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The Protestant Reformation, Early Dutch and British Colonization and The Price Revolution

  • Three cultures clash, Europeans settle in the Americas, and trade and mercantilism grows.
  • The effects of the Protestant Reformation are profound and lead to the creation of numerous Protestant sects, and many Protestant groups will come to the Americas to practice their religions free from persecution.
  • Spanish colonial power declines by the late 16th century and the Dutch and British rise and colonial powers.
  • The Dutch West India Company, a joint-stock company, was interested in investing in commercial ventures in the New World. They sponsored Henry Hudson to explore North America and they established settlements along the Hudson River and New Amsterdam.
  • The Price Revolution caused economic and social changes in England that eventually led to the enclosure acts. Many poor English peasants became indentured servants in exchange for passage to the Americas to work and seek out a new life.
  • Mercantilism and triangular trade/South Atlantic system become significant global trade systems, and they allow the British and Dutch to become very wealthy.

The Protestant Reformation, Early Dutch and British Colonization and The Price Revolution

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  • Intro 0:00
  • Overview 0:10
    • The Protestant Reformation (Early 16th Century) and the Rise of England
    • Protestant Reformation
    • Spain's Loss of its Position
  • The Protestant Movements and Religious Conflicts 4:23
    • Religious Wars
    • Protestant Nations
    • Catholic Church
    • Martin Luther
  • Martin Luther 5:47
    • Grace
    • Dismissed the Need for Priests
    • Bible as the Ultimate Authority
    • Peasants' Social Protests
    • The Peace of Augsburg
  • John Calvin and Calvinism 7:58
    • Calvinism
    • Institutes of the Christian Religion and Predestination
    • The Chances of Salvation
    • The New Creed
    • The Anglican Church
    • The Presbyterian Church
    • Puritans
  • Religious Diversity in Europe, 1600 11:53
    • Radical Religious Groups
    • Migration to America
  • The Dutch and English Challenge Spain 14:32
    • John Cabot
    • King Philip II of Spain
    • Dutch (Holland)
    • Queen Eliz. I
  • Holland on the Rise 17:17
    • The Spanish Armada
    • Philip II
  • The Rise of the Dutch 18:48
    • Henry Hudson
    • Amsterdam
    • West India Company
    • Furtrading Colony of New Netherland
  • Dutch Colonies and Hudson River Valley 21:22
  • Mercantilism 22:01
    • Parliamentary Policies
    • Enrichment of Britain
  • Mercantilist Policies 24:48
    • Rise of Economy
    • Queen Eliz
    • The Domestic English Textile Industry
    • Merchant-Oriented Policies
  • Triangular Trade 27:00
  • Complex View of the Atlantic Trade System 28:05
  • The Social Causes of English Colonization 28:57
    • Merchant Fleets and Manufactures
    • Price Revolution
    • Creating Representative Government
  • Price Revolution Graph 30:36
  • Price Revolution 31:10
    • Expansion of the Textile Industry
    • Indentured Servants
    • A New Collision
  • Example I 33:21
  • Example II 36:43

Transcription: The Protestant Reformation, Early Dutch and British Colonization and The Price Revolution

Welcome back to

This lesson is on the Protestant reformation in the early Dutch and British colonization and the price revolution.0002

In this lesson, we are going to continue talking about how three cultures continue to clash in what will become known as the United States.0012

That will include, the three cultures that are clashing, are the Europeans, Africans, and Native Americans.0020

To continue that conversation.0043

In this lesson, we are primarily going to talk about Europeans and bring in the other two groups slightly,0045

but we are really going to focus on Europeans in this particular lesson, 0053

and talk about how their trade opportunities, and particularly the system of mercantilism will grow throughout.0058

It will start in the 1600’s and develop more into the 1700’s.0067

We will also talk about the religious movements and the clashes between Catholics and Protestants,0073

and certainly, the effects of the Protestant reformation.0080

We will talk about other European colonizers coming to the Americas,0083

in particular, in North America, that will challenge Spanish domination of the Americas.0090

We will focus on early Dutch and British colonies, and the decline of Spain.0097

And then, we will also talk about how all of these global economic issues and trends are going to have an impact0102

on the migration of many different groups including indentured servants, 0110

who will really look for a refuge and look for economic opportunities abroad.0116

Hopefully, you have had some kind of global history class, world history class, global studies class, 0123

so you may know a little bit about the Protestant reformation.0129

Hopefully, this is a review, but if not, I will give you a brief overview.0133

There is a little European history here, background, but this ultimately will lead to the push factors0138

that will lead many religious sects and peoples from the European region to want to come to what will become known as the United States,0145

and to colonize the region along the North Atlantic seaboard, in particular.0154

Let us start with the Protestant reformation, the early 16th century and then the rise of England.0163

In the 16th century, Catholicism helped to fuel the Spanish conquest of America, as we spoken about before.0170

In fact, a lot of their mission will be created and it will really ultimately help 0178

to justify colonization and the encomienda system that was established.0183

The Spanish conquistadors were looking to acquire gold that they can bring back to Spain and helped to guild the churches.0188

But we are going to see that overspending by Spain really combined with other factors that we are going to be talking about shortly,0198

that eventually, we are going to see that the Protestant reformation is going to become a very important movement 0209

because there is a lot of religious dissenters who will start to challenge the supremacy of the Catholic church.0220

The Protestant reformation also will keep many Europeans preoccupied in Protestant countries because of their religious concerns.0229

This is really a priority that will prevent them from seeking out economic opportunities abroad.0239

Yes, Spain was really ahead of England, France, as well as Holland.0246

But we are going to see that things are going to start changing.0254

Spain will eventually lose its position as the dominant European power by the 16th century,0257

late 16th century and into the early 17th century for sure.0267

During the Protestant reformation, we are going to see clashes between Catholics and Protestants.0273

Yes, eventually, we are going to see religious wars throughout Europe that are going to exacerbate the situation, tensions between these groups.0279

France became the most powerful state.0290

Holland and England emerged as Protestant nations determined to colonize the western hemisphere.0292

This is really what we are going to be focusing on in this lesson.0298

After the renaissance, we talked about the importance of the age of exploration.0302

The Catholic Church became large, powerful, and wealthy.0307

Critics began voicing their concern.0311

This is ultimately the Protestant reformation.0313

This is one of the key events that was really a part of it, and led to the greater movement.0317

In 1517, Martin Luther who was a Catholic priest probably challenged the Roman Catholic practices and doctrine with his 95 theses.0323

Within this document, he condemned to the sell off indulgences.0334

This really was a means for people to get forgiveness, ultimately from god.0339

These does costs money, ultimately.0346

Luther, and we will see other reformers thought that this was very corrupt.0352

They really were speaking out against it and that this was ultimately the antithesis of their true faith.0356

He is going to have three main points.0364

One of them being people can be saved only by grace and not good works.0367

This is going to be contradictory to Catholic doctrine.0373

This also includes loyalty or payments to the church itself.0380

He dismissed the need for priest to act as intermediaries between Christians and God.0385

He believed that people's relationship really could be much more personal, ultimately.0391

He is really trying to disempower the world of priests.0399

That is going to be a very controversial stance.0402

He also downplayed the role of high ranking clergymen and popes, by naming the bible the ultimate authority in matters of faith.0409

This is ultimately going to unleash a new way of thinking about religion and challenge the power of the Catholic Church.0418

As many of his ideas will become very appealing to people throughout Europe, in particular.0426

As peasants mounted violent social protest of their own, he urged obedience and established political institutions 0432

and condemned the teachings of religious dissidents more radical than him.0439

Again, once you open up a can of worms, you are going to see that this is going to continue to expand.0443

Eventually, the peace of Augsburg in 1555 divided Germany into Lutheran states in the North and named after Luther,0452

and Catholic principalities in the South.0462

It allowed princes to decide the religion for their subjects and Southern German rulers installed Catholicism.0466

This is going to cause ultimately some clashes between Catholics and Protestants,0474

but they are able to really come to some type of compromise and agreement.0479

One way I like to talk about the Protestant reformation is that, 0485

after we see that the ball is rolling and their efforts to protest against the Catholic Church, 0490

that other sects, other types of Protestant churches are going to arise as well.0499

Ultimately, these different groups of religious thinkers are going to look 0508

to continue those improvements on the church and perfect them in their own way.0512

This is really going to unleash several religious movements and ultimately lead to the creation of several new churches, 0520

different types of Protestant churches.0528

As the spirit of reformation spread rapidly, a new movement arose such as Calvinism.0532

This is one of the key ones that will lead us to the importance of the Puritans, ultimately, who will come to North America.0537

Calvinists believed in the teachings of John Calvin.0547

Yes, you are right.0552

Calvin wrote institutes of the Christian religion and preached predestination.0554

This is a really important concept to be familiar with, the idea that God determines who will be saved before they are born.0561

It is already predestined.0569

It is not what you do here on earth, it is already determined.0570

He also believed that while individuals could not alter their destinies, they could strive to know them 0574

and the way they lead their lives might reveal their chances of salvation, that ultimately you can go to heaven and your soul can be saved.0579

The New Creed spread rapidly throughout Northern Europe and produced other groups.0589

Besides the Calvinists, such as the Huguenots in France, they ultimately were minority in mostly Catholic country.0594

And the Puritans in England who were looking to purify the Protestant church and improve upon it.0602

Particularly, the Anglican church, as we will have here.0610

The Anglican church also known as the Church of England, was formed after the Pope denied King Henry VIII his marriage annulment.0614

His daughter Elizabeth I, however, combined Lutheran and Calvinists beliefs0623

but retained the Catholic ritual of holy communion in her religious reforms.0628

Here we are going to see the Protestant reformation, ultimately, expanding into England.0633

Although England had its own issues, in particular, because of this annulment which was viewed as ultimately a radical, sacrilegious.0638

This ultimately, led to him being kicked out of the church.0651

He had his own agenda and created his own church ultimately.0656

His daughter will come up with the Elizabethan settlement which is somewhat compromised,0660

where she did want to retain some of the Catholic rituals.0665

But we are going to see the continuation of Protestant influence in England.0669

For instance, the Presbyterian church that grew out of the radical reaction to the Elizabethans settlement.0677

In this church, male elders guided the church.0684

We will see that many Presbyterians will end up coming to what would become known as United States.0687

Puritans, another group, they primarily were in England.0694

We will also see there were many in Holland as well.0700

They wanted to purify Catholic teachings and practices, and improve upon religious beliefs0702

and have a closer relationship with God, a pure relationship.0715

The Bible was very much emphasized for the Puritans, that was the road map.0722

We will talk more about the Puritans, when we talk about the settlements with the pilgrims at Plymouth rock, at Plymouth plantation.0731

We will also talk about Massachusetts Bay colony that will also prosper0742

because of the settlements by Puritan groups, especially in the 1630’s.0747

The first settlement by the pilgrims who are actually Puritan separatists.0755

They were looking to separate from the Anglican church.0762

They were the trail blazers, if you will, who will lead the way to these other immigrant groups 0767

who were looking to practice their religion freely in the colonies in North America.0776

Here is a map of Europe where you can really see how religiously diverse Europe was by the year 1600.0784

You can see these different groups being interspersed throughout Western Europe and Eastern Europe as well.0792

Here is England, you can see the Church of England.0800

This region primarily Catholic but we are also seeing Christian minority groups.0805

Puritan and Baptist, Calvinists, and then Roman Catholic in some regions too, where it is a Protestant majority,0813

such as in this region of what is now Northern Germany where they have many Lutherans.0823

Do keep in mind that because people were all mixed in together in this region, 0829

radical religious groups were being persecuted by both Catholics and Protestants.0838

This will eventually lead to the migration of sect members to America.0845

We are going to get into this a little bit later, very shortly in the course, when we will talk about the various 13 colonies.0851

We will see that some groups will come to the North America and create colonies0859

through either their joint stock companies or they will be sponsored by the king to create new settlements.0868

Moving on, the Dutch and English eventually will challenge Spain.0884

We know Spain had a widespread influence in the Americas.0888

They sent several explorers and conquistadors throughout North America, Central America, and South America.0893

They had really been dominating the western hemisphere for quite some time, since the 1500’s.0900

We are going to see, especially by the later 1800’s, things are going to change.0906

But a little background here.0911

England's earliest claims to territory in the new world rested on the voyages of John Cabot.0913

He was an Italian Sea captain who was under contract to England's King Henry VIII.0919

However, Great Britain did not follow up with Cabot’s discoveries, other expeditions of exploration and settlement in the 1500's0925

because of their preoccupation with other matters, including Henry VIII break with the church, preoccupied with that.0932

They were not really looking to see through a lot of their exploration efforts.0940

King Philip II of Spain, meanwhile, wanted to root Protestantism out of the Netherlands and in England, as well as Islam from North Africa.0946

However, he failed in both efforts.0957

That is going to be one sign that Spain is on the decline.0961

To protect their Calvinism and political liberties, the seven northern provinces of what was known back then, 0966

it was the Spanish Netherlands, declared their independence in 1581 and became the Dutch Republic.0973

I think that got caught off there, in another words, Holland.0984

This was actually an opportune time for England to assert its power globally, 0989

and to assist Dutch independence against its old rival Spain,0995

Queen Elizabeth I dispatched 6,000 troops to the Netherlands.0999

She also supported military expeditions to extend direct rule over Gaelic speaking Catholic religions of Ireland.1004

We will see at this time, this is very significant in relations between England and Ireland, 1014

English colonists developed assumptions during this time period,1018

that the Native Irish population was a collection of wild, vicious, and ignorant savages.1022

They must be suppressed, isolated, and if necessary, destroyed.1027

Quite harsh, that is ultimately going to lead to colonization of Ireland.1032

In the long run, that is going to hold Irish development back economically and politically.1041

Eventually, by the 20th century, Ireland will actually advocate for independence, that is farther down the road.1050

Continuing with Holland, now Holland is independent.1059

Elizabeth immediately became the enemy of King Phillip of Spain because she supported Dutch independence.1062

In 1588, the Spanish armada sent out to reimpose Catholic rule in England and in Holland, but the Spaniards were defeated.1069

This was a major turning point and a major event,1078

when the storm allowed the English to claim victory.1082

England is on the rise, as a result of that as well, Holland will be too.1086

Phillip II continued spending his gold on religious wars, when he is trying to advocate for Catholicism.1093

This ultimately led to a weakening of the economy.1101

More than 200,000 residents of Castile, for instance, end up migrating to America because of high taxes and fear of military service.1105

He is kind of losing his hold over the people.1114

As Spain continued to falter economically, politically, and so forth, Holland began to prosper.1117

They were not preoccupied by these types of affairs.1126

During the 1600’s, the Netherlands began to sponsor numerous voyages of exploration such as Henry Hudson’s voyage.1132

Henry Hudson who was an experienced English seaman,1143

he does not sound like a Dutch guy because he was English.1147

But as you know, different European countries hired seamen and other navigators,1150

and sailors, and explorers from different countries, like Christopher Columbus.1158

The Hudson River was named after Henry Hudson because that is where he explored.1164

He was hired to seek a northwest passage.1172

In 1609, he sailed up a broad river and later be named after him.1175

This is in today’s upstate New York.1182

Starting in Southern Europe where New York is, all the way up north, ultimately to the capital and beyond.1186

Amsterdam, Holland, emerged as the financial capital of Northern Europe.1196

It became very strong economically.1203

The Dutch Republic replaced Portugal as the dominant trader in Indonesia and West Africa,1205

which ultimately will lead to the slave trade with West Africa.1211

Keep that in mind.1226

Dutch merchants also looked to the Americas for business and created the West India Company.1229

In Indonesia, they will have the East India company that will be very much involved in trade ventures.1237

In the West, they will have the West India company.1243

A private joint stock company which invested in sugar plantations in Brazil.1246

This is also going to tie into the slave trade, as many slaves,1252

enslaved people from West Africa will be brought to Brazil to work on sugar plantations.1257

They established the fur trading colony of New Netherland along the Hudson River in North America.1264

New Netherland will be along the Hudson River area.1276

New Amsterdam will be a major post and colonizing settlement for the Dutch, in what is now New York City.1278

Here is a map, in fact.1287

Globally speaking, we are just mentioning the East Indies and the Dutch had also colonized South Africa, 1290

with the borders, especially the South African region.1298

We also know that there are some investments in Latin America here.1303

This is where we you could see what is now, this is completely New York.1308

But the Dutch were primarily in this region in what is now New York City.1312

This is a nice view of upstate New York in the photo.1317

Mercantilism is going to become a really important economic system, that is really a form of early global trade.1324

It really involves a series of relationships between the colonized and to the colonizer, the mother country.1333

Most European countries adapted the economic policy of mercantilism,1343

which looked upon trade, colonies, and the accumulation of wealth as the basis for a country's military and political strength.1348

This is a helpful graph that should also give you an understanding of this system.1356

The idea with the colonizing country is to import.1363

The colony’s job really is to export raw materials where the colonizing country is importing cheap, wonderful, plentiful, raw materials.1368

The colonizing country is exporting manufactured goods that they make from those raw materials, often times.1379

This ultimately makes, I’m going to use our modern symbol for money, lots of money, green, huge profits.1386

That is going to be really important.1403

What else does mercantilism involve?1409

In order for this system to work, we are going to see that they need the law on their side.1410

A set of parliamentary policies, first enacted in 1650 and constantly updated were passed,1417

that regulated colonial commerce and manufacturing for the enrichment of Britain.1424

Britain is really going to be at the forefront of this mercantilists system.1430

We will see other countries will utilize the system as well and end up colonizing different parts of the world, like the Dutch for instance.1433

The policies ensured that, in this case, once we get into all the different British colonies, 1440

the 13 colonies that we will be expanding upon, very shortly in this class.1448

But to see how this works, policies ensured that colonies1453

which will be eventually in the U.S., produced agriculture goods and raw materials for export to Britain,1459

where they were sold to other European nations or made into finished goods.1464

The goal is to increase the mother country's treasury and to have a more favorable balance of trade.1469

We know different hard currencies are also involved into this mercantilists system.1481

England's economy was stimulated by the rise in population from 3 million in 1500 to 5 million in 1630.1489

Again, after the renaissance, it starts to affect not only Italy but we are seeing a rebirth throughout Europe, 1501

that people are starting to develop more efficient farming techniques.1511

They are starting to have more understanding of, people are going to start reading more and more in the 1500’s because of the printing press.1520

They are more educated.1527

They have more knowledge regarding how to take care of themselves and so forth, with this huge expansion in the population.1529

Eventually, we are going to see the system developing more and more because now there is the manpower to help fuel the system.1541

There is also leadership by monarchs such as Queen Elizabeth, 1548

who encourage merchants to invest in domestic manufacturing, thereby, increasing exports and decreasing imports.1554

Good for England, it is going to help England become very wealthy and provide England the opportunities to invest even more abroad.1561

The domestic English textile industry did rely on outwork.1572

We are eventually going to see England, this is going to fuel England's industrial revolution.1576

This is the transition stage toward that revolution.1583

The domestic textile industry relied on outwork from the owners of great estates, 1587

and then, hired landless peasants to spin and weave the wool into cloth.1593

This is kind of stage one.1599

The government further helped textile entrepreneurs by setting low rates for wages.1600

This helped business, ultimately.1607

By 1600, the success of merchant oriented policies helped to give the English and the Dutch 1609

the ability to challenge Spain's monopoly in the Western hemisphere.1614

Just to give you a specific example.1619

This is where we are going to see mercantilism is also going to have an effect at the early global trade at the time.1622

I like to have two different versions of this.1633

This simple version of what we use to call in history and still around today, you may be familiar with this term, triangular trade.1635

Here again, we could see that the slave trade and this will be part of our three clashes, our three civilizations clashing.1643

People from Africa, people from the Americas, people from Europe, all coming together in this system.1653

This kind of ties into mercantilism as well, and global trade, where we see raw materials leaving.1660

In this case, colonies in North America, we are also seeing slaves leaving from West Africa.1666

And from England, we are seeing finished products like textiles, rum, and manufactured goods to Africa.1674

This could also go back this way to the American colonies.1680

Here is the complex version.1685

I did also want to bring in this other term, the South Atlantic System, or as sometimes known as the Atlantic trade system.1687

It is just good to be familiar with all the different versions and all the different labels but it is all pretty much the same.1696

Although again, this one is much more complex.1703

Do not stress out that you do not know all these different angles.1706

This is like a series of triangles.1709

You could see this is much more elaborate, includes the Caribbean1714

because sometimes this is a bit oversimplified, that it was not simply this triangular system.1718

But in fact, there was a lot more movement going on amongst these different regions.1728

I will let you just take a look at that for yourself.1734

We are also going to see other factors as the economy continues to evolve in England.1740

That will impact the people who live there and be a push factor1746

for why many end up wanting to flee England in search of opportunity abroad, 1752

and particularly in the Americas, where they will end up helping to settle and build up English colonies.1757

England ends up sending more than merchant fleets and manufactures to America.1766

Economic changes would bring thousands of poor, landless, English peasants, to search for prosperity in the Americas.1773

The price revolution is going to be a really important factor that lead to major inflation,1780

as a result of Spanish dumping of gold and silver on the European market which cause social changes in England.1786

The nobility were its first casualties because they had rented their lands on long-term leases at low rent.1794

In contrasts, the gentry or non-noble landowners prospered by offering short term leases at high rates.1801

As the influence of the House of Commons increased, rich commoners and small property owners gained a voice in government.1809

People are becoming more and more empowered.1816

This process of creating representative government had a profound consequence for the English, and ultimately for U.S. political history.1818

As this is going to continue to snowball and grow and have a huge influence, 1828

empowering people to advocate for representation in government.1834

Here is a graph of the price revolution where you can see huge increase in grain prices, then, we are going to see a decline.1841

The wages were high, and then, we are going to see a huge decline.1852

This is when times are very tough with inflation at its height.1855

Wages that are unable to compete with that to balance that out.1860

Eventually, we will see things will turn around economically.1866

The price revolution is going to be important.1872

It is going to transform the lives of peasants.1875

The economic stimulus of Spanish gold spurred the expansion of the textile industry.1878

To increase the supply of wool, profit minded landlords persuaded Parliament to pass the enclosure acts. 1889

Laws that allowed owners to fence in the open fields that surrounded many peasant villages and put sheep to graze on them.1896

We are seeing this transformation from more feudal style of society to a society1904

based on free enterprise and private farms, and smaller properties.1909

Between the enclosure acts, the price revolution, and then, on top of that, we are going to see crop failure.1919

Many peasants lost their means to earn a living and were willing to go to America,1927

as these were the most desperate people, the indentured servants, who signed a contract 1932

in which the individual agreed to work without wages about 4 to 5 years1938

in exchange for passage to the America, and room and board for the term of the contract.1943

This is probably about 4 or 5 years.1950

Once they work off all room and board, their passage to America, they could ultimately be free but they had to work it off.1953

They were ultimately a slave until the term of the contract was up.1962

They are in a desperate situation looking for a drastic change in their lives and opportunity.1971

This will lead to a mass migration to the Americas.1976

This will also bring in a new collision, ultimately which brings us back to 1980

the main point of the different peoples colliding, Europeans and Native Americans.1985

Of course, the Europeans are going to be encroaching upon Native American lands and look to colonize and create new lives.1993

With that, we are going to move on to the assessment part of the lesson.2002

This first section is a multiple choice question.2007

Here we have an excerpt from Richard Hakluyt.2012

This is diverse voyages touching the discovery of America and the islands adjacent from 1582.2017

I marvel not a little, right worshipful, that since the first discovery of America which is now full four score and ten years.2028

Hopefully, you know what the score is which means 10 years.2039

After so great conquests and plannings of the Spaniards and Portuguese there,2042

that we of England, here is your perspective, 2050

could never have the grace to set fast footing in such fertile and temperate places, as I left as yet unpossessed of them.2055

But I conceive great hope that the time approacheth and now is that we of England, may share and partakes.2063

If we will ourselves both with the Spaniards and Portuguese, and part of America and other regions as yet undiscovered.2074

Surely, if there were an asp that desire to advance the honor of our country which ought to be an every good man, 2087

we would not all this while have the possessing of these lands which of equity and right appertain unto us.2094

As by the discourses that follow shall appear most plainly.2102

This is in older text, a little bit challenging, but hopefully you can get the major point of this excerpt.2109

Two questions that go with this excerpt.2119

The message of the previous quotation most closely reflects the influence of which of the following?2122

The enlightenment, mercantilism, the religious philosophy of predestination, or the social contract theory.2128

The answer, you may want to pause this, then you can check to see if you are right.2139

It is mercantilism.2148

If you go back to the excerpt, if you cannot remember, this was referring to England really pursuing its interests in the Americas,2151

and in the areas that the Spaniards and the Portuguese have not already colonized.2162

Number 2, England followed Hakluyt's ideas and was able to drive the French and Portuguese governments into bankruptcy.2171

Conquer large parts of Africa in the 17th century.2179

Established colonies along the Atlantic coastline in North America.2183

Destroyed the Dutch commercial empire.2186

This is the English.2190

The answer is C, establish colonies along the Atlantic coastline in North America that will become known as the 13 colonies.2192

I’m going to teach you about a long essay.2206

This will be our last question that we are going to deal with in this lesson.2209

This will get you to tie in everything that you have should learned in this lesson2214

and also build upon what you have learned upon the first two lesson.2218

This is the question, use your highlighter so you can pullout and highlight key terms.2221

Within the dawn of the 17th century, that means early 1600’s, they came together in Europe both the motivation2227

and the means to explore and colonize territory across the seas.2237

Discuss this statement with reference to two of the following, religion, trade, and technology.2242

I’m going to choose these two.2254

I think this is really what we focused on in this particular lesson.2256

If this was the 16th century, you could focus on technology.2263

But since this is a little bit later, we are going to focus on those two.2268

A few points to make here, generally speaking, about the long essay.2278

Make sure that when you are addressing your question, for the long essay, you are only given two choices.2283

You have 35 minutes, I conclude that here, 35 minutes to complete.2291

Make sure that you use your time wisely.2302

I would say at least five paragraphs for this type of essay, with an introduction, three body paragraphs, and a conclusion.2305

35 minutes is a not a lot of time, it is significantly less than what you are going to have for the DBQ.2316

You can use your time wisely and write a good essay.2323

Have strong topic sentences, that is a really important point for each of your body paragraphs.2328

Make sure that it ties into what you are trying to address in your very clear coherent thesis, that either takes a position.2335

If you are comparing and contrasting, that you state exactly what you are comparing and contrasting.2348

Depending on how the question is being worded.2355

Obviously, this is the other important part.2358

Use supporting evidence throughout the essay.2360

We set those topic sentences you want to pull in, concrete examples2363

that fit into the historical context of the time period you are dealing with, that will be very important.2369

You are also describing and analyzing specific examples in those body paragraphs that illustrate the targeted historical thinking skill.2377

Finally, in your conclusion, you want to synthesize the argument evidence and context into your conclusion.2386

Ultimately, this is a persuasive essay, you are really looking to persuade the audience that you have a clear understanding of the question.2397

Of course keep in mind, there are lots of ways to address a question.2416

Believe in what you know and feel confident in your ability.2421

Here is a sample introductory paragraph.2428

I’m not going to give you an entire essay but I will give you some suggestions for an overall structure and some content that you could include.2430

I will remind you of the question again.2439

With the dawn of the 17th century, there came together in Europe both the motivation2440

and the means to explore and colonize territory around the seas.2445

Discuss this statement with reference to two of the following.2449

I said we are going to include religion and trade.2453

Here is an example.2456

By the beginning of the 17th century, Holland and England began to challenge Spanish colonial dominance in North America 2458

because of their interest in expanding trade opportunities and religious factors.2464

I’m addressing both of those right away.2469

I’m making this dummy proof for my reader.2472

I’m not trying to be patronizing or insulting, I’m just trying to be honest with you.2476

You want to put it out there, you want make it very clear.2481

I will continue, although the Dutch brought reformed Protestant religion 2484

to North America in the Hudson River Valley and in New Amsterdam, the early settlements focused on trade.2489

The British were also looking to expand their mercantilist system and they became interested in participating in the South Atlantic System.2497

I’m addressing here that I’m going to focus primarily on Holland and England,2506

and their interest in trade opportunities but also that they were motivated by religion.2511

That religion was also a huge factor in their success and in their colonization process.2516

I have a few suggestions here.2524

With paragraph 2, you could include a discussion of the background history.2527

After the defeat of the Spanish armada in 1588, 2537

Holland and England became increasingly interested in colonizing North America, especially, by the early 17th century.2541

And then, give the background about Spain looking to reimpose Catholic rule and Protestant nations, and how that failed,2549

so the Protestant reformation continued to grow throughout Europe.2557

The effects of the Protestant reformation also lead to further clashes between Protestants and Catholics.2562

It also led to the creation of numerous Protestant sects.2568

Some of the Protestants sects wanted to create new settlements in North America 2572

so that they could freely practice their religion and seek economic opportunities.2576

That is one paragraph.2582

Second and third body paragraph altogether.2584

Then, I’m going to organize this.2592

This paragraph focusing on religious influence in general, setting up the context.2595

There are different ways to organize this.2600

I’m just giving you one example.2601

Third paragraph, focusing on Holland.2604

How Holland created its colony in New Amsterdam, for instance, and in the Hudson River Valley.2606

Then, paragraph 4, we will focus on England and mercantilism.2617

And then, paragraph 5 will be the conclusion.2621

I’m going to go back to paragraph 3.2626

Holland emerged as a powerful trading nation that looked to expand economic opportunities in North America.2629

They sponsored Henry Hudson to find the Northwest passage.2635

This paved the way for Dutch colonization of the Hudson River Valley and New Amsterdam.2638

Fur trade in the Dutch East India Company were instrumental in helping these colonies succeed.2643

Holland will invest in the slave trade and lose interest in the North American colonies2650

which will lead to English domination in the North American colonies.2657

Next paragraph, some of these I added a little bit in there because I know it is coming.2666

Some of that knowledge you may not have at this point.2671

Do not worry, you will.2674

Moving on, the next paragraph would focus on really England.2677

Hopefully, you get an idea.2681

I will just give you the topic sentences and just kind of list off some of the evidence that you could use.2683

Pro mercantilist policies in England in the 17th century began to take root and mercantilist monarchs 2691

like Queen Elizabeth supported overseas investments and ventures.2696

This helped to set the foundation for English colonization.2701

Here I can get into the joint stock companies, and also how mercantilism was established and explain the policy of mercantilism.2706

How that will have a far reaching effect in the North American colonies.2716

There is an introductory on how to address a long essay question.2721

I hope that you found that to be helpful.2727

Remember, you can approach this in all different angles.2729

Believe in yourself and draw from what you feel the most confident about.2733

With that, thank you for watching