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Lecture Comments (1)

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Post by Leo Jiang on July 19 at 09:22:02 PM

At 16:35, Dr. Turro says "allowed", not "outlawed". Even the captions and transcription say that!

The Expansion of Slavery and Resistance to its Expansion

  • As territories became states, the issue of the balance of slave & free states became an even greater issue--especially in Congress
  • Debates over whether slavery should be banned in D.C., personal liberty laws in northern states & fugitive slave laws, the admission of NM, OR, & UT as free states would upset the balance in Congress
  • A series of compromises were passed as a result but were also controversial: Wilmot Proviso, Compromise of 1850, and Kansas-Nebraska Act
  • “Bleeding Kansas” resulted after the Kansas-Nebraska Act was passed: white settlers from the North & South began moving into the territory after the act was passed & pro-slavery forces elected a majority to the legislature & legalized slavery
  • John Brown, a fervent abolitionist, was a committed zealot who considered himself an instrument of God’s will to destroy slavery, gathered 6 followers (four were his sons) & murdered 5 pro-slavery settlers; this became known as the Pottawatomie Massacre
  • Weak, indecisive presidents, the Dred Scott decision, John Brown’s raid on Harpers Ferry, and the election of Abraham Lincoln exacerbated the sectional tensions that would eventually lead to the Civil War.

The Expansion of Slavery and Resistance to its Expansion

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  1. Intro
    • Overview
      • Election of 1848
      • Antislavery Democrats: “ Barnburners”
        • The California Gold Rush
        • The California Gold Rush Images and Map
          • California and Gold Rush Map
            • Effects of the Gold Rush
            • Rising Sectional Differences
            • Compromise of 1850
            • Map of the Compromise of 1850
              • Crisis of the 1850s
              • Railroads, Slavery, and Sectionalism
              • Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854
              • Map of the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854
                • Bleeding Kansas
                • Tragic Prelude
                  • Charles Summer's “The Crime Against Kansas”
                    • Free-Soil Ideology
                    • A Critical View: “The Hurly-Burly Pot”
                      • The Pro-Slavery Argument
                      • “Cotton is King”
                        • Election of 1856
                        • A Surge in Nativism
                        • The Dred Scott Decision
                        • Chief Justice Taney's Stance
                        • Deadlock Over Kansas
                        • Significant Congressional Election of 1858
                        • The Rise of Lincoln
                        • Lincoln and Douglas
                          • John Brown's Raid
                          • Example 1
                            • Example 2
                              • Example 3
                                • Intro 0:00
                                • Overview 0:09
                                • Election of 1848 1:10
                                  • Free-Soil Party
                                  • Taylor Won
                                • Antislavery Democrats: “ Barnburners” 2:54
                                • The California Gold Rush 4:26
                                  • Increased in Non-Native American Population
                                  • Forty-Niners
                                  • Chinese Migrants
                                • The California Gold Rush Images and Map 7:27
                                • California and Gold Rush Map 9:41
                                • Effects of the Gold Rush 10:34
                                  • A Labor Shortage
                                  • Indian Hunters
                                  • Heterogeneous Population
                                • Rising Sectional Differences 12:05
                                  • The Balance of Slave and Free States
                                  • Personal Liberty Laws and Fugitive Slave Laws
                                  • A Series of Compromises
                                • Compromise of 1850 13:30
                                  • Fillmore
                                  • California Join the Union as a Free State
                                  • Fugitive Slave Law
                                  • Temporarily Preserved the Union
                                • Map of the Compromise of 1850 16:43
                                • Crisis of the 1850s 17:39
                                  • Franklin Pierce
                                  • Young America
                                  • The Ostend Manifesto
                                • Railroads, Slavery, and Sectionalism 20:02
                                  • Westward Expansion
                                  • Better Communication
                                  • Gadsen Purchase
                                • Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854 21:45
                                  • Popular Sovereignty
                                  • Missouri Compromise was Repealed
                                  • A Scramble of Pro- and Anti-slavery Settlers
                                  • Republican Party
                                  • Anti-Nebraska Dems
                                • Map of the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854 24:48
                                • Bleeding Kansas 25:39
                                  • Pro-Slavery Forces
                                  • Free-Staters
                                  • President Pierce
                                  • John Brown
                                  • Pottawatomie Massacre
                                • Tragic Prelude 29:04
                                • Charles Summer's “The Crime Against Kansas” 30:46
                                • Free-Soil Ideology 32:40
                                  • Northern Whites Believed that Slavery was Dangerous
                                  • Antithesis of Democracy
                                  • The Free Soil Party
                                • A Critical View: “The Hurly-Burly Pot” 34:55
                                • The Pro-Slavery Argument 37:52
                                  • Uncle Tom's Cabin
                                  • The Pro-Slavery Argument
                                  • Superior Southern Way of life
                                • “Cotton is King” 39:19
                                • Election of 1856 39:51
                                  • John Fremont
                                  • Increasing the Support of the Republican Party
                                  • Sectionalism of the Realigned Political Parties
                                • A Surge in Nativism 42:26
                                  • Nativism
                                  • The American Party
                                  • Know-Nothing Party
                                • The Dred Scott Decision 44:16
                                  • An Army Surgeon
                                  • Circuit Court
                                  • John Sanford
                                • Chief Justice Taney's Stance 46:28
                                  • No Claim to Citizenship
                                  • The MO Compromise
                                  • Great Controversy
                                • Deadlock Over Kansas 48:11
                                  • Buchanan Timidly Endorsed the Dred Scott Case
                                  • Lecompton Constitution
                                  • Buchanan Pressured Congress
                                  • KS as a Free State
                                • Significant Congressional Election of 1858 49:28
                                  • Sectional Crisis
                                  • Lincoln-Douglas
                                  • House Divided
                                  • The Spread of Free Labor
                                • The Rise of Lincoln 53:18
                                  • Freeport Doctrine
                                  • A National Following
                                  • Lost the Majority of Democrats of the House
                                • Lincoln and Douglas 55:21
                                • John Brown's Raid 55:34
                                  • John Brown's Statement
                                  • Seized a Mountain Fortress
                                  • Brown Surrendered
                                • Example 1 57:40
                                • Example 2 1:00:29
                                • Example 3 1:02:25

                                Transcription: The Expansion of Slavery and Resistance to its Expansion

                                Welcome back to

                                This lesson is on the expansion of slavery and the resistance to its expansion.0003

                                In this lesson, we are going to cover a lot of material including the election of 1848, the California gold rush, rising sectional differences,0012

                                the compromise of 1850, the Gadsen purchase, the Kansas-Nebraska act and popular sovereignty, John Brown and Bleeding Kansas,0025

                                the Free-Soil movement, and also the pro slavery argument in response to an abolitionism, and the election of 1856,0036

                                the Dread Scott case, and nativism, and the anti-immigrant sentiment that was on the rise in the antebellum period,0047

                                and lastly the Lincoln-Douglas debates and the rise of Abraham Lincoln, as a key political figure.0055

                                Within this time period, we are going to see increasingly that compromises are going to end up being very unsuccessful,0063

                                and more and more violence breaks out.0073

                                Eventually, we are going to get to the point where war is inevitable.0076

                                By 1861, the United States will be in a civil war.0081

                                And many would actually argue that because of the poor leadership of presidents,0086

                                and ultimately the inability of Americans to compromise over the slavery issue, will eventually lead to civil war.0091

                                The election of 1848, we will see that Democrats and Whigs, they wanted to avoid the slavery issue.0102

                                They are kicking that can down the road.0112

                                They are unwilling to face this issue head on because they know that it is a political nightmare.0114

                                But anyway, this issue is increasingly unavoidable.0120

                                Many democrats end up joining the Free-Soil party because of Cass’ vague position on slavery.0124

                                They did that purposely.0133

                                This is again where a lot of historians will be very critical of a lot of the leaders, who are unwilling to take a strong stance on slavery.0135

                                The main contenders here, main candidates will be Lewis Cass who was a Democrat vs. Zachary Taylor who was a Whig,0145

                                and Martin Van Buren who had previously been a Democrat but now is running on the Free-Soil ticket.0153

                                Eventually we will see that Zachary Taylor, you may remember he was actually a war hero in the Mexican American war.0159

                                He ends up winning by a narrow victory, as you can see here by the results.0167

                                One thing I did want to bring up is this term barnburners.0178

                                Because of the controversial slavery issue, we will see splits within political parties.0182

                                And in particular, regarding the Democratic Party, the antislavery Democrats will be depicted as barnburners0189

                                because their defection threaten to destroy the Democratic Party.0200

                                The quotation here reads, that is you dad, more Free-Soil, we will rat them out yet, long life to Davy Wilmot.0205

                                You may remember him from the Wilmot Proviso.0214

                                He was a Free-Soiler who did not believe in expanding slavery into the new territories that were acquired under the Mexican session.0218

                                But remember, it failed.0226

                                But nonetheless, the idea, his concepts that he was advocating for were still alive and kicking.0228

                                Anyway, a little bit more about this cartoon.0238

                                Elements in the cartoon express several points about barnburners.0240

                                Two men on the right, the Antislave democrats.0245

                                Free-Soilers are portrayed as those lighting the barn on fire.0248

                                David Wilmot is referred to in the caption in the upper right hand corner, long life to David Wilmot.0253

                                Let us move on, we talked about westward expansion and manifest destiny last time.0267

                                As you know, the United States had acquired all kinds of new territories.0273

                                And in California, in particular, we are going to see another major event that will help to lure more and more migrants into the region.0278

                                And eventually, California will become, and is still today, the most populous state in the United States.0287

                                But this is, you could say, one of the first major events that will lure people to California.0296

                                Anyway, the California Gold Rush, very significant.0303

                                James Marshall found traces of gold in the foothills of the Sierra Nevadas in January of 1848.0306

                                Word got out very quickly.0314

                                Many people were inspired by the possibilities of California and to the gold rush, that they can actually strike it rich.0316

                                Obviously, this is going to also have a detrimental effect on the Native American population.0328

                                That will have a negative impact as their numbers are going to decrease.0335

                                But the non-native population increased in California almost 20 times in 4 years.0340

                                A huge population explosion, from 14,000 in 1848 to 220,000 in 1852.0347

                                What became known as the Forty-Niners who were California migrants who were involved in this gold rush,0356

                                abandon their homes and jobs and hit the trails, and were very much involved in mining for gold.0363

                                There are definitely was a disproportionate number of men and many families moving out.0373

                                This caused some instability in many ways.0380

                                And in fact, prostitution went rampant in California.0383

                                That is going to be one significant demographic feature to keep in mind.0389

                                We will also see a new influential immigrant group taking shape in California and having an impact.0396

                                Chinese migrants also came for the gold rush.0405

                                There will be fliers, there is going to be some propaganda, ultimately, to try to lure Chinese migrants to come to California,0409

                                on promises of gold mountain where they could also have economic opportunities to mine for gold.0426

                                This became very appealing for many poor Chinese, who will loan money for the passage to California.0434

                                Many, in fact, came as indentured servants to work in the gold mines.0442

                                Just to give you an example, here is one of those fliers for instance, advertisements,0449

                                that was the word I was trying to think of, it was right at the tip of my tongue.0455

                                A new and magnificent clipper for San Francisco, merchants express line of clipper ships.0459

                                California, this type of thing, you can see the imagery of gold miners in the back.0466

                                But this again, was a very promising economic opportunity for many people.0473

                                Here you can see Chinese laboring away in the gold mines and a man here panning for gold.0480

                                And a book here, in search of gold mountain, history of the Chinese in San Diego California.0489

                                Although we think of the first major wave in Northern California, other migrants will also live in all different parts of California.0497

                                In the yellow regions, in particular, Sierra Nevada goldfields, this is where most of the mining activity took place.0509

                                One thing to keep in mind is that although the Chinese did participate extensively in mining for gold, we will see a backlash,0518

                                kind of a nativist backlash, an anti immigrant backlash against the Chinese by a lot of the white man,0527

                                The Workingmen's groups, who feel that they should have first digs to the gold mines and the economic opportunities.0536

                                Increasingly as time goes by, we will see a lot of the Chinese being marginalized and pushed,0545

                                not being allowed to participate in a lot of the mining.0553

                                They will have to find jobs either in San Francisco, where in fact a lot of laundry businesses end up becoming very successful0556

                                because there was a vacuum for that type of business.0565

                                The other major employer for a lot of the Chinese workers will be the railroads.0571

                                But that will become much more prominent a little later on in U.S. history.0576

                                A closer up picture of gold mining in the gold rush region.0583

                                Here is Sutter’s Mill where the first gold was discovered.0589

                                You can see here San Francisco became an instant metropolis because of the huge influx of miners and migrants, and so forth,0594

                                that helped to populate this region.0605

                                Here you can see, 1849 a huge surge in the sea passengers through San Francisco.0610

                                In orange, they are arriving.0619

                                In purple, they are departing.0621

                                Even though, it thus kind of decline, there a couple major peaks in 1849, 1852, and 1854, to a certain extent.0624

                                The effects, we are going to see a labor shortage in California overall because many male workers left their jobs,0635

                                their ordinary jobs that they had been employed in, and they flock to the gold fields.0644

                                The majority of people did not become successful and did not strike it rich.0651

                                Many people were disillusioned.0658

                                Native American s were exploited and were forced to work in a lot of the gold mines.0660

                                We are going see similar racist attitude towards Native Americans.0667

                                This is a pretty extreme example of this as well, there were Indian hunters who were hunting down and killing thousands of Native Americans.0675

                                That in fact, there is a decline in the population, as I was saying previously, not only from disease but also from just aggressive violence.0683

                                Population decrease from 150,000 to 30,000 between the 1850’s and 1870.0694

                                Like I was saying up here, only a fraction found gold.0703

                                But many people did stay in California.0708

                                And as results, California became a very heterogeneous population of Latinos, Asians, European, Americans.0711

                                Very diverse, culturally, early on, and still today a very diverse state.0723

                                Rising sectional tensions will also ensue, as territories became states.0730

                                And of course, this brings to the surface, the issue with the balance of power between slave and free states.0735

                                This is a continuing problem in the antebellum era and there are debates over whether slavery should be banned in DC as well, Washington, DC.0744

                                Personal liberty laws in northern states and fugitive slave laws, those two laws are kind of in conflict with one another.0754

                                We are also going to see as the admission of New Mexico, Oregon, and Utah are on the table, and they come in as free states,0767

                                what about the other territories, and is this going to throw the balance out of whack in Congress and cause more problems.0776

                                There are all these different issues that are interrelated,0786

                                that are causing more and more tension between the north and the south, in particular.0790

                                We will see a series of compromises that were passed as a result.0794

                                But they were very controversial, they are going to be band aids on the festering wounds0799

                                that are ready to explode, that will culminate in the Civil War.0807

                                One of the important compromises that you should be familiar with, the Compromise of 1850.0813

                                I always like to think of this one, it begins with the Compromise of 1850, it is a year after California,0821

                                if you think of the forty-niners, the gold miners, and so forth.0832

                                A year after 1849 is 1850, California is involved in the Compromise of 1850.0837

                                Some type of mnemonic device for you to remember.0846

                                Anyway, after a huge debate regarding the extension of slavery, a compromise eventually was reached.0851

                                The main participants in this heated debate, leaders in Congress.0860

                                Henry Clay, he is known as the great compromiser.0863

                                Jefferson Davis from the south, Stephen A. Douglas from Illinois, Daniel Webster from Massachusetts,0866

                                and Millard Fillmore, I do not remember where he is from.0874

                                But anyway, these are the major leaders.0876

                                Zachary Taylor died on July 9, 1850, and this actually helped the compromise be put into place.0879

                                Because Fillmore, who became president, supported the bill.0888

                                What was the outcome of the bill?0895

                                Compromise allowed California to join the Union as a free state0897

                                and introduced the idea of popular sovereignty for other new territories, New Mexico and Utah.0902

                                In other words, those areas that had been newly acquired during the Mexican session.0912

                                It also included a fugitive slave law that required Federal agents to return runaway slaves and slave trade ended in DC.0918

                                But slavery itself was not outlawed.0927

                                This part here, you could see is very compromised.0933

                                The fugitive slave law, that runaway slaves, if they go to the north,0939

                                that Federal law is requiring the local law enforcement to capture those slaves and return to them to their rightful owners.0944

                                That is obviously for the south, the idea of California coming in as a free state that will certainly help,0958

                                will be supported by the abolitionists cause, many northern free state minded people.0967

                                DC was obviously a very contentious issue because it is the nation's capital, and kind of in the middle of the north and the south.0977

                                We see here a very compromised position.0986

                                Slave trade ends, but slavery not allowed, very compromised.0990

                                This ends up temporarily preserving the Union, but it is just a band aid0998

                                that will postpone the war from breaking out for another 10 years or so, 10 to 11 years.1006

                                Again, just to visualize this, in green, free states and territories, and slave states in the south.1014

                                Remember, this is very unpopulated at this point in time, in the 1850’s.1023

                                We are going to see that eventually some regions in here are going to apply for statehood.1029

                                But ultimately, in the purple areas here in the Utah territory, New Mexico territory, they were open to slavery by popular sovereignty.1034

                                Meaning if the local people wanted to vote in, that they wanted to allow slavery to happen, that they can actually practice it.1042

                                That is going to be the ultimate compromise and the controversial one, as you will see.1052

                                There were several crisis of the 1850’s.1062

                                Franklin Pierce, again, very much like some of the other executives during the antebellum time period,1066

                                were viewed as very weak leaders, and somewhat indecisive, in terms of leading the nation in facing these major problems head on.1072

                                But nonetheless, Pierce, who was a Democrat becomes president in 18521084

                                and attempts to maintain harmony by avoiding divisive issues, but it was impossible.1088

                                And on top of that, opposition in the north to the Fugitive Slave Act intensified.1096

                                Remember that part of the Compromise of 1850.1101

                                And in fact, angry mobs prevented enforcement of the law.1103

                                It is like, no, that was the southern part of the compromise or the pro slavery part of the compromise that they disagreed with.1108

                                And in fact, the escaped slave Anthony Burns was caught in Boston and returned to the south.1117

                                This caused huge controversy in the north.1125

                                Many abolitionists started becoming much more militant against the government and law enforcement, and more outspoken against slavery.1128

                                Pierce, again, not making a decisive move and taking a strong position.1140

                                He finds his diversion, he supported Young America.1148

                                A movement in the Democratic Party that the expansion of U.S. democracy throughout the world,1152

                                especially in Cuba, in the Caribbean, as a way to divert attention away from slavery controversies.1157

                                And then, the Ostend manifesto was a document written in 1854 that describe the rationale for the U.S. purchase Cuba from Spain,1164

                                while implying that the U.S. should declare war on Spain if they refuse.1174

                                This is going to be, you could say, it is an early precursor to what will be in store by the end of the 19th century,1179

                                as the U.S. will become very much involved in Cuba and will eventually go to war with Spain, when it becomes an imperialist power.1187

                                But at the time period, this is viewed as a diversion and an attempt to avoid the slavery issue and domestic problems by looking outward.1197

                                Coming back to the southwest.1210

                                As westward expansion continued, Native Americans were being dislodged, governments were being set up,1212

                                people started farming and settling in Missouri, Iowa, and Minnesota.1219

                                That is here in the Midwest.1224

                                On top of that, the need for better communications and railroads increased.1228

                                I pointed out before in the Mexican session, there is this little piece that was still part of Mexico.1233

                                But there was a desire to acquire this new land and add it to what will become the southern part of Arizona and New Mexico.1241

                                Anyway, the Gadsen purchase in 1853 accentuated the sectional rivalry because railroads could now connect southern cities to the west.1251

                                This became very politicized and another sectional issue.1261

                                Secretary of State Jefferson Davis who had advocated for this idea,1266

                                while Stephen Douglas from Illinois wanted the railroad to connect Chicago to California through the northeast.1270

                                In other words, the southern politician wanted a transcontinental railroad across the south.1281

                                And Stephen Douglas from Illinois wanted it across the north.1289

                                They wanted this to connect to these regions, so it would help their regions economically.1296

                                That is going to feed into tensions.1307

                                Then, another law was passed, another compromise, you could say, the Kansas-Nebraska act of 1854.1309

                                Nebraska and Kansas were divided into two territories, Nebraska and Kansas.1320

                                They would ultimately, what was determined in this act, decide whether to have slavery through popular sovereignty.1325

                                This is a key term you need to know.1332

                                This is allowing the local people by popular vote to decide whether to have slavery or not.1336

                                They are not officially becoming a slave state or a free state.1343

                                They are leaving it up to the people.1348

                                You see this conflict between States’ rights and Federal power.1350

                                Also, this important concept that goes back to the enlightenment, consent of the governed, power of the people.1356

                                Yet, this becomes extremely dangerous, controversial, and is going to cause major regions to erupt into violence and eventually lead to the civil war.1365

                                Kansas-Nebraska Act determines if these two regions would decide by popular sovereignty.1382

                                Also, the Missouri compromise was repealed.1388

                                You may remember that from earlier in the 1820’s, allowing slavery to expand into the territory only through popular sovereignty.1391

                                You remember the line, the southern line of Missouri, north of it, slavery was supposed to be banned.1401

                                Well now, we are going to see that these regions are going to be open if people at the local level decide by popular sovereignty to allow slavery to exist.1408

                                This act had profound consequences.1420

                                One, it resulted in a scramble of pro and antislavery settlers into the area.1422

                                And as a result because they disagreed, and it was this competition between these two forces,1430

                                whether they would be free or slave, democracy is messy.1437

                                Violent outbreaks ensued between the two groups.1441

                                Number 2, it divided and destroyed the Whig party.1446

                                It divided northern Democrats.1450

                                And the Republican Party, as a result, was formed.1453

                                A newly refashioned Republican Party, I should say.1457

                                That is going to have major political consequences.1463

                                The anti Nebraska democrats, those who opposed Douglas' bill, and this is ultimately Douglas' bill.1467

                                The anti Nebraska Whigs became Republicans.1475

                                All of this fractionalization is going to shift things politically and lead to the creation of the Republican Party.1478

                                A map for you to view and envision what the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854 looked like.1491

                                Remember, the Missouri compromise said north of that 34-30, slavery was banned, south of it, it was allowed.1498

                                But now, this was open to popular sovereignty.1507

                                Again, between the Compromise of 1850 that opened up these regions to slavery through popular sovereignty, and the Kansas-Nebraska Act,1512

                                that would ultimately open up those territories to slavery potentially, the pro and antislavery forces are going to struggle head to head,1522

                                and there is a vacuum in Federal leadership at this time that cannot stop the storm from brewing.1535

                                These band aids, these compromises are not keeping the country intact and stable and peaceful.1547

                                This is going to lead to what becomes known as Bleeding Kansas.1557

                                Here is a close up of the territory in Kansas, in particular, along the Kansas-Missouri border, where a lot of violent outbreaks occur.1564

                                Again, pro and antislavery forces rushed into Kansas.1574

                                White settlers from the north and south began moving into the territory after the act was passed.1579

                                Pro slavery forces elected the majority to the legislature and legalized slavery.1584

                                The free staters who were outraged, elected their own delegates to a constitutional convention1589

                                which met at Topeka and they adapted a constitution excluding slavery.1594

                                Two different agendas, basically two different governments, two different visions, popular sovereignty is not working out.1600

                                What ends up happening?1610

                                President Pierce denounced the free staters as traitors, and he ends up supporting the pro slavery legislature and their perspective.1611

                                That is going to exacerbate tensions even more.1624

                                Meanwhile, because of this new law, we are going to see radical abolitionist John Brown start to get organized and he has a plan,1628

                                which is to attack and try to eradicate, and using any means necessary, the pro slavery participants.1640

                                That is going to lead to what we will see as the Pottawatomie Creek Massacre and other major outbreaks.1649

                                The Osawatomie, the outbreaks in Lawrence, and Marais des Cygnes, in French, all of those regions will have huge outbreaks of violence.1658

                                Kansas will literally be bleeding because people are dying in these conflicts.1677

                                Now before I get to some that, free staters were arrested in Lawrence, the posse sacked the town,1683

                                burned the Governor's house and destroyed several printing presses.1688

                                Violence is erupting, this compromise is a disaster.1693

                                John Brown, who I was talking about was a fervent radical abolitionists,1697

                                was a committed zealot who consider himself as an instrument of God's will.1702

                                He was willing to do whatever it would take to destroy slavery.1708

                                He gathered six of his followers, four of whom are his sons, and murdered five pro slavery settlers.1715

                                This became known as the Pottawatomie massacre.1722

                                And of course, the language again, massacre five people, it is like the Boston massacre, perhaps, it is a little bit overstated.1726

                                But nonetheless, this is going to exacerbate tensions, led to more civil strife in Kansas and violence broke out.1735

                                This is putting salt in the wound, and ultimately, showing that people cannot agree.1745

                                People are adamantly opposed to the slavery issue that it is going to cause huge problems.1753

                                John Brown, here is a famous portrayal and certainly a biased portrayal, you could say, of John Brown.1760

                                It is called the Tragic Prelude.1769

                                Here you can even see the Confederate flag and the American flag.1771

                                He is stepping on, definitely stepping on a Confederates head or body part, or some sort.1782

                                What you may also notice in this picture, he looks kind of extreme.1790

                                This is also pretty symbolic, he has got a Bible in one hand and a gun in the other hand,1796

                                kind of the quintessential American zealot, you can say.1804

                                It is for you to decide whether he was a hero, a martyr, or a terrorist.1811

                                He was a controversial character who was willing to go all out and to make a statement, and a very radical statement regarding slavery.1816

                                But this picture definitely tries to depict him as a bit of a madman who thought he was larger than life.1827

                                His eyes are bugged out, his beard was long, and so forth.1834

                                Some people thought he was crazy, that is for you to decide.1841

                                He definitely believed in the cause.1846

                                On top of the violence that I had previously mentioned, there was also another incident1849

                                that was yet another example of violence breaking out within government.1857

                                Charles Sumner who was a Congressman from Massachusetts, gave this passionate speech called The Crime against Kansas.1864

                                Within this speech that went on for a very long time, he attacked the southern Senator Andrew Butler,1875

                                as a slavery defender who would take in the harlot slavery as his mistress, which was an extra jab at this particular senator,1882

                                and definitely was viewed as very disrespectful.1896

                                And that the Senator Butler’s honor had been compromised by the speech,1899

                                that was by many southerners account over the top and completely disrespectful.1909

                                Sumner was attacked by Butler's nephew.1917

                                This is kind of a depiction of this incident that became known as the caning of Sumner,1925

                                the subtitle here, southern chivalry argument vs. Clubs.1934

                                Andrew Butler’s nephew goes in and beats up, and attacked Sumner in his office and caned him, making him literally bleed,1944

                                which is yet another example of blood shed over the slavery issue.1955

                                The Free-Soil ideology, I had mentioned this previously that this also became a very important idea.1965

                                Although, abolitionists generated some support for their argument that slavery was immoral, evil, and must be eliminated,1973

                                most northern whites believed that slavery was dangerous because of what it threatened to do to whites.1980

                                This idea of self interest, racism, still very much part of the fabric and ethos of mainstream America, you could say.1987

                                The Free-Soil ideology is a bit of a compromised ideology that is looking to stop the expansion of slavery.1999

                                The belief that American democracy gives the right to own property.2007

                                That is another issue that causes many to say, if they believed that a human being was property,2011

                                that one is always difficult for me to wrap my head around at this point in time in the 21st century, obviously.2022

                                But the mentality back than, the property rights, you can see how that would come into conflict.2029

                                Anyway, the belief that American democracy was the right to own property, to control their own labor,2037

                                to have access to opportunity for advancement.2042

                                The south was obviously the antithesis of democracy.2045

                                That is going to feed into this Free-Soil ideology.2049

                                The term free, freedom, is obviously the epitome of democracy and what the United States was supposed to stand for.2055

                                Southerners, therefore, according to this ideology, were involved in a conspiracy to extend slavery throughout the nation.2065

                                Many Free-Soilers are going to speak out and organize, and they formed their own party in 1848,2076

                                made up of antislavery dems and conscience Whigs, in contrast to cotton Whigs.2083

                                We know that both of those parties split and the Free-Soil party is going to incorporate many of the antislavery people,2090

                                those who do not want to see the expansion of it.2099

                                There certainly were critics of the Free-Soil movement such as the artist in this is cartoon.2102

                                This is kind of a weird looking cartoon and I wanted to include this because just to show a different perspective.2112

                                Within this cartoon, the artist attacks abolitionist, Free-Soil, and other sectionalist interests of 1850 as dangers to the Union.2120

                                He singles out for indictment radical abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison, Pennsylvania Free-Soil advocate David Wilmot,2130

                                New York journalist Horace Greeley, and Southern States’ rights spokesman Senator John C. Calhoun.2139

                                The three wear fool’s caps and gather, like the witches in Shakespeare's Macbeth, round a large, boiling cauldron, adding to it sacks marked Free-Soil.2146

                                I hope you can see this, Free-Soil, abolition, Fourierism, added by Greeley,2157

                                a vocal exponent of the doctrines of utopian socialist Charles Fourier.2164

                                Sacks of treason, anti-rent, and blue laws already simmer in the pot.2169

                                And then, there is a whole dialogue that takes place that depicts the biased and the critical view in this cartoon.2177

                                Where was I here?2190

                                Wilmot said bubble, bubble, toil and trouble, boil, Free-Soil, their Union spoil.2192

                                Come grief and moan, peace be none, till we divided be, Garrison.2198

                                Now there is going to be some offensive language in this, but just to show you the time.2204

                                Garrison, bubble, bubble, toil and trouble, abolition our condition shall be altered by Niggars strong as goat, cut your master’s throats.2208

                                abolition boil, we divide the spoil.2219

                                Again, very strong language, this was customary at the time.2223

                                Not that I believe in this language, just to show you the history.2228

                                Greely, bubble, bubble, toil and trouble, Fourierism, war and schism, till disunion come.2232

                                In the background stands the aging John Calhoun.2239

                                He announces, for success to the whole mixture, we invoke our patron Saint Benedict Arnold.2242

                                The latter rises from the fire under the pot, commending them, Well done, good and faithful servants.2250

                                Again, a very critical view of those who are kind of feeding into the sectionalist tensions2258

                                and the dangers that were starting to fester and boil up.2266

                                A little bit about the proslavery argument.2275

                                This of course, was a backlash against the Nat Turner uprising, the violence that occurred then, the Garissonian abolitionist movement,2278

                                Uncle Tom's cabin that was were written by Harriet Beecher Stowe, that many would say it was a major cause of the civil war2287

                                because so many people became very influenced by the stories that were included in this novel.2296

                                The proslavery people had to come up with an argument to defend their peculiar institution, as they call it.2306

                                Many white southerners produced this intellectual defense of slavery.2314

                                An anthology of writings by slavery apologists in which they stated that slavery was good,2320

                                that better conditions for slaves in the south are the reality than in northern factories.2325

                                At least we take care of our slaves, unlike in the northern factories where they work for low wages and they do not have enough to live by.2332

                                Many believed if they bought into this argument that the southern way of life was superior and much more humane,2344

                                even in their treatment of slaves.2353

                                Just a visual here, to show you the actual cover here, inside cover, title page, the proslavery arguments, cotton is king.2361

                                King cotton, this was the ultimate inspiration for the proslavery argument2373

                                because cotton was so profitable and doing very well in the U.S. economy.2379

                                They were not willing to completely quit their whole production because of the abolition of slavery which was on the table, at this point.2386

                                This brings us to the election of 1856.2401

                                James Buchanan, Millard Fillmore, and John Fremont all ran for president.2405

                                Buchanan ends up winning by a narrow victory.2410

                                John Fremont, you may remember him, I just mentioned him briefly.2415

                                He was known as the pathfinder explorer from California, representing the Republican, who called for no expansion of slavery.2420

                                He was a Free-Soiler, he believed in free homesteads, free land for people to develop and farm.2431

                                He was a pro business candidate who advocated for the protective tariff.2439

                                Millard Fillmore, excuse me, won 20 percent of the vote and was actually a know nothing candidate, which we will talk about in a minute.2449

                                This was a very xenophobic anti-immigrant party that became very popular.2462

                                That is actually a pretty big percentage that supported him.2470

                                Ultimately, we are going to see that Buchanan who was a Democrat, ends up winning the election.2477

                                As soon as he took office however, financial panic struck the country, followed by depression that lasted several years.2485

                                This is going to become politicized and ends up increasing support of the Republican Party.2493

                                Buchanan inadequately dealt with the political realities of the time, very much like Pierce.2501

                                Practically, if you cannot always remember all the presidents by name,2508

                                if you can think of the theme that presidential leadership was lacking right before the Civil War.2511

                                Buchanan was relying on constitutional doctrines to close the widening rift over slavery.2521

                                But he failed to understand that the north would not accept the constitutional arguments which favored the south.2528

                                Nor could he realize how sectionalism had realigned political parties.2534

                                The democrats split, the Whigs were destroyed.2539

                                Yes, this is going to ultimately bolster the Republican Party.2542

                                He is not showing leadership and that is going to hurt the Dems in the long run.2548

                                Coming back to nativism for a minute, because this is an important theme as well, that starts to emerge.2554

                                When times are tough, especially economic times, we see a theme and we see that kind of a cyclical attitude, you could say,2561

                                throughout U.S. history, where specially working class people look to scapegoats to kind of blame for their economic troubles.2571

                                Many Americans were supportive of the rise in the immigrant population but others were hostile,2584

                                that is going to lead to nativism, and fearful.2590

                                They consider themselves Native Americans, and I'm not talking about the Iroquois or the Sioux.2594

                                We are talking about white Americans who are second or third generation.2601

                                White Americans who their parents were immigrants years and years ago, but they consider themselves Native Americans.2607

                                Thus, they end up forming a Native American Party or sometimes known as the American party.2617

                                Ultimately, they are anti-immigrant, they want to slow down, stop immigration.2627

                                Based on racism, competition for jobs, religious differences, diversity of ideas, overall fear of the other, and competition,2632

                                and looking to scapegoat others for their lack of job opportunities or whatever it maybe.2643

                                The American Party was formed in 1845, that grew out of the Native American Association, began agitating against immigration.2652

                                It commonly became known as to know nothing party because party members commonly responded I know nothing,2661

                                to political questions from outsiders.2668

                                They wanted to remain secretive about the goings on in their secret society and they wanted to keep it private.2672

                                This is going to be a sizable influential movement that will also be in that political sphere.2681

                                Moving on to the Dred Scott decision, coming back to the slavery issue.2693

                                This is also a very important court case you should be familiar with.2698

                                Dred Scott was Missouri slave who was once owned by an army surgeon,2702

                                who had taken Scott to Illinois and Wisconsin where slavery was forbidden, in a free area.2707

                                In 1846, the surgeon died and Scott sued his master's widow for freedom, on the grounds that he was residing in free territory.2716

                                He won in the Circuit Court, but then, John Sandford, the brother of the surgeon’s widow, fought back and claimed ownership of Scott.2727

                                The case went back to the Federal court.2736

                                Scott had no standing in court, however, because it was decided by the Supreme Court that he was not a citizen,2740

                                that in fact, because he was private property, he had no grounds to sue.2747

                                He had no case, he had no right because he was not considered a citizen.2752

                                A pretty lousy, by today’s moral standards, pretty lousy, unethical decision but this was the case.2758

                                This is going to also become very controversial and exacerbate and feed into sectional tensions even more.2769

                                You could load this up on one of the many reasons that pro and antislavery forces will clash.2779

                                Chief Justice Taney, it is oftentimes pronounced in his stance...2790

                                He claimed that blacks had no claim to citizenship and no rights under the constitution.2796

                                A very biased, racist, eurocentric view of this issue of citizenship.2804

                                That is why, I’m sorry to be a spoiler here, but we will see after the Civil War during Reconstruction,2811

                                the necessity to clarify that all people born in the United States are citizens, or if you go to the naturalization process.2818

                                The 14th amendment will clarify this, you could say, constitutional dilemma.2828

                                Stay tuned, spoiler alert.2836

                                Anyway, Taney stance on the Dred Scott case.2839

                                Slaves were property without due process of law.2844

                                Congress possessed no authority to pass a law depriving persons under slave property in the territories.2847

                                And as a result, the Missouri compromise had always been unconstitutional.2853

                                We know that it already been voided by the Kansas-Nebraska act, but this was the nail in the coffin to the Missouri compromise.2859

                                This decision is going to cause even more controversy, like I said, exacerbate the situation and republicans are going to be in an outrage.2869

                                Lincoln hated it, the Republicans wanted to pack the court with the new republican members,2880

                                meaning they wanted to put Republicans on the court who were of like mind.2885

                                Buchanan, back to the perspective on what is happening in Kansas.2894

                                He timidly endorsed the Dred Scott case which was very controversial, and is going to make him enemies.2898

                                There was also a huge debate over the status of Kansas that resulted the proslavery forces convention2909

                                and created the Lecompton constitution which was a proslavery constitution.2916

                                Framed in Lecompton Kansas, thus the name, by southern proslavery advocates Kansas statehood.2922

                                It contains clauses protecting slaveholding and a bill of rights excluding free blacks,2928

                                and it added to the frictions that would lead to the Civil War.2932

                                But it was rejected by free staters.2936

                                But Buchanan pressured Congress to admit Kansas as a slave state, so then other politicians get involved.2941

                                Stephen Douglas, other Democrats, would not support the Lecompton constitution.2949

                                And a referendum was held and the Lecompton constitution was rejected.2954

                                And another turn of events eventually, Kansas entered as a free state.2959

                                On top of this, we are going to see some significant Congressional elections, 1858.2971

                                They are a very important because of the sectional crisis and what the politician said regarding these different laws and issues.2977

                                It was very important, people were paying attention and were looking for leadership.2986

                                Stephen Douglas who had been in the game already, in the political sphere, Democrat from Illinois,2993

                                was running up for reelection against Abraham Lincoln who was kind of up and coming,3002

                                had experience as a successful lawyer, kind of viewed as a self made man in many ways.3008

                                Lincoln was a successful lawyer who was involved in state politics for a long time,3019

                                kind of was working his way up the political ladder and served several terms in the Illinois legislature and one term in Congress.3023

                                Lincoln and Douglas had a series of debates and became very famous,3031

                                and they attracted enormous crowds and received wide attention.3035

                                They centered, the debate’s centered over the issue of slavery.3040

                                They debated at seven locations throughout Illinois.3045

                                The debates again mostly focused on the controversies of the Kansas-Nebraska act which Douglas was the major author,3048

                                and slavery in new territories, etc.3058

                                The two argued the issues not only of slavery, territories, popular sovereignty, the Lecompton constitution, the Dred Scott decision.3063

                                All in all, Douglas won the debates.3075

                                The important thing was, is that Lincoln was on the map, on the political map.3081

                                People are starting to pay attention to what he was saying.3086

                                He established himself as a very effective orator and very gifted in argument and debate.3089

                                During one of the debates, he gave the famous house divided speech.3098

                                In his acceptance speech, in fact, for his nomination to the Senate in June of 1858,3107

                                Lincoln paraphrase from the Bible in this house divided speech, house divided against itself cannot stand,3113

                                I do not believe this government can continue, half slaves and half free.3121

                                I do not expect the Union to be dissolved, I do not expect the house to fall.3126

                                But I do believe it will cease to be divided.3131

                                A very famous speech that he gave.3135

                                Lincoln believed that if the nation could accept the blacks were not entitled to basic human rights,3139

                                then it could accept that other groups could be deprived the rights too.3144

                                And he believed that the spread of free labor, let me kind of read in through that without emphasizing it.3148

                                This is important, he started to philosophically delve into the slavery issue.3155

                                And in many ways, if you read about Lincoln's stance on slavery, it is quite complex.3162

                                Earlier on, he was much more, I would say compromised, but he is starting to change3168

                                and his view of slavery thus certainly evolved, specially by the time of the Civil War.3176

                                But nonetheless, the idea of free labor, he thinks is the future of the United States.3183

                                He believes that is the key and a major argument and a part of his philosophical stance on slavery,3189

                                which is starting to evolve at this point.3200

                                In Freeport, Lincoln asked, this was during the debates.3205

                                Lincoln asked Douglas, how the residents of the territory could exclude slavery in light of the Dred Scott decision?3211

                                Douglas’ response was what became known as the Freeport doctrine,3217

                                that a territory could exclude slavery if the laws and regulations written made slavery impossible to enforce.3222

                                This was ultimately based on his argument of popular sovereignty.3229

                                But ultimately, what we see is that Douglas declares his support of white supremacy3234

                                and his justification and his compromised position on the issue.3240

                                But Lincoln is starting to poke holes into Douglas’ philosophy and argument.3246

                                Lincoln compromised view of slavery, believed that slavery was wrong but he was not an abolitionist3254

                                and was not an outspoken abolitionists, especially at this point, more of a free-soiler.3262

                                He did not envision an alternative where it existed but advocated for economic opportunity, not political equality.3267

                                He did not want the further spread of slavery, a very free-soil position.3277

                                That will change as time goes by, so stay tuned.3283

                                Douglas' position satisfied his followers to win him reelection to the senate, although Lincoln is on the map,3288

                                he is in there, and will eventually gain a national following.3295

                                That is why the Lincoln-Douglas debates will be very significant for the future of Lincoln's political career.3302

                                Democrats retain control of the Senate in the elections of 1858, but lost a majority in the House.3312

                                A picture of the Lincoln and Douglas debates.3323

                                Lincoln towered, his stature was very much larger than Douglas.3325

                                John Brown, and then we are just wrapping it up.3335

                                This is a lot of lesson, this is our last slide.3337

                                As Brown, remember, Bleeding Kansas, he actually was able to get out of Kansas and escaped, and started the plan for his next attack.3340

                                He ultimately is looking to attack the arsenal in Harpers Ferry, Virginia.3355

                                A famous quotation by Brown, as he once stated.3366

                                I, John Brown, am now quite certain that the crimes of this guilty land can never be purged away but with blood.3370

                                I had as I now think, vainly flattered myself that without very much bloodshed, it might be done.3378

                                His next plan, with the help of private financial aid from eastern abolitionist, he seized a mountain fortress in Virginia,3386

                                from which he believed he could foment a slave insurrection in the south.3394

                                That was his plan, let us do something radical, let us try to incite a huge slave insurrection similar to what Nat Turner had done.3400

                                On October 16, 1859, he and 18 followers attacked and seized control of the U.S. arsenal in Harpers Ferry, Virginia.3410

                                But the uprising did not occur, as they were surrounded by U.S. troops under Robert E. Lee, and eventually they were caught.3420

                                Ten of Brown's men were killed and Brown surrendered.3428

                                And of course, he became a martyr and hero within the abolitionist movement, and within the abolitionist circles.3435

                                This was highly publicized and he was willing to sacrifice for this cause.3443

                                He was eventually, after he was arrested, he and six of his followers were hanged.3449

                                But showing how these tensions were coming to a head.3455

                                With that, we are going to move into the assessments.3461

                                Example 1, Henry Clay, the great compromiser from 1850.3466

                                I’m going to get to it, it being desirable for the peace, concord, and harmony of the United States.3473

                                Let me start over.3483

                                It being desirable for the peace, concord, and harmony of the united of these states, to settle3484

                                and adjust all existing questions of controversy between them, arising out of the institution of slavery upon a fair, equitable, and just basis,3489

                                We are told now that the Union is threatened with a subversion and destruction.3499

                                That the Union is to be dissolve for any existing causes, it would be dissolved because slavery is interguided or not allowed3505

                                to be introduced into ceded territories, because slavery is threatened to be abolished in the District of Columbia,3514

                                and because fugitive slaves are not returned to their masters.3521

                                I’m staying with the Union and fighting for my rights.3526

                                To which politicians is Clay erecting the last line of this excerpt?3539

                                Let me go back, what was the last line again?3545

                                I’m staying with the Union and fighting for my rights.3550

                                Southerners who are threatening to secede.3557

                                Senator such as Daniel Webster who rejected any compromise.3560

                                Advocates of popular sovereignty.3564

                                The President, Zachary Taylor.3566

                                This, I do not think we went over this directly but for learning sake, it is this one.3575

                                We do know will be the south that will secede.3580

                                Which of the following parts of the compromise of 1850 was the most appealing to the south?3584

                                Admitting California as a free state, passing a new fugitive state law,3590

                                ending the slave trade in Washington, DC, using popular sovereignty in new territories.3595

                                Appealing to the south, and the answer is fugitive slave law.3602

                                Which of the following parts of the compromise of 1850 was the most appealing to the north?3610

                                Admitting California as a free state, passing a new fugitive state law, ending the slave trade in Washington, DC,3616

                                using popular sovereignty in new territories.3622

                                And the answer.3625

                                Next one, Stephen Douglas, Mr. President, I proposed on Tuesday that the senate should proceed3631

                                to the consideration of the bill to organize the territories of Nebraska and Kansas.3639

                                Now I ask the friends and the opponents of this measure to look at it as it is.3645

                                It is not the question involved a simple one, is it not the question involved a simple one?3650

                                Whether the people of the territories shall be allowed to do as they please,3656

                                upon the question of slavery, subject only to the limitations of the constitution.3660

                                If the principle is rights, let it be avowed and maintained.3667

                                If it is wrong, let it be repudiated.3671

                                Let all the scribbling about the Missouri compromise, about the territory acquired is,3674

                                will you allow the people to legislate for themselves upon the subject of slavery?3679

                                Why should you not?3686

                                Defense of the Kansas and Nebraska Bill.3689

                                Which of the following ideas is Douglas’ appealing to when he says3697

                                whether the people of the territories shall be allowed to do as they please upon the question of slavery?3700

                                The Crittenden compromise, popular sovereignty, the right of secession, the distinction between a territory and a state.3707

                                The answer is popular sovereignty.3718

                                Number 2, an increase in which of the following was the key part of the Kansas and Nebraska act to attract southern support?3723

                                Transportation in the south, popular sovereignty, fugitive slave act, representation in Congress?3731

                                The answer is popular sovereignty.3740

                                It is a huge theme, popular sovereignty.3746

                                Moving on, Taney, the Dred Scott vs. Sandford.3749

                                Upon full and careful consideration, Dred Scott was not a citizen of Missouri, let us highlight that.3757

                                Within the meaning of the constitution of the United States and the entitled as such to sue in its courts.3765

                                Upon these considerations, it is the opinion of the court that the act of Congress3773

                                which prohibited a citizen from holding and owning property of this kind,3778

                                in the territory of the United States north of the line therein mentioned is not warranted by the constitution, and is therefore void.3782

                                That it is now firmly settled by the decisions of the highest court and the state, that Scott and his family, upon their return were not free.3791

                                But were by the laws of Missouri, the property of the defendant.3799

                                That the Circuit Court of the United States has no jurisdiction, when by the laws of the state the plaintiff was a slave and not a citizen.3803

                                Chief Justice Taney’s basic ruling in the Dred Scott case was based on which of the following principles?3815

                                Since slaves did not pay taxes, they had no legal rights.3822

                                Since Scott had returned to a slave state, he was still a slave.3825

                                Since Congress could not define slavery, it could not regulate it.3829

                                Since slaves were a property, they could not sue.3833

                                The answer.3839

                                2, Northeners were most upset by the Supreme Court's Dred Scott decision because,3844

                                The court included no republican justices.3849

                                The decision allowed slavery in the territories.3852

                                Several justices were slave owners.3855

                                Blacks and whites were not treated equally.3857

                                The answer.3865

                                And lastly, which of the following acts of Congress was declared unconstitutional in the Dred Scott decision?3868

                                The Missouri Compromise of 1820.3876

                                The compromise of 1850.3879

                                The Kansas-Nebraska act.3881

                                The fugitive slave law.3882

                                This one was mentioned in the second section of the excerpt.3886

                                The answer is Missouri Compromise of 1820.3892

                                A very long lesson, it is a lot for you to ponder over and learn.3899

                                But a very important lesson on what was leading up to the Civil War.3906

                                With that, thank you for watching