call it, the deep south the growing season was much longer.0756

That is going to open up opportunities for successful plantation.0767

That is something that you should be mindful of.0773

However, South Carolina definitely had a lot of problems, being in the south, somewhat close to Spanish Territory.0777

It was ill-governed and violence-ridden really up until the 1720’s.0787

Now we are going to talk about Pennsylvania.0796

Pennsylvania is a pretty significant colony to focus on.0800

In some ways, similar to Massachusetts, we will see this Plymouth settlement, as well as Massachusetts Bay,0806

this was settled by people looking to flee persecution in England and to create a refuge for their people.0816

Except for, this is a different group of people in Pennsylvania.0831

This was designed as a refuge for Quakers, another Protestant group.0834

And then, we are going to talk about some of their specific ideas.0841

They were persecuted in England.0844

They developed a pacifistic policy toward the Native Americans.0846

This is really significant, again, pacifist.0852

They are not looking to wage war, they are peaceful people.0857

This is much different than their Puritan brothers, I guess you could say, to the North.0863

That is significantly different, we know that with King Phillips war and other wars with Native Americans,0871

that the British were quite aggressive and looking to eradicate Native Americans.0878

That is a significant difference in this colony.0883

Their approach is much different.0886

This becomes a very prosperous colony.0891

Although, we will see later it does have its problems.0894

But overall, it is pretty stable and prosperous.0897

It was named after William Penn.0900

Pennsylvania, William Penn.0904

A little bit about the Quakers, they believed that people were imbued by God with an inner light.0909

That is a very important concept.0916

The holy spirit of grace and understanding that opened up salvation to everyone.0919

We are going to see similar to Puritan dissident Roger Williams, remember he was kicked out.0929

They opposed any restrictions on individual conscience.0936

They really encourage people to look into their own conscience.0945

That is part of this idea of the inner light.0952

That is again, is a significant difference whereas, we know the Puritans emphasize conformity0958

and going along with the patriarchal order and that type of thing.0968

A little different here with the Quakers.0976

Church services were simple and unadorned, no sacraments, no liturgy, no ministers.0978

They refuse to swear an oath of loyalty to the king or to pay tithes to the church or bear arms -- again, you see the pacifist influence.0987

These are all their beliefs.0997

They were persecuted in England.1001

They were considered heretics and were subject to arrest, persecution, and imprisonment, and thousands were sent to prison.1002

They are looking for a new life, for a new utopia, if you will.1010

Their own settlement, where they can worship as they please without being persecuted.1015

A little bit about William Penn.1023

He was a son of a British admiral. At a young age he was interested in religion.1026

He attended Oxford University, but was later dismissed for teaching humanism, a forbidden subject.1031

He criticized the elaborate ceremonies of the Anglican church, as many other Protestants did,1039

and protested compulsory chapel attendance. He was eventually expelled at age 17.1046

We are going to see that he does go through this mystical experience and ends up joining the Quakers,1055

also known as the Society of Friends in 1677.1061

In order to deal with the Quaker problem, the Quaker problem is a problem in England that they are being persecuted.1068

They cannot live true to their beliefs, according to their beliefs.1079

He envisions a new colony and a new world where Quakers and good Christians could live together in a holy experiment.1084

This is often associated with him as well.1094

In 1682, after sailing via the ship Welcome, we are going to see Philadelphia is established which is also known as even today, the City of Brotherly Love.1097

That sounds very, it is Quaker.1113

They are embracing the brotherhood and peace and friendship.1117

I think a very important symbol, an important name to symbolize their settlement.1123

Some other characteristics of Penn’s settlement and government that was established.1132

Penn’s frame of government is pretty significant to discuss.1140

It is kind of going along the same lines of pacifist, you can probably sense it.1145

They are a little bit more open minded to different types of people,1153

such as the Native Americans and being persecuted themselves back in England.1157

We are going to see that they have a much more tolerant, much more open view regarding religion.1164

They guarantee religious freedom for all Christians.1173

Again, there are limits.1177

And allowed all property-owning men to vote and hold office.1179

We do not see a completely democratic fair equal system.1187

However, in comparison to some of the other settlements at this time period, did I say much more progressive.1193

They were much more open and they empowered perhaps more people.1201

In many ways, they also do promote equality and that is going to open things up for women,1207

much earlier in this religious group versus other Protestant groups throughout the colonies.1218

That will be important later on, specially, when we talk about the women's movement in years to come, in nearly the 19th century.1228

Back to religion, the Quakers, they are going to be very open to different religious groups,1240

different Protestant groups coming to Pennsylvania.1248

We will see many follow in their footsteps.1251

Many Protestant groups come to Pennsylvania, in droves, tons of them.1254

Including Mennonites, the Amish, the other Anabaptist groups, German Lutherans, German Reformists,1261

Moravians, Scotts Irish Presbyterian, Welsh Baptist, Irish Catholics, Missionary Anglicans.1270

Numerous Protestant groups, this was extremely diverse, in terms of the Protestant sects being established.1279

Again, there were exclusions.1290

If you did not believe, you could not be part of the settlement.1292

Jews and other non-Christians were barred from holding office and voting.1296

They did not have a lot of the rights and opportunities were not afforded to these minority groups.1303

Eventually, we will see that Penn’s holy experiment lost strength because of political factionalism, divisions, the lack of unity.1313

Penn went into debtor’s prison at one point, yet the overall legacy of Pennsylvania really lived on.1327

Its ethnic diversity, I would show you a map here in a minute.1337

Pacifism, that is going to be a really important concept and value that will certainly shape the role of Pennsylvania throughout U.S. history.1342

And freedom of conscience, another important Quaker idea that will influence a lot of Pennsylvanians.1353

It will make Pennsylvania the most open and democratic of the Restoration Colonies, pretty significant.1362

Now we are going to move on and talk about some general economic policies that1375

the British were instituting around the mid to late 17th century.1379

In the 1650’s, we are going to see, again, the British are going to continue pursuing their policy of mercantilism.1395

As this concept, I would say evolves, we are going to see that they start instituting more and more laws1406

known as generally the navigation acts and there are lots of them,1416

which ultimately sought to regulate colonial commerce and manufacturing.1421

Why are they doing this?1428

The English want to make profits.1430

They want to benefit the mother country, the coffers of the mother country.1433

They are not looking to help empower the colonies.1440

We will see how this ends up coming out.1446

Here are several examples of many of the navigation acts that were established.1455

The Navigation Act of 1651, because commerce is growing in the colonies,1459

we are going to see that Britain really wants to keep control of it because they want to be the ones making the profits.1468

What we are starting to see is that American colonists, American colonial merchants,1474

were starting to make their own money and trade with foreign businesses.1482

They are dealing with the Spaniards, for instance.1490

They are dealing with the Dutch.1491

England really wants the monopoly over the trade, in global trade.1494

Especially, they want control over their colonies.1499

They viewed the colonies as children, they are lesser than the British.1505

They exist to serve the mother country.1511

That is something to keep in mind.1516

They start to impose more and more restrictions starting in the 1650’s, and it will get worse as time goes on.1519

The Navigation Act, for instance, of 1651, create a situation where all crews had to be a half English in nationality1531

and most goods had to be carried on English ships.1540

They are trying to control the actual shipment of goods so that smuggling does not exist and that they are overseeing the trade.1545

Another act, the Navigation Act of 1660, required all colonial trade to be on English ships.1557

The master and ¾ of the crew had to be English.1565

They had lists of enumerated goods developed that can only be shipped to England or an English colony.1569

Certain cash crops that were being sold could only be sold exclusively to England.1578

They are really trying to control trade for their own benefit.1587

Another example is the Navigation Act of 1663.1592

This required goods bound for the colonies from Africa, Asia, or Europe, to first be landed in England before shipping to America.1596

They can assess what is going on with the ship and make sure that they are in control,1606

and that they are really benefiting and making maximum profits.1616

They increasingly put more pressure and start to regulate more and more.1622

They are looking to dominate trade and become more and more wealthy.1628

England is on the up and up, they are very powerful and they want to continue to expand their control over the global economy.1634

Another example of the law put into place.1645

The Revenue Act of 1673, imposed the plantation duty or tax, on sugar and tobacco exports.1647

They created a staff of customs officials to enforce the mercantilist laws.1656

They put into place an infrastructure, people to collect taxes.1662

Those taxes will go back to England.1667

They can use that revenue to become wealthy and to expand their system and protect their system.1670

We will also see violent acts occurring.1679

Commercial wars between 1652 and 1674, the English putting pressure on the Dutch militarily,1684

eventually, ending their supremacy in the West African slave trade.1693

England also starts to dominate the North Atlantic commerce.1699

They want their hand in everything and they want to push out other foreign traders.1708

The American colonists, especially, those who have been living there for a while, start resisting the mercantilists laws.1715

They view them as burdensome and intrusive.1723

England is meddling, it is not allowing them to trade freely and to make profits and earn a living,1727

and to reap the benefits of their work.1735

We are going to see they are going to start to rebel and work around the law.1739

They are going to find ways to secretly trade with the Spaniards, with the Dutch, etc., because they are looking to make maximum profits.1742

The British start to catch on to this.1754

To enforce the laws, the Lords of trade pursued a punitive legal strategy1756

which means that they are going to start cracking down on the colonies, especially in the New England region.1764

They denied the claim of Massachusetts to New Hampshire's territory and instead created New Hampshire as a separate colony.1772

This is to divide the colonies so they would not be unified and stronger.1781

Also in 1684, they annulled Massachusetts charter and they will turn it into a royal colony.1790

They are starting to put more pressure on the colonies and cracking down on illegal trade.1801

James II succeeded to the throne and he has a renewed sense of what a king should be,1811

and insists on the divine right of Kings, that God gave them the right to rule and therefore nobody could stop him.1823

This led English officials to create a centralized imperial system in America.1831

They are really looking to consolidate power and put more pressure on the colonies, and so that they had more oversight.1837

This is when they create the dominion of New England.1848

I have a map to show you in a little bit, so you can visualize this.1852

We are going to see that mother England is going to really look to merge the colonies,1856

but for its own benefit, so politically, it can oversee and control what is going on.1864

In 1686, the Connecticut and Rhode Island colonies were merged with those of Massachusetts Bay and Plymouth,1871

to form the dominion of New England which became a royal province.1880

Two years later, New York and New Jersey were added to the dominion.1885

The King put in place Sir Edmund Andros as governor and he was not well liked.1893

He was empowered to abolish existing legislative assemblies because there were legislative assemblies at this time in the early colonies.1900

There was some representative government.1917

This is James cracking down and giving Andros the power to dismantle these local governments in the colonies.1922

Yes, he is empowered to abolish these assemblies and to rule by decree.1935

A kind of a very authoritarian type of government is being established.1940

He also advocated for worship in the Church of England and trying to impose English religious doctrine and beliefs.1946

The town hall meetings, we know that those were very popular1959

because it gave people a voice to have influence over their government and their decisions.1963

They also challenged land titles.1969

Along with that, English law and customs were imposed.1974

At this point in time, later 17th century, we are starting to see that1980

American colonies are starting to develop a much more independent identity.1981

These policies of Andros and the king are not going to go over very well.1995

Here is some excerpt from the commission of the Sir Edmund Andros.2002

I will just highlight a couple of the main points here.2008

Again, this is in older style of English, the spelling looks different and looks like words are spelled wrong2011

but was just a different way of writing English during this time.2018

I will just read through this.2023

We do, hereby, give and grant unto you full power and authority,2024

by and with the advice and consent of our said council to may constitute and ordain laws and statutes and ordinances.2029

To impose, assess, and raise, levy rates and taxes, as you shall find necessary for the support of the government.2038

I’m highlighting the main point here that they are going to start raising taxes and regulate trade.2048

To be a constant and settled court of record for the administration of justice.2058

Levy arm muster command also to execute martial law in the time of invasion, insurrection, or war.2063

He is willing to use military force when necessary, even on local people who are rebelling.2074

Just to give you a little sense of Andros.2083

This map gives you an overview of what the breakdown of the colonies at the time.2088

As you can see here, there are various types of colonies, royal colonies in red here, those were directly under the control by the British.2097

Proprietary colonies that the king would give a proprietor to put the responsibility and to oversee the colony.2109

Corporate colonies, which at this point is actually in Massachusetts Bay.2124

It is the main corporate colony at this point in time.2138

What else can we see in this map?2142

The other thing to point out is that in the Caribbean, we will also see royal colonies in the Bahamas, Jamaica.2145

The other thing that really points out in the Caribbean is that you see French colonies,2155

Spanish colonies in here, Puerto Rico, Santo Domingo, Cuba.2162

We know that the sugar plantations are very well developed in this region.2172

The other thing to look at this map is the population breakdown between black and white.2178

Some things you may notice here, that the black population, particularly in the West Indian islands and in the Southern mainland.2187

In this region are much higher than in the northern mainland where we see only 3,000.2197

That is something that is pretty significant.2206

Even the ratio of black to white, again, in the Caribbean predominantly black2209

which really shows you that this was really a major hub for African slaves.2216

This also tells you the annual exports, as you could see.2224

At the top, the Caribbean was extremely profitable.2230

That is a very significant thing to pay attention to.2238

There is a lot in this map but I just want to point out a few things.2241

Here is the map, as promised.2248

As you can see, the dominion of New England that really incorporated all of these regions2251

in the northeastern part of the United States, primarily New England colonies.2257

The proprietary colonies here, you could see Pennsylvania and Maryland.2263

This actually will eventually be Delaware which will break off and become independent later on.2273

Please do keep in mind, we are going to talk about this in a little bit.2282

There will be various revolts that will arise in 1689 because of this imposition of the dominion of New England in these two regions.2286

Here on Maryland, we are going to see there is insurrection primarily because of Catholic rule, something to keep in mind.2301

Let us talk about the Glorious Revolution.2314

This is a significant event that occurred in England.2318

1688, James’s Catholic wife gave birth to his son, raising the prospect of a Catholic heir to the throne2323

which in England is a no-no, at this point in time.2331

To forestall such an event, Protestant parliamentary leaders and the Whig party carried out a bloodless coup known as the Glorious Revolution.2336

This was not a bloody affair, it was very peaceful.2349

They just installed William and Mary.2353

Mary, James, his Protestant daughter, by his first wife, and her husband William,2357

that is supposed to be William of Orange, were enthroned.2363

We are going to see Queen Mary II and William III agree to rule as constitutional monarchs.2369

This is a key, an important concept.2377

They will be king and queen, yet, they are going to have limited powers because of constitution.2381

They agree to be loyal to the Protestant reformed religion.2390

They accepted a Bill of Rights.2394

This was much different than James, for instance, James II, who was an advocate of divine right.2400

We are starting to see efforts to limit the power of the king and the monarchs.2409

This is a change and this will also affect the political movements and ideas in North America.2419

We know later on we are going to add a Bill of Rights to our constitution.2432

It is perhaps one of the most celebrated documents that we have here in the United States.2441

Anyway, an important history.2451

They accept the Bill of Rights that limited royal privilege and increased personal liberties and parliamentary powers.2455

We are seeing the strengthening of the parliament, which means that people are going to have more representation,2464

more ordinary people, if you will.2472

That is a significant change.2475

We are going to see limits on the monarchs.2478

This is going to have a huge influence in the colonies, sparking colonial rebellions against royal governments,2481

especially, against that dominion of New England.2490

This one happened in Massachusetts, Maryland, Europe.2494

Eventually, we will see that Andros was deposed, they are going to get rid of him.2497

Then, I have a little bit more on the Bill of Rights.2505

The English Bill of Rights asserted that people have certain basic civil rights.2511

That will become very influential in the American colonies.2519

Though most of the colonies were now more directly controlled by the crown.2525

The assemblies followed the example of the British Parliament and maintained the right to vote on taxes and to initiate legislation.2530

We are starting to see more and more self government happening.2542

Although again, it is still somewhat limited, obviously, there are still a lot of meddling from England.2547

But this is a turning point, we are starting to see things change.2556

Later, the states and the Federal government would eventually adapt their own bill of rights, very significant.2562

Also, around the same time that the bill of rights was created in England,2569

we are also going to see the ideas of the Enlightenment are going to be very influential.2574

John Locke's two treatise of government that was published in 1690,2580

really kind of helped to justify the Glorious Revolution, that he basically argued that divine right theories were bonk.2586

He did not believe in them, he really believed in celebrating individual rights which we could see,2601

the influence in the bill of rights.2609

And that, he did not believe in representative government and that people had to believe in their government.2612

The most revolutionary idea that he came up with was that, if people believe that their government was unjust,2619

that it is their right and their duty to overthrow that government.2628

That idea is really dangerous.2632

We will see that a lot of the intellectuals at this time are going to read this and they are going to think about it.2635

They are going to start saying this idea that God gave you the right king just because, and you are born into this job.2641

I do not think this is legit.2650

These ideas are really going to start to have an influence on the people who will start advocating for representative government.2658

Unlike Locke, there are a lot of different Enlightenment thinkers.2670

Hobbes was another Enlightenment thinker but he was somewhat old school,2678

in the sense that he definitely believed that the only way2685

you could really have a successful type of government is that you need to have a strong monarch.2689

This picture kind of represents the leviathan, this was an important work of Hobbes.2697

I have a couple of minutes here to remind me.2707

This giant who is looming over his domain, his staff and sword symbolizing his civil and religious powers.2713

He is the head of a body made up of a multitude of faces, voices, subjects, as they carry out his commands.2726

Again, we are going to see that most English people do not really support his ideas, but he is going to be part of the conversation.2738

Those who are opposed to his ideas will certainly critique his theories and advocate for other ideas2747

that we are going to explore much later, like popular sovereignty and so forth.2757

Some little discussion about Hobbes.2764

Hobbes had a negative view of human nature and believed that you needed to have a strong leader to keep people in check.2767

Whereas Locke on the other hand, really had a positive view of human nature that people could cooperate2780

and believe that a government was really only legitimate, when people believed in that government and supported that government.2788

Significant ideas that are much different.2796

Eventually, we are going to see after the Glorious Revolution, and after, rebellions start to spread throughout the colonies,2804

that eventually the dominion of New England would be no more.2812

By 1689, Andros was shipped to England and the new monarchs broke up the dominion of New England.2817

However, after that happened they did not restore Puritan dominated government.2825

Instead, they created a new royal colony of Massachusetts whose new charter granted religious freedom2831

to members of the Church of England, again, restrictions.2839

However, they gave the vote to all male property owners instead of Puritans only.2846

They do extend the vote to more people than the Puritans had.2856

Here I just included that there were several uprisings,2861

you want to look this up to find out more about the specifics of them, just going to highlight them, in general.2865

There various uprisings that eventually helped to lead to the demise of this regime.2872

This will lead to the restoration of internal self government.2880

Bye Andros, we want to rule ourselves.2885

That is going to be very empowering to people in the American colonies.2891

Parliament will try to continue to oversee the economic relations.2897

They create a new board of trade to supervise the American settlements but this had little success.2903

The overall result, it was a period of Locke's administration.2911

This is known as salutary neglect.2916

This is going to be another turning point where we will see England loosening its policies,2923

as far as restricting the colonies in its trade relations.2934

That is pretty significant.2941

During that time, it is going to be very empowering to the colonies.2945

Let us get into the practice questions.2950

These first two are multiple choice.2954

Get ready to pause if you need a minute to think about these.2958

Remember, after I read the question, I will just give you a few seconds.2963

You may want to pause it and then check your answer.2966

Both of these questions, I should say, may relate to this actual table.2974

Sometimes, it will be related to a table but you would not always find your answer in the table.2981

But it may sometimes give you a clue, oftentimes it will.2988

At least, one question will be directly related to the table.2994

From what I have noticed with the new multiple choice questions that I have seen from the college board,2997

in this newly redesigned multiple choice section, is that sometimes they actually just ask you a related question to the topic.3002

If it is a table or if it is a quotation, excerpt from a primary source, whatever it may be.3013

Let us look at this, number 1, which of the following colonies did religious toleration not figure prominently?3025

Was it Maryland, Rhode Island, Pennsylvania, or Georgia?3034

The answer is Georgia.3044

This colony was created for people who were imprisoned, to give them a second chance.3048

The rest of these are all related to religion, especially, religious toleration.3059

Second one, which of the following colonies was settled last?3066

The answer is, pretty simple here, it is Georgia.3075

Let us move on.3089

Now we are going to go into the short answer section of the questions.3092

This one, this is based on the map.3099

Also, there is a little chart in here.3105

We have looked at this a little bit earlier.3107

You may want to actually pause this and take a look at it yourself.3111

Again, the question is asking you to use your knowledge of U.S. history and the map below to answer parts A, B, and C.3116

Short answer questions.3124

Letter A, there are a lot of different ways you can answer these questions.3130

I'm just going to give you some examples.3134

A, provide an example and briefly explain how one aspect of the British controlled transatlantic trade3137

affected the economy of North America in this period.3144

I will give you an example.3150

The British controlled transatlantic trade brought commerce to the North American colonies.3152

This helped foster the growth of the North American economy.3159

Letter B, provide an example and briefly explain how one aspect of British controlled transatlantic trade3165

shaped the culture of North America in this period.3172

Here we go, because of British involvement in the transatlantic trade system,3181

there was a huge influx of Africans who although were enslaved and faced with horrific conditions,3187

were in some cases able to create a new African American cultural identity.3194

Moving on, C, identify and briefly explain how the aspect you chose for either part A or part B3217

influenced the political lives of British North American colonies by the mid 18th century.3225

My answer, under the British American mercantilist system, although the British began to restrict colonial trade,3232

they also followed the policy of salutary neglect, which inspired many colonies to work around the navigation acts3239

and rise up against unpopular laws and policies.3247

There you have it, short answers.3253

Mine are a little bit, that last one in particular, was a little more elaborate.3256

You could be a little bit more succinct.3260

This just really needs to be one succinct, clear, sentence each.3264

Now we are going to work on a long essay question.3279

I’m not going to give you a full essay example for this.3285

What I will do is really highlight some of the main points you could bring in3289

and suggest to you a way that you could approach the long essay.3294

This is a different style than we have seen in the past, for essay questions on the AP exam.3301

Just make sure that you do spend time learning how to structure your essay.3312

You can shoot for at least five paragraph, I would think that is a minimum.3322

If you can do much more extensive, that is great.3327

But sometimes quality is much more important than quantity.3332

That is something that I would also keep in mind.3337

Let us look at the question, provide examples to refute or support,3343

you should highlight key verbs so you know what it is asking you to do.3349

Provide examples to refute or support the following statement.3358

Beginning with the restoration of the monarchy in 1660,3362

the English government made a continuous effort to exercise control over its American colonies.3365

Keywords, restoration of the monarchy in 1660, exercise control.3374

Hopefully, you understand what it is asking you.3385

What I recommend that you do is spend some time brainstorming.3388

How would you approach this?3393

What do you know about this topic?3395

Whatever works for you, if it is a little mini outline, if it is a concept map.3400

You should just try to briefly create a structure, as far as what you want to cover or what you know about this topic.3406

You can draw in that information and write efficiently and effectively.3417

A good essay response starts, first and foremost, with a relevant thesis supported by evidence.3424

Having a thesis in the introductory paragraph is going to be really important.3435

There are several ways that you can answer this question.3440

One thing that I do want to suggest to you is that you do actually define your terms3445

and do not assume that the reader of your exam is going to know that you know all the terms.3451

If you understand a little bit more about restoration especially of 1660’s referring to,3460

put that into context and be explicit in your explanation, especially, if you know it.3467

You definitely want to define restoration.3478

For instance, you want to show what you know.3481

You would include in your discussion of the Restoration of 1660.3485

This is when Charles II was restored.3491

You could include other things in that as well.3496

I’m going to give you just a brief example of at least an overarching introduction3499

that you can kind of give a sense of where to go with this essay or one way of approaching this essay.3509

Here it goes.3517

During the 17th century, after the Restoration, the English government created policies3519

that sought to restrict the American colonies, economically and politically.3524

Once Charles II was restored to the British crown, he looked to expand English power in the Americas.3530

He granted several of his noble friends land grants in North America and3537

these restoration colonies became profitable settlements by the British.3541

The British American mercantilist system was intended to benefit the British economy3547

by stimulating English manufacturing and global trade.3553

By the time of Restoration, the British government began implementing several laws that were intended to restrict colonial trade.3557

When James II ascended the throne, he looked to have stricter control over the colonies3569

and the dominion of New England was formed.3575

Despite these efforts of the British to regulate colonial trade and limit colonial political power,3578

colonies started to challenge these restrictions and rebel against the policies.3585

That is kind of my introduction.3593

I included a lot there, it is a little meaty.3596

What I would do in the body paragraphs, make sure you have good topic sentences3601

that introduce your sub-arguments to support your thesis.3608

For instance, intro include thesis that directly addresses the question.3618

Do not restate the question in your introduction.3634

Try to come up with a more creative way to address it.3639

Just trust me on this one.3645

You want to be unique, you do not want to be boring, especially to the reader.3647

Paragraph 2, let me do this again, body paragraph number 1.3656

This one I would talk about, perhaps, economic restrictions.3676

Sorry, my handwriting is not the best.3682

Economic restrictions, mercantilism, that is a very broad concept that you can explain in greater detail.3688

You can also bring in the specific examples of the navigation acts.3701

Body paragraph 2, you could get into the dominion of New England and how they start to crack down3712

and restrict political rights by creating this imperial system that oversees the colonies, especially, in the northeast.3726

And then, body paragraph 3, you could get into colonies rebellion, kind of the theme of colonies rebelling against these policies.3739

Also, working around the navigation acts and advocating for themselves, and advocating for self government.3765

You could even bring in the Glorious Revolution, the influence of the Bill of Rights.3782

There is a lot you could go with here actually.3791

You obviously have the option of going into greater detail with other paragraphs.3796

And then, your conclusion, I'm running out of room, restate thesis somewhere, that is very important.3801

Some people have different views about this but I think you should be really explicit.3808

Bring in your thesis again and then, ultimately summarize, synthesize your argument once again, that you discussed in your essay.3813

Just some tips on how to approach the long essay.3833