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The Civil War, Part 1

  • After the election of Abraham Lincoln, on 12/20/1860, the SC convention voted unanimously to secede from the Union: “fire-eaters” elsewhere in the deep South quickly followed.
  • The secessionists met in Alabama in Feb. 1861 & proclaimed a new nation: the Confederate States of America & adopted a new constitution & named Jefferson Davis as its provisional president
  • Davis forced the surrender of Fort Sumter on 4/14/1861; Lincoln called in state militiamen to put down the insurrection
  • Jefferson Davis’s focus was on the defense of Confederacy rather than conquering w. territories & they only needed a military stalemate to guarantee independence
  • Lincoln focused on an aggressive military strategy & policy of unconditional surrender; the Union had difficulty with its leadership early on and a military stalemate ensued for the first two years of the war.
  • Total war was a key component to the Civil War, so the draft was imposed, and this became unpopular amongst immigrant groups like the Germans and Irish in 1863. Women also participated in the war effort extensively.
  • Lincoln suspended habeas corpus and extended martial law against civilians who resisted the draft; this set a precedent in U.S. history that during times of war, presidents are oftentimes compelled to restrict civil liberties out of “military necessity.”

The Civil War, Part 1

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  1. Intro
    • Overview
      • The Election of 1860
      • Storming the Castle
        • The National Game, Three “Outs” and One “Run”
          • The Election of 1860 Voting Results
            • The Appeal of Abraham Lincoln
            • Secession and the Fire-eaters
            • Buchanan's Response and the Crittenden Plan
            • Lincoln Inaugurated and In Command
            • The Upper South Chooses Sides
            • Setting Wars Objectives and Strategies
            • The Anaconda Plan
            • The Defensive Strategy of the Confederacy
            • Problems with Military Generals for the Union
            • Both Sides Forced Into “Total War”
            • The Union and Total War
            • Draft Riots of 1863
              • Aftermath of Draft Riots
              • Medical Services During the War
              • Women and the Civil War
                • Mobilizing Resources
                • Economic Differences
                • Example 1
                  • Example 2
                    • Example 3
                      • Intro 0:00
                      • Overview 0:05
                      • The Election of 1860 1:53
                        • Divided Democrats
                        • A Free-Soil Platform
                        • Momentous Consequences
                      • Storming the Castle 4:26
                      • The National Game, Three “Outs” and One “Run” 7:12
                      • The Election of 1860 Voting Results 7:53
                      • The Appeal of Abraham Lincoln 8:52
                        • Reputation for Eloquence
                        • Signal to White Southerners
                      • Secession and the Fire-eaters 9:44
                        • South Carolina Convention
                        • Confederate States of America
                        • Jefferson Davis
                      • Buchanan's Response and the Crittenden Plan 10:39
                        • Fort Sumter
                        • The Crittenden Compromise
                        • Constitutional Amendment
                        • Extension of Missouri Compromise Line
                      • Lincoln Inaugurated and In Command 12:49
                        • Refuse the Extension of Missouri Compromise Line
                        • Union Constituted Insurrection
                      • The Upper South Chooses Sides 14:01
                        • State Militiamen
                        • Border States
                      • Setting Wars Objectives and Strategies 15:41
                        • Defense of Confederacy
                        • Unconditional Surrender
                        • George B. McClellan
                        • Battle Of Shiloh
                      • The Anaconda Plan 17:43
                        • Blockading the Gulf of Mexico
                        • Starve the South into Submission
                        • Seizing the Mississippi River
                      • The Defensive Strategy of the Confederacy 20:06
                        • Strategy of the South
                        • General Robert E. Lee
                      • Problems with Military Generals for the Union 20:28
                        • Confederate Army under “Stonewall” Jackson
                        • Battle at Antietam Creek
                        • Joseph Fighting Joe Hooker
                      • Both Sides Forced Into “Total War” 23:11
                        • The First Legally Binding Draft
                        • Rich Man's War and a Poor Man's Fight
                        • Unenforceable Southerners
                      • The Union and Total War 25:15
                        • The Union's Militia Act of 1862
                        • German and Irish Immigrants
                        • 15000 Confederate Sympathizers
                      • Draft Riots of 1863 28:06
                      • Aftermath of Draft Riots 29:16
                        • Riots in New York City
                        • A Plea for Churches
                        • Financial Relief
                      • Medical Services During the War 30:42
                        • The Union Army Medical Bureau
                        • U.S. Sanitary Commission
                        • Dorothea Dix
                        • Women Participated in Military Duties
                      • Women and the Civil War 33:15
                      • Mobilizing Resources 34:00
                        • Mass Production
                        • King Cotton
                        • Rebel Government as a Belligerent Power
                        • Federal Subsidies for Railroads
                        • The Homestead Act
                      • Economic Differences 36:59
                        • Less Coherent Economic Policy
                        • Legal Tender Act of 1862
                        • Inflation Increased
                      • Example 1 38:32
                      • Example 2 40:03
                      • Example 3 42:15

                      Transcription: The Civil War, Part 1

                      Welcome back to

                      This lesson is about the Civil War, part one.0002

                      In this lesson, we are going to talk about the significance of the election of 1860 in which Abraham Lincoln wins. 0006

                      This is going to have a significant impact on the stability of the United States.0014

                      And ultimately, will be the straw that broke the camel's back as the South Carolina state, the first state in the south will secede.0020

                      And eventually, other southern states will follow.0032

                      Then, we are going to talk about the early years, the first half of the Civil War which resulted in stalemate,0036

                      which was pretty surprising because one would think that the Union would have a major advantage over the Confederacy.0046

                      But we will see the reasons why the first few years are actually quite challenging and lead to the stalemate,0056

                      where neither one side has won the war.0064

                      It is a tie, ultimately.0069

                      I'm going to highlight some of the strategies and major battles and generals during the first few years of the war.0071

                      And then, we are going to get into how the Civil War became a total war for both sides, 0079

                      that led the Union forces as well as the Confederacy to draft soldiers, compelling people to fight for their country.0087

                      Then, we are going to conclude with a compare and contrast of the Union and Confederacy, 0100

                      regarding economic differences that will ultimately impact the outcome of the war.0107

                      First, I would like to talk about the significance of the election of 1860, extremely important.0115

                      I cannot overstate it enough, I should say.0121

                      Four candidates for the presidency in 1860.0125

                      Abraham Lincoln, a Republican, John C. Breckenridge who was a Southern Democrat.0131

                      In fact, Breckenridge, John Bell, the Constitutional Unionist, Stephen A. Douglas who was a Northern Democrat.0143

                      And ultimately, we are going to see that, you may notice that there are two democrats here, Breckenridge and Douglas,0156

                      and that is going to be a major factor in the outcome of the election, as they were divided,0165

                      which will give Abraham Lincoln, the Republicans, a major advantage.0171

                      We will see in addition to that, Republicans will court white voters for the free-soil platform that oppose slavery as well as racial equality.0177

                      At this point again, the free-soil approach was a much more compromise, moderate approach.0188

                      This ends up being a successful strategy at this point in history for the Republican Party.0196

                      As the war, once the war unfolds, as the war goes on, we will see that this position is going to change, 0202

                      as it becomes very necessary to advocate for the end of slavery, which in many ways will lead to the support of racial equality.0213

                      Although, that whole concept was not readily embraced and supported by whites at this point in time, 0224

                      for the most part, and even by the Republican Party.0231

                      Keep that in mind.0238

                      This election is extremely significant and momentous because of the sectional issues involved.0241

                      What we are going to see is that, southern states believed that their rights are not being protected 0248

                      and they view the policies of Abraham Lincoln, who ends up winning this election, as unconstitutional, 0259

                      and that their States' rights are being violated.0272

                      And that, the decision for them to be able to have slavery be legal is being jeopardized by these Republicans,0274

                      who are trying to stop its existence, at least the spread of it.0285

                      This cartoon highlights the election as well during the 1860 campaign.0292

                      There was a group called the Wide Awakes, it was a marching club composed of young Republican men,0301

                      who appeared in cities throughout the north.0306

                      And they often wore uniforms like what Abraham Lincoln has in this particular cartoon, 0309

                      in visor caps and short capes and they carried lanterns as well.0316

                      Here Republican presidential candidate Abraham Lincoln is dressed as a Wide Awake and carries a lantern and spear-like wooden rail.0321

                      He rounds the corner of the White House, foiling the attempts of three other candidates to enter surreptitiously.0330

                      At the far right, incumbent James Buchanan tries to haul John C. Breckenridge in through a window.0336

                      This is highlighting that southern conspiracy, if you will,0345

                      the southern democrats were trying to have a huge influence over the executive branch.0351

                      Buchanan complains, I will do what I can to help you Breck, but my strength is failing and I'm afraid you will pull me out before I can pull you in.0357

                      Breckinridge despairs, "I'm too weak to get up and we shall be compelled to dissolve the Union."0367

                      His words reflect his and Buchanan's supposed alliance with secessionists interests of the south.0375

                      In the center is democrat, as you could see he is quite short, 0383

                      Stephen A. Douglas who tries to unlock the White House door, as Constitutional Union party candidate John Bell frets, 0388

                      "Hurry up Douglas and get the door, so that I can get in, for the watchman Lincoln is coming."0396

                      Douglas complains that none of the three keys he holds, labeled regular nomination,0403

                      nonintervention, and Nebraska Bill, will open the door.0410

                      "I had better be off, for old Abe is after me with a sharp stick."0415

                      Again, kind of making a mockery but also pointing out this supposed relationship between these two southern politicians.0420

                      A lot of cartoons about this election.0433

                      Here is another one, the national game, three outs and one run.0436

                      Wheeling along that like rail labeled equal rights and free territory,0440

                      Abe Lincoln holds a baseball and appears ready to score a victory in the election.0446

                      And these are his three opponents.0452

                      This is a pro-Lincoln cartoon, and according to this, they were about to be skunked,0455

                      as Douglas laments their attempt to put a shortstop to Lincoln's presidential ambitions had failed.0462

                      Here are the results of the 1860 election.0474

                      As you can see, Lincoln won most of the northeastern states and the Midwest.0478

                      Lincoln received actually less than 1% of the popular vote at the south and only 40% of the national poll.0489

                      He won every northern and western state except for New Jersey,0496

                      giving him 180 of the 303 electoral votes and the majority in the Electoral College.0501

                      He ends up winning.0508

                      As you can see, not one electoral vote from the south.0509

                      Breckenridge took 72 electoral votes sweeping the deep south, Delaware, Maryland, and North Carolina.0513

                      Douglas won about 30% of the popular vote but only 51 electoral votes.0520

                      Ultimately, we will see Lincoln is victorious in this election.0526

                      This is going to have a profound impact, as it will push the south to secede.0532

                      Why Lincoln?0541

                      He had a reputation for eloquence and was a self-made man, 0543

                      and became very popular during the Lincoln-Douglas debates, had a good sense of humor.0549

                      But his moderate position on slavery was also very appealing.0555

                      He was relatively obscure in his approach, a very skilled politician in that regard.0559

                      And being from the west was also a major advantage, as he was able to pick up the votes from the west, at this point in history.0566

                      His win was a signal to southern whites that their position in the Union was hopeless.0576

                      This is going to be the straw that will break the camel's back, 0583

                      and lead to South Carolina to vote in its convention to unanimously secede from the Union.0587

                      The fire eaters, those kind of radical southerners who were also pro-secession, quickly followed.0596

                      In fact, we will see Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas followed by February.0611

                      And they eventually formed the Confederate States of America, a brand new country. 0619

                      This was unprecedented, and they adopt a new constitution.0623

                      And they name Jefferson Davis as provisional president.0628

                      And eventually, Alexander Stevens from Georgia will become the vice president of the Confederacy.0633

                      Before we get into the nitty gritty of the Civil War, and even before Lincoln was actually inaugurated and in power, 0642

                      Buchanan who was a lame duck president, kind of completing his last days in office, was not very decisive.0651

                      He was a southerner, yet still had the duties as president, but was pretty weak and indecisive.0662

                      In December of 1860, Buchanan declared secession illegal 0672

                      but denied that the Federal government had the authority to restore the Union by force.0676

                      We are going to see that this is going to lead to the south taking a much more action.0683

                      South Carolina ends up demanding the surrender of Fort Sumter that was a Federal garrison at Charleston Harbor.0691

                      And in response, Buchanan ordered the resupply of the fort by an unarmed merchant ship.0699

                      South Carolinians fired on the ship, yet Buchanan refuse to order the navy to escort it into the harbor.0706

                      Congress responded with a compromise called the Crittenden compromise.0714

                      This is last effort to kind of prevent war from unfolding and to come to some type of compromise.0721

                      This was a constitutional amendment to protect slavery from Federal interference in any state where it already existed.0730

                      This was passed by Congress, the other part of this compromise was an extension of the Missouri compromise line to the California border.0742

                      But this was not supported by Republicans because they believed that this could also open up the territories to slavery.0751

                      They did not support that part of the compromise.0761

                      By March, we are going to see that Lincoln was inaugurated and in command.0772

                      And as far as the Crittenden plan was concerned, he upheld the first part of the Crittenden plan to protect slavery where it already existed,0778

                      but refused to extend the Missouri compromise line to the California border.0788

                      He was very consistent with the Republican position on the Crittenden plan.0792

                      The other aspect of this that I would like to include as well is that, the Republicans also feared that by extending this line,0798

                      it would unleash new imperialist adventures by proslavery forces to gain land beyond the borders such as in Cuba, 0807

                      where slavery had already existed, that they are looking to expand from the southeastern part United States into that region.0816

                      Lincoln will definitely take a stronger stance declaring that secession was illegal 0826

                      and its acts against the Union constituted an insurrection, and that he was willing and able to enforce Federal laws.0832

                      We are going to see that the upper south will have to choose sides,0844

                      whether they will remain with the Union or if they will join the Confederacy.0849

                      After Davis forces the surrender of Fort Sumter, we will see in response to that, 0855

                      that Lincoln will call in state militiamen to put down the insurrection.0861

                      And in fact, many other states will offer their help such as Ohio, where many soldiers will enroll and help to squash this rebellion.0867

                      In terms of the south choosing sides, Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee,0881

                      North Carolina end up joining the Confederacy after the fall of Fort Sumter.0885

                      And after Lincoln's intervention, we will see that Missouri, Delaware, Maryland, and Kentucky will end up staying with the Union.0890

                      These will be known as the border states, you should be familiar with that term.0901

                      The border states, these border states that had slavery, in fact, that will be very significant 0910

                      especially later on when we talk about the emancipation proclamation.0920

                      If you can imagine being in the middle of these two major forces, it would be very challenging and a difficult decision to make.0926

                      But nonetheless, we will see that they will end up deciding to stay with the Union.0932

                      Setting wars objectives and strategies.0943

                      Jefferson Davis will focus on the defense of the Confederacy rather than conquering western territories.0945

                      And ultimately, they just needed to hang in there.0954

                      They knew they were at a disadvantage, so what they needed was a military stalemate to guarantee independence.0957

                      On the Union side, Lincoln wanted an aggressive military strategy and policy of unconditional surrender.0964

                      What we are going to see is that, Lincoln is not going to be happy with the outcome of his early generals0974

                      who were leading the soldiers on the ground, in the first battles.0984

                      That is going to cause some trouble and lead to a military stalemate during the first few years of the war.0992

                      For example, July of 1861, General Irvin McDowell’s troops were routed by PGT Beauregard troops near Manassas creek, also called Bull Run.0998

                      And eventually, McDowell will be replaced by McClellan.1010

                      He ends up beefing up the military even more, enlisting an additional million men 1016

                      who would serve for three years in a newly created army of the Potomac.1021

                      This is creating instability because of matters due to leadership.1027

                      It is taking some time for the Union to get well organized.1035

                      The losses at Bull Run and McClellan’s delays however, because McClellan is not going to jump in there and be decisive as well,1041

                      produced a stalemate that lasted until 1862, until the battle of Shiloh later that year.1050

                      That is going to cause a lot of challenges for the Union.1058

                      We will see on the other hand, the Confederacy has the leadership and the heart.1065

                      People believed in the cause and Robert E. Lee was a very strategic capable general who was very successful at first1076

                      in leading the Confederacy for the first few years.1087

                      One of the plans that was proposed by Winfield Scott, General Winfield, I will just put Win Scott.1092

                      It says Scott here.1104

                      Scott’s great sneak as this map is called, and this is known as the anaconda plan.1106

                      The idea here of Scott’s peaceful persuasion threw an economic blockade of the Gulf of Mexico and along the Atlantic Coast, 1114

                      that this would squeeze, starve out, cut off the trade from the Confederacy.1128

                      That would impact and put a lot of pressure on the Confederacy to surrender.1136

                      The plan also involved seizing the Mississippi River and blockading it again, 1148

                      so that they were unable to receive shipments, particularly from the British.1154

                      They also were unable to trade king cotton, which was the major cash crop that provides income 1160

                      and also would help the industrial base, because it provided economic opportunities in the south.1171

                      But without trade, the south is going to be majorly impacted. 1182

                      Now this will have an impact, in fact, cut down trade significantly.1187

                      The naval blockade is not 100% successful, as there will be some gaps along the coast.1195

                      But it will impact the Confederacy economically in a major way.1202

                      Here you can see the ships blockading the coast.1209

                      The defensive strategy will be successful overall for this Confederacy,1214

                      and allows them to stay in the game for the first two years, under the leadership of General Robert E. Lee.1220

                      As I was saying, there were lots of problems with military generals for the Union.1233

                      As McClellan launched a thrust towards Richmond in 1862, this was in Virginia which was the Confederate capital.1238

                      What ends up happening is because he was not decisive in his move and he moves too slowly,1248

                      and this allowed the Confederacy to mount a counterattack.1255

                      This was viewed as very ineffective and that is going to make him look like an indecisive general, which is going to upset Lincoln.1259

                      Washington was also threatened when a Confederate army under Stonewall Jackson marched up north up to the Shenandoah Valley in Western Virginia.1273

                      He ended up winning a series of small engagements, tying down the larger Union forces.1284

                      And then, we are going to see that Robert E. Lee of the Confederacy will go on the offensive eventually,1291

                      and ends up routing Union troops at first, the second battle of Bull Run in 1862.1298

                      Then, he heads up north to Western Maryland, delays on the Union side kept Lee moving towards Antietam Creek.1308

                      And this will lead to the battle of Antietam Creek in September of 1862.1316

                      This was a very bloody war, in fact the bloodiest single day in U.S. military history happened on this particular day.1324

                      It was savage and gruesome.1333

                      On this particular day, 4800 died, 18,500 were wounded, 3000 of whom later died.1338

                      Because of Lee’s retreat at this battle, Lincoln claimed this as a victory but there were still problems overall.1348

                      And again, this is to highlight that the Union did not have it together.1357

                      But this war, militarily, and that this should have been a decisive win.1363

                      But Lincoln's aggressive strategy was not being implemented on the ground.1370

                      McClellan was replaced by Burnside, who later resigned, and then replaced by Joseph Fighting Joe Hooker.1379

                      Lincoln was having a tough time until later on, when he has Grant and Sherman, and so forth.1391

                      Despite these difficulties, we will see that both sides are very much engaged in what is known as a total war.1400

                      When all human and physical resources are geared to the war effort, 1407

                      to feed, clothe, support the war effort, militarily, economically, etc., from the rail.1415

                      All of these resources as much as are used and are sacrificed for the war.1423

                      They will be also targeted because that would starve out your enemy or kind of attack their supplies.1429

                      Anything was a game in this war.1438

                      We will also see human resources will need to be employed as well.1444

                      After the defeat in Shiloh in April of 1862, the Confederate Congress imposed the first legally binding draft in U.S. history.1448

                      This is compulsory service, forcing, requiring, male soldiers to sign up and serve in the military.1459

                      However, there were two loopholes.1471

                      One, it exempted one white man for every 20 slaves on a plantation.1473

                      This clearly favored plantation owners, not small farmers.1478

                      That is going to cause a lot of class resentment.1483

                      It also allowed drafted men to hire substitutes.1486

                      This led to the sentiment that the war was a rich man's war but a poor man’s fight.1490

                      That will undermine the Confederate effort in the long run, as the war drags on.1495

                      But some southerners refuse to serve, but the draft was unenforceable 1503

                      because the Confederacy did not have a full blown bureaucracy to enforce this policy.1509

                      The Union and total war.1519

                      Obviously, the United States had a much greater edge because it had the bureaucracy of the Federal government.1522

                      We will see during the civil war, a war bureaucracy, at least the foundation of it are being created, 1528

                      and will be the stepping stone and the first example of a bureaucracy that will evolve throughout U.S. history.1536

                      The first act, the Union's militia act of 1862 set a quota for volunteers and this will help increase enrollment.1548

                      There is another law that was passed called the Enrollment Act of 1863.1555

                      This will also lead to a draft and cause huge backlash especially amongst the German and Irish immigrants in New York City.1567

                      In fact, they are going to scapegoat and target many African-Americans as a result, which was their expression of, 1579

                      it is your fault that we are even having this war, which you could say is unfair.1587

                      The immigrants are also having to deal with being forced into a war that they did not want to get involved in,1597

                      cause tensions amongst the poor groups, especially in New York City.1606

                      Lincoln, trying to impose order and to keep the peace, and also to keep supporting the war effort,1614

                      he had to suspend habeas corpus.1623

                      Eventually, he imprisons about 15,000 Confederate sympathizers without trial.1627

                      He also extended martial law to civilians who resisted the draft.1634

                      This is a great example of when presidents during extreme times, during times of war, will go to extremes to suspend civil liberties.1641

                      And certainly, this is very controversial and this definitely made Lincoln look very autocratic, 1656

                      since this is viewed as an undemocratic type of move.1663

                      But nonetheless, something that he felt compelled to do,1668

                      he felt that it was actually constitutional with his argument being that this was a military necessity.1673

                      Controversial move but nonetheless, part of our history.1686

                      Kind of coming back to the draft riots.1692

                      Here is an example of seeing how the riots in New York, conflicts between the military, and the rioters in First Avenue.1694

                      Lincoln needed to get a grip on this, and to show that the United States was a land of laws.1704

                      He had to crack down and enforce the law.1712

                      During the draft riots of 1863, Union troops were called in to restore order. 1717

                      Here are the rioters picture in battle with Union forces along First Avenue between 11th and 14th Street.1722

                      Angry mobs attacked draft offices, industrial establishments, and the city's free black population.1729

                      Their actions included the lynching of many African-Americans and burning down the colored orphan asylum.1736

                      Pretty extreme, just to show you how the war, in many ways, exacerbated race relations and tensions throughout the United States,1745

                      but particularly in urban areas, in New York in particular.1757

                      Here is a picture, you can see an African American being lynched.1762

                      Which unfortunately is also part of our history, that really highlighting this practice 1767

                      and just the bitter racism that had a huge impact over people psyche, that they would resort to this practice.1777

                      Anyway, in the aftermath of the draft riots in New York City, the New York Times published a plea for churches 1792

                      to provide financial relief to help alleviate the suffering of the city’s blacks.1798

                      You know, attitudes are pretty negative around this, at this point in time.1805

                      But we will see that this will eventually change.1809

                      African-Americans will become very important, and in fact, help in the turning point of this war 1815

                      and later participate in the war effort, as I had pictured here, which I will get into this a bit later.1824

                      But the 54th regiment, in particular, and other regiments that were exclusively African-American,1831

                      will become instrumental in winning the Civil War.1838

                      Medical Services during the war.1846

                      One thing to keep in mind is that disease was a huge problem.1848

                      I have even seen statistics that more people died from disease, than actually from being killed in combat.1853

                      The Medical Services were somewhat limited.1863

                      Although, they were improving at this point in history, still quite primitive especially in comparison to today's standards.1865

                      But nonetheless, we do start to see some different parts of government, 1873

                      different bureaucratic areas being created, that particular dealt with medicine and sanitation.1883

                      The Union Army Medical Bureau was established and the U.S. Sanitary Commission organized medical services to soldiers,1894

                      and tried to prevent deaths from disease which killed more men than with the fighting, as I was saying.1901

                      The Confederate house system was poorly organized and soldiers died from camp diseases at a higher rate than Union soldiers.1907

                      We will see in this total war effort, women playing a huge role, in the Sanitary Commission in particular, and other wartime agencies.1917

                      Dorothea Dix was the first woman to receive a major Federal appointment.1927

                      That is going to be very significant to keep in mind is that, during times of war, we often see minority groups.1934

                      In particular women, as well as African-Americans, and other minority groups.1941

                      But in this case, and during the Civil War, women and African-Americans having opportunities for advancement, 1945

                      that they have not had during other previous times in U.S. history.1955

                      That is very significant.1961

                      Women served as nurses, they held jobs and had military duties too.1964

                      They staffed growing bureaucracies, they volunteered to serve as nurses when in field, and filled positions traditionally held by men.1971

                      Again, a lot of opportunities, women served as spies in the military, and even they are disguised as men, or scouts.1979

                      That is going to give women many opportunities.1992

                      Of course, we will see a certain backlash to that in the aftermath of the war.1995

                      But for the time being, this actually was a stepping stone for women to receive more rights.2000

                      Along the same lines, you will see women participating in a factory like situation, where they are sewing and providing,2008

                      making materials for the war effort, caring for the sick and dying, etc.2019

                      Pulling cartridges at the United States arsenal of Watertown Massachusetts, that is what this is referring to here.2028

                      Women were part of the total war effort as well.2038

                      There is no doubt about it, the Union had a distinct advantage.2044

                      Its economy was far superior to the south and its arms factories were equipped for mass production.2048

                      There is no doubt about it that the north was industrialized and also had access to transportation networks, 2055

                      in a much more substantial way than in the Confederate south.2066

                      The Confederates had substantial industrial capacity.2070

                      And by 1863, they were able to provide every infantryman with a modern rifle musket.2074

                      However, they are not going to have the opportunities that we see in the north, economically.2081

                      Especially with the blockade, that is going to inhibit them from having their full industrial capacity.2088

                      The Confederate leaders did count on king cotton to provide revenue to purchase clothes, foods, blankets, and weapons from abroad.2096

                      The British government never recognized the independence of the Confederacy.2105

                      But it did recognize the rebel government as a belligerent power, 2109

                      with the right under international law to borrow money and purchase weapons.2114

                      To sustain the allegiance of northerners to their party, while bolstering the Union's ability to fight the war.2121

                      On the other hand, in the Union, Republicans raise tariffs to help the war effort and also to help promote the economy in the north.2127

                      They create a national banking system.2137

                      They also helped devise a system of internal improvements, that was way beyond Henry Clay's American System,2140

                      especially railroads that were becoming more and more popular and extremely important at this point in time.2149

                      Federal subsidy, Federal monies helped to build the railroads, that is also going to give the north and the Union a tremendous advantage.2159

                      They also developed the Homestead Act of 1862 which will provide cheaper land opportunities for poor families,2171

                      and encourage people to farm the land.2184

                      That will also help provide more raw resources for the war.2191

                      They closed local banks, they forced states’ people to accept the Federal charters and regulations.2203

                      They made plans also for continental railroad, that actually was not completed until 1869.2208

                      But they were all on their way during the time of the Civil War.2216

                      The Confederate government's economic policy, less coherent.2223

                      The Davis administration built and operated shipyards, armories, foundries, and textile mills.2227

                      They commandeered food and raw materials and requisitioned slaves to work on forts.2233

                      They definitely had the major total war effort to utilize these resources.2241

                      In comparison, the Union government created a modern nation state, raised revenue by imposing taxes, 2251

                      borrowing from the middle class, and creating a national monetary system based on the Legal Tender Act of 1862,2260

                      that authorized to issue of $100,000,000 in treasury notes, known as the greenbacks.2267

                      That will also help bolster the Union economy.2273

                      As I have said previously, Republican Congress supported the high tariff.2279

                      But in comparison, the Confederacy lacked a central government and financed about 60% through unbacked paper.2283

                      And as a result, inflation increased in a major way.2292

                      And that is going to give the Confederacy a major disadvantage in this war.2297

                      And that is going to lead to food rioting and instability, and overall poor morale.2303

                      I think with that, we are actually at the end of our lesson, and into the assessments.2310

                      This first one, we have a graph to analyze, between the north and the south.2316

                      Population, commodity output, farm acreage, factories, and railroad mileage.2324

                      Take a look at that.2331

                      Which of the following is true?2332

                      The south had advantage economically over the north.2334

                      The north had an advantage economically over the south.2338

                      The south had more access to railroad lines.2341

                      The north's economy was mostly agricultural.2344

                      The answer.2351

                      Let us move on, which of the following is true?2358

                      The north could manufacture more weapons than the south.2361

                      The south could manufacture more weapons than the north.2364

                      Most of the population was in the south.2367

                      The north had less commodity output than the south.2369

                      And the answer.2375

                      Number 3, Republicans in Congress supported which of the following to help boost the Union economy and war effort?2378

                      High tariffs on foreign goods, relying on king cotton to finance the war, no tariffs,2385

                      asking the private sector to fund transportation projects.2392

                      The answer is high tariffs.2398

                      I have a map here, the United States of America, Confederate States of America, 2406

                      and these were the border states, and these were the territories.2412

                      In July of 1861, President Lincoln was particularly concerned about how his policies on slavery would affect which areas?2418

                      The states in yellow because they were slave states that remained in the Union.2427

                      The states in blue because they were home to most of his political supporters.2431

                      The states in red because they thought he could persuade them to rejoin the Union.2435

                      The states in black because it consisted of territories that had not yet become states.2440

                      The answer is actually this one, the border states in yellow.2450

                      Which of the following statements best described the states in blue?2461

                      Most people lived, and just so you remember, the blue states were in the north and in the Midwest, 2465

                      what we would call Midwest today.2472

                      Which of the following statements best describes the states in blue?2474

                      Most people lived in urban areas.2478

                      Most people supported abolitionism.2480

                      They lacked good river transportation.2482

                      They included most of the country's population.2485

                      The answer to this is actually D.2494

                      One of the tricky.2498

                      Which of the following statements best describe the statements in dark red?2500

                      This is, if you do not remember, in the south.2506

                      They were economically self sufficient.2509

                      They were well connected by railroads.2511

                      They had a strong military tradition.2514

                      They had a well organized strong navy.2516

                      This one, although, I admit, I did not emphasize this a lot, all I did to focus on the leadership of Robert E. Lee, was actually C.2522

                      Scott’s great snake, we have gone over this.2536

                      Hopefully you remember, but you are related to this.2541

                      Using the cartoon, answer A, B, and C.2547

                      Explain the point of view reflected in the cartoon above regarding one of the following.2550

                      Blockade, Mississippi River, or General Grant.2554

                      For this one, I’m going to use blockade as my example.2558

                      Using a blockade was one part of the Union strategies for a victory in the war,2568

                      which called for using the U.S. Navy to blockade southern ports, cutting off supplies from reaching the Confederacy.2574

                      Explain how one element of the cartoon expresses the point of view you identified in part A.2589

                      The blockade is part of the anaconda plan that is represented by the heavy black line2595

                      or snake that outlines the southern coast of the United States and the eastern coast of the United States.2600

                      Part C, explain how the point of view you identified in part A helped to shape one specific action between 1861 and 1863.2611

                      The blockade would be used throughout the war and prevented the Confederacy from receiving adequate military supplies.2620

                      It also severely cut off the cotton trade with Great Britain.2627

                      With that, we are done with Part 1 of the Civil War.2634

                      Thank you for watching